Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Methicillin: One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE but susceptible to a penicillin-binding protein. It is inactivated by gastric acid so administered by injection.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Penicillin-Binding Proteins: Bacterial proteins that share the property of binding irreversibly to PENICILLINS and other ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS derived from LACTAMS. The penicillin-binding proteins are primarily enzymes involved in CELL WALL biosynthesis including MURAMOYLPENTAPEPTIDE CARBOXYPEPTIDASE; PEPTIDE SYNTHASES; TRANSPEPTIDASES; and HEXOSYLTRANSFERASES.Muramoylpentapeptide Carboxypeptidase: Enzyme which catalyzes the peptide cross-linking of nascent CELL WALL; PEPTIDOGLYCAN.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Hexosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of hexose groups. EC 2.4.1.-.Peptidyl Transferases: Acyltransferases that use AMINO ACYL TRNA as the amino acid donor in formation of a peptide bond. There are ribosomal and non-ribosomal peptidyltransferases.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Cefoxitin: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase.Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A strain of Staphylococcus aureus that is non-susceptible to the action of METHICILLIN. The mechanism of resistance usually involves modification of normal or the presence of acquired PENICILLIN BINDING PROTEINS.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Staphylococcus Phages: Viruses whose host is Staphylococcus.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Autolysis: The spontaneous disintegration of tissues or cells by the action of their own autogenous enzymes.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Penicillinase: A beta-lactamase preferentially cleaving penicillins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 3.5.2.-.Nafcillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic related to penicillin.Disk Diffusion Antimicrobial Tests: A method where a culturing surface inoculated with microbe is exposed to small disks containing known amounts of a chemical agent resulting in a zone of inhibition (usually in millimeters) of growth of the microbe corresponding to the susceptibility of the strain to the agent.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Staphylococcus haemolyticus: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS found on the skin of humans (and non-human primates), often causing hospital-acquired infections (CROSS INFECTION).Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Pyoderma: Any purulent skin disease (Dorland, 27th ed).Staphylococcus hominis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS similar to STAPHYLOCOCCUS HAEMOLYTICUS, but containing different esterases. The subspecies Staphylococcus hominis novobiosepticus is highly virulent and novobiocin resistant.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).PeptidoglycanDNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Lysostaphin: A 25-kDa peptidase produced by Staphylococcus simulans which cleaves a glycine-glcyine bond unique to an inter-peptide cross-bridge of the STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS cell wall. EC 220.127.116.11.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Staphylococcal Skin Infections: Infections to the skin caused by bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hospitals, Teaching: Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.Extrachromosomal Inheritance: Vertical transmission of hereditary characters by DNA from cytoplasmic organelles such as MITOCHONDRIA; CHLOROPLASTS; and PLASTIDS, or from PLASMIDS or viral episomal DNA.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Moxalactam: Broad- spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic similar in structure to the CEPHALOSPORINS except for the substitution of an oxaazabicyclo moiety for the thiaazabicyclo moiety of certain CEPHALOSPORINS. It has been proposed especially for the meningitides because it passes the blood-brain barrier and for anaerobic infections.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Hospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Community-Acquired Infections: Any infection acquired in the community, that is, contrasted with those acquired in a health care facility (CROSS INFECTION). An infection would be classified as community-acquired if the patient had not recently been in a health care facility or been in contact with someone who had been recently in a health care facility.N-Acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase: An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 18.104.22.168.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Leukocidins: Pore forming proteins originally discovered for toxic activity to LEUKOCYTES. They are EXOTOXINS produced by some pathogenic STAPHYLOCOCCUS and STREPTOCOCCUS that destroy leukocytes by lysis of the cytoplasmic granules and are partially responsible for the pathogenicity of the organisms.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Hospitals, Urban: Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.Cloxacillin: A semi-synthetic antibiotic that is a chlorinated derivative of OXACILLIN.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Nursing Staff, Hospital: Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Recombinases: A broad category of enzymes that are involved in the process of GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Hospitals, Pediatric: Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Hospital Bed Capacity: The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Hospitals, Special: Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.Hospitals, District: Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.Cephalothin: A cephalosporin antibiotic.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Vancomycin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of VANCOMYCIN, an inhibitor of cell wall synthesis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Penicillin G: A penicillin derivative commonly used in the form of its sodium or potassium salts in the treatment of a variety of infections. It is effective against most gram-positive bacteria and against gram-negative cocci. It has also been used as an experimental convulsant because of its actions on GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID mediated synaptic transmission.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Length of Stay: The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.Hospital Planning: Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.beta-Lactam Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of the beta-lactam antibiotics. Mechanisms responsible for beta-lactam resistance may be degradation of antibiotics by BETA-LACTAMASES, failure of antibiotics to penetrate, or low-affinity binding of antibiotics to targets.Hospital Departments: Major administrative divisions of the hospital.Hospitalization: The confinement of a patient in a hospital.Tetracycline Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of TETRACYCLINE which inhibits aminoacyl-tRNA binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit during protein synthesis.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Hospitals, Psychiatric: Special hospitals which provide care to the mentally ill patient.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hospital Units: Those areas of the hospital organization not considered departments which provide specialized patient care. They include various hospital special care wards.Cefamandole: Semisynthetic wide-spectrum cephalosporin with prolonged action, probably due to beta-lactamase resistance. It is used also as the nafate.Hospital Records: Compilations of data on hospital activities and programs; excludes patient medical records.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Nose: A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Mupirocin: A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Drug Resistance, Fungal: The ability of fungi to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antifungal agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation.Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Equipment and Supplies, Hospital: Any materials used in providing care specifically in the hospital.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Libraries, Hospital: Information centers primarily serving the needs of hospital medical staff and sometimes also providing patient education and other services.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections: Infections caused by bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain (positive) when treated by the gram-staining method.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Surgery Department, Hospital: Hospital department which administers all departmental functions and the provision of surgical diagnostic and therapeutic services.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Patient Admission: The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.Hospitals, County: Hospitals controlled by the county government.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Fusidic Acid: An antibiotic isolated from the fermentation broth of Fusidium coccineum. (From Merck Index, 11th ed). It acts by inhibiting translocation during protein synthesis.Outpatient Clinics, Hospital: Organized services in a hospital which provide medical care on an outpatient basis.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overUnited StatesIndiaNasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Teicoplanin: Glycopeptide antibiotic complex from Actinoplanes teichomyceticus active against gram-positive bacteria. It consists of five major components each with a different fatty acid moiety.Resistance Training: A type of strength-building exercise program that requires the body muscle to exert a force against some form of resistance, such as weight, stretch bands, water, or immovable objects. Resistance exercise is a combination of static and dynamic contractions involving shortening and lengthening of skeletal muscles.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.American Hospital Association: A professional society in the United States whose membership is composed of hospitals.Hospitals, Municipal: Hospitals controlled by the city government.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Food Service, Hospital: Hospital department that manages and supervises the dietary program in accordance with the patients' requirements.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Bacteriolysis: Rupture of bacterial cells due to mechanical force, chemical action, or the lytic growth of BACTERIOPHAGES.Soft Tissue Infections: Infections of non-skeletal tissue, i.e., exclusive of bone, ligaments, cartilage, and fibrous tissue. The concept is usually referred to as skin and soft tissue infections and usually subcutaneous and muscle tissue are involved. The predisposing factors in anaerobic infections are trauma, ischemia, and surgery. The organisms often derive from the fecal or oral flora, particularly in wounds associated with intestinal surgery, decubitus ulcer, and human bites. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1688)Intensive Care Units: Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.Obstetrics and Gynecology Department, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and management of services provided for obstetric and gynecologic patients.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Ampicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Lincomycin: An antibiotic produced by Streptomyces lincolnensis var. lincolnensis. It has been used in the treatment of staphylococcal, streptococcal, and Bacteroides fragilis infections.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Oxazolidinones: Derivatives of oxazolidin-2-one. They represent an important class of synthetic antibiotic agents.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Hospitals, Religious: Private hospitals that are owned or sponsored by religious organizations.Chloramphenicol Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of bacteria to the action of CHLORAMPHENICOL, a potent inhibitor of protein synthesis in the 50S ribosomal subunit where amino acids are added to nascent bacterial polypeptides.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Fluoroquinolones: A group of QUINOLONES with at least one fluorine atom and a piperazinyl group.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Inpatients: Persons admitted to health facilities which provide board and room, for the purpose of observation, care, diagnosis or treatment.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Daptomycin: A cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic that inhibits GRAM-POSITIVE BACTERIA.
Methicillin resistance is particularly widespread, with 75-90% of hospital isolates resistance to methicilin. Resistant ... hospital epidemiology and the detection of methicillin resistance", Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases Supplementum, ... These infections are generally hospital-acquired. S. epidermidis is a particular concern for people with catheters or other ... In some other cases, sepsis can occur in hospital patients. Antibiotics are largely ineffective in clearing ...
"Increase in Resistance of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus to β-Lactams Caused by Mutations Conferring Resistance to ... Hospital Infection Society. 48 (Supl A): S33-S36. doi:10.1016/S0195-6701(01)90010-6. Reynolds, Scott A.; Foster Levy; Elaine S ... The same ingredients used in over-the-counter hand-rubs are also used in hospital hand-rubs: alcohols such ethanol and ... There have been reported incidents of people drinking the gel in prisons and hospitals, where alcohol is not allowed, to become ...
Methicillin resistance was first exhibited in hospitals where the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus was more aggressive and not ... "Suppression of methicillin resistance in a mecA-containing pre-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain is caused by ... as a test for methicillin resistance, because there is no connection between amount of protein and resistance for this gene; ... The use of cefoxitin disc diffusion test uses phenotypic resistance to test not only for methicillin resistant strains, but ...
