Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Prophages: Genomes of temperate BACTERIOPHAGES integrated into the DNA of their bacterial host cell. The prophages can be duplicated for many cell generations until some stimulus induces its activation and virulence.Streptococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Streptococcus.Siphoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by long, non-contractile tails.Attachment Sites, Microbiological: Specific loci on both the bacterial DNA (attB) and the phage DNA (attP) which delineate the sites where recombination takes place between them, as the phage DNA becomes integrated (inserted) into the BACTERIAL DNA during LYSOGENY.Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Mycobacteriophages: Viruses whose host is one or more Mycobacterium species. They include both temperate and virulent types.Viral Regulatory and Accessory Proteins: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.Salmonella Phages: Viruses whose host is Salmonella. A frequently encountered Salmonella phage is BACTERIOPHAGE P22.Myoviridae: A family of BACTERIOPHAGES and ARCHAEAL VIRUSES which are characterized by complex contractile tails.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Operator Regions, Genetic: The regulatory elements of an OPERON to which activators or repressors bind thereby effecting the transcription of GENES in the operon.Bacteriophage mu: A temperate coliphage, in the genus Mu-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, composed of a linear, double-stranded molecule of DNA, which is able to insert itself randomly at any point on the host chromosome. It frequently causes a mutation by interrupting the continuity of the bacterial OPERON at the site of insertion.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Proteobacteria: A phylum of bacteria consisting of the purple bacteria and their relatives which form a branch of the eubacterial tree. This group of predominantly gram-negative bacteria is classified based on homology of equivalent nucleotide sequences of 16S ribosomal RNA or by hybridization of ribosomal RNA or DNA with 16S and 23S ribosomal RNA.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Integrases: Recombinases that insert exogenous DNA into the host genome. Examples include proteins encoded by the POL GENE of RETROVIRIDAE and also by temperate BACTERIOPHAGES, the best known being BACTERIOPHAGE LAMBDA.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Bacteroidetes: A phylum of bacteria comprised of three classes: Bacteroides, Flavobacteria, and Sphingobacteria.Salinity: Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Plankton: Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Acholeplasma: A genus of gram-negative organisms including saprophytic and parasitic or pathogenic species.Mycoplasmatales: An order of highly pleomorphic, gram-negative bacteria including both pathogenic and saprophytic species.Acholeplasma laidlawii: An organism originally isolated from sewage, manure, humus, and soil, but recently found as a parasite in mammals and birds.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tenericutes: A phylum of gram-negative bacteria consisting of cells bounded by a plasma membrane. Its organisms differ from other bacteria in that they are devoid of cell walls. This phylum was formerly the class Mollicutes. Mollicutes is now the sole class in the phylum Tenericutes.Mycoplasmatales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order MYCOPLASMATALES.
Lysogeny involves integration into the host chromosome. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: ... The virus exits the host cell by budding. Acholeplasma species serve as the natural host. A productive infectious cycle begins ... Acholeplasma species serve as natural hosts. There are currently only one genus (Plasmavirus), and one species in this family: ... After initial infection of the viral genome the virus may become latent within the host. ...
In contrast, the lysogenic cycle does not result in immediate lysing of the host cell. Those phages able to undergo lysogeny ... At this point they initiate the reproductive cycle, resulting in lysis of the host cell. As the lysogenic cycle allows the host ... which in turn determines the phage's host range. Host growth conditions also influence the ability of the phage to attach and ... The host's normal synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids is disrupted, and it is forced to manufacture viral products instead ...
The phage DNA is now part of the host's genome. Lysogeny is maintained solely by cI. cI represses transcription from PL and PR ... the λ DNA is called a prophage and stays resident within the host's genome without apparent harm to the host. The host is ... An important distinction here is that between the two decisions; lysogeny and lysis on infection, and continuing lysogeny or ... The single-strand viral DNA ends are ligated by host DNA ligase. Host DNA gyrase puts negative supercoils in the circular ...
The phage protein Lom is expressed during lysogeny, and encode host-cell envelope proteins. Lom is found in the bacterial outer ... It has been suggested that lysogeny may generally have a role in bacterial survival in animal hosts, and perhaps in ... host cell adhesion (OspF, BBK32, DbpA, DbpB), and in evasion of the host immune system (VlsE). OspC trigger innate immune ... Its synthesis decreases after transmission to a mammalian host. This protein disappears from the bacterial surface around 2 ...
Entry into the host cell is achieved by adsorption into the host cell. Dna templated transcription is the method of ... In addition, their genome (around 45kb) does not encode obvious genes indicative of lysogeny. Genomes are linear, around 45kb ... Bacteria serve as natural hosts. There are currently only two species in this genus, including the type species Pseudomonas ... Bacteria serve as the natural host. Transmission routes are passive diffusion. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 1 July 2015. ...
