Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Trypanosoma brucei brucei: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes nagana in domestic and game animals in Africa. It apparently does not infect humans. It is transmitted by bites of tsetse flies (Glossina).Fungemia: The presence of fungi circulating in the blood. Opportunistic fungal sepsis is seen most often in immunosuppressed patients with severe neutropenia or in postoperative patients with intravenous catheters and usually follows prolonged antibiotic therapy.Catheter-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the use of catheters. Proper aseptic technique, site of catheter placement, material composition, and virulence of the organism are all factors that can influence possible infection.Catheterization, Central Venous: Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Candidemia: A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Candidiasis: Infection with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. It is usually a superficial infection of the moist areas of the body and is generally caused by CANDIDA ALBICANS. (Dorland, 27th ed)Variant Surface Glycoproteins, Trypanosoma: Glycoproteins attached to the surface coat of the trypanosome. Many of these glycoproteins show amino acid sequence diversity expressed as antigenic variations. This continuous development of antigenically distinct variants in the course of infection ensures that some trypanosomes always survive the development of immune response to propagate the infection.Trypanosomiasis, African: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.Candida: A genus of yeast-like mitosporic Saccharomycetales fungi characterized by producing yeast cells, mycelia, pseudomycelia, and blastophores. It is commonly part of the normal flora of the skin, mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina, but can cause a variety of infections, including CANDIDIASIS; ONYCHOMYCOSIS; vulvovaginal candidiasis (CANDIDIASIS, VULVOVAGINAL), and thrush (see CANDIDIASIS, ORAL). (From Dorland, 28th ed)Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Equipment Contamination: The presence of an infectious agent on instruments, prostheses, or other inanimate articles.Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Trypanosomiasis: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Aconitic AcidVirulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Microbiological Techniques: Techniques used in microbiology.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.RNA, Protozoan: Ribonucleic acid in protozoa having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Tsetse Flies: Bloodsucking flies of the genus Glossina, found primarily in equatorial Africa. Several species are intermediate hosts of trypanosomes.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Trypanosoma congolense: A species of Trypanosome hemoflagellates that is carried by tsetse flies and causes severe anemia in cattle. These parasites are also found in horses, sheep, goats, and camels.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Dengue Virus: A species of the genus FLAVIVIRUS which causes an acute febrile and sometimes hemorrhagic disease in man. Dengue is mosquito-borne and four serotypes are known.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Trypanosoma lewisi: A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Dengue: An acute febrile disease transmitted by the bite of AEDES mosquitoes infected with DENGUE VIRUS. It is self-limiting and characterized by fever, myalgia, headache, and rash. SEVERE DENGUE is a more virulent form of dengue.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Central Venous Catheters: Catheters that are inserted into a large central vein such as a SUBCLAVIAN VEIN or FEMORAL VEIN.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Flaviviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Klebsiella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus KLEBSIELLA.GB virus C: A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.Mycological Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of fungi.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Mice, Inbred BALB CTrypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Vascular Access Devices: Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Drug Contamination: The presence of organisms, or any foreign material that makes a drug preparation impure.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Serratia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SERRATIA.DNA Virus InfectionsImmunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Mice, Inbred C57BLEscherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.DNA, Kinetoplast: DNA of kinetoplasts which are specialized MITOCHONDRIA of trypanosomes and related parasitic protozoa within the order KINETOPLASTIDA. Kinetoplast DNA consists of a complex network of numerous catenated rings of two classes; the first being a large number of small DNA duplex rings, called minicircles, approximately 2000 base pairs in length, and the second being several dozen much larger rings, called maxicircles, approximately 37 kb in length.MycosesFungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Diminazene: An effective trypanocidal agent.Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Diacylglycerol-Lyase: A type C phospholipase specific for GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS. It plays a role in the breaking of GPI MEMBRANE ANCHORS.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Pseudomonas Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus PSEUDOMONAS.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Trypanosoma vivax: An active blood parasite that is present in practically all domestic animals in Africa, the West Indies, and parts of Central and South America. In Africa, the insect vector is the tsetse fly. In other countries, infection is by mechanical means indicating that the parasites have been introduced to these countries and have been able to maintain themselves in spite of the lack of a suitable intermediate host. It is a cause of nagana, the severity of which depends on the species affected.