The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Hospitals engaged in educational and research programs, as well as providing medical care to the patients.
Hospitals located in metropolitan areas.
Special hospitals which provide care for ill children.
The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Schedules of medical and nursing procedures, including diagnostic tests, medications, and consultations designed to effect an efficient, coordinated program of treatment. (From Mosby's Medical, Nursing & Allied Health Dictionary, 4th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
A system for classifying patient care by relating common characteristics such as diagnosis, treatment, and age to an expected consumption of hospital resources and length of stay. Its purpose is to provide a framework for specifying case mix and to reduce hospital costs and reimbursements and it forms the cornerstone of the prospective payment system.
Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.
Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Maryland" is not a recognized medical term with a specific definition in the medical field. It refers to a state in the United States. If you have any questions about a medical condition or treatment, I would be happy to try and help answer those!
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Hospitals located in a rural area.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Personnel who provide nursing service to patients in a hospital.
Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The number of beds which a hospital has been designed and constructed to contain. It may also refer to the number of beds set up and staffed for use.
Hospitals which provide care for a single category of illness with facilities and staff directed toward a specific service.
Government-controlled hospitals which represent the major health facility for a designated geographic area.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)
The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Areawide planning for hospitals or planning of a particular hospital unit on the basis of projected consumer need. This does not include hospital design and construction or architectural plans.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.

User fees and drug pricing policies: a study at Harare Central Hospital, Zimbabwe. (1/237)

In 1991, Zimbabwe introduced cost recovery measures as part of its programme of economic reforms, following a course taken by many developing countries. The system of user fees in public health care, aimed to 'protect and support the vulnerable groups' by exemption or incremental fees based on 4 income brackets. Drugs were charged at a percentage of the recommended retail price in the private sector. This study of 488 outpatients at a referral hospital in Harare examined how the new fee system functioned 6 months after its introduction. Patients were interviewed and their prescription records examined. Mean charges were determined for each fee category and revenue from drug charges was analyzed in relation to purchase cost to determine the gross profit. 31% of patients were exempted from all fees upon proof of monthly earnings of less than Z$150 (Z$5 = US$1). The remainder were classified into three fee-paying categories. The mean purchase cost for drug items was Z$3.89 per outpatient prescription. Outpatients paid a mean drug charge of Z$9.75 after exemption or discount. This was 2.5 times the cost price. The number of drug items obtained differed according to fee status: the fee-exempt category received a mean of 2.9 drug items compared with 1.9 drug items in the fee-paying categories. This difference originated at the point of prescribing. A number of practical problems in fee collection were noted. The drug pricing system generated high profit even after re-distribution to low-income users. This was attributed to economical and rationalized public sector drug procurement. Observation indicated that a proportion of the vulnerable were not effectively protected due to stringent requirements for proof of income. Appraisal of the fee policy indicated the need for more effective cross-subsidy and better administrative procedures; fee revenue should be directed towards improvement in quality of service.  (+info)

User fees and patient behaviour: evidence from Niamey National Hospital. (2/237)

Evidence is presented on the effects of price changes on the delay before seeking care and on referral status in a sample of hospital patients in Niger. Price changes are measured as differences across patients at one hospital in whether or not they pay for care, rather than as differences in prices across several hospitals. User fees are charged, but the fee system allows exemptions for some payor categories such as government employees, students, and indigent patients. Evidence is also presented on the effect of income on the delay before seeking care and referral status. The analysis demonstrates a technical point on whether household consumption or current income is a more appropriate measure of income. The analysis shows that user fees affect patient behaviour, but the effects are not the same for outpatients and inpatients. Outpatients who pay for care wait longer before seeking care, but inpatients do not. Inpatients who pay for care are more likely to be referred, but outpatients are not. Patients with more income wait less time to seek care and are less likely to be referred than other patients. Further, household consumption explains patient behaviour better than current income.  (+info)

Explaining price variations for the inpatient treatment of congestive heart failure. (3/237)

OBJECTIVE: To identify key factors affecting hospital charge variations in the treatment of congestive heart failure. STUDY DESIGN: The determinants of total charges and average charges (the latter being a measure of treatment intensity) were evaluated using hospital discharge abstract data from 1994. Multivariate regression methods were used to help isolate the impact of key predictors of charges. In addition to relating a variety of factors (e.g., drug treatment regimens, patient comorbidities, demographic characteristics, insurance status, treatment course) to hospital charges, the analysis controlled for hospital-specific fixed effects. The study includes the effects of pharmacologic agents--information typically unavailable on inpatient claims-based data. RESULTS: Drug treatment regimens, particularly treatment with inotropic agents, were associated with substantially higher total charges. Comorbidities also increased the cost of treating congestive heart failure, particularly when septicemia, pneumonia, or acute myocardial infarction were involved. In contrast, gender, race, and insurance status bore little relationship to total charges or average charges. CONCLUSION: The fixed-effects estimates revealed that substantial interhospital variations in charges persisted, suggesting that there may be significant opportunities to control the inpatient costs of treating congestive heart failure.  (+info)

Market power and hospital pricing: are nonprofits different? (4/237)

Dramatic changes in hospitals' operating environments are leading to major restructuring of hospital organizations. Hospital mergers and acquisitions are increasing each year, and conversions by hospitals to different forms of ownership also are continuing apace. Such changes require policymakers and regulators to develop and implement policies to ensure that consumers' interests are protected. An important consideration in this process is the impact on the price of hospital care following such transactions. This paper reviews empirical evidence that mergers that reduce competition will lead to price increases at both merging hospitals and their competitors, regardless of ownership status. We show that nonprofit and government hospitals have steadily become more willing to raise prices to exploit market power and discuss the implications for antitrust regulators and agencies that must approve nonprofit conversions.  (+info)

Comparison between the transabdominal and retroperitoneal approaches for aortic reconstruction in patients at high risk. (5/237)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the transabdominal approach with the retroperitoneal approach for elective aortic reconstruction in the patient who is at high risk. METHODS: From January 1992 through January 1997, 148 patients underwent aortic operations: 92 of the patients were classified as American Society of Anesthesia (ASA) class IV. Forty-four operations on the patients of ASA class IV were performed with the transabdominal approach (25 for abdominal aortic aneurysms and 19 for aortoiliac occlusive disease), and 48 operations were performed with the retroperitoneal approach (27 for abdominal aortic aneurysms and 21 for aortoiliac occlusive disease). There were no significant differences between the groups for comorbid risk factors or perioperative care. RESULTS: Among the patients of ASA class IV, eight (8.7%) died after operation (retroperitoneal, 3 [6.26%]; transabdominal, 5 [11.3%]; P =.5). There was no difference between groups in the number of pulmonary complications (retroperitoneal, 23 [47.9%]; transabdominal, 19 [43.2%]; P =.7) or in the development of incisional hernias (retroperitoneal, 6 [12.5%]; transabdominal, 5 [11.3%]; P =.5). The retroperitoneal approach was associated with a significant reduction in cardiac complications (retroperitoneal, 6 [12.5%]; transabdominal, 10 [22.7%]; P =.004) and in gastrointestinal complications (retroperitoneal, 5 [8.3%]; transabdominal, 15 [34.1%]). Operative time was significantly longer in the retroperitoneal group (retroperitoneal, 3.35 hours; transabdominal, 2.98 hours; P =.006), as was blood loss (retroperitoneal, 803 mL; transabdominal, 647 mL; P =.012). The patients in the retroperitoneal group required less intravenous narcotics (retroperitoneal, 36.6 +/- 21 mg; transabdominal, 49.5 +/- 28.5 mg; P =.004) and less epidural analgesics (retroperitoneal, 39.5 +/- 6.4 mg; transabdominal, 56.6 +/- 9.5 mg; P =.004). Hospital length of stay (retroperitoneal, 7.2 +/- 1.6 days; transabdominal, 12.8 +/- 2.3 days; P =.024) and hospital charges (retroperitoneal, $35,587 +/- $980; transabdominal, $54,832 +/- $1105; P =.04) were significantly lower in the retroperitoneal group. The survival rates at the 40-month follow-up period were similar between the groups (retroperitoneal, 81.3%; transabdominal, 78.7%; P =.53). CONCLUSION: In this subset of patients who were at high risk for aortic reconstruction, the postoperative complications were common. However, the number of complications was significantly lower in the retroperitoneal group. Aortic reconstruction in patients of ASA class IV appears to be more safely and economically performed with the retroperitoneal approach.  (+info)

Unofficial fees in Bangladesh: price, equity and institutional issues. (6/237)

The widespread collection of unofficial fees at health facilities is a common form of rent-seeking behaviour in Bangladesh. Typically, unofficial fees come in the form of cash payments for the performance of required services, for direct purchase of drugs and medical-surgical requisites, and for service access. Using observational and interview methods, this study explores linkages between official and unofficial fees at three Bangladesh health facility levels; primary care Thana Health Complexes, secondary or district hospitals, and medical college hospitals. The study estimates payment levels for different income classes and different payor types at these facilities, thereby highlighting potential equity, price and institutional questions associated with unofficial fees. Not only does the practice have clear income and equity effects, there also appear to be direct effects upon patient satisfaction, perception of quality, and the ability to pay for health services. The article concludes with a discussion of 'rent capture' processes at Bangladesh facilities and the effect of unofficial fees in six areas of health sector reform: displaced official policies, reduced merit goods production, upward income redistribution, distorted human resource development, growth of facility inefficiency, and obstruction of market reforms.  (+info)

Long-term benefit of primary angioplasty as compared with thrombolytic therapy for acute myocardial infarction. (7/237)