... lysogeny), or replicate and kill the host (lysis). cII is the central "switchman" in the lambda phage bistable genetic switch, ... Host protease dependent degradation: C-terminal degradation tag is recognized by host HflA and HflB proteases, quickly ... Once lysogeny is established, cII is no longer needed, and thus is turned off. It serves as the switch element for establishing ... Similarly, because host Hfl-proteases degrade proteins in an ATP dependent manner, coupling cII levels to Hfl-protease activity ...
Lysogeny is characterized by integration of the bacteriophage nucleic acid into the host bacterium's genome or formations of a ... The model organism for studying lysogeny is lambda phage. Prophage integration, maintenance of lysogeny, induction, and control ... Lysogeny, or the lysogenic cycle, is one of two cycles of viral reproduction (the lytic cycle being the other). ... One key difference between the lytic cycle and the lysogenic cycle is that the lysogenic cycle does not lyse the host cell ...
Pseudomonas bacteria serve as the natural host. Pseudomonas phage phi6 was the first virus in this family to be discovered and ... They did this by culturing various leaves in Lysogeny Broth and then plating the broth on lawns of Pseudomonas syringae pv ... Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola bacteria serve as natural hosts. There is currently only one species in this genus: ...
Phages like the lambda phage use their site specific recombinases to integrate their DNA into the host genome during lysogeny. ... P1 phage DNA on the other hand, exists as a plasmid in the host. The Cre-lox system serves several functions in the phage: it ... The P1 phage DNA when released into the host from the virion is in the form of a linear double stranded DNA molecule. The Cre ... If the two daughter plasmids get interlinked one of the daughter cells of the host will lose the plasmid. The Cre-lox ...
Host range analysis shows that not all mycobacteriophages from M. smegmatis infect other strains and only phages in Cluster K ... Mycobacteriophages have served as examples of viral lysogeny and of the divergent morphology and genetic arrangement ... Phages with mycobacterial hosts may be especially useful for understanding and fighting mycobacterial infections in humans. A ... In the 1980s phages were discovered as tools to genetically manipulate their hosts. For instance, phage TM4 was used to ...
Modest ppGpp levels favor lysogeny by leading to low HflB (FtsH). When ppGpp is either absent or high, HflB protease levels are ... ppGpp levels of the host seem to act as a sensor for phage lambda development, primarily affecting transcription. Modest ppGpp ... levels inhibit pR and active pE, pI, and paQ promoters in vivo and have effects in vitro that seem to favor lysogeny. In ... high; this leads to lower CII (a lysogeny-promoting phage protein) and favors lysis. One of the key elements of promoters ...
On the contrary, lysogeny is favored when the host cell density is not high enough for maintenance of the phage density by ... In a large dense population of isogenic hosts, the lytic strategy is preferred, and phage virulence as well as host defense ... as well as establish lysogeny (i.e. injecting and fusing its genetic material into the genome of the host without lysing the ... directing the host cell to produce phage progenies and finally lysing the host when the phage progenies exit), ...
A prophage is either integrated into the host bacteria's chromosome or more rarely exists as a stable plasmid within the host ... Currently a variety of studies are being conducted to see whether other genes are active during lysogeny, examples of which ...
Amongst other modifications, virus T4 changes the sigma factor of the host by producing an anti-sigma factor so that the host ... The lysis-lysogeny decision is mainly influenced by the competition between Cro and CII, resulting in the determination of ... The phage which causes lysis of the host is called a lytic or virulent phage. The biosynthesis is (e.g. T4) regulated in three ... The location of viral DNA in the lysogenic phage cycle is within the host DNA, therefore in both cases the virus/phage ...
Through a process known as lysogeny, the phage DNA replicates with the replication of the host chromosome by assimilating into ... Adsorption is a value characteristic of phage-host pair and the adsorption of the phage on host cell surface is illustrated as ... therefore they would be released and infect new host cells. The process of host lyses and release is called the lytic cycle. ... In order for the T-even phage to infect its host and begin its life cycle it must enter the first process of infection, ...
Viruses transform host cells in order to survive and replicate; however, the immune responses of the host cell are typically ... This process is called lysogeny. As shown in Figure 2, a bacteriophage lands on a cell and pins itself to the cell. The phage ... Depending on the virus, a variety of genetic changes can occur in the host cell. In the case of a lytic cycle virus, the cell ... In order for a cell to be transformed by a virus, the viral DNA must be entered into the host cell. The simplest consideration ...
... the host transcribes and translates it to manufacture new particles. To replicate its genetic content requires host cell DNA ... The phage can enter two developmental lifecycles called the lytic cycle and lysogeny and knowledge into how the decision ... The propagation of the virions includes the attaching to a host cell (a bacterium, as Enterobacteria phage 186 is a ... 186 is often compared to the more extensively studied lambda phage as both their prophages respond to DNA damage in the host, ...