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Catheterization, Peripheral: Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.Trityl CompoundsHepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Gene Products, env: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Circoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CIRCOVIRIDAE.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Intensive Care Units, Pediatric: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill infants and children. Neonates are excluded since INTENSIVE CARE UNITS, NEONATAL is available.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Alphavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by members of the ALPHAVIRUS genus of the family TOGAVIRIDAE.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Echinocandins: Cyclic hexapeptides of proline-ornithine-threonine-proline-threonine-serine. The cyclization with a single non-peptide bond can lead them to be incorrectly called DEPSIPEPTIDES, but the echinocandins lack ester links. Antifungal activity is via inhibition of 1,3-beta-glucan synthase production of BETA-GLUCANS.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Catheters: A flexible, tubular device that is used to carry fluids into or from a blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Tertiary Care Centers: A medical facility which provides a high degree of subspecialty expertise for patients from centers where they received SECONDARY CARE.Yellow fever virus: The type species of the FLAVIVIRUS genus. Principal vector transmission to humans is by AEDES spp. mosquitoes.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The virus is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream. Known as viremia, the presence of a virus in the bloodstream enables ... The virus then hijacks the host cell's own machinery, and begins to replicate. Poliovirus divides within gastrointestinal cells ... The degree of both acute paralysis and residual paralysis is likely to be proportional to the degree of viremia, and inversely ... This sustained replication causes a major viremia, and leads to the development of minor influenza-like symptoms. Rarely, this ...
... but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related injury and cell ... Even after the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and effective suppression of viremia in HIV-infected ... A pathogen can gain access to the bloodstream through lymphatic drainage into the circulatory system. When inflammation ... "The Host Response to Injury", Chapter 3. "The Acute Inflammatory Response", sub-section "Cardinal Clinical Signs"". Concise ...
Once a human is bitten by the infected mosquito, the virus can gain entry into the bloodstream, causing viremia. The alphavirus ... Larger mammals such as humans and horses are usually dead-end hosts or play a minor role in viral transmission; however, in the ... However, the expression of Sindbis virus envelopes may lead to apoptosis, and their introduction into host cells upon infection ... of retroviruses or lentiviruses are able to integrate the genes that they carry into the expansive range of potential host ...
... loads within the bloodstream due to the possibility that the virus is able to reach its natural host cell from the bloodstream ... Viremia (UK: viraemia) is a medical condition where viruses enter the bloodstream and hence have access to the rest of the body ... Secondary viremia occurs when primary viremia has resulted in infection of additional tissues via bloodstream, in which the ... Active viremia is caused by the replication of viruses which results in viruses being introduced into the bloodstream. Examples ...
Because the virus causes persistent viremia, virus in the bloodstream, it can be spread by blood-sucking ectoparasites. This is ... LDV specifically causes lifelong persistent viremia in mice, but doesn't really harm the host and only slightly harms the ... The viremia arises because LDV lyses the cell after replication. The virus is most commonly found in the liver, spleen, lymph ... Studies have shown that LDV is not only host specific, but cell specific as well. The first cells it was shown to replicate in ...
Although this is a live virus, it originates from a bird host and so does not replicate in mammals. Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV ... Stage Four: The main point in the infection- where the virus can take over the body's immune system and cause viremia. During ... Stage Two: The virus enters the blood stream and begins to distribute throughout the body. Stage Three: The lymphoid system ( ... Subgroups are defined on the basis of viral interference and in vitro host range. The differences are due to polymorphism in ...
The injected Salk vaccine confers IgG-mediated immunity in the bloodstream, which prevents polio infection from progressing to ... and reduces the ability of poliovirus to translate its RNA template within the host cell. The attenuated poliovirus in the ... viremia and protects the motor neurons, thus eliminating the risk of bulbar polio and post-polio syndrome. In the United States ...
This acute viremia is associated in virtually all people with the activation of CD8+ T cells, which kill HIV-infected cells, ... When the CD4 lymphocyte count falls below 200 cells/ml of blood, the HIV host has progressed to AIDS, a condition characterized ... whereas a small fraction of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream do so. HIV seeks out and destroys CCR5 expressing CD4+ cells during ... Rather than the virus playing a major role, it is the host response to viral DNA produced during abortive infection that ...