List of antibiotic resistant bacteria
In Indian hospitals hospital-acquired infections are common and with the new super-bugs on rise in India, this can make them ... Resistance to polymyxins first appear in 2011. An easier way for this resistance to spread, a plasmid known as MCR-1 was ... Methicillin was then the antibiotic of choice, but has since been replaced by oxacillin because of significant kidney toxicity ... M. tuberculosis develops resistance to drugs by spontaneous mutations in its genomes. Resistance to one drug is common, and ...
Multilocus sequence typing
Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has generated growing concerns over its resistance to almost all antibiotics except ... However, most serious S. aureus infections in the community, and many in hospitals, are caused by methicillin-susceptible ... MLST has been shown successfully applied to study the epidemiology of C. albicans in the hospital as well as the diversity of C ... C. albicans is a fungal pathogen of humans and is responsible for hospital-acquired bloodstream infections. MLST technique has ...
Emerging infectious disease
Nosocomial (hospital-acquired) infections, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are emerging in hospitals, and ... MSSA was treatable with the antibiotic methicillin until it acquired the gene for antibiotic resistance. Though genetic mapping ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) evolved from Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) otherwise ... and thus resistance to multiple antibiotics formed within these hospital populations. When S. aureus came into contact with ...
Resistance to methicillin is mediated via the mec operon, part of the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec). ... when the MRSA prevalence in hospitals exploded, and it is now endemic. MRSA infections in both the hospital and community ... Because of the high level of resistance to penicillins and because of the potential for MRSA to develop resistance to ... "Outcome and attributable mortality in critically Ill patients with bacteremia involving methicillin-susceptible and methicillin ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
MRSA is able to thrive in hospital settings with increased antibiotic resistance but decreased virulence- HA-MRSA targets ... Cosgrove SE, Qi Y, Kaye KS, Harbarth S, Karchmer AW, Carmeli Y (2005). "The impact of Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus ... mecA is a biomarker gene responsible for resistance to methicillin and other β-lactam antibiotics. After acquisition of mecA, ... Jacobs, A (2014). "Hospital-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: status and trends". Radiologic technology. 85 ...
Is there a relationship between germicide use and antibiotic resistance?". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 27 (10 ... and Methicillin in Combination with Gentamicin Against Enterococci". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 7 (6): 828-832. doi:10.1128/ ... cross resistance where mutations confer resistance to two or more treatments can be problematic. For antibiotic resistance, ... Tolerance and Resistance Cosmetics Database HCMV drug resistance mutations tool Combating Drug Resistance - An informative ...
In a Thailand-based study of CRE in hospital settings, carbapenem resistance was defined as any strain that shows resistance to ... Methicillin-resistant staph aureus (MRSA) Clostridium difficile NDM-1 Peter Eisler (November 29, 2012). "Deadly superbugs ... Some exclude ertapenem resistance from the definition. Hospitals are primary transmission sites for CRE-based infections. Up to ... At-risk patients were being infected in the hospital setting. CRE resistance depends upon a number of factors such as the ...
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1
Antibiotic resistance List of antibiotic resistant bacteria Medical tourism Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MCR-1 ... She had been on an extended trip to India and was admitted to a hospital there for an infected right hip. Detection of NDM-1 ... Hospital officials confirmed that tests carried out after the patient's recovery were positive for the NDM-1 enzyme. An ... On 8 May 2012, the presence of NDM was found in a patient who died at Royal Alexandra Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta. The ...
... and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus should also be considered. Pneumonia that starts in the hospital tends to be more serious ... partly because of differences in patient population and local patterns of anti microbial resistance in hospitals and critical ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or nosocomial pneumonia refers to any pneumonia contracted by a patient in a hospital at ... Hospital-acquired pneumonia can also be spread by health care workers, who can pass germs from their hands or clothes from one ...
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Antibiotic resistance Drug resistance Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)(Vancomycin intermediate-resistant ... was first identified in Japan in 1996 and has since been found in hospitals elsewhere in Asia, as well as in the United Kingdom ... The isolate contained the mecA gene for methicillin resistance. Vancomycin MICs of the VRSA isolate were consistent with the ... High-level vancomycin resistance in S. aureus has been rarely reported. In vitro and in vivo experiments reported in 1992 ...
"Recommendations for Preventing the Spread of Vancomycin Resistance Recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices ... a comparison of disease caused by methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible organisms". Clin Infect Dis. 29 (5): 1171-7 ... Antibiotic resistance. Intrinsic resistance. A few Gram-positive bacteria are intrinsically resistant to vancomycin ... Acquired resistance. Evolution of microbial resistance to vancomycin is a growing problem, in particular, within ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Quinupristin/dalfopristin Hamilton-Miller J (1991). "From foreign ... In vitro activity of the pristinamycin against the isolated staphylococci in the french hospitals in 1999-2000]". Pathol Biol ( ... lack of emergence of pristinamycin resistance]". Pathol Biol (Paris). 49 (10): 840-5. doi:10.1016/S0369-8114(01)00255-3. PMID ... It is active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Its usefulness for severe infections, however, may be ...
Discovery and development of cephalosporins
Luke's Episcopal Hospital, Texas Children's Hospital. 17 (3): 203-15. PMC 324918 . PMID 15227172. FUNGTOMC, J (1 August 1997 ... Antimicrobial resistance is the driving force for the development of new antimicrobial agents. The complexity and diversity of ... These new drugs are also the only β-lactam antibiotics that are effective against methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus-aureus ( ... Bacterial resistance to the cephalosporin compounds can take place by three mechanisms. Modifications in target PBP Drug ...
Costs for sepsis hospital stays more than quadrupled since 1997 with an 11.5 percent annual increase. By payer, it was the most ... In case of people having high risk of being infected with multiple drug resistance organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ... For Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin or teicoplanin is recommended. For Legionella infection, ... Sepsis was the most expensive condition treated in United States' hospital stays in 2013, at an aggregate cost of $23.6 billion ...
Quinolones should not be used unless hospital surveys indicate >90% susceptibility of E. coli to quinolones. Aztreonam plus ... Empiric use of agents effective against enterococci is recommended and agents effective against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ... Agents no longer recommended are: cefotetan and clindamycin ( Bacteroides fragilis group resistance) and ampicillin-sulbactam ( ... A retrospective review in two military hospitals. Chest. 1993 ;103:1502-7. Bartlett JG. Anaerobic bacterial infections of the ...
Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy
... strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, in outpatient hospital units between 1999 and 2006. Former ... In addition, The Global Antibiotic Resistance Partnership is developing actionable policy proposals on antibiotic resistance ... It will reduce the use of drugs that no longer work because of drug resistance, and reduce the use of artemisinin by itself, as ... Her work at CDDEP explores the growing resistance to antibiotic and anti-malarial drugs, as well as access to and cost of such ...
... a cocktail of bacteriophage to detect Staphylococcus aureus in positive blood cultures and determine methicillin resistance or ... Other applications for bacteriophages are as biocides for environmental surfaces, e.g., in hospitals, and as preventative ... Metagenomics-based studies have also revealed that viromes from a variety of environments harbor antibiotic resistance genes, ... Meanwhile, bacteriophage researchers are developing engineered viruses to overcome antibiotic resistance, and engineering the ...
Penicillinase-resistant beta-lactams such as methicillin were developed, but there is now widespread resistance to even these. ... "Patterns and mechanisms of beta-lactam resistance among isolates of Escherichia coli from hospitals in the United States". ... Some confer resistance predominantly to ceftazidime, but OXA-17 confers greater resistance to cefotaxime and cefepime than it ... Resistance to non-beta-lactam antibiotics is common in strains making any of these enzymes, such that alternative options for ...
However, only 2% of strains were resistant to methicillin and so these numbers may be low in areas of higher resistance. ... In contrast, Leibovici found that among 113 non-selected adults admitted to the hospital because of fever there were two cases ... High rates of resistance to oxacillin are also seen, in which cases treatment with vancomycin is required. Viridans group ... Such measures are not taken in certain countries like Scotland due to the fear of antibiotic resistance. As bacteria is the ...
"Macrolide-Inducible Resistance to Clindamycin and the D-Test" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-01-07. Retrieved ... It can be useful against some cases of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). It may also be used for acne and in ... It increases the risk of hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile colitis about fourfold. Other antibiotics may be recommended ... Skin and soft-tissue infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus". N Engl J Med. 357 (4): 380-90. doi: ...
Hinolon - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
2001). „Emerging mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance" (PDF). Emerg Infect Dis. 7 (2): 337-41. PMC 2631735 . PMID 11294736 ... Clostridium difficile: a challenge for hospitals". European Center for Disease Prevention and Control. Institute for Medical ... Does antibiotic exposure increase the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolation? A systematic review ... Microbiology and Hospital Epidemiology: IHE. Приступљено 27. 7. 2009.. *↑ Tacconelli, E.; De Angelis, G.; Cataldo, MA.; Pozzi, ...
June 2003). "Rates of carriage of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus in an outpatient ... Miller MR, White A, Boots M (September 2005). "The evolution of host resistance: tolerance and control as distinct strategies ... "Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Excretion of Noroviruses during a Hospital Outbreak of Gastroenteritis". J. Clin. Microbiol. 42 (5 ... Boots M, Bowers RG (April 2004). "The evolution of resistance through costly acquired immunity". Proc. Biol. Sci. 271 (1540): ...
McEvoy, G.K. (ed.). American Hospital Formulary Service - Drug Information 95. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Hospital ... This contributes to antibacterial resistance towards cephalexin. Cefalexin is on the World Health Organization's List of ... Cefalexin is not effective against infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Enterococcus, or ... Fisher JF, Meroueh SO, Mobashery S (Feb 2005). "Bacterial resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics: compelling opportunism, ...