Phage T12 is the first example of a phage from a gram-positive, low G-C content host that uses this kind of integration site. ... Erythrogenic toxin A converts a harmless, nonvirulent strain of Streptococcus pyogenes to a virulent strain through lysogeny, a ... UV light stresses lysogenic bacteria, leading the phages to propagate and burst the host bacterial cells. In the case of T12, ... This mutant, the bacteriophage T253, entered the lytic cycle, a life cycle in which the host cell is destroyed. In 1983, ...
The appearance of the plaque depends on the host strain, virus and the conditions. Highly virulent or lytic strains give clear ... plaques while strains that only kill a fraction of their hosts (due to partial resistance/lysogeny) or only reduce the rate of ...
This is a last resort option- when the host cell has already been infected by the phage. This method is not ideal for the host ... Barksdale L, Arden SB (1974). "Persisting bacteriophage infections, lysogeny, and phage conversions". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 28 ... Phage can acquire or use the enzyme from the host cell to protect their own DNA, or sometimes they will have proteins that ... Stern, Adi; Sorek, Rotem (2011). "The phage-host arms race: Shaping the evolution of microbes". BioEssays. 33 (1): 43-51. doi: ...
Their pioneering description of lysogeny was not accepted until much later, and was crucial to the work of Max Delbrück, Alfred ... Simonsen had shown in 1957 that when a chick embryo was inoculated intravenously with adult-fowl blood, a graft-versus-host ... Burnet regarded the "self" of the host body as being actively defined during its embryogenesis through complex interactions ... Park, Hyung Wook (2006). "Germs, hosts, and the origin of Frank Macfarlane Burnet's concept of 'self' and 'tolerance', 1936- ...
The isolate viral host information was projected onto a group, resulting in host assignments for 2.4% of viral groups. Then the ... "Metagenomic analysis of lysogeny in Tampa Bay: implications for prophage gene expression". PLOS ONE. 3 (9): e3263. doi:10.1371/ ... These approaches identified 9,992 putative host-virus associations enabling host assignment to 7.7% of mVCs. The majority of ... Many viruses specialize in infecting related hosts. Viral generalists that infect hosts across taxonomic orders may exist. Most ...
Lennox, E. S. (1955). "Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1". Virology. 1 (2): 190-206. ... Lysogeny broth (LB), a nutritionally rich medium, is primarily used for the growth of bacteria. The initialism is also commonly ... The formula of the LB medium was published in 1951 in the first paper of Bertani on lysogeny. In this article he described the ... According to its creator Giuseppe Bertani, the abbreviation LB was actually intended to stand for lysogeny broth. ...
... with high concentrations of cIII promoting lysogeny. Further study of this upstream RNA region identified two alternative ... to encourage entry to a lytic cycle under heat stress in order for the bacteriophage to rapidly replicate and escape the host ...
Many (but not all) temperate phages can integrate their genomes into their host bacterium's chromosome, together becoming a ... Persisting bacteriophage infections, lysogeny, and phage conversions. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 28:265-299.. ... its ability to display lysogeny through mutation rather than a phage lineage with no genetic potential to ever display lysogeny ...
71-74 . Hubalek, Z. Juricova, J. Halouzka A survey of free-living birds as hosts and lessors of microbial pathogens Folia Zool ... Corynebacterium uropygiale grows on complex media supplemented with monounsaturated fatty acids (e. g. Lysogeny Broth (LB) agar ...
This may involve the use of a gene lethal to the host cells, such as barnase, Ccda, and the parD/parE toxins. This typically ... for example the genes for lysogeny since using phage λ as a cloning vector involves only the lytic cycle. There are two kinds ... and unsuccessful clones where the lethal gene still remains intact would kill the host cells, therefore only successful clones ... and it also avoids possible insertional mutagenesis caused by integration into host chromosomes by viral vector. Many general ...
If the target host of a phage therapy treatment is not an animal, the term "biocontrol" (as in phage-mediated biocontrol of ... The phage solutions are then tested to see which ones show growth suppression effects (lysogeny) or destruction (lysis) of the ... They are typically harmless not only to the host organism, but also to other beneficial bacteria, such as the gut flora, ... In June 2015 the European Medicines Agency hosted a one-day workshop on the therapeutic use of bacteriophages and in July 2015 ...
Lysogeny involves integration into the host chromosome. "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 15 June 2015. ICTV. "Virus Taxonomy: ... The virus exits the host cell by budding. Acholeplasma species serve as the natural host. A productive infectious cycle begins ... Acholeplasma species serve as natural hosts. There are currently only one genus (Plasmavirus), and one species in this family: ... After initial infection of the viral genome the virus may become latent within the host. ...