BACKGROUND: As compared with thrombolytic therapy, primary coronary angioplasty results in a higher rate of patency of the infarct-related coronary artery, lower rates of stroke and reinfarction, and higher in-hospital or 30-day survival rates. However, the comparative long-term efficacy of these two approaches has not been carefully studied. METHODS: We randomly assigned a total of 395 patients with acute myocardial infarction to treatment with angioplasty or intravenous streptokinase. Clinical information was collected for a mean (+/-SD) of 5+/-2 years, and medical charges associated with the two treatments were compared. RESULTS: A total of 194 patients were assigned to undergo primary angioplasty, and 201 to receive streptokinase. Mortality was 13 percent in the angioplasty group, as compared with 24 percent in the streptokinase group (relative risk, 0.54; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.87). Nonfatal reinfarction occurred in 6 percent and 22 percent of the two groups, respectively (relative risk, 0.27; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.52). The combined incidence of death and nonfatal reinfarction was also lower among patients assigned to angioplasty than among those assigned to streptokinase, with a relative risk of 0.13 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.05 to 0.37) for early events (within the first 30 days) and a relative risk of 0.62 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.43 to 0.91) for late events (after 30 days). The rates of readmission for heart failure and ischemia were also lower among patients in the angioplasty group than among patients in the streptokinase group. Total medical charges per patient were lower in the angioplasty group (16,090 dollars) than in the streptokinase group (16,813 dollars, P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: During five years of follow-up, primary coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction was associated with lower rates of early and late death and nonfatal reinfarction, fewer hospital readmissions for ischemia or heart failure, and lower total medical charges than treatment with intravenous streptokinase.  (+info)

Outpatient-based bone marrow transplantation for hematologic malignancies: cost saving or cost shifting? (8/237)

PURPOSE: To determine whether a shift in care from an inpatient-based to an outpatient-based bone marrow transplantation (BMT) program decreased charges to payers without increasing clinical complications or out-of-pocket costs to patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This nonrandomized prospective cohort study compared clinical and economic outcomes for 132 consecutive BMT patients with hematologic malignancies who received either inpatient- or outpatient-based BMT care. RESULTS: Seventeen of 132 BMT patients underwent outpatient-based BMT. Compared with the inpatient-based group, the outpatient-based group had a markedly lower mean number of inpatient hospital days (22 v 47; P <.001) and decreased mean inpatient facility charges ($61,059 less per patient; P <.0001) but had higher mean outpatient facility charges ($49,732 higher; P <. 0001). Total professional fees were similar for the groups. The mean total charge to payers was only 7% less ($12,652; P =.21) for outpatient-based BMT than for inpatient-based BMT, but total charge was 34% less for outpatient compared with inpatient BMT ($54,240; P = 0.056) in a subset of patients who had a standard rather than high risk of treatment failure. There was no significant difference between groups in out-of-pocket costs for transportation, lodging, meals, home nursing, household assistance, child care, medication expenses, or unreimbursed medical bills. There also was no significant difference between groups in reported income lost, involuntary unemployment, or months of disability. The two groups had similar rates of major complications, including death, significant acute graft-versus-host disease, and veno-occlusive disease of the liver. CONCLUSION: Increased use of outpatient-based BMT should produce substantial cost savings for payers without adverse effects on patients for those patients who do not have a high risk of treatment failure.  (+info)

Hospital charges refer to the total amount that a hospital charges for providing medical and healthcare services, including room and board, surgery, laboratory tests, medications, and other related expenses. These charges are typically listed on a patient's bill or invoice and can vary widely depending on the type of care provided, the complexity of the treatment, and the specific hospital or healthcare facility. It is important to note that hospital charges may not reflect the actual cost of care, as many hospitals negotiate discounted rates with insurance companies and government payers. Additionally, patients may be responsible for paying a portion of these charges out-of-pocket, depending on their insurance coverage and other factors.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Hospital costs are the total amount of money that is expended by a hospital to provide medical and healthcare services to patients. These costs can include expenses related to:

* Hospital staff salaries and benefits
* Supplies, such as medications, medical devices, and surgical equipment
* Utilities, such as electricity, water, and heating
* Facility maintenance and renovation
* Equipment maintenance and purchase
* Administrative costs, such as billing and insurance processing

Hospital costs can also be classified into fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs are those that do not change with the volume of services provided, such as rent or depreciation of equipment. Variable costs are those that change with the volume of services provided, such as supplies and medications.

It's important to note that hospital costs can vary widely depending on factors such as the complexity of care provided, the geographic location of the hospital, and the patient population served. Additionally, hospital costs may not always align with charges or payments for healthcare services, which can be influenced by factors such as negotiated rates with insurance companies and government reimbursement policies.

Fees and charges in a medical context refer to the costs that patients are required to pay for healthcare services, treatments, or procedures. These may include:

1. Professional fees: The amount charged by healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, or therapists for their time, expertise, and services provided during consultations, examinations, or treatments.

2. Hospital charges: The costs associated with a patient's hospital stay, including room and board, nursing care, medications, and diagnostic tests.

3. Facility fees: Additional charges levied by hospitals, clinics, or ambulatory surgery centers to cover the overhead expenses of maintaining the facility and its equipment.

4. Procedure or treatment-specific fees: Costs directly related to specific medical procedures, surgeries, or treatments, such as anesthesia, radiology services, laboratory tests, or surgical supplies.

5. Ancillary fees: Additional costs for items like crutches, slings, or durable medical equipment that patients may need during their recovery process.

6. Insurance copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles: The portion of healthcare expenses that patients are responsible for paying based on their insurance policy terms.

It is essential for patients to understand the fees and charges associated with their medical care to make informed decisions about their treatment options and manage their healthcare costs effectively.

Hospital economics refers to the study and application of economic principles and concepts in the management and operation of hospitals and healthcare organizations. This field examines issues such as cost containment, resource allocation, financial management, reimbursement systems, and strategic planning. The goal of hospital economics is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of hospital operations while maintaining high-quality patient care. It involves understanding and analyzing various economic factors that affect hospitals, including government regulations, market forces, technological advancements, and societal values. Hospital economists may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, consulting firms, academic institutions, and government agencies.

Hospitalization is the process of admitting a patient to a hospital for the purpose of receiving medical treatment, surgery, or other health care services. It involves staying in the hospital as an inpatient, typically under the care of doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. The length of stay can vary depending on the individual's medical condition and the type of treatment required. Hospitalization may be necessary for a variety of reasons, such as to receive intensive care, to undergo diagnostic tests or procedures, to recover from surgery, or to manage chronic illnesses or injuries.

A "Teaching Hospital" is a healthcare institution that provides medical education and training to future healthcare professionals, such as medical students, residents, and fellows. These hospitals are often affiliated with medical schools or universities and have a strong focus on research and innovation in addition to patient care. They typically have a larger staff of specialized doctors and medical professionals who can provide comprehensive care for complex and rare medical conditions. Teaching hospitals also serve as important resources for their communities, providing access to advanced medical treatments and contributing to the development of new healthcare technologies and practices.

"Urban hospitals" is not a medical term per se, but rather a term that describes the location and setting of healthcare facilities. In this context, "urban" refers to densely populated cities or built-up areas, as opposed to rural or suburban regions. Therefore, urban hospitals are medical institutions located in or near urban centers, serving large populations and typically providing a wide range of specialized services.

These hospitals often have more resources, advanced technology, and subspecialties compared to their rural counterparts due to the higher patient volume and financial support they receive. They also tend to be teaching hospitals affiliated with medical schools and research institutions, contributing significantly to medical education, innovation, and clinical trials.

However, it is important to note that urban hospitals may face unique challenges in providing care, such as serving diverse populations with varying socioeconomic backgrounds, addressing health disparities, managing high patient volumes, and dealing with issues related to overcrowding and resource allocation.

A pediatric hospital is a specialized medical facility that provides comprehensive healthcare services for infants, children, adolescents, and young adults up to the age of 21. These hospitals employ medical professionals with expertise in treating various childhood illnesses, injuries, and developmental disorders. The facilities are designed to cater to the unique needs of children, including child-friendly environments, specialized equipment, and age-appropriate care.

Pediatric hospitals offer a wide range of services such as inpatient and outpatient care, emergency services, surgical procedures, diagnostic testing, rehabilitation, and mental health services. They also focus on preventive healthcare, family-centered care, and education to support the overall well-being of their young patients. Some pediatric hospitals may specialize further, focusing on specific areas such as cancer treatment, cardiology, neurology, or orthopedics.

Patient discharge is a medical term that refers to the point in time when a patient is released from a hospital or other healthcare facility after receiving treatment. This process typically involves the physician or healthcare provider determining that the patient's condition has improved enough to allow them to continue their recovery at home or in another appropriate setting.

The discharge process may include providing the patient with instructions for ongoing care, such as medication regimens, follow-up appointments, and activity restrictions. The healthcare team may also provide educational materials and resources to help patients and their families manage their health conditions and prevent complications.

It is important for patients and their families to understand and follow the discharge instructions carefully to ensure a smooth transition back to home or another care setting and to promote continued recovery and good health.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Critical pathways, also known as clinical pathways or care maps, are specialized treatment plans for specific medical conditions. They are designed to standardize and improve the quality of care by providing evidence-based guidelines for each stage of a patient's treatment, from diagnosis to discharge. Critical pathways aim to reduce variations in care, promote efficient use of resources, and enhance communication among healthcare providers. These pathways may include recommendations for medications, tests, procedures, and follow-up care based on best practices and current research evidence. By following critical pathways, healthcare professionals can ensure that patients receive timely, effective, and coordinated care, which can lead to better outcomes and improved patient satisfaction.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

Health resources refer to the personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies that are used in the delivery of healthcare services. This includes:

1. Human resources: Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals.

2. Physical resources: Hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare facilities.

3. Technological resources: Medical equipment and technology used for diagnosis and treatment, such as MRI machines, CT scanners, and electronic health records.

4. Financial resources: Funding for healthcare services, including public and private insurance, government funding, and out-of-pocket payments.

5. Informational resources: Research findings, evidence-based practices, and health education materials that inform healthcare decision-making.