In 95% of cases only a primary, transient presence of viremia (virus in the bloodstream) occurs, and the poliovirus infection ... Attached to the host cell membrane, entry of the viral nucleic acid was thought to occur one of two ways: via the formation of ... Unlike the host cell's mRNAs, the 5' end of poliovirus RNA is extremely long-over 700 nucleotides-and highly structured. This ... First, it is capable of surviving the highly acidic conditions of the stomach, allowing the virus to infect the host and spread ...
The acute viremia is almost invariably associated with activation of CD8+ T cells, which kill HIV-infected cells, and ... Once integrated, the virus may become latent, allowing the virus and its host cell to avoid detection by the immune system. ... whereas only a small fraction of CD4+ T cells in the bloodstream do so. A specific genetic change that alters the CCR5 protein ... the exploitation of host DNA repair mechanisms by retroviruses". ACS Chem Biol. 1 (4): 217-26. doi:10.1021/cb600131q. PMID ...
Entry into the host cell is achieved by attachment of the virus to host receptors, which mediates endocytosis. Replication ... Hepatovirus A is present in the blood (viremia) and feces of infected people up to 2 weeks before clinical illness develops. ... Following ingestion, HAV enters the bloodstream through the epithelium of the oropharynx or intestine. The blood carries the ... Stapleton JT (1995). "Host immune response to hepatitis A virus". J. Infect. Dis. 171 (Suppl 1): S9-14. doi:10.1093/infdis/171. ...
In 95% of cases only a primary, transient presence of viremia (virus in the bloodstream) occurs, and the poliovirus infection ... Thus, the genome enclosed within the viral particle can be used as messenger RNA and immediately translated by the host cell. ... Fully assembled poliovirus leaves the confines of its host cell by lysis[25] 4 to 6 hours following initiation of infection in ... First, it is capable of surviving the highly acidic conditions of the stomach, allowing the virus to infect the host and spread ...
It is distinct from sepsis, which is the host response to the bacteria. Bacteria can enter the bloodstream as a severe ... Antibiotic prophylaxis Dental antibiotic prophylaxis Fungemia Viremia Ochei; et al. "Pus Abscess and Wound Drain". Medical ... If bacteria are present in the bloodstream at the time the sample is obtained, the bacteria will multiply and can thereby be ... Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream that are alive and capable of reproducing. It is a type of ...
Host factorsEdit. Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only ... In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as ... viremia for viruses, and fungemia for a fungus.[99] ... and host-directed therapies". Annals of the New York Academy of ... By the end of the 19th century, it was widely believed that microbes produced substances that could injure the mammalian host ...
Viremia occurs when a virus infects the bloodstream. In this article, learn about the types of viruses, symptoms, causes, and ... Primary viremia: This is when the virus enters the bloodstream.. *Secondary viremia: This is when viremia has caused an ... Since many viruses kill host cells, long-term or severe viremia can cause damage to infected tissues and organs. ... Viremia is the medical term for when viruses enter the bloodstream.. Viruses are parasitic, meaning they rely on an outside ...
The virus is subsequently absorbed into the bloodstream. Known as viremia, the presence of a virus in the bloodstream enables ... The virus then hijacks the host cells own machinery, and begins to replicate. Poliovirus divides within gastrointestinal cells ... The degree of both acute paralysis and residual paralysis is likely to be proportional to the degree of viremia, and inversely ... This sustained replication causes a major viremia, and leads to the development of minor influenza-like symptoms. Rarely, this ...
... allowing infected monocyte/macrophages to leave the site of inflammation and enter the bloodstream. MCK-1/MCK-2 appears to be ... Cytomegalovirus-encoded β chemokine promotes monocyte-associated viremia in the host. Noah Saederup, Yu chun Lin, Daniel J. ... Cytomegalovirus-encoded β chemokine promotes monocyte-associated viremia in the host. Noah Saederup, Yu chun Lin, Daniel J. ... Cytomegalovirus-encoded β chemokine promotes monocyte-associated viremia in the host Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ...