However, at least in Canadian hospitals, data collected between 1999-2005 showed rather low rate of resistance of MSSA and MRSA ... "Fusidic acid resistance in community isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and fusidic acid prescribing". J ... and resistance is defined as a zone of 17 mm or less; intermediate values are defined as intermediate resistance. These ... "Fusidic acid resistance rates and prevalence of resistance mechanisms among Staphylococcus spp. isolated in North America and ...
Antibiootikumiresistentsus - Vikipeedia, vaba entsüklopeedia
... between hand hygiene compliance and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus prevalence in a French rehabilitation hospital" ... 2,0 2,1 2,2 Stuart B Levy & Bonnie Marshall: "Antibacterial resistance worldwide: causes, challenges and responses" Nature ... WHO: "Use of antimicrobials outside human medicine and resultant antimicrobial resistance in humans" World Health Organization ... Fernando Baquero, Jose´-Luis Martinez and Rafael Canton "Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in water environments" Current ...
She also took up honorary consultant positions with the Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Trust and Health Protection Agency. ... She is particularly known for her work on the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei and on Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus ... and to conduct studies aimed at identifying reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. Peacock receives funding from the Medical ... of Health's 100,000 genome project and contributed to the UK Chief Medical Officer's Annual report on antimicrobial resistance ...
Infections caused by ESBL-producing Gram-negative bacteria are of particular concern in hospitals and other healthcare ... It is not active against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Clinically relevant organisms against which ceftazidime ... leading to antibiotic resistance. Though initially active against these bacteria, with widespread use of third-generation ...
Հակաբիոտիկներ - Վիքիպեդիա՝ ազատ հանրագիտարան
Multidrug resistance in bacteria»։ Annual Review of Biochemistry 78 (1): 119-46։ February 2009։ PMC 2839888։ PMID 19231985։ doi ... Bactericidal effect of grape seed extract on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)»։ The Journal of Toxicological ... Short-course versus prolonged-course antibiotic therapy for hospital-acquired pneumonia in critically ill adults»։ The Cochrane ... 79,0 79,1 79,2 «Community factors in the development of antibiotic resistance»։ Annual Review of Public Health 28 (1): 435-47։ ...
A peripheral cannula is the most common intravenous access method utilized in both hospitals and pre-hospital services. A ... This is either an inflatable cuff placed around the fluid bag to force the fluid into the patient or a similar electrical ... This was based on studies organised to identify causes of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in ... Hospital patients usually receive blood tests to monitor these levels. It is essential to correct these imbalances if they ...
"Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) and Athletics". NCAA.org - The Official Site of the NCAA. Retrieved 2016-04- ... MRSA is an infection that has a resistance to certain antibiotics this is why MRSA is so dangerous and hard to treat. MRSA ... "Wrestling and Skin Conditions - What Is THAT? :: Nationwide Children's Hospital". www.nationwidechildrens.org. Retrieved 2016- ... "Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infections , CDC". www.cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-04-01.. ...
Romero A, Potter MF, Potter DA, Haynes KF (2007). "Insecticide Resistance in the Bed Bug: A Factor in the Pest's Sudden ... Bed bugs - University of Sydney and Westmead Hospital Department of Medical Entomology ... They have been found with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and with vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus ... Bed bugs may choose to aggregate because of predation, resistance to desiccation, and more opportunities to find a mate. ...
ന്യുമോണിയ - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
ആശുപത്രിജന്യ ന്യുമോണിയ (Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia). വെന്റിലേറ്റർ സംബന്ധ ന്യുമോണിയ (Ventilator Associated Pneumonia). ... Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance and therapeutic options at the turn of the new millennium. Clin Microbiol Infect. Jun 2007; ... Moellering RC Jr.The growing menace of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Ann Intern Med. 2006 Mar ... ആശുപത്രിജന്യ ന്യുമോണിയ (Hospital Acquired Pneumonia)[തിരുത്തുക]. ആശുപത്രിപ്രവേശന സമയത്ത് ശ്വസനവ്യൂഹ അണുബാധ ആരംഭിച്ചിട്ടില്ലാത്ത ...
... is to prevent the transmission of antibiotic resistant skin flora that cause hospital-acquired infections such as Methicillin- ... is there a relationship between germicide use and antibiotic resistance?". Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 27 (10): 1107-19. doi ... Skin flora upon two hospital groups in colony-forming units per ml. group and hand skin condition unwashed washed ... as Skin Probiotics against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus". PLOS ONE. 8 (2): e55380. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...855380S. ...
Otpornost na višestruke lekove - Википедија
An EU-Project to estimate the financial burden of antibiotic resistance in European Hospitals ... Na meticilin otporna Stafilokokus aureus (engl. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - MRSA). *Gram negativne bakterije ... Drug+Resistance,+Multiple на US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Otpornost na višestruke lekove (engl. multiple drug resistance, MDR, multirezistencija) stanje je koje omogućava ...
Bacterial resistance. See also: Antibiotic abuse and Antibiotic resistance. As a result of its widespread use to treat ... such as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Enterococcus faecalis) than newer ... complicated or hospital-acquired urinary tract infection, acute or chronic prostatitis, certain types of endocarditis, ... M Jacobs, Worldwide Overview of Antimicrobial Resistance. International Symposium on Antimicrobial Agents and Resistance 2005. ...
Colley EW, Mcnicol MW, Bracken PM (March 1965). "Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci in a General Hospital". Lancet. 1 (7385): ... "Penicillin G sodium salt Susceptibility and Resistance Data" (PDF). TOKU-E. Retrieved 4 March 2014.. ... They are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use. ... Further development yielded β-lactamase-resistant penicillins, including flucloxacillin, dicloxacillin, and methicillin. These ...
... a cocktail of bacteriophage to detect Staphylococcus aureus in positive blood cultures and determine methicillin resistance or ... Other applications for bacteriophages are as biocides for environmental surfaces, e.g., in hospitals, and as preventative ... "Exploring the contribution of bacteriophages to antibiotic resistance". Environmental Pollution. 220 (Pt B): 981-984. doi: ... Metagenomics-based studies have also revealed that viromes from a variety of environments harbor antibiotic resistance genes, ...
... and England to stop the spread of hospital acquired infections such as c-diff and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( ... a project with the Oak Foundation and Save the Children helped girls who were child soldiers with the Lords Resistance Army in ... Preventing hospital-acquired infections. The PD approach has been applied in hospitals in the United States, Brazil, ... Implementation of a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) prevention bundle results in decreased MRSA surgical ...
... has been associated with emerging antibiotic resistance since the 1950s. Widespread usage of antibiotics in hospitals ... Al-Habib A, Al-Saleh E, Safer AM, Afzal M (June 2010). "Bactericidal effect of grape seed extract on methicillin-resistant ... Plasmids that carry several different resistance genes can confer resistance to multiple antibacterials. Cross-resistance ... Resistance and modifying agentsEdit. One strategy to address bacterial drug resistance is the discovery and application of ...
"Infection and Drug Resistance. 6: 215-23. doi:10.2147/idr.s36140. PMC 3848746. PMID 24348053. Retrieved 2019-06-23.. ... Hospitals (2013-2016) as Part of the Surveillance Program: Program to Assess Ceftolozane-Tazobactam Susceptibility". Microbial ... a moderately common cause of hospital-acquired infections that is commonly multi-drug resistant. Ninety percent of Pseudomonas ... Drug Resistance. 24 (5): 563-577. doi:10.1089/mdr.2017.0266. PMID 29039729.. ...
Journal of Hospital Infection. 63 (3): 289-297. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2005.12.008. PMID 16650507. Archived from the original (PDF) ... Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, in proportions which can be varied to achieve varying mechanical and electrical ... "Potential use of copper surfaces to reduce survival of epidemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the healthcare ... Aluminum improves corrosion resistance. It is used for heat exchanger and condenser tubes. ...
Վանկոմիցին - Վիքիպեդիա՝ ազատ հանրագիտարան
13,0 13,1 13,2 13,3 «Recommendations for Preventing the Spread of Vancomycin Resistance Recommendations of the Hospital ... Clinical practice guidelines by the infectious diseases society of america for the treatment of methicillin-resistant ... Glycopeptide antibiotic resistance»։ Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 42: 381-408։ 2002։ PMID 11807177։ doi:10.1146/annurev.pharmtox. ... Mechanism of intrinsic resistance to vancomycin in Clostridium innocuum NCIB 10674»։ Journal of Bacteriology 186 (11): 3415-22 ...
For patients discharged from hospital, or being treated at home special "medical hygiene" (see above) procedures may need to be ... Transatlantic Taskforce on Antimicrobial Resistance. 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-07-08.. ... "Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Clostridium difficile and ESBL-producing Escherichia coli in the home and ... can increase significantly under certain conditions, e.g., in healthcare situations in hospitals, care homes and the domestic ...
Antibiotic use in livestock
The World Health Organization identifies antibiotic resistance as a contributor to longer hospital stays and higher medical ... In 2017, the WHO included methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in its priority list of 12 antibiotic-resistant bacteria, ... Antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can occur when antibiotics are present in concentrations too low to ... Bennett P. M. (2008). Plasmid encoded antibiotic resistance: acquisition and transfer of antibiotic resistance genes in ...
Resistance Welding Manufacturing Alliance (2003). Resistance Welding Manual (4th ed.). Resistance Welding Manufacturing ... Zaleski, Andrew, As hospitals look to prevent infections, a chorus of researchers make a case for copper surfaces, STAT, 24 ... methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus, Clostridium difficile, influenza A virus, adenovirus, and ... such as its high electrical conductivity, tensile strength, ductility, creep (deformation) resistance, corrosion resistance, ...
Resistance concernsEdit. Concern pertains to the potential for cross-resistance (or co-resistance) to other antimicrobials. ... The earliest known safety testing began in 1968. It was introduced the next year, mainly for use in hospitals, and was in ... to eradicate an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a neonatal nursery". American Journal of Infection ... Triclosan was used as a hospital scrub in the 1970s. Since then, it has expanded commercially and is now a common ingredient in ...