For example, in lambda, a starved host or a multiplicity of infection (MOI) higher than two, favors lysogeny [1,2]. The ... Williamson, S.J.; Houchin, L.A.; McDaniel, L.; Paul, J.H. Seasonal variation in lysogeny as depicted by prophage induction in ... Rokney, A.; Kobiler, O.; Amir, A.; Court, D.L.; Stavans, J.; Adhya, S.; Oppenheim, A.B. Host responses influence on the ... Miroux, B.; Walker, J.E. Over-production of proteins in Escherichia coli: Mutant hosts that allow synthesis of some membrane ...
Lennox, E. S. (1955). "Transduction of linked genetic characters of the host by bacteriophage P1". Virology. 1 (2): 190-206. ... Lysogeny broth (LB), a nutritionally rich medium, is primarily used for the growth of bacteria. The initialism is also commonly ... The formula of the LB medium was published in 1951 in the first paper of Bertani on lysogeny. In this article he described the ... According to its creator Giuseppe Bertani, the abbreviation LB was actually intended to stand for lysogeny broth. ...
Lysogeny: a survival strategy for both phage and bacteria - Phage-Host Interaction: an Ecological Perspective. ... Home » Biology Articles » Ecology » Phage-Host Interaction: an Ecological Perspective » Lysogeny: a survival strategy for both ... Theory predicts that lysogeny becomes the preferred strategy when the cell density falls below the lower limit necessary for ... However, lysogeny is a survival strategy for phage as well as for bacteria (17). Lysogens frequently outcompete the ...
Ankrah et al., 2014) or during long-term associations with hosts, for example, lysogeny (. McDaniel et al., 2008). Such ... For each virus group, successful infections with their target hosts occur at a rate proportional to the product of host and ... We note that prior analysis of models of virus-host interactions with implicit resources (but an explicit infected host class ... Allen et al., 2011) and interactions between viruses and their hosts (. Flores et al., 2011; Deng et al., 2012; Weitz et al., ...
In contrast, the lysogenic cycle does not result in immediate lysing of the host cell. Those phages able to undergo lysogeny ... At this point they initiate the reproductive cycle, resulting in lysis of the host cell. As the lysogenic cycle allows the host ... which in turn determines the phages host range. Host growth conditions also influence the ability of the phage to attach and ... The hosts normal synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids is disrupted, and it is forced to manufacture viral products instead ...
Insertion of viral DNA into host-cell DNA. This includes integration of phage DNA into bacterial DNA; (LYSOGENY); to form a ...
Variability and host density independence in inductions-based estimates of environmental lysogeny. ... Microbial, host and xenobiotic diversity in the cystic fibrosis sputum metabolome.. Quinn RA, Phelan VV, Whiteson KL, Garg N, ... Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Nov 8;22(5):705-716.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2017.10.001. Epub 2017 Oct 19. ...
Lysogeny and bacteriophage host range within the Burkholderia cepacia complex.. Langley R, Kenna DT, Vandamme P, Ure R, Govan ...
DNA prepared from hosts with this marker can efficiently transform rK+ E. coli hosts. hsdS20 Restriction negative and ... hfl High frequency of lysogeny. Mutation increases lambda lysogeny by inactivating specific protease. lacI Repressor protein of ... Host Mutation Descriptions:. ara Inability to utilize arabinose. deoR Regulatory gene that allows for constitutive synthesis ... 4. The use of D(mrr-hsd-mcrB) hosts=general methylation tolerance and suitability for clones with N6 methyladenine as well as ...
Lysogeny may well be a common feature of marine phages (15, 28, 32), and a tyrosine site-specific recombinase (int) gene ... Lysogeny and lytic viral production during a bloom of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus spp. Microb. Ecol. 43:225-231. ... Using flow cytometry and real-time PCR, we focused in particular on one host-virus system: Synechococcus spp. and cyanophages. ... The fact that most hosts have not been cultured has severely limited studies of viral diversity. The fact that no single ...
1982) Temperate phages of Streptomyces venezuelae: lysogeny and host specificity shown by phages SV1 and SV2. J. Gen. Microbiol ...
Lysogeny Lysogeny results in the spread of the virus without killing the host cell.  Phage genes in the bacterial chromosome ... Adsorption - binding of virus to specific molecule on host cell Penetration - genome enters host cell Uncoating - the viral ... HIV-1 and HIV-2  T-cell lymphotropic viruses I and II - leukemia and lymphoma  HIV can only infect host cells that have the ... Formed when the viral particle carries off a part of the host cells membrane (any part of the endomembrane system may be used ...
C1 is essential for maintaining lysogeny, where the phage replicates non-disruptively along with the host. If the host cell is ... Bacteriophage lambda C1 repressor controls the expression of viral genes as part of the lysogeny/lytic growth switch. ...
Because phage recognize specific receptors on the cell surface of their bacterial host, testing for sensitivity to a battery of ... The cII protein is only required for establishment of lysogeny, not for maintence of lysogeny or for lytic growth, so the cI ... Most E. coli recA mutants do not prevent lambda lysogeny. However, a unique recA mutant was isolated that permits lysogeny of ... ANSWER: int, N, and cII are required for efficient lysogeny, xis is only required for excision. Q is required for expression of ...