The adequate availability, distribution, and utilization of these health resources are crucial for ensuring access to quality healthcare services and improving population health outcomes.

Diagnosis-Related Groups (DRGs) are a system of classifying hospital patients based on their severity of illness, resource utilization, and other factors. DRGs were developed by the US federal government to determine the relative cost of providing inpatient care for various types of diagnoses and procedures.

The DRG system categorizes patients into one of several hundred groups based on their diagnosis, treatment, and other clinical characteristics. Each DRG has a corresponding payment weight that reflects the average resource utilization and costs associated with caring for patients in that group. Hospitals are then reimbursed for inpatient services based on the DRG payment weights, providing an incentive to provide more efficient and cost-effective care.

DRGs have been widely adopted as a tool for managing healthcare costs and improving quality of care. They are used by Medicare, Medicaid, and many private insurers to determine payments for inpatient hospital services. DRGs can also be used to compare the performance of hospitals and healthcare providers, identify best practices, and support quality improvement initiatives.

An emergency service in a hospital is a department that provides immediate medical or surgical care for individuals who are experiencing an acute illness, injury, or severe symptoms that require immediate attention. The goal of an emergency service is to quickly assess, stabilize, and treat patients who require urgent medical intervention, with the aim of preventing further harm or death.

Emergency services in hospitals typically operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, and are staffed by teams of healthcare professionals including physicians, nurses, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and other allied health professionals. These teams are trained to provide rapid evaluation and treatment for a wide range of medical conditions, from minor injuries to life-threatening emergencies such as heart attacks, strokes, and severe infections.

In addition to providing emergency care, hospital emergency services also serve as a key point of entry for patients who require further hospitalization or specialized care. They work closely with other departments within the hospital, such as radiology, laboratory, and critical care units, to ensure that patients receive timely and appropriate treatment. Overall, the emergency service in a hospital plays a crucial role in ensuring that patients receive prompt and effective medical care during times of crisis.

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

Patient admission in a medical context refers to the process by which a patient is formally accepted and registered into a hospital or healthcare facility for treatment or further medical care. This procedure typically includes the following steps:

1. Patient registration: The patient's personal information, such as name, address, contact details, and insurance coverage, are recorded in the hospital's system.
2. Clinical assessment: A healthcare professional evaluates the patient's medical condition to determine the appropriate level of care required and develop a plan for treatment. This may involve consulting with other healthcare providers, reviewing medical records, and performing necessary tests or examinations.
3. Bed assignment: Based on the clinical assessment, the hospital staff assigns an appropriate bed in a suitable unit (e.g., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general ward) for the patient's care.
4. Informed consent: The healthcare team explains the proposed treatment plan and associated risks to the patient or their legal representative, obtaining informed consent before proceeding with any invasive procedures or significant interventions.
5. Admission orders: The attending physician documents the admission orders in the medical chart, specifying the diagnostic tests, medications, treatments, and care plans for the patient during their hospital stay.
6. Notification of family members or caregivers: Hospital staff informs the patient's emergency contact or next of kin about their admission and provides relevant information regarding their condition, treatment plan, and any necessary follow-up instructions.
7. Patient education: The healthcare team educates the patient on what to expect during their hospital stay, including potential side effects, self-care strategies, and discharge planning.

The goal of patient admission is to ensure a smooth transition into the healthcare facility, providing timely and appropriate care while maintaining open communication with patients, families, and caregivers throughout the process.

A "General Hospital" is a type of hospital that provides a broad range of medical and surgical services to a diverse patient population. It typically offers general medical care, emergency services, intensive care, diagnostic services (such as laboratory testing and imaging), and inpatient and outpatient surgical services. General hospitals may also have specialized departments or units for specific medical conditions or populations, such as pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, geriatrics, oncology, and mental health. They are usually staffed by a variety of healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, and support personnel. General hospitals can be found in both urban and rural areas and may be operated by governmental, non-profit, or for-profit organizations.

A "University Hospital" is a type of hospital that is often affiliated with a medical school or university. These hospitals serve as major teaching institutions where medical students, residents, and fellows receive their training and education. They are equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide specialized and tertiary care services. University hospitals also conduct research and clinical trials to advance medical knowledge and practices. Additionally, they often treat complex and rare cases and provide a wide range of medical services to the community.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Maryland" is a proper noun and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. However, if you are referring to a specific medical term or concept that includes "Maryland," could you please provide more context? I'll do my best to help with accurate information based on the provided context.

A decision tree is a graphical representation of possible solutions to a decision based on certain conditions. It is a predictive modeling tool commonly used in statistics, data mining, and machine learning. In the medical field, decision trees can be used for clinical decision-making and predicting patient outcomes based on various factors such as symptoms, test results, or demographic information.

In a decision tree, each internal node represents a feature or attribute, and each branch represents a possible value or outcome of that feature. The leaves of the tree represent the final decisions or predictions. Decision trees are constructed by recursively partitioning the data into subsets based on the most significant attributes until a stopping criterion is met.

Decision trees can be used for both classification and regression tasks, making them versatile tools in medical research and practice. They can help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care, identify high-risk patients, and develop personalized treatment plans. However, it's important to note that decision trees are only as good as the data they are trained on, and their accuracy may be affected by biases or limitations in the data.

Medicare is a social insurance program in the United States, administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), that provides health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; or who have certain disabilities; or who have End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant).

The program consists of four parts:

1. Hospital Insurance (Part A), which helps pay for inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospices, and home health care.
2. Medical Insurance (Part B), which helps pay for doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
3. Medicare Advantage Plans (Part C), which are private insurance plans that provide all of your Part A and Part B benefits, and may include additional benefits like dental, vision, and hearing coverage.
4. Prescription Drug Coverage (Part D), which helps pay for medications doctors prescribe for treatment.

Medicare is funded by payroll taxes, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and general revenue. Beneficiaries typically pay a monthly premium for Part B and Part D coverage, while Part A is generally free for those who have worked and paid Medicare taxes for at least 40 quarters.

A factual database in the medical context is a collection of organized and structured data that contains verified and accurate information related to medicine, healthcare, or health sciences. These databases serve as reliable resources for various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and patients, to access evidence-based information for making informed decisions and enhancing knowledge.

Examples of factual medical databases include:

1. PubMed: A comprehensive database of biomedical literature maintained by the US National Library of Medicine (NLM). It contains citations and abstracts from life sciences journals, books, and conference proceedings.
2. MEDLINE: A subset of PubMed, MEDLINE focuses on high-quality, peer-reviewed articles related to biomedicine and health. It is the primary component of the NLM's database and serves as a critical resource for healthcare professionals and researchers worldwide.
3. Cochrane Library: A collection of systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on evidence-based medicine. The library aims to provide unbiased, high-quality information to support clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes.
4. OVID: A platform that offers access to various medical and healthcare databases, including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO. It facilitates the search and retrieval of relevant literature for researchers, clinicians, and students.
5. A registry and results database of publicly and privately supported clinical studies conducted around the world. The platform aims to increase transparency and accessibility of clinical trial data for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients.
6. UpToDate: An evidence-based, physician-authored clinical decision support resource that provides information on diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of medical conditions. It serves as a point-of-care tool for healthcare professionals to make informed decisions and improve patient care.
7. TRIP Database: A search engine designed to facilitate evidence-based medicine by providing quick access to high-quality resources, including systematic reviews, clinical guidelines, and practice recommendations.
8. National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC): A database of evidence-based clinical practice guidelines and related documents developed through a rigorous review process. The NGC aims to provide clinicians, healthcare providers, and policymakers with reliable guidance for patient care.
9. DrugBank: A comprehensive, freely accessible online database containing detailed information about drugs, their mechanisms, interactions, and targets. It serves as a valuable resource for researchers, healthcare professionals, and students in the field of pharmacology and drug discovery.
10. Genetic Testing Registry (GTR): A database that provides centralized information about genetic tests, test developers, laboratories offering tests, and clinical validity and utility of genetic tests. It serves as a resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, and patients to make informed decisions regarding genetic testing.

"Rural Hospital" is a term that refers to a healthcare facility located in a rural area, providing inpatient and outpatient services to people living in those regions. According to the National Rural Health Association, a rural hospital is generally defined as a hospital located in a county with a population density of 100 persons per square mile or less and with a majority of the population (over 50%) living in rural areas.

Rural hospitals often serve as critical access points for healthcare services, offering a broad range of medical care including emergency services, primary care, surgery, obstetrics, and mental health services. They are essential for ensuring that residents of rural communities have access to necessary medical care, especially when considering the challenges associated with longer travel distances and limited availability of healthcare providers in these areas.

Rural hospitals often face unique challenges compared to their urban counterparts, such as financial difficulties due to lower patient volumes, higher rates of uncompensated care, and a greater reliance on Medicare and Medicaid reimbursements. Additionally, rural hospitals may struggle with recruiting and retaining healthcare professionals, which can impact the quality and availability of care for patients in these communities.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

'Hospital Nursing Staff' refers to the group of healthcare professionals who are licensed and trained to provide nursing care to patients in a hospital setting. They work under the direction of a nurse manager or director and collaborate with an interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers, including physicians, therapists, social workers, and other support staff.

Hospital nursing staff can include registered nurses (RNs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs) or vocational nurses (LVNs), and unlicensed assistive personnel (UAPs) such as nursing assistants, orderlies, and patient care technicians. Their responsibilities may vary depending on their role and the needs of the patients, but they typically include:

* Administering medications and treatments prescribed by physicians
* Monitoring patients' vital signs and overall condition
* Providing emotional support and education to patients and their families
* Assisting with activities of daily living such as bathing, dressing, and grooming
* Documenting patient care and progress in medical records
* Collaborating with other healthcare professionals to develop and implement individualized care plans.

