Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Equidae: A family of hoofed MAMMALS consisting of HORSES, donkeys, and zebras. Members of this family are strict herbivores and can be classified as either browsers or grazers depending on how they feed.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.African horse sickness virus: A species of ORBIVIRUS that causes disease in horses, mules, and donkeys. Via its principal vector CULICOIDES, it can also infect dogs, elephants, camels, cattle, sheep, goats, and, in special circumstances, humans.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lameness, Animal: A departure from the normal gait in animals.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Genetic Counseling: An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Genetic Services: Organized services to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of genetic disorders.Genome-Wide Association Study: An analysis comparing the allele frequencies of all available (or a whole GENOME representative set of) polymorphic markers in unrelated patients with a specific symptom or disease condition, and those of healthy controls to identify markers associated with a specific disease or condition.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Equine Infectious Anemia: Viral disease of horses caused by the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV; INFECTIOUS ANEMIA VIRUS, EQUINE). It is characterized by intermittent fever, weakness, and anemia. Chronic infection consists of acute episodes with remissions.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Infectious Anemia Virus, Equine: A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus equine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, EQUINE), causing acute and chronic infection in horses. It is transmitted mechanically by biting flies, mosquitoes, and midges, and iatrogenically through unsterilized equipment. Chronic infection often consists of acute episodes with remissions.Genetic Diseases, Inborn: Diseases that are caused by genetic mutations present during embryo or fetal development, although they may be observed later in life. The mutations may be inherited from a parent's genome or they may be acquired in utero.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Genetic Techniques: Chromosomal, biochemical, intracellular, and other methods used in the study of genetics.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Strongyloidea: A superfamily of strongyles or roundworms which are parasites in the intestinal tract of equines, pigs, rodents, and primates (including man). It includes the genera Cyasthostomum, Ransomus, Globocephalus, OESOPHAGOSTOMUM, and STRONGYLUS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Streptococcus equi: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from abscesses in submaxillary glands and mucopurulent discharges of the upper respiratory tract of horses. This organism belongs to Group C streptococci with regards to antigen response and is known to cause strangles. The subspecies S. zooepidemicus is also considered a pathogen of horses.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Forensic Genetics: The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Aesculus: A plant genus of the family HIPPOCASTANACEAE (or SAPINDACEAE by some) that contains antimicrobial protein 1 and escin. A. hippocastanum is used in folk medicine for treating chronic venous insufficiency.Ceratopogonidae: A family of biting midges, in the order DIPTERA. It includes the genus Culicoides which transmits filarial parasites pathogenic to man and other primates.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Herpesvirus 1, Equid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing abortion and respiratory disease in horses.Carpus, Animal: The region corresponding to the human WRIST in non-human ANIMALS.Rhodococcus equi: A species of RHODOCOCCUS found in soil, herbivore dung, and in the intestinal tract of cows, horses, sheep, and pigs. It causes bronchopneumonia in foals and can be responsible for infection in humans compromised by immunosuppressive drug therapy, lymphoma, or AIDS.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Human Genome Project: A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Genetic Association Studies: The analysis of a sequence such as a region of a chromosome, a haplotype, a gene, or an allele for its involvement in controlling the phenotype of a specific trait, metabolic pathway, or disease.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Ehrlichia: Small, often pleomorphic, coccoid to ellipsoidal organisms occurring intracytoplasmically in circulating LYMPHOCYTES. They are the etiologic agents of tick-borne diseases of humans; DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; and HORSES.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Influenza A Virus, H3N8 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 8. The H3N8 subtype has frequently been found in horses.