... can make collective decisions about whether to kill host cells immediately after infection or enter a latent state to remain ... within the host cell. The research shows that when multiple viruses infect a cell, the overall level of viral gene expression ... The decision of the genetic circuit that controls whether a virus initially chooses lysis or lysogeny is not random. Instead, ... "Our study suggests that viruses can collectively decide whether or not to kill a host, and that individual viruses talk to ...
Lysogeny probably carries a strong selective advantage for the host cell because it. A prevents cell lysis.. B confers ... B: cannot infect new host cells.. C: has a viral coat made of host proteins.. D: contains fragments of the host chromosome ... C If the Tn5 transposon integrated into the host genome, the cells would not be able to take in any new tranposons.. D The ... How would you be able to determine if the Tn5 transposon you put into a bacterium integrated into the host genome?. A The cells ...
Lysogeny is the process whereby a virus establishes a stable symbiosis in its host. His group is examining the genomes of ... This is divided into specific areas of research that include lysogeny, microbial gene transfer by virus-like gene transfer ... temperate marine bacteriophages to understand the control of lysogeny in heterotrophic bacteria and picocyanobacteria in the ...
After the virus enters the host cell it can choose to insert its DNA directly into the hosts chromosome, a process called ... lysogeny.. The viral DNA is replicated along with the rest of the hosts chromosome and is passed on to all the bacterias ... The final stop in the viral life cycle is to lyse (rupture) the membrane surrounding the host cell releasing hundreds of new ... The long evolutionary battle between bacteria and viruses has produced the exquisite host-parasite specificity seen in their ...
1978) Characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutants deficient in the establishment of lysogeny. J. Bacteriol. 134:875-883. ... However, not all of the multiple-host enrichments yielded bacteriophages active on both host species. Multiple-host enrichments ... Our results suggest that a multiple-host enrichment protocol may be more effective for the isolation of broad-host-range ... The second group of broad-host-range bacteriophages was obtained by a two-host isolation method. This alternative method ...
Virus structure and replication; lysogeny; classification of viruses.. *Certain microbiological diseases and their control ... relationship between host and microorganisms, mechanisms of pathogenicity.. Human Physiology. *Review of neural and endocrine ...
Phages P35 and P40 have a broad host range and lack lysogeny functions, correlating with their virulent lifestyle. Phages A500 ... This agrees well with our finding that P35 was unable to lysogenize its host strain and with their rather broad host ranges: ... providing a wider host range including the frequent lysogens. This correlates well with the rather broad host range of both P35 ... and phage attachment and host insertion sites. Integration of the viral DNA into the host chromosome by site-specific ...
Here we review emerging methods to study phage-host interaction and infection dynamics with a focus on those that offer ... Here we review emerging methods to study phage-host interaction and infection dynamics with a focus on those that offer ... which will help elucidate and predict the ecological and evolutionary impacts of specific phage-host pairings in nature. ... which will help elucidate and predict the ecological and evolutionary impacts of specific phage-host pairings in nature. ...
Even though there are similarities between lysogeny and latency, the term lysogenic cycle is usually reserved to describe ... Section 3: Different Hosts and Their Viruses As youve learned, viruses are often very specific as to which hosts and which ... This way, the virus can exit the host cell without killing it. What advantage does the virus gain by keeping the host cell ... This way, the virus can exit the host cell without killing it. What advantage does the virus gain by keeping the host cell ...
A virus that infects bacteria listens to messages from its relatives when deciding how to attack its hosts. ...Phages caught ... the choice [between lysis and lysogeny] in some phages is also profoundly influenced by communication, by means of small ... Communication between viruses guides lysis-lysogeny decisions, by Zohar Erez et al., doi:10.1038/nature21049; and commentary: ...