ISBN 0-9757919-2-3 "Recommendations for Preventing the Spread of Vancomycin Resistance Recommendations of the Hospital ... β-Lactamase-resistant semisynthetic penicillins such as methicillin (and its successors, nafcillin and cloxacillin) were ... One mechanism of resistance to vancomycin involves the alteration to the terminal amino acid residues of the NAM/NAG-peptide ... Three main resistance variants have been characterised to date among resistant Enterococcus faecium and E. faecalis populations ...
Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from an Orthopaedic Hospital in...
Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from an Orthopaedic Hospital in ... E. C. Ikeh, "Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus at Jos University Teaching Hospital," African Journal of Clinical and ... O. D. Fayomi, E. I. O. Oyediran, A. T. Adeyemo, and A. T. Oyekale, "Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of methicillin ... "Isolation and screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from health care workers in libyan hospitals," Eastern ...
Staphylococcus haemolyticus as an Important Hospital Pathogen and Carrier of Methicillin Resistance Genes | Journal of Clinical...
Staphylococcus haemolyticus as an Important Hospital Pathogen and Carrier of Methicillin Resistance Genes. E. M. Barros, H. ... Staphylococcus haemolyticus as an Important Hospital Pathogen and Carrier of Methicillin Resistance Genes ... Staphylococcus haemolyticus as an Important Hospital Pathogen and Carrier of Methicillin Resistance Genes ... Staphylococcus haemolyticus as an Important Hospital Pathogen and Carrier of Methicillin Resistance Genes ...
Detection of an Archaic Clone of Staphylococcus aureuswith Low-Level Resistance to Methicillin in a Pediatric Hospital in...
Assays for methicillin resistance and (PAPs).When receiving the strains in the research laboratory, the methicillin resistance ... Detection of an Archaic Clone of Staphylococcus aureuswith Low-Level Resistance to Methicillin in a Pediatric Hospital in ... Detection of an Archaic Clone of Staphylococcus aureuswith Low-Level Resistance to Methicillin in a Pediatric Hospital in ... Detection of an Archaic Clone of Staphylococcus aureuswith Low-Level Resistance to Methicillin in a Pediatric Hospital in ...
The Detection of Mupirocin Resistance and the Distribution of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the University...
... and other antimicrobial agents and to record the prevalence and distribution of this organism at the University Hospital of the ... The objectives of this study were to determine the susceptibility of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ... of Mupirocin Resistance and the Distribution of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at the University Hospital of the ... Ninety-four per cent of MRSA strains were resistant to erythromycin while 52% showed resistance to clindamycin. Resistance to ...
Clinical Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance in European Hospitals: Excess Mortality and Length of Hospital Stay Related to...
The participating hospitals reported 1,000 S. aureus bloodstream infections, 310 (31%) of which showed methicillin resistance ( ... of resistance in the participating countries and chose hospitals representative of the national level of methicillin resistance ... Clinical Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance in European Hospitals: Excess Mortality and Length of Hospital Stay Related to ... Clinical Impact of Antimicrobial Resistance in European Hospitals: Excess Mortality and Length of Hospital Stay Related to ...
High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in...
High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in ... High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in ... High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in ... High Rate of Ceftobiprole Resistance among Clinical Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from a Hospital in ...
Secular trends of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) over a 14-year period...
Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control volume 4, Article number: O9 (2015) Cite this article ... Secular trends of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at Geneva University Hospitals (HUG) over a 14-year period ... Fankhauser, C., Schrenzel, J., Francois, P. et al. Secular trends of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at ... Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control: Abstracts from the 3rd International Conference on Prevention and Infection ...
Cost-Effectiveness Study Comparing Chlorhexidine Bathing With Active Surveillance Cultures to Prevent Methicillin-resistant...
Active Surveillance Cultures to Prevent Acquisition of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus and Other Hospital-Acquired ... Methicillin resistance. Infection control. Staphylococcus aureus. Cross infection. Epidemiology. Chlorhexidine. Additional ... Methicillin. Anti-Infective Agents, Local. Anti-Infective Agents. Disinfectants. Dermatologic Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. ... Acquisition of Methicillin-resistant Staph Aureus (MRSA) Colonization or Infection [ Time Frame: During ICU stay ]. Number of ...
Utility of prior screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in predicting resistance of S. aureus infections |...
Inappropriate Continued Empirical Vancomycin Use in a Hospital with a High Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus ... Utility of prior screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in predicting resistance of S. aureus infections. ... Utility of prior screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in predicting resistance of S. aureus infections ... Utility of prior screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in predicting resistance of S. aureus infections ...
Are There Differences in Hospital Cost Between Patients With Nosocomial Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Bloodstream...
... we found that methicillin resistance did not independently increase hospital cost or length of stay after onset of S. aureus ... Objective: To examine the impact of methicillin resistance on in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and hospital cost after ... Conclusions: On the basis of propensity score, we found that methicillin resistance did not independently increase hospital ... Are There Differences in Hospital Cost Between Patients With Nosocomial Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Bloodstream ...
Antimicrobial Drug Use and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Aberdeen, 1996-2000 - Volume 10, Number 8-August 2004 -...
... may have an effect on resistance in future patients. Although these results may not be generalized to other hospitals, they ... Aberdeen Royal Infirmary has had an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). In this setting, the ... Antimicrobial drug resistance occurs in hospitals worldwide. One of the most globally important microorganisms is methicillin- ... aureus tested for methicillin resistance.. Monthly quantities of all antimicrobial drugs delivered to each hospital ward during ...
Antimicrobial-Drug Use and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - Volume 7, Number 1-February 2001 - Emerging Infectious...
Soriano A, Martínez JA, Mensa J, Marco F, Almela M, Moreno-Martínez A, Pathogenic significance of methicillin resistance for ... Health-care workers who have been working in foreign hospitals are also screened before working in Danish hospitals. At the ... Schentag JJ, Hyatt JM, Carr JR, Paladino JA, Birmingham MC, Zimmer GS, Genesis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ( ... Antibiotic usage and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: an analysis of causality. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1998;42:676 ...
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) = Staphylococcus aureus résistants à la méticilline (SARM)
... were from a general hospital. Antimicrobial resistance patterns tested by disk diffusion were ... ... Isolation and screening of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from health care workers in Libyan hospitals Ahmed, M. ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) = Staphylococcus aureus résistants à la méticilline (SARM). ... A total of 569 doctors and nurses from 4 main hospitals were screened for MRSA with specimens collected from the anterior nares ...
Recent appearance of clindamycin resistance in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in south...
Recent appearance of clindamycin resistance in community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in south- ... To the Editor: We report the appearance of erythromycin and inducible clindamycin resistance in the south-west Pacific strain ... as it is efficacious in treating similar infections caused by methicillin-susceptible S. aureus.4 ... Princess Alexandra Hospital, Woolloongabba, QLD.. *. Correspondence: Acknowledgements: Acknowledgement: We thank the Ipswich ...
The Stealthy Superbug: the Role of Asymptomatic Enteric Carriage in Maintaining a Long-Term Hospital Outbreak of ST228...
Genetic analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus expressing high- and low-level mupirocin resistance. J Med ... Tracking methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones during a 5-year period (1998 to 2002) in a Spanish hospital. J Clin ... Together, resistances to mupirocin and chlorhexidine might have played a role in the dissemination of the clone in our hospital ... Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a key public health challenge. In addition to ...
Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in eight African hospitals and Malta. - PubMed - NCBI
Methicillin resistance was detected in 213 (15%) of the 1440 isolates tested. The rate of MRSA was relatively high in Nigeria, ... Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in eight African hospitals and Malta.. Kesah C1, Ben Redjeb S, ... Susceptibility to methicillin (oxacillin) and to other drugs was determined by E test (AB Biodisk, Solna, Sweden) on a total of ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic problem worldwide, and its frequency in most ...
Genetic Characterization of Methicillin Resistant and Sensitive, Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated...
... and MIC method to determine their resistance to vancomycin and methicillin. The isolated VISA strains were then confirmed with ... 171 Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were collected from different types of clinical samples in selected hospitals in Isfahan ... Our data indicated that 67% of isolated S. aureus strains were resistant to methicillin. Furthermore, five isolates (2.9%) had ... Genetic Characterization of Methicillin Resistant and Sensitive, Vancomycin Intermediate Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated ...
Two Strategies for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infection Prevention in Surgical Patients - Full Text...
Keywords provided by Stephen Harbarth, University Hospital, Geneva: Staphylococcus aureus. Resistance. Prevention. ... Two Strategies for Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) Infection Prevention in Surgical Patients (MOSAR-04). The ... Enrolment and primary analyses will be performed at the hospital level. A total of ten adult surgical departments with at least ... Isolation precautions according to the hospitals capacity and strategy. *Additional basic infection control interventions (if ...
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) | Medscape
There are 2 major strains of MRSA: hospital-acquired (HA) MRSA and community-acquired (CA) MRSA. HA-MRSA includes cases in ... Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by S aureus bacteria and can be fatal. ... A CDC physicians experience battling antibiotic resistance in a COVID-19 world. ...
Which patients are most at risk of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a review of admissions to a regional...
Hospitals, District. Humans. Male. Maxillofacial Injuries / surgery. Methicillin Resistance*. Middle Aged. Mouth Neoplasms / ... Dental Service, Hospital / statistics & numerical data. Disease Susceptibility. England / epidemiology. Female. ... Which patients are most at risk of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a review of admissions to a regional ... Regional Maxillofacial Unit, University Hospital Aintree Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK. [email protected] ...
Nasal carriage rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Dessie Referral Hospital Health Care Workers; Dessie,...