... but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related injury and cell ... Even after the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) and effective suppression of viremia in HIV-infected ... A pathogen can gain access to the bloodstream through lymphatic drainage into the circulatory system. When inflammation ... "The Host Response to Injury", Chapter 3. "The Acute Inflammatory Response", sub-section "Cardinal Clinical Signs"". Concise ...
Viremia - Primary Versus Secondary. ... viremia has resulted in infection of additional tissues via bloodstream, in which the ... loads within the bloodstream due to the possibility that the virus is able to reach its natural host cell from the bloodstream ... Bacteremia is the presence of viable bacteria in the bloodstream ... Likewise, the terms viremia and fungemia simply refer to ... Some articles on bloodstream:. Stateless (band) - History - New Record Label and Stateless (2006-2008). ... was recorded and co ...
Viremia means successful invasion of the bloodstream by the virus, an incursion they deem more likely to occur in compromised ... In a sparsely populated outdoor setting, there may simply be too few susceptible hosts to pass between in order to build up ... "However, viruses with low pathogenicity can cause viremia in physically compromised chickens."(5) ... "the growing realization that viruses previously innocuous to natural host species have in all probability become more virulent ...
Such a goal requires understanding of the persistence of HIV infection or low-level viremia - the presence of the virus in the ... Such therapeutic approaches would also affect host cell function, says Richman, so global immune activation must be avoided. ... bloodstream. Persistent infection is maintained in reservoirs like latently infected lymphocytes or macrophage cells of the ...
... eventually spreading throughout the bloodstream. This viremia facilitates access to the CNS, allowing it to replicate within ... Understanding Host Immunity to Poliovirus. Among the many scientists engaged in the fight against polio was Isabel Morgan. ... The problem was in part that scientists did not have a firm understanding of where the poliovirus replicated within host tissue ... She was only able to detect poliovirus in the primate bloodstream before the paralytic symptoms began, within 4-6 days after ...
Both host and viral factors may have contributed to the disease severity and death. Some hosts, e.g., asthmatic subjects, ... Rhinovirus viremia in children with respiratory infections. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:1037-1040. doi:10.1164/rccm.200502- ... The presence of HRV-C in the bloodstream could affect the clinical outcome of viral infection and cause more severe disease, ... Recovery of infectious virus from blood, either as free virions or cell-associated virus, suggests that authentic viremia with ...
... highlighting key viral-host interactions and discussing how these interactions may contribute to DENV immunopathology and the ... followed by an updated review of the literature describing the host innate immune strategies as well as the viral mechanisms ... is thought to follow a complex relationship between distinct immunopathogenic processes involving host and viral factors, such ... resulting in a primary viremia after its systemic dissemination through the circulatory bloodstream, which results in the ...
In type 1 reovirus infection of mice, reoviruses in the bloodstream during viremia or after i.v. inoculation are transported to ... Animal enteric caliciviruses are emerging pathogens that cause diarrhea in the respective animal host (4, 32; K. W. Theil and C ... Many viruses induce viremia during which the viruses circulate in the blood serum or WBCs and are spread to the target organs ... Previously it was unknown if enteric caliciviruses induced viremia. In this study, the PEC RNA and low titers of virus antigen ...
Primary cytomegalovirus infection and viremia. In most hosts, primary CMV infection is clinically silent. The presentation of ... Having no evidence of virus in the bloodstream has a high negative predictive value for CMV disease. Prophylactic or preemptive ... Graft versus host disease. CMV infection has been associated with acute graft verus host disease in bone marrow transplant ... Viremia is diagnosed by isolation of CMV in culture (either via standard or shell vial culture; see Laboratory studies). [7] ...
It has been postulated that this ability helps the virus invade the bloodstream of the host, resulting in a systemic infection ... Severe Covid-19 disease is associated with endothelial infection, viraemia, and multi-organ dysfunction. The process through ... Here, we propose that in severe Covid-19 infection, SARS-CoV2 reaches the host bloodstream by infecting endothelial cells ... host metabolism, and the resulting, hybrid A-like/Tn structure performs the adhesion of the virus to host cells. When in humans ...
Secondary viremia occurs when primary viremia has resulted in infection of additional tissues via bloodstream, in which the ... loads within the bloodstream due to the possibility that the virus is able to reach its natural host cell from the bloodstream ... "Primary versus secondary viremia[edit]. Primary viremia refers to the initial spread of virus in the blood from the first site ... This link states semen still contains active ebola virus for weeks after a male patient clears the virus from his bloodstream. ...