  • have demonstrated that the lysis of hosts by viruses releases cellular material (including carbon and nutrients) back into the microbial loop. (nature.com)
  • As mortality agents of heterotrophic bacteria, cyanobacteria and phytoplankton viruses affect the abundance and diversity of host cell communities and play important roles in cycling carbon and nutrients in the sea (e.g., references 8 , 43 , 44 , 49 , and 50 ). (asm.org)
  • Some animal viruses enter host cell and permanently alter its genetic material resulting in cancer - transformation of the cell. (scribd.com)
  • A new study suggests that bacteria-infecting viruses - called phages - can make collective decisions about whether to kill host cells immediately after infection or enter a latent state to remain within the host cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • Changes in viral gene expression can have a dramatic nonlinear effect on gene networks that control whether viruses burst out of the host cell or enter a latent state. (eurekalert.org)
  • Our study suggests that viruses can collectively decide whether or not to kill a host, and that individual viruses 'talk' to each other as a result of interactions between viral genomes and viral proteins they direct the infected host to produce. (eurekalert.org)
  • All viruses are parasites capable of replicating only within a host cell. (earthlink.net)
  • The long evolutionary battle between bacteria and viruses has produced the exquisite host-parasite specificity seen in their offensive and defensive mechanisms. (earthlink.net)
  • The name bacteriophage encompasses all bacterial viruses, including temperate phages which have the particularity to integrate their genomes into their hosts, becoming prophages. (mdpi.com)
  • For most viruses, the molecular basis for this specificity is that a particular surface molecule known as the viral receptor must be found on the host cell surface for the virus to attach. (oercommons.org)
  • The polyclonal viruses bloom even though they share sequences previously targeted by host CRISPR loci. (nih.gov)
  • Simulations show how increasing random genomic deletions in CRISPR loci purges immunological controls on long-lived viral sequences, allowing polyclonal viruses to bloom and depressing host fitness. (nih.gov)
  • By maintaining old immunities, selection may be tuning CRISPR-mediated immunity against viruses reemerging from lysogeny or migration. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, our findings also indicate that lysogeny is the preferred mode of existence for deep-sea viruses inhabiting an energy-limited environment, in sharp contrast to the predominantly lytic lifestyle of their photic-zone counterparts. (asm.org)
  • VP882 has found a way to take the risk out of the decision: it listens for the bacteria to announce that they are in a crowd, upping the chances that when the virus kills, the released viruses immediately encounter new hosts. (phys.org)
  • They may not all be listening in to this quorum-sensing information, but it is clear that these viruses can listen in to their hosts' information and then use that information to kill them. (phys.org)
  • Animal viruses enter host cells by a process called endocytosis. (britannica.com)
  • The pattern of viral community structure with higher levels of diversity at lower altitude and pH, and co-occurring viral families, suggests that these cold desert soil viruses interact with each other, the host, and the environment in an intricate manner, playing a potentially crucial role in maintaining host diversity and functioning of the microbial ecosystem in the extreme environments of Antarctic soil. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Quantitative Viral Ecology: Dynamics of Viruses and Their Microbial Hosts. (theinfolist.com)
  • enveloped viruses: upon release by budding from host. (wordpress.com)
  • Some viruses have broad host ranges. (biologyboom.com)
  • RNA viruses contain their own enzymes to initiate replication within the host. (biologyboom.com)
  • Hundred or thousands of viruses emerge from host cell. (biologyboom.com)
  • These viruses attach on their host receptors with the help of these spikes. (biologyboom.com)
  • The viruses budded off from the surface of host cells. (biologyboom.com)
  • Some viruses like Herpes virus derives their envelops from the nuclear membrane of host cell. (biologyboom.com)
  • in the other stage, however, viruses enter living plant, animal, or bacterial cells and make use of the host cell's chemical energy and its protein- and nucleic acid-synthesizing ability to replicate themselves. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In viruses with a membrane envelope the nucleocapsid (capsid plus nucleic acid) enters the cell cytoplasm by a process in which the viral envelope merges with a host cell membrane, often the membrane delimiting an endocytic structure (see endocytosis endocytosis , in biology, process by which substances are taken into the cell. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We combine natural history and population genomics with experimental biology by bringing wild viruses and hosts into lab the for experimental evolution and genetics. (royalsociety.org)
  • We utilize the CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune system a molecular marker to track evolution of viruses and hosts and as a mediator of their interactions. (royalsociety.org)
  • So, when there are lots of phi3T, there will be a high concentration of arbitrium triggering this switch to lysogeny. (jyi.org)
  • Most E. coli recA mutants do not prevent lambda lysogeny. (sdsu.edu)
  • The first was obtained in the 1970s from sewage treatment plants with Sphaerotilus natans as a host, while the others were recently obtained from a freshwater pond and sewage with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli as hosts. (asm.org)
  • To examine this phenomenon, we analyze herein the effect of fluctuations in gene expression rates and other molecular-level fluctuations on lysis or lysogeny pathway selection statistics by phage λ-infected Escherichia coli cells. (genetics.org)
  • Phage λ infects an equally well-studied host, Escherichia coli , and has been used to study many cellular processes. (asmblog.org)