Hospital nursing staff play a critical role in ensuring the safety, comfort, and well-being of hospitalized patients, and they are essential members of the healthcare team.

A wound is a type of injury that occurs when the skin or other tissues are cut, pierced, torn, or otherwise broken. Wounds can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, violence, surgery, or certain medical conditions. There are several different types of wounds, including:

* Incisions: These are cuts that are made deliberately, often during surgery. They are usually straight and clean.
* Lacerations: These are tears in the skin or other tissues. They can be irregular and jagged.
* Abrasions: These occur when the top layer of skin is scraped off. They may look like a bruise or a scab.
* Punctures: These are wounds that are caused by sharp objects, such as needles or knives. They are usually small and deep.
* Avulsions: These occur when tissue is forcibly torn away from the body. They can be very serious and require immediate medical attention.

Injuries refer to any harm or damage to the body, including wounds. Injuries can range from minor scrapes and bruises to more severe injuries such as fractures, dislocations, and head trauma. It is important to seek medical attention for any injury that is causing significant pain, swelling, or bleeding, or if there is a suspected bone fracture or head injury.

In general, wounds and injuries should be cleaned and covered with a sterile bandage to prevent infection. Depending on the severity of the wound or injury, additional medical treatment may be necessary. This may include stitches for deep cuts, immobilization for broken bones, or surgery for more serious injuries. It is important to follow your healthcare provider's instructions carefully to ensure proper healing and to prevent complications.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Hospital bed capacity, in a medical context, refers to the maximum number of hospital beds that are available and equipped to admit and care for patients in a healthcare facility. This capacity is determined by factors such as the physical layout and size of the hospital, the number of nursing and support staff, and the availability of medical equipment and supplies. Hospital bed capacity can be categorized into different types, including:

1. Usual Bed Capacity: The total number of beds that are regularly available for patient care in a hospital.
2. Adjusted Bed Capacity: The total number of beds that can be made available for patient care after accounting for temporary closures or conversions of beds for special purposes, such as during an outbreak or emergency situation.
3. Surge Bed Capacity: The additional number of beds that can be made available beyond the adjusted bed capacity to accommodate a sudden influx of patients due to a disaster, pandemic, or other mass casualty event.

It is important to note that hospital bed capacity does not necessarily reflect the actual number of patients that can be safely and effectively cared for at any given time, as factors such as staffing levels, equipment availability, and patient acuity must also be taken into consideration.

Special hospitals are medical facilities that provide specialized services and care for specific patient populations or medical conditions. These hospitals are designed to handle complex medical cases that require advanced technology, specialized equipment, and trained healthcare professionals with expertise in certain areas of medicine. Examples of special hospitals include:

1. Psychiatric Hospitals: Also known as mental health hospitals, these facilities focus on providing care for patients with mental illnesses, emotional disorders, or substance abuse issues. They offer various treatments, such as therapy, counseling, and medication management, to help patients manage their conditions.

2. Rehabilitation Hospitals: These hospitals specialize in helping patients recover from injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have left them with temporary or permanent disabilities. They provide physical, occupational, and speech therapy, along with other supportive services, to assist patients in regaining their independence and improving their quality of life.

3. Children's Hospitals: These hospitals are dedicated to providing healthcare services specifically for children and adolescents. They have specialized pediatric departments, equipment, and trained staff to address the unique medical needs of this patient population.

4. Long-Term Acute Care Hospitals (LTACHs): LTACHs provide extended care for patients with chronic illnesses or severe injuries who require ongoing medical treatment and monitoring. They often have specialized units for specific conditions, such as ventilator weaning or wound care.

5. Cancer Hospitals: Also known as comprehensive cancer centers, these hospitals focus on the diagnosis, treatment, and research of various types of cancer. They typically have multidisciplinary teams of healthcare professionals, including oncologists, surgeons, radiologists, and researchers, working together to provide comprehensive care for cancer patients.

6. Teaching Hospitals: Although not a specific type of medical condition, teaching hospitals are affiliated with medical schools and serve as training grounds for future doctors, nurses, and allied healthcare professionals. They often have access to the latest research, technology, and treatments and may participate in clinical trials or innovative treatment approaches.

A district hospital is a type of healthcare facility that provides medical services to a specific geographic area, or "district." These hospitals are typically smaller than regional or tertiary care facilities and offer a range of general and specialized medical services to the local population. They serve as the primary point of contact for many patients seeking medical care and may provide emergency services, inpatient and outpatient care, surgery, diagnostic imaging, laboratory services, and rehabilitation. District hospitals are an essential part of healthcare systems in many countries, particularly in rural or underserved areas where access to larger medical centers may be limited.

A hospital is a healthcare facility where patients receive medical treatment, diagnosis, and care for various health conditions, injuries, or diseases. It is typically staffed with medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers who provide round-the-clock medical services. Hospitals may offer inpatient (overnight) stays or outpatient (same-day) services, depending on the nature of the treatment required. They are equipped with various medical facilities like operating rooms, diagnostic equipment, intensive care units (ICUs), and emergency departments to handle a wide range of medical situations. Hospitals may specialize in specific areas of medicine, such as pediatrics, geriatrics, oncology, or trauma care.

Private hospitals are medical facilities that are owned and operated by private entities, such as corporations or individuals, rather than being government-owned. They are funded through patient fees, private insurance, and some may also receive funding from charitable organizations. Private hospitals can offer a range of services, including emergency care, inpatient and outpatient care, diagnostic tests, and surgeries. They may have the flexibility to offer more specialized medical equipment and procedures compared to public hospitals, as well as potentially having shorter wait times for non-emergency procedures. However, private hospitals may not be accessible to all individuals due to their cost, and they may prioritize profit over patient care in some cases.

Financial management in a hospital setting refers to the planning, organizing, directing, and controlling of financial resources in order to achieve the hospital's mission, vision, and strategic objectives. This includes developing financial strategies, preparing budget plans, managing revenue cycles, controlling costs, ensuring compliance with financial regulations, and making informed decisions about resource allocation. Effective financial management is critical for the sustainability and growth of hospitals, as it enables them to provide high-quality patient care while maintaining fiscal responsibility.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Hospital planning, in the medical context, refers to the process of designing, developing, and managing healthcare facilities to ensure they meet the current and future needs of the population they serve. It involves strategic planning, financial forecasting, architectural design, infrastructure development, and operational management. The goal is to create an efficient, safe, and patient-centered environment that supports high-quality care, complies with regulatory standards, and optimizes resource utilization. This process may also include considerations for emergency preparedness, technological integration, and sustainable practices.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