Viremia. Viruses circulating in the bloodstream. Virulence determinants. Attributes of a microorganism or virus that promote ... living either as members of the normal flora in harmony with the host or subverting the host defenses and causing disease. We ... Those organisms that can, and do, are called pathogens, and have distinct patterns of interaction with the host that enable ... Host Microbe Interactions. Last Updated on Thu, 14 Jun 2018 , Causative Agent ...
Like SAR CoV-1, SAR CoV-2s S-protein binds to the host cell receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). This host cell ... If the immune response does not eliminate the infection at this stage then the virus can gain access to the blood stream and be ... This viremia can cause even more proinflammatory cytokines to be produced. If high concentrations of these cytokines are ... The host cell produces copies of the virus that can then infect more cells. SARS-CoV-2 produces several virulence factors that ...
Viremia What is viremia? Viremia is a medical term for viruses present in the bloodstream. A virus is a tiny, microscopic ... Viruses depend on a living host, like a human or animal, for survival. They survive by invading cells and using those cells to ... Viremia: Symptoms , Causes , Treatments. Leave a Comment / Health / By FitOFitHealth ...
Viremia means viruses in the bloodstream. Except for some respiratory viruses, all viruses probably travel via the blood. As ... The organism does the host no good and no harm worthless bugs in the gut, hepatitis B carrier Parasite: The organism thrives by ... An "eclipse phase" almost always occurs between un-coating and replication; a virus integrated into the host genome, able to ... The organism and its host have a mutually advantageous arrangement mitochondria producing ATP, E. ...
Susceptible Host The most susceptible host are patients who have suppressed immune system, very young, and the very old. The ... This is called viremia. In 2009, it was proved that the Zika virus can be sexually transmitted between humans. Professor Brian ... During the incubation period the virus first replicated locally and then spreads into the blood stream of the infected person. ... They attach themselves to the hosts cells excrete protein substances called toxins that can kill or injure the host cell. ...
Another round of viremia (virus in the bloodstream) leads to invasion of the central nervous system (CNS), the spinal cord and ... Man is the only natural host for poliovirus. The virus enters the mouth and multiplies in lymphoid tissues in the pharynx and ...
Plasma viremia:. Having virus in the bloodstream.. Pneumocystis:. A genus of microorganisms of that are usually considered ... require phosphorylation in the hosts cells prior to their incorporation into the viral DNA. ...
The virus then multiplies in the spleen and liver and re-enters the blood stream (secondary viremia) at about day 5 to 6 post- ... The virus is present in the blood the host animal and is spread by blood exchange between individuals. Mosquitoes have ... and the virus enters the blood stream (primary viremia) by the second day. ...
... of HIV viremia on CD21 expression on B cells are likely to be deleterious to immune function and add to the compromise of host ... Both HIV-induced lymphoid tissue hyperplasia, which may contribute to the release of plasma cells into the blood stream, and B ... Viremia was also associated with the appearance of a subpopulation of B cells that expressed reduced levels of CD21. After ... 1A). At low plasma viremia, B cell responses were restored to 50% or more of levels measured for the normal donor, compared ...
To our knowledge, detection of kobuvirus in the infected host species serum (viremia) has not been reported. We report the ... Escape from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream was probably the situation for the bovine kobuvirus detected in ... escaped the gastrointestinal tract into the circulatory system in immunocompetent virus-infected hosts, resulting in viremia. ... Candidate new species of Kobuvirus in porcine hosts. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1968-70. DOIPubMed ...
host T cells, an ability to infect these cells.. When T-cells then enter the blood stream, ... the virus is transmitted throughout the body during the primary viremia.. After a second round of replication, larger amounts ... state inside its human host for a lifetime after the initial infection. ...