  • First, the researchers studied the impact of Ur-λ's side tail fibers on adsorption to the E. coli host. (asmblog.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein the expression vector is a lambda gt11 phage vector, the host is E. coli, and the host containing the introduced vector is identified by ATCC No. 40893. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the expression vector is a pGEX or pET vector and the host is E. coli. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The expression system of claim 4, wherein the expression vector is a lambda gt11 phage vector, the host is E. coli, and the host containing the introduced vector is identified by ATCC No. 40893. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The expression system of claim 4, wherein the expression vector is a pGEX or pET vector and the host is E. coli. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Viral Receptor is the E. coli maltose receptor (product of lamB) on surface of host cell. (studentreader.com)
  • it is unlikely that cultivation-based approaches will be able to map the immense network of phage-host interactions in natural ecosystems. (frontiersin.org)
  • Brum J ( 2017 ) Peer Review #2 of 'Determining virus-host interactions and glycerol metabolism profiles in geographically diverse solar salterns with metagenomics (v0.4)' . (peerj.com)
  • The interactions of microbes with host organisms in symbioses and pathogenesis, and their survival strategies in extreme environments will be examined. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The host-pathogen interactions in disease will be emphasized, but balanced with consideration of the beneficial aspects of microorganisms such as their role in biogeochemical cycles and their application in biotechnology. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Interactions between bacterial pathogens and host animals, including immune and inflammatory responses of the host's defense mechanisms. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Here, the infecting virus increases host fitness through phenotypic augmentation in order to ride out the metaphorical storm, with a concomitant impact on host substrate uptake and metabolism, and ultimately, their interactions with their wider microbial community. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, the traditional view of the virus-host relationship as predator and prey does not fully characterise the variety or significance of the interactions observed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Host-bacterium interactions. (unipr.it)
  • In 2016 I received an Allen Distinguished Investigator award to model virus-host interactions in microbial populations. (royalsociety.org)
  • I use both theoretical and experimental approaches to study the ecology and evolution of host-parasite interactions. (royalsociety.org)
  • The final stop in the viral life cycle is to lyse (rupture) the membrane surrounding the host cell releasing hundreds of new infectious particles. (earthlink.net)
  • Lytic, where new phages are synthesized, which then lyse the host and burst from the cell. (studentreader.com)
  • The study identifies the AimP receptor, AimR, which binds to the phage DNA as a dimer in the absence of the arbitrium peptide, activating the transcription of the lysogeny repressor AimX. (nature.com)
  • Phages influence global biogeochemical cycling by manipulating host populations through mortality, horizontal gene transfer, and viral metabolic reprogramming. (frontiersin.org)
  • Second, virus-mediated horizontal gene transfer can have major implications on host evolutionary trajectories. (frontiersin.org)
  • This is divided into specific areas of research that include lysogeny, microbial gene transfer by virus-like gene transfer agents (GTAs), phytoplankton carbon fixation, and development of sensors. (usf.edu)
  • Also, metabolic and host cell immune response differences seen in different cell types based on differential gene expression are a likely factor in which cells a virus may target for replication. (oercommons.org)
  • To better understand the genetics of P1, it is important to identify mutations within the c1 gene that prevent this lysogeny maintenance. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • All isolates were El Tor biotype and had the El Tor type regulatory gene for phage lysogeny and the co-regulated pilus A gene identified by PCR (6,7). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mesopelagic phages were distinct from surface water phages with respect to diversity, gene content, putative life histories, and temporal persistence, reflecting depth-dependent differences in host genomic architectures and phage reproductive strategies. (asm.org)
  • The leftward promoter, transcribed by Pol to make N. Later extended by N to make the integrase gene for lysogeny. (studentreader.com)
  • C1 is essential for maintaining lysogeny, where the phage replicates non-disruptively along with the host. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cloning vector - a DNA molecule that carries foreign DNA into a host cell, replicates inside a bacterial (or yeast) cell and produces many copies of itself and the foreign DNA. (f-mx.ru)
  • For this study, the researchers analyzed the decision circuit that determines whether a virus initially chooses the pathway that kills the host cell - called the lytic pathway - or the pathway where it remains dormant inside the host cell - called the lysogenic pathway. (eurekalert.org)
  • The virus remains dormant until host conditions change, which can result in a switch to the lytic pathway. (eurekalert.org)
  • M protein also inhibits opsonization by the alternative complement pathway by binding to host complement regulators. (medicoapps.rocks)
  • In particular, the concatemer replication phase of the caudovirales, frequently infecting marine plankton, represents a natural way of amplifying these viral genomes within their natural hosts. (asm.org)
  • Lysogenic conversion has been long acknowledged to provide additional functions to the host, and particularly to bacterial pathogen genomes where prophages contribute important virulence factors. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Without aimR, the expression of aimX is greatly reduced, relieving the repression for lysogeny. (jyi.org)
  • The surveys showed a trend for lysogeny to be more prevalent in oligotrophic environments ( 35 ). (biology-online.org)