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"10 Charges against Ming Yi". Retrieved 22 December 2014. "Ren Ci under probe after MOH found financial irregularities". Channel ... Hospitals in Singapore, Hospitals established in 1994, All stub articles, Asian hospital stubs, Singaporean building and ... Ren Ci Hospital received close to S$840,000. In 2007, the Ministry of Health (MOH) announced that the hospital is under ... Established in 1994, Ren Ci Hospital currently has three facilities Ren Ci Community Hospital, Ren Ci @ Ang Mo Kio and Ren Ci ...
"Nurse faces New Murder Charges". The New York Times. "State cites 'Angel of Death' hospital for shortcomings". The Evening News ... In all, Angelo was suspected of poisoning at least 35 people at the hospital while working there for seven months, though the ... Joshua Quittner, B.D. Colen (November 24, 1987). "Hospital Policies Scrutinized NY weighs rule to speed notice to authorities ... Angel of Death' tours hospital". Daily News. April 5, 1989. p. 705. Retrieved August 2, 2023 - via "More ...
After he was charged, the radio station dropped him, and Crocker moved to L.A. and returned to school. After the payola charges ... In October 2000, Crocker went into a Miami area hospital for several weeks. He was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, and kept ... Relationships He was charged in 1983 with hitting Penthouse Pet Carmela Pope; the charges were later dropped. He also was ... Career Crocker was indicted as a result of a 1976 payola investigation; the charges were later dismissed. ...
... after which Assistant Attorney General John Amen filed disbarment charges against Ullman. He was exonerated of charges. Ullman ... Ullman died in Lenox Hill Hospital on July 6, 1941. A thousand people attended his funeral in Riverside Memorial Chapel, with ... The charge of conspiring to defraud the government was dismissed against all the defendants, and Ullman and Friedman were ... "Ullman is Seized on Bribery Charges in Medical Racket" (PDF). The New York Times. Vol. LXXXVIII, no. 29631. New York, N.Y. 11 ...
Gordon Rayner (December 8, 2012). "'Cruel' hospital hoax still playing on radio". The Daily Telegraph. London. "No charges for ... In 2012, Jacintha Saldanha, a nurse at King Edward VII hospital who was attending a pregnant Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, ... The incident and the following death received intense media coverage and triggered an investigation, but no charges were laid. ...
"Musharraf summoned to face treason charges on Dec 24". Dawn. December 13, 2013. "Musharraf moved to hospital; court grants ... "Musharraf finally appears in court, but not charged". Dawn. February 19, 2014. "Treason case: Musharraf not to be tried in ... On 31 March 2014, Musharraf was indicted for high treason charges. In March 2016, Musharraf via his counsel moved an ... On 18 February 2014, Musharraf finally appeared in court after avoiding twenty-two consecutive hearings, but no charges were ...
He was sent off to Homer G. Phillips Hospital yet again, where he was to await trial for the murder charges. On December 3, ... "Robber Sentenced On Four Charges". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. August 3, 1971. "St. Louis Man Charged In Second Murder". St. Louis ... "Charged with Murder of Woman In U. City". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. March 28, 1978. "Questioned In Killing of Woman In U. City ... "3 Youths Charged In Fatal Shooting". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. May 23, 1969. Robert K. Sanford (May 7, 1969). "Detective Who Was ...
17 July - Frank Gilford waives his right to call for the death penalty of two British nurses charged with the murder of his ... 13 July - A crowd of over 100,000 people watches the Royal Canberra Hospital implosion. A 12-year-old girl, Katie Bender, is ... A 16-year-old boy later appears in the Children's Court charged with her murder. The following year, he becomes the first minor ... The game is interrupted six times due to pitch invasions with eight men arrested and charged with "entering a playing field" ...
Their charges were later dropped. Residents had problems with the shooters before the incident, such as being threatened by the ... He was taken to the hospital and is currently undergoing recovery. The two people who shot the deputy have pleaded self-defense ... "Charges dropped against couple in Caldwell County deputy shooting". April 1, 2018. "Caldwell County deputy shot ... ZIP Code lookup "Texas lawmen: Alabama man was murdered while watching over a friend's home, 3 charged for slaying". ...
Manslaughter charges have been recommended against him, while charges of official misconduct were levelled at the hospital's ... Bundaberg Base Hospital is the public hospital of Bundaberg, Queensland, Australia. Bundaberg Base Hospital was opened by the ... There are two private hospitals in the same city. The hospital has an annual budget of $56 million. Bundaberg Hospital was the ... A base hospital is a regional centre that takes referrals from outlying hospitals, and concentrates specialised skills. ...
"Haneef released as charges dropped". The Age. Melbourne. 27 July 2007. Retrieved 9 July 2010. "Police Blow Up Car at Hospital ... The hospital was cordoned off for a time, and ambulances were redirected to other local hospitals. It is not clear if there was ... These hospitals were the subject of police searches. Also on 2 July, an eighth person was detained in Australia in connection ... "Hospital registrar in terror bust". 3 July 2007. Archived from the original on 4 July 2007. Retrieved 16 July 2008 ...
"Charges pending in hospital death". Archived from the original on 2018-02-24. "REGIONAL MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES COORDINATION ... Friends Hospital Haverford State Hospital Mental Health Pennsylvania Hospital Philadelphia State Hospital Psychiatric Hospital ... Alice Bennett, the hospital began receiving patients on July 12, 1880. By 1937, the population of the state hospital had risen ... Norristown State Hospital, originally known as the State Lunatic Hospital at Norristown, is an active state-funded psychiatric ...
"Redskins safety Nicholson arrested on assault charge". December 18, 2018. Keim, John (May 14, 2019). "Charges against ... On the night of Crabbe's death, Nicholson and another man were identified as the ones who drove Crabbe to a hospital. Crabbe's ... The charges were dropped in May 2019. On November 14, 2019, it was reported that the Loudoun County Sheriff's Office was ... officials investigate death of woman taken to hospital by Redskins player". Zielonka, Adam (November 27, 2019). "Family of ...
In hospital, Warren admits he was driving the van, having discovered Justin and Katy's plan to run away after finding Justin's ... The police drop the charges. Justin and Katy go to The Loft where Nancy is with her friends. Justin tells her that he thinks ... Becca is rushed to hospital but sadly dies. Justin, unaware of her death, asks Jake how Becca was doing, Jake turns to him and ... Leila visits Justin in hospital and tells him she is his girlfriend. Ste is shocked as he does not think she is Justin's type, ...
Nothing came of the charges. A review of two years' of his writings not only found nothing "subversive", even by the somewhat ... Varzaly died June 3, 1957, in Pittsburgh's Montefiore Hospital. He is interred in Homewood Cemetery, a nonsectarian burial ...
Here's what the charges mean". Global News. Archived from the original on September 6, 2023. Retrieved September 17, 2023. ... hospital with COVID-19, supporters say". Global News. Archived from the original on October 27, 2021. Retrieved September 17, ... "Hospital visitor restrictions, casinos closing part of coronavirus prevention". Global News. Retrieved March 16, 2020. "" ... In order to handle potential surges tied to Phase 2, the emergency departments of 12 rural community hospitals were temporarily ...
... , believed to be connected to more. ... Twenty years after a series of deaths at a rural Missouri hospital, a former worker has been charged with murder. ... It is unclear if Hall will face additional murder charges for the other deaths that happened during the five months she worked ... the Chillicothe hospital experienced 18 "code blue" incidents, which usually indicates cardiac arrest. ...
Nonurgent patients who insist on receiving care in the hospitals ED will be required to pay their insurance copay or a $200 ... Nonurgent patients who insist on receiving care in the hospitals ED will be required to pay their insurance copay or a $200 ... will ask nonurgent patients who present at the hospitals emergency department to visit a walk-in clinic instead. ... will ask nonurgent patients who present at the hospitals emergency department to visit a walk-in clinic instead. ...
Currently, different hospitals charge different rates for treatment, making it difficult to implement the cashless health ... SC asks Centre to fix hospital treatment charges for entire country. * March 7, 2024 ... Published at ... However, the Indian Medical Association (IMA) and the Hospital Board of India have cautioned hospitals against accepting the ...
Man, woman charged after child brought to hospital unresponsive. Published 11:52 am Friday, January 28, 2022 ... Charges were filed against the adoptive father and mother after detectives reviewed medical information, police said. ... SALISBURY - A Salisbury man and woman face child abuse charges after their adopted child was brought to Rowan Medical Center ... Georgianna Karriker, 42, and Reed Karriker, 42, were each charged with one count of felony child abuse. They were booked into ...
Find information about the rates negotiated with insurance companies for all services and items offered by our hospital. ... Hospital charge data. This file is updated once a year, but prices and contracted rates are updated during the year and these ... Learn more about Brigham and Womens Hospital. For over a century, a leader in patient care, medical education and research, ... about the rates negotiated with insurance companies for all services and items offered by our hospital. This file is listed ...
... full power to the district collectors for administrative approval of all expenditure under the newly launched Ama Hospital ... Collectors given full charge of Ama Hospital projects. The state government on Monday delegated full power to the district ... full power to the district collectors for administrative approval of all expenditure under the newly launched Ama Hospital ... full power to the district collectors for administrative approval of all expenditure under the newly launched Ama Hospital ...
Hospitals charge these fees as well. But as the health system consolidates and hospitals buy up physician practices and clinics ... Hospitals charge fees for care at the doctors office. More patients are seeing extra "facility fee" charges on their medical ... You have never gotten this charge before, so you are confident that it is a mistake. But the provider says you owe it because ... 3. Inform patients about facility fees and whether their insurance will cover that charge in advance.. Disclosure of facility ...
... Charges will be introduced for both staff and public car parking at the new £15 ... Both the hospitals are run by the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. The charges will come into ... It is hoped the public charges at Cromer will help deter people who are not attending the hospital from using the hospital s ... The charging system will be exactly the same as it is for both staff and public at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital. ...
Administrators at the Brooklyn Hospital Center must cut checks to sexual-assault victims who they illegally charged for rape ... A different kind of healing: Hospital honchos to reimburse patients illegally charged for rape kits. By Julianne Cuba Posted on ... Hospital officials claimed the charges were merely a clerical error, but agreed to overhaul their protocols to ensure similar ... If you would like to issue a complaint regarding the hospitals billing or other healthcare issues, contact the Attorney ...
General Hospitals Haley Pullos has been charged with a DUI after allegedly being involved in a wrong-way crash on the freeway. ... General Hospital Star Haley Pullos Charged with DUI After Freeway Car Crash. ... Fire personnel extricated one person from a vehicle and provided patient care and hospital transport for the occupants of both ... Soldiers in hospital and Household Cavalry horses receive vet care after bolting through central London. ...
... announced changes to its car parking policy at Ashford and St Peters Hospitals and an increase in its minimum parking charge ... The news comes more than two years after the hospitals made a U-turn on plans to charge blue badge holders to park at the ... Blue badge parking charges to be introduced at Ashford and St Peters Hospitals as trust needs to raise additional income ... Blue badge holders will be charged to park at Ashford and St Peter's Hospitals , as the trust faces a challenging ...