The rate of methicillin resistance among all S. aureus isolates was 44.1% (15/34). MRSA carriage was particularly high among ... Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a serious problem in hospital ... The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Dessie ... Of the 118 healthcare workers, 34 (28.8%) carried S. aureus of which 15 were methicillin resistant. Therefore, 12.7% of all ...
Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia Incidence and Methicillin Resistance in Rural Thailand, 2006-2014 | The American Journal of...
2 days after hospital admission and as hospital-onset (HO) thereafter. The incidence rate of HO-SAB could only be calculated ... We evaluated the incidence rate of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and MRSA from population-based surveillance in all hospitals from ... the importance of strong SAB surveillance to identify and respond to changes in bacteremia trends and antimicrobial resistance. ... Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of bloodstream infection and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a growing threat ...
Identification of the Markers of Antibiotic Resistance in Daptomycin Non-Susceptible Strains of Staphylococcus Aureus |...
Identification of the Markers of Antibiotic Resistance in Daptomycin Non-Susceptible Strains of Staphylococcus Aureus - ... FEM Factors Essential for Methicillin Resistance. HA Hospital Acquired. hVISA Heterogeneous Vancomycin Intermediate ... Methicillin was used initially to treat Staphylococcus infections but resistance. developed to methicillin and the first MRSA ... resistance to both penicillin and beta-lactam collectively defined as methicillin resistance. ...
IJERPH | Free Full-Text | Characteristics of Antibiotic Resistance of Airborne Staphylococcus Isolated from Metro Stations |...
... but was lower than those from hospitals. The presence of two antibiotic resistance genes of Staphylococcus strains, mecA (28.0 ... The high rate of antibiotic resistance found in Staphylococcus samples collected from metro stations, and the discovery of ... These were compared with strains isolated from hospital treatment rooms and parks. Airborne Staphylococcus samples in the metro ... but did not differ significantly from hospital samples. Furthermore, 22.0% of the metro Staphylococcus samples were found to be ...
NRCWE: Publications: Scientific Articles: Abstract: No apparent transmission of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant...
The rates of LA-MRSA in hospitals have been found to be largely determined by contact to and density of livestock in the area ... Open access]In recent years, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) multi locus sequence ... Antimicrobial Resistance & Infection Control 2017;6:126 Date: 2017 Scientific Article [Open access]In recent years, livestock- ... The rates of LA-MRSA in hospitals have been found to be largely determined by contact to and density of livestock in the area ...
Sequential evolution of virulence and resistance during clonal spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant...
... of this evolutionary pattern is essential for forestalling dissemination of resistance from high-risk communities to hospitals ... Sequential evolution of virulence and resistance during clonal spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant ... Sequential evolution of virulence and resistance during clonal spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant ... Sequential evolution of virulence and resistance during clonal spread of community-acquired methicillin-resistant ...
A comparative genomic analysis between methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains of hospital acquired and community...
Among the patients strains, sixteen were recognized as community-acquired (CA), compared with 24 for hospital-acquired (HA). ... clustering ST59-t437 showed the heterogeneity for provoking different clinical diseases in both community and hospital. ... especially for methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection. However, few reports referred to patients MRSA infections in ... Waves of resistance: Staphylococcus aureus in the antibiotic era. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7(9):629-41. ...
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection Support Group - Drugs.com
Ask questions and get answers about Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection. Our support group helps people share ... 6, 2018 - Hospital wastewater systems may play a role in antibiotic resistance, a new study suggests. U.S. National Institutes ... Home › Q & A › Support Groups › Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection. Join the Methicillin-Resistant ... Mupirocin - I have MRSA in my nose but cannot afford to go back to the hospital what can I put on it. Posted 17 Jan 2018 • 0 ...
Methicillin resistance in staphylococci: molecular and biochemical basis and clinical implications. | Clinical Microbiology...
Medical Service, San Francisco General Hospital 94143, USA. [email protected] ... Methicillin resistance in staphylococci is determined by mec, composed of 50 kb or more of DNA found only in methicillin- ... Borderline resistance, a low-level type of resistance to methicillin exhibited by strains lacking mecA, is associated with ... and numerous other elements and resistance determinants. A distinctive feature of methicillin resistance is its heterogeneous ...
InfectionsAntibioticResistant StaphylococcusCoagulase-negative stapCaused by methicillin-resistantClassified as methicillin resistantPathogenABSTRACTCharacterizationInfection controlOxacillinMecAEmergenceClonalCommunity-acquiredAntibiotics such as methicillinIncidenceClinical1997EpidemiologyStaphylococcalPenicillinColonizationPhenotype2018Infections causedVancomycin resistanceMultidrug-resistantSurveillanceStrainStaphylococcus aureus DecolonizationDeterminantsAureus infectionsMicrobiologyNosocomial infectionsMultiresistantStrains IsolatedCross InfectionBeta-lactamContaminationTertiary care hospital
- O. D. Fayomi, E. I. O. Oyediran, A. T. Adeyemo, and A. T. Oyekale, "Prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus among in-patients at a tertiary health facility in Ido-Ekiti, Nigeria," International Journal of Laboratory Medicine , vol. 4, no. 2, 2011. (hindawi.com)
- P. H. Krumperman, "Multiple antibiotic resistance indexing of Escherichia coli to identify high-risk sources of fecal contamination of foods," Applied and Environmental Microbiology , vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 165-170, 1983. (hindawi.com)
- As shown in Table 1 , there was great variation in the antibiotic resistance profiles. (asm.org)
- Close to half of the 878 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains recovered between 1992 and 1997 from the pediatric hospital in Lisbon were bacteria in which antibiotic resistance was limited to β-lactam antibiotics. (asm.org)
- The coexistence of MRSA with such unequal antibiotic resistance profiles prompted us to use molecular typing techniques for the characterization of the MRSA strains. (asm.org)
- There is also significant resistance to commonly used antimicrobial agents and strict adherence to antibiotic policy is required to preserve the usefulness of these agents. (uwi.edu)
- Although a lower number of discharges and a shorter hospital stay recorded during the 2-year postintervention period have been proposed as other explanations ( 10 ), the sharp decrease in new MRSA cases after the new antibiotic formulary was implemented (delay of only a few months) supports the hypothesis that reduced antimicrobial pressure contributed to the decline. (cdc.gov)
- A CDC physician's experience battling antibiotic resistance in a COVID-19 world. (medscape.com)
- Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of community and healthcare infections, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is currently the most commonly identified antibiotic-resistant pathogen in many parts of the world. (biomedcentral.com)
- Infections caused by MRSA strains are associated with longer hospital stay, prolonged antibiotic administration, and higher cost than infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains. (biomedcentral.com)
- The presence of two antibiotic resistance genes of Staphylococcus strains, mecA (28.0%) and qac (40.0%), were also found at significantly higher levels in metro samples than park samples, but did not differ significantly from hospital samples. (mdpi.com)
- The high rate of antibiotic resistance found in Staphylococcus samples collected from metro stations, and the discovery of antibiotic-resistant genes, indicate that the closed indoor environment and crowded passengers may accelerate the spread of antibiotic resistant strains. (mdpi.com)
- Past reports have principally focused on the detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria in hospital acquired infections. (mdpi.com)
- TUESDAY, Feb. 6, 2018 - Hospital wastewater systems may play a role in antibiotic resistance, a new study suggests. (drugs.com)
- This is a retrospective observational study aiming at determining the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of (MRSA) and (MRCNS) isolated from non-duplicated clinical specimens in Tripoli Central Hospital (TCH) between June 2013 and June 2014. (bvsalud.org)
- This study aimed to study the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from clinical specimen. (nepjol.info)
- Yet no sooner had the discovery of antibiotic and chemotherapeutic agents brought benefits to both our general public health and hospital practices than the alarm was raised about emerging resistance of staphylococci to penicillin in the Australian health care setting in the 1940s. (mja.com.au)
- 1 By the 1950s, the alarm was raised again, this time about environmental contamination with Staphylococcus aureus 2 and, by the 1980s, hospitals around Australia were looking towards imprudent antibiotic treatments as being responsible for the notable rise in prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). (mja.com.au)
- This small study did not evaluate any relationship between development of resistance to bacteria and the usage of over the counter antibiotic ointments for the prevention of infection and the authors themselves convey that further research would be needed to reach any significant conclusions," says Jodie Wertheim, a spokeswoman for the company, in an email. (webmd.com)
- Experts who reviewed the study say that while its findings are intriguing, they need to be duplicated on a larger scale before any firm conclusions can be made about the role of antibiotic ointments in MRSA spread or resistance. (webmd.com)
- One reason is that antibiotic resistance has fallen victim to evidence based policy making, which prioritises health problems by economic burden and cost effectiveness of interventions. (bmj.com)
- 5 Health economists have been unable to show that antibiotic resistance costs enough to be a health priority. (bmj.com)
- While generally benign, antibiotic resistance contributes to the success of S. aureus as a human pathogen. (rsc.org)
- In this targeted mini-review, we discuss MRSA biofilm production, the relationship of biofilm production to antibiotic resistance, and front-line techniques to defeat the biofilm-resistance system. (rsc.org)
- Immediate nationwide infection control and antibiotic stewardship interventions, over 5 years, could avert an estimated 619,000 HAIs resulting from CRE, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa , invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), or C. difficile . (cdc.gov)
- With the continuing emergence of antibiotic resistance, treatments for bacterial infections are increasingly limited, and in some patients, effective treatment options do not exist. (cdc.gov)
- Antibiotics are a lifesaving medical tool, and antibiotic resistance undermines the ability to fight infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
- In addition, almost 250,000 persons each year require hospital care for C. difficile infections (CDIs), which are typically associated with antibiotic use ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- These independent efforts do not account for the importance of inter-facility spread through movement of patients who are colonized or infected with these organisms, or the impact that one institution's practices might have on the antibiotic resistance encountered by neighboring facilities ( 4 - 6 ). (cdc.gov)
- As the name suggests, this particular infection is resistant to the antibiotic drug methicillin. (privatehealth.co.uk)
- This infection was discovered in 1961 when genetically mutated staphylococcus aureus bacteria seemed to have developed resistance against the methicillin antibiotic. (privatehealth.co.uk)
- In this chapter, the authors of Antibiotic Resistance: Understanding and Responding to an Emerging Crisis define terms and provide an overview of antibiotic resistance. (informit.com)