  • Surveys in estuarine waters showed a seasonal development of lysogeny with highs in the summer months when eutrophic conditions were prevalent and lows in the winter months when cells were at their minimum ( 20 , 44 ). (biology-online.org)
  • The virus exits the host cell by budding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitative estimates of virus-mediated recycling of carbon in marine waters, first established in the late 1990s, were originally extrapolated from marine host and virus densities, host carbon content and inferred viral lysis rates. (nature.com)
  • Seasonal Variations in Virus-Host Populations in Norwegian Coastal Waters: Focusing on the Cyanophage Community Infecting Marine Synechococcus spp. (asm.org)
  • Lysogeny results in the spread of the virus without killing the host cell. (scribd.com)
  • Despite the apparent importance of virus-host interaction outcomes to ecosystem function, our knowledge has been largely bottlenecked by cultivation and technical limitations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Lysogeny is the process whereby a virus establishes a stable symbiosis in its host. (usf.edu)
  • The prevalence of broad-host-range phages relates to the origin of virus particles which compose such a large percentage of the dissolved organic carbon in marine ecosystems ( 3 , 9 , 35 ) and which are present in very large numbers in other ecosystems as well ( 15 , 22 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • The specificity of this interaction determines the host-and the cells within the host-that can be infected by a particular virus. (oercommons.org)
  • CRISPR thus stores genomically recoverable timelines of virus-host coevolution in natural organisms refractory to laboratory cultivation. (nih.gov)
  • Here we combined a population genetic mathematical model of CRISPR-virus coevolution with six years of metagenomic sequencing to link the recoverable genomic dynamics of CRISPR loci to the unknown population dynamics of virus and host in natural communities. (nih.gov)
  • Protein that is on the outside of a virus that is responsible for attaching to the host cell for entry. (armoredpenguin.com)
  • Last name of the scientist that proposed lysogeny and gave the formal definition of a virus. (armoredpenguin.com)
  • When the virus overhears that its hosts have achieved a quorum (right), the kill-stay decision protein is flipped to "kill" mode. (phys.org)
  • A virus can only ever make one decision, Bassler said: Stay in the host or kill the host. (phys.org)
  • There's an inherent risk in choosing the kill option: "If there are no other hosts nearby, then the virus and all its kin just died," she said. (phys.org)
  • The protein capsid protects the nucleic acid and may contain molecules that enable the virus to enter the host cell-that is, the living cell infected by the virus. (britannica.com)
  • Once inside a host cell, however, the virus becomes an active entity capable of taking over the infected cell's metabolic machinery. (britannica.com)
  • Each type of virus infects only a limited range of hosts. (biologyboom.com)
  • In some cases, complete virion enters into the host like AIDS virus. (biologyboom.com)
  • The virus uses resources of host for viral production. (biologyboom.com)
  • My laboratory is broadly interested in how viral symbiosis and virus-host co-evolution shape evolutionary processes in natural populations. (royalsociety.org)
  • Certain microbiological diseases and their control relationship between host and microorganisms, mechanisms of pathogenicity. (uwe.ac.uk)
  • The presence of arbitrium alone does not lead to 100% lysogeny, suggestive of supplementary mechanisms in the decision process. (jyi.org)
  • non-homologous recombination is also possible via RecA independant mechanisms including transposition, phage lysogeny, and phase variation. (cram.com)
  • Recently, however, it was demonstrated that a phage-encoded transcription factor is able to activate Shiga toxin expression, suggesting a mechanism whereby phage regulation might influence host strain virulence ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Many phages have been described for the genus Listeria , and lysogeny appears to be widespread ( 28 ). (asm.org)
  • The virus's developmental cycle begins when it succeeds in introducing its nucleic acid, and in some cases its protein coat, into a host cell. (britannica.com)
  • For both integration and excision, the host-encoded protein IHF is also required. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, a number of other features are needed and a variety of specialised cloning vectors (small piece of DNA into which a foreign DNA fragment can be inserted) exist that allow protein expression, tagging, single stranded RNA and DNA production and a host of other manipulations. (f-mx.ru)
  • Capsule and several factors embedded in the cell wall, including M protein, lipoteichoic acid, and protein F (SfbI) facilitate attachment to various host cells. (medicoapps.rocks)
  • ANSWER: int, N, and cII are required for efficient lysogeny, xis is only required for excision. (sdsu.edu)
  • Theory predicts that lysogeny becomes the preferred strategy when the cell density falls below the lower limit necessary for maintenance of the phage density by repeated cycles of lytic infections. (biology-online.org)
  • Lysogeny with any of a series of soil-, fern rhizosphere-, and earthworm gut-derived phages was found to reduce or block sporulation, favor biofilm formation, and promote long-term survival in both soil microcosms and the intestinal tract of Eisenia fetida worms ( 30 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Group 1, the SN series, was isolated from sewage treatment plant samples with Sphaerotilus natans ATCC 13338 as a host. (asm.org)
  • ATCC 607 associated with lysogeny. (asmscience.org)
  • The preponderance of virulent phages in dairy collections might therefore represent a secondary character and an adaptation to the abundance of host cells in the dairy environment. (biology-online.org)
  • Phages P35 and P40 have a broad host range and lack lysogeny functions, correlating with their virulent lifestyle. (asm.org)
  • They were deciding together when to lie low in the host cell and when to replicate and burst out, in search of new victims. (sott.net)