  • Graft versus host disease (GVHD) necessitates use of corticosteroids and other T cell immunosuppressive therapies that prolong the T cell deficiency. (endocrinologyadvisor.com)
  • However, CMV disease still occurs after the completion of oral antiviral prophylaxis, particularly among solid-organ transplant recipients who develop allograft rejection ( 39 ) and was observed among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients who developed graft-versus-host disease or who required prolonged antiviral prophylaxis during the early posttransplant period ( 29 ). (asm.org)
  • We tested the hypothesis that oral beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) would control gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in patients with anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) affects up to 60% of patients after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Although a significant amount of information has been generated to understand basic structure, replication, and pathogenesis of human CMV ( 15 ), further insights into interactions with the host need to be modeled through study of such viruses as murine CMV, a natural mouse pathogen ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • To directly address the effect of HIV replication on B cell function, we investigated the capacity of B cells isolated from HIV-infected patients to respond to a variety of stimuli before and after reduction of viremia by effective antiretroviral therapy. (pnas.org)
  • A retrovirus is a ribonucleic acid (RNA) virus with a reverse transcriptase enzyme that allows the genetic information of the virus to become part of the genetic information of the host cell upon replication. (mercola.com)
  • First, the ability of host responses to limit viral replication during the incubation period is in direct correlation with disease severity. (news-medical.net)
  • Differences in host responses are therefore responsible for a spectrum of disease, ranging from mild illness with a handful or no lesions in persons with partial immunity, to extremely fatal hemorrhagic disease when failure to control replication leads to high viremia, coagulopathy and shock. (news-medical.net)
  • Replication (reproduction) of the virus in the host occurs in cells that are themselves actively reproducing. (maxshouse.com)
  • About 1 wk after hepatocyte invasion, merozoites exit the liver into the bloodstream and begin a 48-h cycle (d) of RBC invasion, replication, RBC rupture, and merozoite release (e). (jimmunol.org)
  • Licensed in the United States in November 1984, Leukocell originally was licensed for 3 intramuscular (IM) doses, a regimen demonstrated to be efficacious in preventing persistent viremia, lymphoid tumors, and FeLV-associated diseases. (drugs.com)
  • Highly efficacious, protecting more than 70% of artificially immunosuppressed vaccinates against persistent viremia after challenge. (drugs.com)
  • However, a recent study has demonstrated that levels of serum immunoglobulins and frequency of Ab-secreting cells are normalized after effective antiretroviral therapy, thereby strongly suggesting that viremia drives B cell hyperactivity in vivo ( 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • To our knowledge, detection of kobuvirus in the infected host species serum (viremia) has not been reported. (cdc.gov)
  • 1.14%-2.43% between 3D and 3C) nu- in the infected host species serum (viremia) has not been cleotide substitutions could be detected between the proto- reported. (cdc.gov)
  • Recognition of viremia Serum examples had been incubated on MARC-145 cells at 37C/5% CO2 for 2 h. (acancerjourney.info)
  • squares), viral weight (circles), and type I/III IFN response (gemstones) in peripheral blood (b/d), as well as rectal temp … Viremia (defined by presence of viral RNA in serum) was recognized in all non-vaccinated steers after disease challenge. (healthweeks.com)
  • The pathogenesis of varicella is certainly unidentified generally, mainly credited to the extended incubation period and limited web host range of the pathogen. (techbizstrategy.com)
  • Recall that an adhesin is a protein or glycoprotein found on the surface of a pathogen that attaches to receptors on the host cell. (lumenlearning.com)
  • Thus, the genome enclosed within the viral particle can be used as messenger RNA and immediately translated by the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unfortunately, ART is not the answer for a cure because the drugs do not kill infected cells in the viral reservoir4, which is established when virus inserts its genome into the genome of a host immune cell (7). (wespeakscience.com)
  • The reverse transcriptase "transcribes" the RNA of the virus into cDNA, which is then integrated into the genome of the host cell. (laboklin.com)
  • Viral reverse transcriptase and polymerase enzymes convert the genomic RNA to cDNA, and a dsDNA copy is transported to the cell nucleus and then integrated into the host genome by the action of the viral integrase protein. (bioscience.org)
  • This proviral DNA is then a stable component of the host cell genome and it may remain dormant or become actively transcribed to genomic or subgenomic viral RNA yielding mature virions which are released by budding (12, 13). (bioscience.org)