- As a natural response, antibiotic resistance emerges in pathogen populations. (informit.com)
- Resistance is a condition in which the antibiotic fails to harm the pathogen enough to cure disease. (informit.com)
- Emergence of resistance often begins with a large pathogen population in which a tiny fraction is naturally resistant to the antibiotic, either through spontaneous changes or through the acquisition of resistance genes from other microbes. (informit.com)
- In this chapter, we define terms and provide an overview of antibiotic resistance. (informit.com)
- We reviewed the microbiology laboratory records of Abha Maternity Hospital, Saudi Arabia for 1996 and 1998 to assess multiple antibiotic resistance, using Staphylococcus aureus as a paradigm. (who.int)
- This thematic issue from Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control features an overview and summary of the presented posters (including a link to the forum website with PDFs of the posters), a selection of the excellent presentations of the World HAI Forum as full articles and, last but not least, The Pensieres Antibiotic Resistance Call to Action: Ready for a world without antibiotics? (biomedcentral.com)
- In Canada, systematic efforts for controlling antibiotic resistance began in 1997 following a national Consensus Conference. (biomedcentral.com)
- Methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a potentially serious infection that resists this antibiotic used to treat infections. (restonhospital.com)
- Methicillin was then the antibiotic of choice. (westonaprice.org)
- I've been involved in a few discussions of late on science-based sites around yon web on antibiotic resistance and agriculture--specifically, the campaign to get fast food giant Subway to stop using meat raised on antibiotics, and a graphic by CommonGround using Animal Health Institute data, suggesting that agricultural animals aren't an important source of resistant bacteria. (scienceblogs.com)
- We identified the recovery site and extended antibiotic resistance profile of each isolate. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
- 6 This trend has important implications for empirical antibiotic prescribing and infection control measures in hospitals, urban settings and remote communities. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
- More worrisome, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) -- bacteria that are resistant to methicillin, a common antibiotic -- now kills more people in U.S. hospitals than HIV, AIDS, and tuberculosis combined. (cnn.com)
- Antibiotic resistance is a problem right now. (nps.org.au)
- Read the latest evidence on antibiotic resistance in Australia and find out what health professionals and patients can do to help. (nps.org.au)
- Antibiotic resistance is not only emerging to more frequently used antibiotics such as penicillins, but also to 'reserve' antibiotics such as vancomycin and meropenem. (nps.org.au)
- Over time it has become appreciated that antibiotic use increases antibiotic resistance at an individual level as well as at a population level. (nps.org.au)
- But how common is antibiotic resistance, really? (nps.org.au)
- Every year, rising numbers of people die due to antibiotic resistance - an estimated 25,000 in the European Union. (swissinfo.ch)
- The infectious disease specialist is head of the Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance external link . (swissinfo.ch)
- Antibiotic resistance is spreading worldwide "in an epidemic manner", according to the antibiotic resistance centre's website. (swissinfo.ch)
- The carbapenems were developed to overcome antibiotic resistance mediated by bacterial beta-lactamase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
- The resistance conferred by this gene (blaNDM-1), therefore, aids the expansion of bacteria that carry it throughout a human host, since they will face less opposition/competition from populations of antibiotic-sensitive bacteria, which will be diminished by the original antibacterial treatment. (wikipedia.org)
- However, US experts stated that it is unclear as to whether this strain is any more dangerous than existing antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which are already common in the USA. (wikipedia.org)
- This particularly broad spectrum of antibiotic resistance was heightened by the strain's expressing several different resistance genes in addition to blaNDM-1. (wikipedia.org)
- Prospective study of infection, colonization and carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an outbreak affecting 990 patients," European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases , vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 74-81, 1994. (hindawi.com)
- E. C. Ikeh, "Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus at Jos University Teaching Hospital," African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology , vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 52-62, 2003. (hindawi.com)
- According to a multicenter study of 10 Portuguese hospitals performed in 1996 to 1997, the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was estimated as 48%, one of the highest in Europe ( 26 , 46 ). (asm.org)
- Despite the therapeutic limitations imposed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), its clinical impact is still debated. (asm.org)
- Ceftobiprole is a fifth-generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (asm.org)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen with a wide diffusion in Europe ( 1 ), as well as in Italy, accounting for about 30% of all invasive S. aureus strains described in Italy to date ( 2 ). (asm.org)
- This pilot study in our medical intensive care unit will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of an active surveillance program for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), compared to routine daily bathing with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG)-impregnated cloths. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Are There Differences in Hospital Cost Between Patients With Nosocomial Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Bloodstream Infection and Those With Methicillin-Susceptible S. Aureus Bloodstream Infection? (nih.gov)
- Similar to many hospitals worldwide, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary has had an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (cdc.gov)
- One of the most globally important microorganisms is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), which now causes more than 40% of all S. aureus bacteremias in the United Kingdom ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- We read with great interest the debate on the contribution of antimicrobial selection pressure to changes in resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and the comparison made with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- This is the largest Libyan study to date to investigate the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus [MRSA] among health care workers in Tripoli, Libya. (who.int)
- We report the appearance of erythromycin and inducible clindamycin resistance in the south-west Pacific strain of non-multiresistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, which has recently appeared in eastern Australia. (mja.com.au)
- IMPORTANCE Using whole-genome sequencing, we showed that a large and prolonged outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was due to the clonal spread of a specific strain with genetic elements adapted to the hospital environment. (asm.org)
- Hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) remains a key public health challenge. (asm.org)
- Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in eight African hospitals and Malta. (nih.gov)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic problem worldwide, and its frequency in most African countries has not been reported. (nih.gov)
- Which patients are most at risk of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a review of admissions to a regional maxillofacial ward between 2001 and 2005. (biomedsearch.com)
- The aim of this study was to determine the nasal carriage rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus among Dessie Referral Hospital healthcare-workers in Ethiopia. (biomedcentral.com)
- Open access]In recent years, livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) multi locus sequence type CC398 has spread widely in the livestock production in Europe. (arbejdsmiljoforskning.dk)
- Join the ' Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection ' group to help and get support from people like you. (drugs.com)
- Our support group for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection has 94 questions and 85 members. (drugs.com)
- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection - Severe diarrhea and nausea? (drugs.com)
- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Infection-Effects on Gums/Teeth? (drugs.com)
- Environmental contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in routine medical care settings poses an increased risk of health care associated infections through cross-transmission. (biomedcentral.com)
- Since the discovery of the vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VRSA) strain Mu50 (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] 8 mg/L), there has been concern about the potential spread of such strains throughout Japanese hospitals. (nih.gov)
- Felten A, Grandry B, Lagrange PH, Casin I (2002) Evaluation of three techniques for detection of low-level methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA): a disk diffusion method with cefoxitin and moxalactam, the Vitek 2 system, and the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test. (springer.com)
- Vannuffel P, Laterre PF, Bouyer M, Gigi J, Vandercam B, Reynaert M, Gala JL (1998) Rapid and specific molecular identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in endotracheal aspirates from mechanically ventilated patients. (springer.com)
- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a multidrug resistant bacterium that threatens the continued effectiveness of antibiotics worldwide. (ajol.info)
- Prior to the availability of Methicillin pennicilin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was the main threat to neutropenic patients and mortality rate from Staphylococcus aureus infections exceeded 50% [ 2 ]. (archivesofmedicine.com)
- This study investigated the in vitro susceptibility of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MRCNS) to antimicrobial agents, and determined the molecular characteristics of MRSA. (bvsalud.org)
- 1. Introduction Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become endemic in most hospitals and health care facilities in Western nations. (scribd.com)
- Data on rates of new methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections (expressed as four clinical indicators) are reported by some Australian hospitals to the Australian Council on Healthcare Standards (ACHS) for accreditation purposes and are mandatorily reported by all NSW hospitals to the NSW Department of Health. (mja.com.au)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) is a major cause of infections in dogs, also posing a zoonotic risk to humans. (frontiersin.org)
- Highly successful clones of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) established themselves in UK hospitals in the 1990s. (bmj.com)
- Characterization of serine acetyltransferase (CysE) from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and inhibitory effect of two natural products on CysE. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains an important cause of healthcare-associated infections. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus eradication in cystic fibrosis patients: A randomized multicenter study. (bioportfolio.com)
- Few studies, based on a limited number of patients using non-uniform therapeutic protocols, have analyzed Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) eradication. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and their toxin genes in the nostrils of dogs and workers at an animal shelter. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA and MRSA, respectively) in the nostrils of dogs and workers at an animal shelter were cultured. (bioportfolio.com)
- Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a considerable public health concern in both developed and developing countries due to the rapid spread of this ba. (bioportfolio.com)
- 1.To assess whether the Elution swab (ESwab) is superior to Amies transport swabs for the detection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Vancomycin Resistant Enterococ. (bioportfolio.com)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a predominant pathogen in health care settings for more than 40 years. (uspharmacist.com)