Seven law enforcement officers and three hospital employees have been charged with second-degree murder over the death of a ... Black man at a state psychiatric hospital last week. ... So he was taken to jail and charged with vandalism, assault and ... 7 deputies in Virginia face murder charges in Black mans death at mental hospital ... They, along with three state hospital workers, have all been charged with second-degree murder. ...
Blyth Community Hospital, NE24 1DX is part of the Mer network. Download the Zapmap app or view our interactive web map to see ... This electric car charge point located at Northumbria NHS Foundation Trust - ... Northumbria NHS Foundation Trust - Blyth Community Hospital charging point. This electric car charging point located at ... EV charging made simple. Search for charge points, plan a journey and pay for charging. Wherever you go. ...
Charges as of 1 July 2023 Inpatient Charges. Average Daily Bill Size - Sub-Acute / Dementia / Palliative Wards TYPE OF WARD/ ... Estimate Your Hospital Bill. Estimate your hospital bill according to your condition, ward class, and procedures that you will ... Ng Teng Fong General Hospital, Jurong Community Hospital or Jurong Medical Centre. Elderly patients in particular can enjoy ... Ng Teng Fong General Hospital, Jurong Community Hospital or Jurong Medical Centre. Elderly patients, in particular can enjoy ...
Charges and Payment Super User Charges and Payment. The hospitalization cost include room rate, meals, medical supplies and ... Accrued hospital charges are to be paid every three days and full settlement of any outstanding bills before patient discharge ... Patient responsible for damages to any hospital properties shall be charged to the item(s) original pricings. ... before admitting to the hospital. University Hospital does not take any responsibility in patients medical insurance claims. ...
Posted in Mobile Charging Station , Tagged Charging station in hospital, Disadvantages of charging stations, Mobile phone ... Tag Archives: Charging station in hospital. Why Mobile Charging Stations Are Essential in Waiting Rooms?. Posted on July 13, ...
Patient shares bed with corpse at Ludhiana Civil Hospital 5 hours ago ... Day before re-polling for senior deputy mayor and deputy mayor, AAPs Kuldeep Kumar shows inability to take charge as ... Day before re-polling for senior deputy mayor and deputy mayor, AAPs Kuldeep Kumar shows inability to take charge as ... Elections may be postponed now as the presiding officer has not taken the charge. ...
She wasnt told in advance about the charge, which strained her tight budget. ... Brianna Snitchler faced a facility fee for use of the hospitals radiology room. ... A Biopsy Came With An Unexpected $2,170 Cover Charge For The Hospital Kaiser Health News , By Cara Anthony ... Both descriptions boil down to a facility fee, a common charge that has become controversial as hospitals search for additional ...
Staying current is easy with Crains news delivered straight to your inbox, free of charge. ... New hospital campus part of MercyRockfords ambitious plans The health system is planning a $400 million makeover that includes ... a 263-acre hospital campus about 80 miles northwest of the Loop. In an unusual twist, MercyRockford plans to reduce its total ...
The District Hospital Leadership Forum (DHLF), on behalf of Californias 37 district and municipal public hospitals (DMPH), ... Two-thirds of these hospitals are located in rural California and many are Critical Access Hospitals. For several of these ... Public hospitals like ours would also experience higher rates of uncompensated care which would impact our ability to provide ... The proposal specifically states that "an alien is at high risk of becoming a public charge if he or she has a medical ...
... director of nursing at Franciscan Childrens hospital in Brighton, Massachusetts, US, was headed toward the elevator at work ... "Leaving the parking lot of the hospital with Gisele and a car full of baby stuff, I was in shock that it was happening," said ... After putting in a request to foster Gisele, Smith went to the babys hospital room every day after work to sit next to her ... The infant, a ward of the state, had been at the hospital for five months, but Smith had never seen her before. ...
Experts explain four steps that empower patients to manage their health needs from a hospital bed. ... "Recuperation that used to take place in a hospital must now take place at home, and patients need to be aware of that, and to ... "If you dont understand why a test was ordered, or why a having a baby - once came with a minimal 10- day hospital stay, ... Putting on that hospital gown and wristband and other seemingly easy tasks can become daunting. Getting a second opinion, ...
Chen was rushed to National Taiwan University Hospital, and after 2 hours, the doctors confirmed a slight right arm muscle ... "Chens graft charges stun democratic Taiwan". The Associated Press. 2008-12-13. "Taiwan ex-president Chen charged with ... Lee denied the charges on December 21, and said he welcomed investigation. On December 26, his office declined to comment on ... He said he would enter "Taiwans Bastille (Tucheng Jail)," but "it will only lock up my body, not my heart." The charges carry ...
So the question ... did hospital management come down on the nurse hard? A hospital spokesperson claims hospital management was ... Police in London say prosecutors are trying to decide whether or not to press charges against the Australian radio DJs that ... Kate Middleton Hospital Prank Nurse Who Killed Herself History of Suicide * Breaking News ... The third in line to the throne briefly left the hospital Saturday where his wife, Kate Middleton, gave birth to the 8 lb. 3 oz ...
Hospital Charges. We analyzed hospital charges that were billed to private insurance, Medicaid, Medicare, and other sources ... Generally, total charges did not include professional fees, noncovered charges, or charges incurred in the emergency department ... and the associated hospital charges were nearly 3 times higher. In addition, hospitalizations and charges for cysticercosis ... Charges represent the amount that hospitals billed for services, not the actual cost of providing these services. ...
Lady Reading Hospital Jobs 2014 for Charge Nurse. Lady Reading Hospital is seeking for highly qualified, ... Jobs are vacant in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. ... Lady Reading Hospital Jobs 2014 for Charge Nurse. Posted By. ... Jobs are vacant in Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Lady Reading Hospital Jobs 2014 for Charge Nurse. Lady Reading Hospital is ... It is golden chance for all those who have higher education and they wanted to work in such type of hospital, so feel free to ...
Discover Charge Nurse vacancies on offer, across the UK, helping you ❤ Mondays. ... Find Charge Nurse jobs with ... Ward Sister / Charge Nurse -National Private Hospital Group. ... Charge Nurse jobs. on Creating. job alerts. will help you keep up-to-date with the latest. Charge Nurse jobs. ... Charge Nurse jobs. are there on right now?. There are 94 Charge Nurse jobs on right now. ...
Staff at Regions Hospital have indicated she is now blind in both eyes. ... Paul man was charged Monday with murder in the weekend fatal stabbing of an Albert Lea man at an apartment in St. Paul. ... Charges filed by the Ramsey County Attorneys Office allege Pah Ber, 48, stabbed the man - identified as Po Lye, 40 - after ... Paul man charged with murder of Albert Lea man. Published 2:15 pm Monday, November 21, 2011 ...
She died at a hospital.. Officers found evidence of a struggle and a forced entry to the home, police said. ... LA man charged with killing ex, prominent family therapist. By The Associated Press , Posted - Feb. 19, 2020 at 7:50 p.m. ... Pursehouse faces charges including murder and first-degree residential burglary with the special circumstance allegation of ...
  • Accrued hospital charges are to be paid every three days and full settlement of any outstanding bills before patient discharge. (
  • The dataset contains information on the volume of discharges, All Payer Refined Diagnosis Related Group (APR-DRG), the severity of illness level (SOI), medical or surgical classification the median charge, median cost, average charge and average cost per discharge. (
  • We analyzed hospital discharge data contained in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) for 2003-2012 ( 10 , 11 ). (
  • NIS data are de-identified and include information on demographics, diagnostic and procedural codes, length of stay, discharge status, total charges, and expected payees associated with each hospitalization. (
  • The National Hospital Discharge Survey provides a continuous sample of hospital discharge records, collecting medical and demographic information for calcu- lating statistics on hospital utilization. (
  • Finally, with advice and support from the American Hospital Association, the American Medical Association, individual experts, other professional groups, and elements of the U.S. Public Health Service, the NCHS initiated the National Hospital Discharge Survey in 1964. (
  • The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) covers discharges from noninstitutional hospitals, exclusive of Federal, military, and Veterans Administrative hospitals, located in the 50 States and the District of Columbia. (
  • After a grueling trial in 2017, Oesterling was acquitted on all seven charges. (
  • Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in hospitals costs (micro-costing methods) or hospital charges impose significant economic consequences that were adjusted using a cost-to-charge ratio on the nation's healthcare system. (
  • BACKGROUND To provide more complete and precise information on the utilization of the Nation's hospitals and on the nature and treatment of illness among the hospitalized population, NCHS in 1962 began exploring possibilities for surveying morbidity in hospitals. (
  • There are over registered 40,000 hospitals in the country, which can now offer cashless facilities to all the health insurance policyholders, numbering over 30 crore, in the new system. (
  • The redesigned NHDS sample included with certainty all hospitals with 1,00 or more beds or 40,000 or more discharges annually. (
  • In addition, hospitalizations and associated charges related to cysticercosis far exceeded those for malaria and were greater than for those for all other neglected tropical diseases combined. (
  • The number of hospitalizations and associated charges for neurocysticercosis far exceeds those for malaria and are greater than for all of the other neglected tropical diseases combined. (
  • Beginning Nov. 1, Memorial Hospital at Gulfport (Miss.) will ask nonurgent patients who present at the hospital's emergency department to visit a walk-in clinic instead. (
  • Memorial Hospital at Gulfport's ED sees approximately 6,000 patients each month, and about a quarter of those patients do not have an emergency medical condition, the hospital said in a press release . (
  • In a development that could lead to faster adoption of 'cashless' health insurance across the country, the Supreme Court (SC) has directed the central government to expeditiously fix the hospital treatment charges to be paid by patients within the next six weeks. (
  • The bench was hearing a PIL filed by an NGO - Veterans Forum for Transparency in Public Life, through its general secretary Wing Commander (Retd) Bishwanath Prasad Singh - praying for the SC's direction to determine the rate of fee chargeable by hospitals across the country from the patients in terms of Rule 9 of the Clinical Establishment (Central Government) Rules, 2012. (
  • But as the health system consolidates and hospitals buy up physician practices and clinics, more patients than ever are facing facility fees on bills for regular doctor visits. (
  • 3. Inform patients about facility fees and whether their insurance will cover that charge in advance. (
  • In addition, any facility fee should be clearly identified in a standardized line-item format on a bill so patients can know the reason for the charge and the amount they were actually billed. (
  • The charges for the public will be the same as at NNUH - £2 for three hours parking and £2 for patients even if their appointment exceeds three hours. (
  • Discussions have taken place with patients and the hospital disability group and hospital chiefs said people did not agree with the decision. (
  • University Hospital does not take any responsibility in patients' medical insurance claims. (
  • Both descriptions boil down to a facility fee , a common charge that has become controversial as hospitals search for additional streams of income, and as more patients complain they've been blindsided by these fees. (
  • Hospital officials argue that medical centers need the boosted income to provide the expensive care sick patients require, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. (