  • Disappearance of HBeAg and rise of anti-HBe is associated with decline in viremia titer and replacement of wild-type HBV by the core promoter mutants and/or precore mutants. (medsci.org)
  • We report the endemic circulation and in vivo evolution of porcine kobuvirus on a pig farm where the virus was originally discovered and virus escape from the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in viremia in domestic pigs. (cdc.gov)
  • The strategies aimed at CMV prevention include the use of universal prophylaxis (directed to all transplant recipients or to predisposed individuals) and the use of preemptive therapy (guided by the detection of CMV viremia prior to onset of disease) ( 2 , 11 , 20 , 32 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, a specified protective level of antibody should be considered as a close estimate applicable in the majority of hosts as a relative correlate of protection. (aappublications.org)
  • Homosexual behaviour may represent a risk factor for its transmission, while CD4 count and viremia didn't correlate with the presence of the protist. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, chronic inflammation can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever , atherosclerosis , and rheumatoid arthritis . (thefullwiki.org)
  • However, inflammation which runs unchecked can also lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever , atherosclerosis , and rheumatoid arthritis . (wikidoc.org)
  • Severe DENV disease (DHF/DSS) is thought to follow a complex relationship between distinct immunopathogenic processes involving host and viral factors, such as the serotype cross-reactive antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), the activation of T cells and complement pathways, the phenomenon of the cytokine storm, and the newly described viral toxin activity of the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1), which together play critical roles in inducing vascular leak and virus pathogenesis. (intechopen.com)
  • Advances in genomics, immunology, and other areas over the last two decades have given new insight into the pathogenic strategies, fueling hope that therapies targeted to specific relationships between disease-causing microbes and the human host can be developed. (alpfmedical.info)
  • This chapter will explore some of the ways in which microbes colonize the human host, living either as members of the normal flora in harmony with the host or subverting the host defenses and causing disease. (alpfmedical.info)
  • This disease is transmitted through vectors, which is an arthropod in whose body an infectious organism develops or multiplies before becoming infective to a new host. (prezi.com)
  • These results indicate that HIV viremia induces the appearance of a subset of B cells whose function is impaired and which may be responsible for the hypergammaglobulinemia associated with HIV disease. (pnas.org)
  • After replicating in these areas, high amounts of VACV are shed into the bloodstream once again, causing in a supplementary viremia that carefully mimics individual disease (9). (paccon2016.com)
  • The vast majority of all virus infections appear to be asymptomatic in nature that is, the infections are so mild and the host response so effective that clinical signs of disease never develop. (maxshouse.com)
  • After challenge, circulating lymphocytes decreased in non-vaccinated animals, coincident with viremia, IFN activity, and clinical disease, whereas lymphocyte and monocyte SQSTM1 counts in vaccinated animals were unaffected by vaccination but transiently increased after challenge. (healthweeks.com)
  • Based on its genetic proximity, SARS-CoV2 is likely to be originated from bat derived CoV and transmitted to humans via an unknown intermediate mammalian host, probably Malayan pangolin. (preprints.org)
  • Further spike protein S1/S2 cleavage site of SARS-CoV2 has acquired polybasic furin cleavage site which is absent in bat and pangolin suggesting natural selection either in an animal host before zoonotic transfer or in humans following zoonotic transfer. (preprints.org)
  • However, differences between the bat coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 suggest that an intermediate host infected humans. (atsu.edu)
  • The intermediate host that infected humans with SARS-CoV-2 is unknown. (atsu.edu)
  • Varicella (chickenpox) is an acute vesicular exanthem caused by the varicella-zoster virus, an agent that has a worldwide distribution and for which humans are the only known host. (histopathology-india.net)
  • Of the five Plasmodium species that infect humans, P. falciparum is the deadliest, each year causing ∼225 million cases of malaria and nearly one million deaths, with most being among African children and pregnant women ( http://www.who.int/malaria/world_malaria_report_2011/en/ ) ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The Zika virus replicates itself in the cytoplasm of the susceptible host and also reproduces in the vectors. (prezi.com)