- ABSTRACT We evaluated the utility of 2 methods for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) directly from signal-positive blood culture bottles: loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, and direct cefoxitin disk diffusion (DCDD) test using a 30 μg cefoxitin disk. (who.int)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections have been increasing at an alarming rate world-wide. (semanticscholar.org)
- Isolation, molecular characteristics and disinfection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from ICU units in Brazil. (semanticscholar.org)
- Molecular typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated in two metropolitan areas of São Paulo State, southeast Brazil. (semanticscholar.org)
- Multiple methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains as a cause for a single outbreak of severe disease in hospitalized neonates. (nih.gov)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important cause of nosocomial infection. (nih.gov)
- A methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a bacteria that resists many antibiotics that are used to treat infections. (uvahealth.com)
- To synthesize comparative studies that examined the benefits and harms of screening for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in the inpatient or outpatient setting. (ahrq.gov)
- During the past four decades, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , or MRSA, has evolved from a controllable nuisance into a serious public health concern. (nih.gov)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus - or MRSA - has been a problem in hospital and health care settings for decades. (mayoclinic.org)
- New and emerging concepts in managing and preventing community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections. (mayoclinic.org)
- Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus infection (MRSA) is a skin infection caused by a bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. (privatehealth.co.uk)
- For many years, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a serious and common nosocomial pathogen in hospitals outside the Nordic countries and the Netherlands. (medscape.com)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are a particular problem in hospitals. (springer.com)
- Abdulamir AS, Jassim SAA, Hafidh RR, Bakar FA (2015) The potential of bacteriophage cocktail in eliminating Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilms in terms of different extracellular matrices expressed by PIA, ciaA-D and FnBPA genes. (springer.com)
- MRSA is the acronym for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus . (informit.com)
- Combinations of cefoxitin plus other Î²-lactams are synergistic in vitro against community associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (ebscohost.com)
- Vancomycin Heteroresistance and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (ebscohost.com)
- It is noted that ceftaroline is a fourth-generation cephalosporin with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (ebscohost.com)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization is associated with serious surgical site infection in high-risk patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- Guidelines for the prevention and management of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A perspective for Canadian health care practitioners. (restonhospital.com)
- 2014. Multidrug-resistant and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in hog slaughter and processing plant workers and their community in North Carolina (USA). (nih.gov)
- We discuss patient and healthcare worker interactions with the hospital environment that can lead to transmission of the most common Gram-positive hospital pathogens - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridioides (Clostridium) difficile, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus - and detail interventions that target these two One Health domains. (cdc.gov)
- Triclosan is a widely used biocide to prevent Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks in hospitals. (amrita.edu)
- Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which causes nosocomial infections is among the most important multi-resistant pathogens worldwide. (who.int)
- One example is MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ), now a common source of blood poisoning and infection in hospitals (see sidebar below). (westonaprice.org)
- MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) was first detected in Britain in 1961 and is now "quite common" in hospitals. (westonaprice.org)
- However, VRSA (Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ) was first identified in Japan in 1997, and has since been found in hospitals in England, France and the US. (westonaprice.org)
- Back in November, I blogged about one of our studies, examining methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Iowa meat products. (scienceblogs.com)
- I've blogged previously on a few U.S. studies which investigated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in raw meat products (including chicken, beef, turkey, and pork). (scienceblogs.com)
- Control of nosocomial transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been unsuccessful in most countries. (pnas.org)
- Nosocomial infections with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are a major healthcare problem in most developed countries ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
- 3-Hydroxy-1,5-dihydro-2H-pyrrol-2-ones as novel antibacterial scaffolds against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (annals.org)
- You may also have heard about methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or MRSA for short. (kidshealth.org)
- We're working on MRSA, which is Methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (thenakedscientists.com)
- To date, there has been scant information about the burden of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections in Central Australia. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
- Methicillin-resistant (beta-lactam resistant) Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is increasingly recognised in non-health care settings around Australia, and Aboriginal Australians are among those most at risk. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
- Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most common pathogens responsible for hospital infections and, as recently discovered, also for community acquired infections. (egms.de)
- It's possible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus will become untreatable" (see Figure) . (newscientist.com)
- 14 Staphylococcus aureus out of 16 were methicillin sensitive and 2 were methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). (scirp.org)
- Even though MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) or VRE (Vancomycin Resistant Enterococcus) are resistant to only one class of antimicrobial agents they are frequently associated with resistance to other classes. (scirp.org)
- Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become increasingly prevalent worldwide since it was first reported in a British hospital. (semanticscholar.org)
- First identification of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains among coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from dogs with otitis externa in Trinidad, West Indies. (semanticscholar.org)
- Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), manifested as a primary cause of skin infections, was invasive among healthy adults and children with clinical, epidemiologic, and bacteriologic characteristics distinct from healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA) resulting in increased length of hospitalization, healthcare costs and increased mortality. (alliedacademies.org)
- The evolution of Pseudomembranous enterocolitis, coupled with the spread of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), led to the re-emergence of positive bacteria that were resistant to less-toxic agents. (alliedacademies.org)
- Since 1970, MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus ), classified as pandemic pathogen, was concurrent with several nosocomial outbreaks and life threatening cross infections [ 2 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Among coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), Staphylococcus haemolyticus is the second most frequently isolated from human blood cultures ( 18 ) and has the highest level of antimicrobial resistance ( 3 , 8 ). (asm.org)
- Caierao J, Musskopf M, Superti S, Roesch E, Dias CG, d'Azevedo PA (2004) Evaluation of phenotypic methods for methicillin resistance characterization in coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). (springer.com)
Caused by methicillin-resistant3
- Vancomycin is the drug of choice for treatment of infection caused by methicillin-resistant strains. (asm.org)
- Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococci could lead to increased morbidity and mortality, but little is known about the prevalence of infections with these organisms in healthcare facilities and in the community in Tripoli. (bvsalud.org)
- Infections caused by methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) can be difficult or even impossible to treat using veterinary licensed systemic antimicrobial agents. (frontiersin.org)
Classified as methicillin resistant1
- The spread of different clones from different geographic regions have been reported, MRSA has been verified as one of the most important pathogen in hospital or community setting [ 4 , 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- MRSA ) is a major hospital-acquired infective pathogen that has developed resistance to many antibiotics. (bioportfolio.com)
- Notwithstanding, health care-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (HA-MRSA) has been increasingly detected as nosocomial pathogen in neonatal and pediatric patients. (lww.com)
- Staphylococcus aureus has become the leading pathogen responsible for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and is responsible for about 20% of cases4. (pfizer.com)
- We advocate for novel infection prevention and control programs, founded on the pillars of One Health , to reduce Gram-positive hospital-associated pathogen transmission. (cdc.gov)
- Characterization of methicillin susceptible and resistant staphylococci in the cinical setting: a multicentre study in Nigeria," BMC Infectious Diseases , vol. 12, article 286, 2012. (hindawi.com)
- We report characterization of a methicillin-susceptible, vancomycin-resistant bloodstream isolate of Staphylococcus aureus recovered from a patient in Brazil. (cdc.gov)
- The information obtained is then forwarded to the hospital in order to use the data for the design of improved infection control policies ( 39 ). (asm.org)
- Infection control efforts in hospitals should aim to contain infections caused by both resistant and susceptible S. aureus . (asm.org)
- The underlying risk factors are both extrinsic (i.e., relating to infection control procedures, opportunities for transmission, and the hospital environment) and intrinsic (i.e., relating to the properties of the bacteria). (asm.org)
- In terms of extrinsic factors, many aspects of the hospital setting can impact transmission, including compliance with infection control measures, patients' comorbidities, bed occupancy, and the number of nurses per patient ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
- Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, Vol. 37, Issue. (cambridge.org)
- 4 Department of Hospital Epidemiology and Infection Control , Johns Hopkins Hospital , Baltimore , MD . (cambridge.org)
- This report presents recommendations of the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee for preventing and controlling the spread of vancomycin resistance, with a special focus on VRE. (cdc.gov)
- View all collections published in Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control . (biomedcentral.com)
- Duration was not a risk factor, which suggests that in absence of exposure to specific antimicrobials, even in a hospital with no or little infection control intervention, a vast majority remain free from MRSA. (ebscohost.com)
- We present a stochastic three-hospital model and an analytical one-hospital model to quantify the effectiveness of different infection control measures and to predict the effects of rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) on isolation needs. (pnas.org)
- Despite the advances in modern sciences, nosocomial infections are a major threat in most of the hospitals and may be as high as 19% in the developing countries , especially in the ICUs and wards, where number of direct contacts between the hands of health care workers (HCW) and the patient occurs, which mandates the strict adherence to infection control practices and standards. (scirp.org)
- A reduced HAI rate and good compliance to infection control practices contributes to the reputation of the hospital. (scirp.org)
- Infection control is key to stopping MRSA in hospitals. (pugetsoundblogs.com)