  • If you don't understand why a test was ordered, or why a having a baby - once came with a minimal 10- day hospital stay, Reinhard tells WebMD that today, patients having even the most difficult and complex surgeries are often discharged within three or four days. (
  • Recuperation that used to take place in a hospital must now take place at home, and patients need to be aware of that, and to be aware that they will likely be going home long before they themselves feel they are ready," she says. (
  • Only short-stay hospitals (hospitals with an average length of stay for all patients of less than 30 days) or those whose specialty is general (medical or surgical) or children's general are included in the survey. (
  • METHODS Sampling Frame and Size of Sample Beginning with 1988, the NHDS sampling frame consisted of hospitals that were listed in APRIL 1987 SMG Hospital Market Tape (2), met the above criteria, and began accepting patients by August 1987. (
  • ABSTRACT A study was made of 120 patients aged 11-33 years who underwent various types of orthognathic surgery in a Cairo hospital between 1998 and 2004. (
  • En postopératoire, 85% des patients se déclaraient satisfaits durésultatdel'interventionetquantàsoneffetsurleurqualitédevie.L'améliorationpostopératoirede l'esthétiquefacialedespatientsestapparueassociéeàuneaméliorationdelaqualitédeviepourtous lesaspectsconsidérés. (
  • Opens in new window. (
  • CPI) adjustments to account for the rate of inflation in hospital resource prices, the overall annual direct medical costs of HAI to U.S. hospitals ranges from $28.4 to $33.8 billion (after adjusting to 2007 dollars using the CPI for all urban consumers) and $35.7 billion to $45 billion (after adjusting to 2007 dollars using the CPI for inpatient hospital services). (
  • After adjusting for the range of effectiveness of possible infection control interventions, the benefits of prevention range from a low of $5.7 to $6.8 billion (20 percent of infections preventable, CPI for all urban consumers) to a high of $25.0 to $31.5 bil ion (70 percent of infections preventable, CPI for inpatient hospital services). (
  • Inpatient Sample for 2003 through 2012 and found an estimated 18,584 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis and associated hospital charges totaling more than $908 million U.S. dollars. (
  • Search for charge points, plan a journey and pay for charging. (
  • For the health sector, preparedness typically means assuring resiliency of: health facilities to extreme conditions, availability of priority hospital services (focusing on trauma, women's health, child care and chronic conditions), management and triage of mass casualties, evacuation of the injured and quarantine procedures, capacity for search and rescue operations, and the ability to establish disease surveillance and control measures rapidly. (
  • For Community Hospitals, withdrawal on Medisave is limited to $250 per day up to a maximum of $5,000 a year. (
  • The NIS, a stratified weighted sample of short-term and nonfederal hospitals, is designed to approximate a 20% sample of all community hospitals in the United States. (
  • 4. Casualties will be transported to hospitals by ambulance. (
  • The objective of our study was to evaluate the frequency and total associated charges for hospitalizations due to neurocysticercosis in the United States and to compare these against other tropical diseases of potential importance in the United States. (
  • In this study, we found that there are about 1800 hospitalizations for neurocysticercosis in the Unites States each year, resulting in about $90 million dollars in hospital charges. (
  • The balance included a biopsy, ultrasound, physician charges and lab tests. (
  • All costs were normalized to calendar year 1996, using the appropriate physician and hospital components of the Consumer Price Index. (
  • The hospital said "qualified ER providers" will decide who is a nonurgent patient. (
  • However the same validation policy would be in place which allows any patient whose appointment lasts longer than 3 hours to have their ticket validated for the minimum charge of £2. (
  • The attorney general started sniffing around at the DeKalb Avenue hospital after a patient complained that she received seven bills for a forensic-rape exam she underwent in its emergency room. (
  • Fire personnel extricated one person from a vehicle and provided patient care and hospital transport for the occupants of both vehicles. (
  • Suzanne Rankin, chief executive of the trust, speaking about the blue badge holder charges, said: 'Introducing these charges is not a decision that has been taken lightly and is one of a number of measures we are taking to maintain and protect patient care by raising some additional income. (
  • Unfortunately, the financial climate we now find ourselves in has become significantly more challenging and increasing our parking charges is just one of a number of measures we are introducing across our hospitals to support our savings plans and ensure that our central funding is focused on the delivery of patient care. (
  • Charging will now be based on affordability rather than on eligibility for a blue badge and we want to make sure it's as easy as possible for any patient or visitor entitled to free parking to have their costs reimbursed in a smooth and timely way. (
  • Patient responsible for damages to any hospital properties shall be charged to the item(s) original pricings. (
  • It starts with the patient advocate, and most major hospitals have them. (
  • When it comes to preparing for a hospital stay, experts say perhaps nothing is more important than realizing you do have rights as a patient. (
  • If your hospitalization takes you by complete surprise, then use as many hospital resources as you can, including social workers and patient advocates, to prepare for your homecoming," says Reinhard. (
  • At birth in infants with CHARGE syndrome, provide a secure airway, stabilize the patient, exclude major life-threatening congenital anomalies, and transfer the individual to a specialist center with a pediatric otolaryngologist and other subspecialty services. (
  • We examined the association between ambient PM2.5 and all-cause hospital admissions, the corresponding total charges , and the total charges per patient by analyzing the hospital admission data of 2 years from 628 hospitals in 12 cities in Japan . (
  • We used generalized additive models with quasi-Poisson regression for hospital admissions and generalized additive models with log- linear regression for total charges and total charges per patient . (
  • A 10 µg/m3 increase in the 2 day moving average was associated with a 0.56% (95% CI 0.14-0.99%) increase in all-cause hospital admissions and a 1.17% (95% CI 0.44-1.90%) increase in total charges , and a 10 µg/m3 increase in the prior 2 days was associated with a 0.75% (95% CI 0.34-1.16%) increase in total charges per patient . (
  • Short-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 was associated with increased all-cause hospital admissions, total charges , and total charges per patient . (
  • Suddenly, the door burst open, and a federal agent charged into the exam room unannounced, frightening Oesterling and the patient. (
  • These hospitals must also have six or more beds staffed for patient use. (
  • Cost published evidence indicates that the underlying estimates for each of the various infection sites epidemiology of HAIs in hospitals has changed are inferred from published studies and combined substantially since the SENIC study, along with with annual HAI incidence estimates from the the costs of treating HAI. (
  • It is unclear if Hall will face additional murder charges for the other deaths that happened during the five months she worked at Hedrick. (
  • The study population included individuals who sought care for farm -related injuries at Marshfield Clinic and/ or St. Joseph's Hospital in Marshfield, WI between November 1992 and December 1998. (
  • Two years ago, Liz Smith, director of nursing at Franciscan Children's hospital in Brighton, Massachusetts, US, was headed toward the elevator at work when she saw her: a tiny girl with bright blue eyes and a single soft brown curl swept across her forehead. (
  • Dr Moshe Cohn is assistant professor of pediatric critical care and pediatric palliative care at the Hassenfeld Children's Hospital at NYU Langone Medical Center. (
  • Lady Reading Hospital is seeking for highly qualified, very experienced, promising, dynamic, self driven, innovative, and committed candidates for the vacant position such as (Charge Nurse, Public Relation Officer and Perfusionist). (
  • Motivating, supporting and managing your team of nurses, you know what it takes to be a Charge Nurse. (
  • We are currently recruiting for a Charge Nurse. (
  • We are looking for a Charge Nurse with a passion for enhancing the quality of life to join us in our Nursing home. (
  • Sanctuary Personnel, a dedicated and award-winning recruitment agency with a TrustPilot score of 4.9/5 and nearly 1000 reviews is currently looking for an experienced and dedicated Charge Nurse to work in Willenhall on a full-time basis. (
  • Hospitals charge these fees as well. (
  • Additional fees will be charged for emergency operations and/or examinations and for those done outside of working hours. (
  • Additional fees will be charged for any companions staying after 9:00 p.m., regardless of any extra bed occupancy. (
  • But the way hospitals calculate facility fees is "a black box," said Ted Doolittle , with the Office of the Healthcare Advocate for Connecticut, a state that has put a spotlight on the issue. (
  • Hospitals in Connecticut billed more than $1 billion in facility fees in 2015 and 2016, according to state records . (
  • Ministry of Health and each provider association (for physicians, members, with a maximum 50 hospitals, pharmacists, etc) negotiate fees. (
  • The state government on Monday delegated full power to the district collectors for administrative approval of all expenditure under the newly launched Ama Hospital scheme. (
  • Study data were developed from a variety of sources, including abstractions from medical records, electronic Clinic and Hospital administrative and financial data systems, and personal interviews (psychosocial component). (
  • Even a one-time study to collect data on facility fee charges and payments would help provide context for public policy solutions. (
  • The best way to find out more information about the Blyth Community Hospital, Thoroton Street charge point including seeing live status data, is to download the app or view on the web map . (
  • The dataset contains information submitted by New York State Article 28 Hospitals as part of the New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative (SPARCS) and Institutional Cost Report (ICR) data submissions. (
  • The cost data is derived from applying the Ratio of Cost to Charges (RCC) submitted by hospitals on their Institutional Cost Report (ICR) filing to the State Department of Health. (
  • Hospital data associated with DRG 564 abortion without D&C, aspiration curettage or hysterotomy and all severity levels has been removed from data file for release. (
  • This document and its attachments allow one to use the 1988 data tape which contains the data collected by the National Hospital Dis- charge Survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. (
  • The survey consists of data abstracted from the face sheets of the medical records for sampled inpatients discharged from a national sample of non-Federal short-stay hospitals. (
  • These data were linked electronically to provider charge data files, and were subsequently aggregated to visit and then injury episode levels. (
  • Administrators at the Brooklyn Hospital Center in Fort Greene must cut checks to sexual-assault victims who were illegally billed for rape kits over the past several years, New York State's Attorney General said on Nov. 28 while announcing a settlement he reached with hospital officials. (
  • Hospital officials claimed the charges were merely a clerical error, but agreed to overhaul their protocols to ensure similar mistakes never happen again as part of the settlement, according to the facility's head honcho. (
  • As required by the federal government (Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services), we publish information (a comprehensive machine-readable file) about the rates negotiated with insurance companies for all services and items offered by our hospital. (
  • When Brianna Snitchler scheduled the biopsy for a cyst on her abdomen, no one told her that the Henry Ford Health System would charge a $2,170 facility fee, listed on her bill as "operating room services. (
  • It's somewhat akin to a cover charge" at a club, said Doolittle, who previously served as deputy director of the federal Center for Program Integrity at the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. (