  • After endocytosis, the viral membrane fuses with the endosomal membrane, and the single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) is discharged into the host cell cytoplasm. (springer.com)
  • Attached to the host cell membrane , entry of the viral nucleic acid was thought to occur one of two ways: via the formation of a pore in the plasma membrane through which the RNA is then "injected" into the host cell cytoplasm , or that the virus is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis . (wikipedia.org)
  • They attach themselves to the host's cells excrete protein substances called toxins that can kill or injure the host cell. (prezi.com)
  • Viremia was also associated with the appearance of a subpopulation of B cells that expressed reduced levels of CD21. (pnas.org)
  • We show that high viremia is associated with generalized B cell dysfunction and the appearance of a phenotypically distinct subpopulation of B cells that fail to proliferate in response to B cell stimuli yet secrete high levels of immunoglobulins. (pnas.org)
  • host T cells, an ability to infect these cells. (coursera.org)
  • During viremia the computer virus preferentially contaminated memory space T-cells, in the beginning central memory space T-cells and consequently effector memory space T-cells. (techbizstrategy.com)
  • These include 2 forms of cancer: (1) lymphosarcoma, characterized by presence of tumors, and (2) leukemia, characterized by presence of malignant cells in the bloodstream. (drugs.com)
  • CIK cells are present in small quantities in the bloodstream but their numbers can be expanded after a brief period of nurturing in a laboratory. (stanford.edu)
  • The first is the fusion protein (F), which is responsible for the fusion of the virus to the host cell membranes, viral penetration, and the destruction of red blood cells. (merckvaccines.com)
  • The noticed damage to immune system cells and modulation of cytokine creation could be systems that PRRSV uses to evade web host immune system responses. (acancerjourney.info)
  • Many viral infections, including those of human ( 11 ) and murine CMV ( 12 - 14 ), proceed through a leukocyte-associated viremia, which likely plays a significant role in viral dissemination. (pnas.org)
  • Nevertheless, the VZV SCID-hu mouse model will not really duplicate the complicated and powerful virus-host connections included in the dissemination of VZV to its focus on body organs during main contamination in its organic and immunocompetent sponsor , . (techbizstrategy.com)
  • Second, once viral dissemination has occurred, manifestations of severe illness (including hypotension and coagulopathy) arise as a result of host inflammatory responses. (news-medical.net)
  • Presumably for this reason the virus has strategically adopted a naturally highly deoptimized codon usage with respect to that of its cellular host. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Despite improvement in understanding virus-like determinants of pathogenicity, we still absence crucial details in the molecular and cellular mechanisms of host protection against respiratory poxvirus attacks. (paccon2016.com)
  • The ZIKV reproductive cycle begins with the attachment of the virion to the cell membrane of the host via an envelope protein that encourages endocytosis. (springer.com)
  • [ 9 ] The requirement for this factor results in an inability to shut down host protein synthesis unlike other picornaviruses. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 2017). Several BIRB-796 irreversible inhibition other mutations that additional enhance fitness and version of CHIKV to its hosts had been determined in E1 and E2 protein (Singh et al. (healthyconnectionsinc.com)
  • Partially due to the host adaptive immunity, the early circulating virus evolves into a diverse population over time, with genetic diversity of up to 10% in the gene within Evacetrapib an infected individual (36, 65). (acmbcb.org)
  • In this chapter that is divided in two parts, we will outline the recent advances in our understanding of DENV pathogenesis, highlighting key viral-host interactions and discussing how these interactions may contribute to DENV immunopathology and the development of vascular leak, a hallmark of severe dengue. (intechopen.com)
  • In the severe stage, viremia can persist until times 5C7 (Silva and Dermody, 2017) and CHIKV genomic RNA could be recognized by RT-PCR reliably until day time 7 (Edwards et al. (healthyconnectionsinc.com)
  • Such therapeutic approaches would also affect host cell function, says Richman, so global immune activation must be avoided. (ucsd.edu)
  • These distinct diseases are separated by a lengthy period of latency, often lasting decades, in which the virus resides within the ganglia of the host. (bioscience.org)
  • VZV is certainly discovered in lymphocytes of varicella individuals , recommending that the computer virus advances to vulnerable body organs including pores and skin and ganglia via a Fgfr2 cell-associated viremia . (techbizstrategy.com)
  • Those organisms that can, and do, are called pathogens, and have distinct patterns of interaction with the host that enable them to have the upper hand in the relationship and elude at least some of the body's defenses. (alpfmedical.info)