- The methicillin resistance was also evaluated by other phenotypic methods, such as the MIC for oxacillin ( 5 ), the MicroScan, and PCR of the mecA gene ( 6 ). (asm.org)
- Staphylococcus aureus may be either sensitive or resistant to oxacillin/methicillin. (pfizer.com)
- Oxacillin resistance rates are increasing nationwide and the average rate of resistance to oxacillin currently exceeds 52% nationwide5. (pfizer.com)
- In vitro studies demonstrate that oxacillin minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains USA300 and 400 decrease in the presence of cefoxitin. (ebscohost.com)
- By PCR of the mecA gene, 87% were found to be methicillin resistant. (asm.org)
- Methicillin resistance is conferred by the mecA gene, carried on the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element (SCC mec ) ( 12 ). (asm.org)
- When other tests to evaluate methicillin resistance were performed and considering the detection of the mecA gene as definitive, seven discordant results were observed. (asm.org)
- Resistance to β-lactamases is often due to the mecA gene, which encodes the low-affinity penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a). (asm.org)
- This resistance is probably due to mutations in pbp genes, especially mecA or pbp4 ( 9 - 12 ). (asm.org)
- Borderline resistance, a low-level type of resistance to methicillin exhibited by strains lacking mecA, is associated with modifications in native PBPs, beta-lactamase hyperproduction, or possibly a methicillinase. (asm.org)
- McKinney TK, Sharma VK, Craig WA, Archer GL (2001) Transcription of the gene mediating methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus (mecA) is corepressed but not coinduced by cognate mecA and beta-lactamase regulators. (springer.com)
- The mecA gene, which is located in the staphylococcal chromosomes, enhances virulence of Staphylococcus by causing resistant to methicillin antibiotics. (intechopen.com)
- The HA-MRSA strains contain the mobile class I, II and III staphylococcus chromosome cassettes mec (SCCmec) and resistance to the b-lactam antibiotics is due to the encoding of the penicillin binding protein (PBP) 2a by the mecA gene [12e (scribd.com)
- especially clones that have acquired the Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette (SCC mec ) mobilizing the methicillin resistance gene mecA . (frontiersin.org)
- This beta-lactam resistance is induced via the mecA gene, which alters the penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2) by a conformational change in the antibiotic's binding site to form PBP2a. (uspharmacist.com)
- En parallèle, une identification microbiologique normalisée et un test de sensibilité à l'oxacilline par PCR visant l'amplification du gène MecA ont été réalisés. (who.int)
- Sur 60 hémocultures positives pour les cocci à Gram positif en grappes, l'amplification isotherme induite par boucle (au moyen du dépistage des gènes FemA et MecA) a montré une sensibilité et une spécificité de 100 % pour l'identification de Staphylococcus aureus résistant et sensible à la méthicilline. (who.int)
- Emergence of drug resistant strains especially methicillin resistant S taphylococcus aureus is a serious problem in hospital environments. (biomedcentral.com)
- Emergence of vancomycin resistance in methicillin-susceptible S. aureus would indicate that this resistance trait might be poised to disseminate more rapidly among S. aureus and represents a major public health threat. (cdc.gov)
- To the Forum experts, the emergence of pan-resistant NDM-1 bacteria and epidemic of multidrug-resistant E. coli infections currently in Europe should be taken as a major public health warning, indicating that a new era of antimicrobial resistance has begun. (biomedcentral.com)
- The emergence of chlorhexidine-resistant bacteria and mupirocin resistance are two concerns raised with the wide spread application of this strategy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Combining of the sequence data with detailed metadata on patient admission and movement confirmed that the outbreak was due to the transmission of a single clonal variant of ST228, rather than repeated introductions of this clone into the hospital. (asm.org)
- All the strains in the more dominant eta-positive clonal group and some of the strains in the etb-positive clonal group were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) showing borderline-to-moderate resistance to beta-lactams. (mendeley.com)
- This study provides evidence that S. pseudintermedius has an epidemic population structure, in which five successful MRSP lineages with specific traits regarding antimicrobial resistance, genetic diversity and geographical distribution have emerged upon a weakly clonal background through acquisition of SCC mec and other mobile genetic elements. (frontiersin.org)
- Among the patients' strains, sixteen were recognized as community-acquired (CA), compared with 24 for hospital-acquired (HA). (biomedcentral.com)
- Generally, hospital-acquired strains showed higher resistance rates than community-acquired ones to the most commonly tested non-beta-lactam antibiotics. (bvsalud.org)
- The two major types, hospital (HA)and community-acquired (CA) MRSA, are signiﬁcantly different in their epidemiological and genetic characteristics [2e (scribd.com)
- The goal of this study is to further the investigators' understanding of community acquired methicillin-resistant Staph Aureus (CA-MRSA) and treatment of it by developing real-world sustai. (bioportfolio.com)
- People who have a community-acquired MRSA infection were infected outside of a hospital setting. (uvahealth.com)
- MRSA infection is the most dreaded hospital or community acquired infection that can become life threatening. (medindia.net)
- Staphylococcus aureus caused wide spectrum of pyogenic lesions involving several organs, hospital outbreaks and community acquired infections. (alliedacademies.org)
Antibiotics such as methicillin1
- We evaluated the incidence rate of S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) and MRSA from population-based surveillance in all hospitals from two Thai provinces. (ajtmh.org)
- The increasing CO-SAB incidence rate, especially the burden on older adults and neonates, underscores the importance of strong SAB surveillance to identify and respond to changes in bacteremia trends and antimicrobial resistance. (ajtmh.org)
- indicated an increasing incidence of resistance to this antimicrobial agent. (scribd.com)
- E. N. Ramzi ,S. Obeid ,Omar A. Shafey , Methicillin resistant staphaureus at main Alexandria University Hospital: incidence, biochemical study and cross resistance to cephalothin, Bull. (who.int)
- Since 1989, a rapid increase in the incidence of infection and colonization with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) has been reported by U.S. hospitals. (cdc.gov)
- The actual increase in the incidence of VRE in U.S. hospitals might be greater than reported because the fully automated methods used in many clinical laboratories cannot consistently detect vancomycin resistance, especially moderate vancomycin resistance (as manifested in the VanB phenotype) (9-11). (cdc.gov)
- Vancomycin resistance in enterococci has coincided with the increasing incidence of high-level enterococcal resistance to penicillin and aminoglycosides, thus presenting a challenge for physicians who treat patients who have infections caused by these microorganisms (1,4). (cdc.gov)
- In the studies reported here, 64 clinical strains were isolated from patients at Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2006 and 2008. (asm.org)
- Unrecognized MRSA carriers, the movement of patients within the hospital, and the low detection with clinical specimens were also factors that played a role in this occurrence. (asm.org)
- clustering ST59-t437 showed the heterogeneity for provoking different clinical diseases in both community and hospital. (biomedcentral.com)
- Methicillin resistance in staphylococci: molecular and biochemical basis and clinical implications. (asm.org)
- During the study period (April-September, 2013), 754 various clinical samples collected from patients visiting at Alka Hospital were cultured for isolation of S. aureus . (nepjol.info)
- Two out of four clinical indicators of MRSA infection remained unchanged despite significant improvements in hand hygiene compliance in NSW hospitals. (mja.com.au)
- Acquisition of high-level vancomycin resistance by Staphylococcus aureus represents a major public health risk because this antimicrobial drug continues to be the first-line and most inexpensive therapy to treat methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) despite concerns about its clinical efficacy. (cdc.gov)
- In vitro antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from clinical cutaneous specimens in Japan. (ebscohost.com)
- However, the limitations of vancomycin 1 application in clinical practice were represented by a progressive increase in Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA) Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC), drug-related toxicity, and the lack of an oral formulation. (alliedacademies.org)
- In an effort to keep track of MRSA clones, the Center for Molecular Epidemiology (Centro de Epidemiologia Molecular [CEM]) has organized a collaborative network (CEM/NET) with 14 hospitals in Portugal and with medical centers located in several Mediterranean countries, Eastern and Central Europe, Iceland, South America, and Asia ( 45 ). (asm.org)
- Similar epidemiology was observed in the district general hospital. (bmj.com)
- For several years now there has been a good deal of press about methicillin resistant Staphylococcal infections in people. (speakingforspot.com)
- Results: Single MRSA strain resistant to multiple classes of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics dominated the hospital. (ebscohost.com)
- As many as 90 per cent of staphylococcal infections seen in hospital settings were associated with penicillin resistant strains by the mid-1950's (1). (annals.org)
- Among these was methicillin, which overcame resistance to penicillin. (informit.com)
- It was the first bacterium in which penicillin resistance was found-in 1947, just four years after the drug started being mass-produced. (westonaprice.org)
- Half of all S. aureus infections in the US are resistant to penicillin, methicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin. (westonaprice.org)
- Resistance to penicillin substitutes is also known beyond S. aureus . (westonaprice.org)
- 5 It has been projected by one authority that methicillin resistance may eventually become as ubiquitous in S. aureus as penicillin resistance did several decades ago. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
- Other hospitals also have reported increased endemic rates and clusters of VRE infection and colonization (2-8). (cdc.gov)
- To collect data on MRSA colonization among elective surgical patients, we screened all adult patients admitted to the hospital and assigned for an elective surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
- The resistance phenotype is influenced by numerous factors, including mec and beta-lactamase (bla) regulatory elements, fem factors, and yet to be identified chromosomal loci. (asm.org)
- The aim of this review is to determine virulence factors of S. aureus, resistance mechanisms of methicillin, and the influence of methicillin resistance on biofilm phenotype of S. aureus. (intechopen.com)
- 1 Staphylococcus aureus which was Inducible Clindamycin Resistance (iMLS B phenotype) was also methicillin resistant. (scirp.org)
- Two important questions need to be answered: (1) what is the prevalence of VRSA, and (2) by what mechanism does vancomycin resistance occur. (nih.gov)
- Selection of Mu3 with 8 mg/L or more of vancomycin gave rise to subclones with vancomycin resistance equal to that of Mu50 (MIC 8 mg/L) at a frequency of 1/1,000,000. (nih.gov)
- The vancomycin susceptibilities of three methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) strains (Mu50, Mu3, and H1) and the methicillin-susceptible S aureus type strain FDA209P were compared by MIC determinations and population analysis. (nih.gov)
- Conclusions: The MRSA strain prevalent in the hospital phenotypically resembles the predominant Asian strain viz. (ebscohost.com)
Staphylococcus aureus Decolonization1
- Our aims were to determine the proportion of Staphylococcus aureus infections due to methicillin-resistant strains in Central Australia, to characterise resistance to non-beta lactam antibiotics and to correlate findings with available demographic information. (cancerscreening.gov.au)
- In hospitals, S. aureus infections were lethal accompanied with resistance to several beta-lactam antibiotics [ 1 ]. (alliedacademies.org)
- Antimicrobial resistance is threatening the successful management of nosocomial infections worldwide. (asm.org)
- Decrease of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus in nosocomial infections in Germany - a prospective analysis over 10 years. (bioportfolio.com)