  • With support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other partners, they promptly set up an Ebola treatment centre at the Mubende Regional Referral Hospital, where the first case had been detected, and deployed health workers and emergency services to the site. (
  • Currently, different hospitals charge different rates for treatment, making it difficult to implement the cashless health insurance system in the country. (
  • The general insurance industry, where the health portfolio almost contributes around Rs 1 lakh crore of premium, is now keenly watching the development and expect a positive outcome on the hospital charges. (
  • The NGO had submitted that the Central Government itself has notified the rates which are applicable to the CGHS (Central Government Health Scheme) empanelled hospitals and had suggested that till a solution is found, the Central Government can always notify the said rates as an interim measure. (
  • Health and Family Welfare Minister Niranjan Pujari said apart from the collectors, the District Level Committee (DLC) of each district has been authorised to select the implementing agencies following prescribed transparent procedure for timely completion of the projects under the Ama Hospital scheme, a 5T initiative of the Health department. (
  • After a first round of screening tests, Snitchler had an ultrasound-guided needle biopsy at the Henry Ford Health System's main hospital. (
  • When Snitchler scheduled the biopsy, no one told her that Henry Ford Health System would also charge her a $2,170 facility fee. (
  • The health system is planning a $400 million makeover that includes a 263-acre hospital campus about 80 miles northwest of the Loop. (
  • Your new company The Clementine Churchill Hospital in Harrow is part of Circle Health Group, Britain's leading provider of independent healthcare with a nationwide network of hospitals & clinics, performing more complex surgery than any other private. (
  • If you are looking for a trusted source of health education, look no further than your local hospital. (
  • From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to stay healthy. (
  • Many hospitals have a free online health library. (
  • You can find it on the hospital website, usually under "Health Information. (
  • Many hospitals offer health fairs. (
  • Member States will be able to review the impact of natural disasters and consider the benefits of ensuring the safety and resilience of health systems, starting with hospitals and other health facilities, particularly in earthquake- and hurricane- prone regions. (
  • Both the hospitals are run by the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. (
  • The board at Ashford and St Peter's Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust announced on Friday (March 10) that it had agreed to introduce parking charges for blue badge holders at the two hospitals as part of a review of a travel and car parking policy. (
  • This electric car charging point located at Northumbria NHS Foundation Trust - Blyth Community Hospital , NE24 1DX is part of the Mer network. (
  • Room charges (meals excluded) are calculated based on daily rates. (
  • The hospital later sent an itemized bill that referred to the charge for a treatment room in the radiology department. (
  • After putting in a request to foster Gisele, Smith went to the baby's hospital room every day after work to sit next to her crib and talk in a soft voice. (
  • The primary source of case identification was the Emergency Room Surveillance System operating at Marshfield Clinic/St. Joseph's Hospital. (
  • In [1] With an incidence of approximately 4.5 HAIs the third section, the annual national cost estimates for every 100 hospital admissions, the annual direct for five different infection sites will be developed, costs on the healthcare system were estimated to including surgical site infections (SSIs), central be $4.5 billion in 1992 dollars. (
  • with All-Cause Hospital Admissions and Total Charges in 12 Japanese Cities. (
  • Short-Term Associations of Ambient Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) with All-Cause Hospital Admissions and Total Charges in 12 Japanese Cities. (
  • The short-term association between ambient particulate matter ≤2.5 microns in diameter (PM2.5) and hospital admissions is not fully understood. (
  • A total of 2,017,750 hospital admissions were identified. (
  • The state's top prosecutor cut the deal with the medical center's honchos after an investigation uncovered that Brooklyn Hospital broke the law when it charged sexual-assault survivors for their tests - a horrible and illegal mistake that only added to the victims' burdens, he said. (
  • However, the Special Investigation Division dropped money-laundering charges because of a lack of evidence. (
  • The hospital historically averaged one such sudden cardiac event each year. (
  • Charges will be introduced for both staff and public car parking at the new £15 million Cromer and District Hospital from the middle of next year. (
  • 1,000 hospitals each year ( 10 ). (
  • Last year, a Michigan couple were charged with involuntary manslaughter. (
  • Facility fee amounts vary tremendously, from minimal charges to thousands of dollars. (
  • Therefore, (actual expenditures, charges, cost-to-charge ratios) only ranges of costs will be provided to reflect the used in studies of HAIs, it should be acknowledged uncertainty that results from using published cost that the cost estimates from the separate infection estimates from studies with more limited scope. (
  • Studies of this association with hospital admission costs are also scarce, especially in entire hospitalized populations . (
  • Charges were adjusted to approximate costs using institution-specific cost to charge ratios. (
  • The nonfatal animal-related injuries have received less notice, although they result in thousands of dollars in hospital costs and lost workdays. (
  • At the start of the outbreak, WHO quickly provided the regional referral hospital with three Ebola treatment kits. (
  • The local community rescue and medical unit took charge of treatment for the injured individual at the site of the incident and then transported the victim to a local hospital. (
  • The hospital took them to court, believing that this experimental treatment wasn't really in Charlie's best interest, and that he should be removed from life support and be allowed to die. (
  • Blake et al suggested that a typical clinical diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome requires the presence of at least four major features or three major features plus at least three minor features. (
  • The industry, which recently launched its scheme 'Cashless Everywhere', where a policyholder can receive treatments from any hospital in the country and not just from its own insurer's empanelled hospitals, is facing issues as hospitals across the country are not adopting standardised rates for providing similar treatments. (
  • Their proposal would loosen diagnostic criteria to include two major features with any number of supportive criteria, allowing for a diagnosis of CHARGE syndrome in cases of atypical or more mild phenotypes. (
  • The NGO has provided an example that the cost of cataract surgery in a private hospital can range from Rs 30,000 to Rs 140,000 per eye, whereas the rates in a government in a government hospital are up to Rs 10,000 per eye. (
  • Tapan Singhel, Chairman, General Insurance (GI) Council said, "we have always maintained that we need to charge an appropriate cost for customers, whether it's at the time of taking out a policy or bearing certain expenses at the time of a claim. (
  • This line chart compares the median cost vs. median charge for cesarean deliveries with a minor severity of illness by hospital. (
  • The most to represent the actual opportunity cost of the comprehensive national estimate of the annual hospital resources used. (
  • Of events reporting a hospital charge (23 of 43), the average cost was over dollar 9700 per person. (
  • Elections may be postponed now as the presiding officer has not taken the charge. (
  • However, the Indian Medical Association (IMA) and the Hospital Board of India have cautioned hospitals against accepting the Cashless Everywhere' initiative, recently unveiled by the by the General Insurance Council in its current format, highlighting the potential risks involved. (
  • The news comes more than two years after the hospitals made a U-turn on plans to charge blue badge holders to park at the hospitals but then withdrew the plans at the last minute. (
  • EV charging made simple. (
  • For subsidised wards, the average hospital bill size takes into account government subsidies. (
  • If this is the case, what does this do to the burden of medical and hospital care? (
  • Twenty years after a series of deaths at a rural Missouri hospital, a former worker has been charged with murder. (
  • While the board considered the introduction of charging two and a half years ago, and chose not to do so at that time, I want to be completely honest about the reasons we felt we had to put this back onto the table. (
  • Blue badge holders will be charged to park at Ashford and St Peter's Hospitals , as the trust faces a challenging financial climate and needs to raise additional income. (
  • The charges apply only to those people who do not meet the affordability criteria, which would enable free parking. (
  • It is golden chance for all those who have higher education and they wanted to work in such type of hospital, so feel free to apply for the vacant position. (
  • This charging point is part of the Mer charging network. (
  • 5. Casualties will be transported to hospitals appropriate for their needs and in such a manner that no hospitals receive a disproportionate number. (
  • The infant, a ward of the state, had been at the hospital for five months, but Smith had never seen her before. (
  • Express Pay offers you the convenience to pay your bills without queuing at your last service point at any of the following institutions - Ng Teng Fong General Hospital, Jurong Community Hospital or Jurong Medical Centre. (
  • The charging system will be exactly the same as it is for both staff and public at the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital. (
  • If that person is not able to help you when the time comes - or if you simply don't have anyone to rely on - Burke tells WebMD that nearly all hospitals have a hierarchy of staff members who can advocate on your behalf. (
  • Trained at The Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore and later on staff at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, Oesterling became renowned in the early 1990s for helping discover the link between the prostate specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. (
  • Hung Hsiu-chu, a member of the ruling KMT, charged that Chen's family opened four bank accounts in Switzerland, with total deposits of US$32 million, which Chen remitted through his daughter-in-law, Huang Jui-ching. (
  • Authorities in Richmond, Va., have accused police and hospital workers of murder. (
  • 6. Authorities at the scene will ensure that area hospitals are promptly notified of the disaster and the numbers, types, and severities of casualties to be transported to them. (
  • To plan your route or see the latest status info for this charge point, download the download the Zapmap app or go to the Zapmap web map . (
  • And after three days, deputies transferred him over to the state hospital, where he died soon after arriving. (
  • About 10 days after the outbreak was declared, Adam still spends long days working at the back of the hospital compound, where the rapid response team continues to bolster the outbreak response. (
  • Says Burke, "The more you know about what to expect before you are in the hospital, the easier and more comfortable your hospital stay, and your recuperation, will be. (
  • The original sample was selected in 1964 from a frame of short-stay hospitals listed in the National Master Facility Inventory. (
  • A review will be completed before the new charging structure is put in place. (
  • American Hospital Association website. (
  • Hospitalization material from the Survey Research Center of the University of Michigan, the American Hospital Association, and the Professional Activities Study was examined and evaluated. (
  • Of the 542 hospitals, 11 were found to be out of scope (ineligible because they went out of business or otherwise failed to meet the criteria for the NHDS universe. (
  • They, along with three state hospital workers, have all been charged with second-degree murder. (
  • According to a police investigator, in the five months that Jennifer Anne Hall was a respiratory therapist at Hedrick Medical Center, the Chillicothe hospital experienced 18 "code blue" incidents, which usually indicates cardiac arrest. (
  • SALISBURY - A Salisbury man and woman face child abuse charges after their adopted child was brought to Rowan Medical Center unresponsive. (