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Rickettsiaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family RICKETTSIACEAE.Genetic Determinism: The theory that human CHARACTER and BEHAVIOR are shaped by the GENES that comprise the individual's GENOTYPE rather than by CULTURE; ENVIRONMENT; and individual choice.Linkage Disequilibrium: Nonrandom association of linked genes. This is the tendency of the alleles of two separate but already linked loci to be found together more frequently than would be expected by chance alone.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Cytochrome c Group: A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Gene-Environment Interaction: The combined effects of genotypes and environmental factors together on phenotypic characteristics.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Xylazine: An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.West Nile Fever: A mosquito-borne viral illness caused by the WEST NILE VIRUS, a FLAVIVIRUS and endemic to regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe. Common clinical features include HEADACHE; FEVER; maculopapular rash; gastrointestinal symptoms; and lymphadenopathy. MENINGITIS; ENCEPHALITIS; and MYELITIS may also occur. The disease may occasionally be fatal or leave survivors with residual neurologic deficits. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, p13; Lancet 1998 Sep 5;352(9130):767-71)Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Genetic Phenomena: The processes, properties and biological objects that are involved in maintaining, expressing, and transmitting from one organism to another, genetically encoded traits.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Multifactorial Inheritance: A phenotypic outcome (physical characteristic or disease predisposition) that is determined by more than one gene. Polygenic refers to those determined by many genes, while oligogenic refers to those determined by a few genes.Sarcocystis: A genus of protozoa found in reptiles, birds, and mammals, including humans. This heteroxenous parasite produces muscle cysts in intermediate hosts such as domestic herbivores (cattle, sheep, pigs) and rodents. Final hosts are predators such as dogs, cats, and man.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.West Nile virus: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE). It can infect birds and mammals. In humans, it is seen most frequently in Africa, Asia, and Europe presenting as a silent infection or undifferentiated fever (WEST NILE FEVER). The virus appeared in North America for the first time in 1999. It is transmitted mainly by CULEX spp mosquitoes which feed primarily on birds, but it can also be carried by the Asian Tiger mosquito, AEDES albopictus, which feeds mainly on mammals.Pyrantel: A depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking agent, that causes persistent nicotinic activation resulting in spastic paralysis of susceptible nematodes. It is a drug of second-choice after benzimidazoles for treatment of ascariasis, hookworm, and pinworm infections, being effective after a single dose. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p920)Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sarcocystosis: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Ehrlichiosis: A tick-borne disease characterized by FEVER; HEADACHE; myalgias; ANOREXIA; and occasionally RASH. It is caused by several bacterial species and can produce disease in DOGS; CATTLE; SHEEP; GOATS; HORSES; and humans. The primary species causing human disease are EHRLICHIA CHAFFEENSIS; ANAPLASMA PHAGOCYTOPHILUM; and Ehrlichia ewingii.Genetic Heterogeneity: The presence of apparently similar characters for which the genetic evidence indicates that different genes or different genetic mechanisms are involved in different pedigrees. In clinical settings genetic heterogeneity refers to the presence of a variety of genetic defects which cause the same disease, often due to mutations at different loci on the same gene, a finding common to many human diseases including ALZHEIMER DISEASE; CYSTIC FIBROSIS; LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE DEFICIENCY, FAMILIAL; and POLYCYSTIC KIDNEY DISEASES. (Rieger, et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed; Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.IcelandAstragalus Plant: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE, subfamily Papilionaceae, order Fabales, subclass Rosidae. Many of the species are associated with poisoning of grazing animals. Some of the species are used medicinally.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Strongyle Infections, Equine: Infection of horses with parasitic nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA. Characteristics include the development of hemorrhagic nodules on the abdominal peritoneum.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Babesiosis: A group of tick-borne diseases of mammals including ZOONOSES in humans. They are caused by protozoa of the genus BABESIA, which parasitize erythrocytes, producing hemolysis. In the U.S., the organism's natural host is mice and transmission is by the deer tick IXODES SCAPULARIS.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Rickettsiaceae: A family of small, gram-negative organisms, often parasitic in humans and other animals, causing diseases that may be transmitted by invertebrate vectors.Aversive Therapy: A treatment that suppresses undesirable behavior by simultaneously exposing the subject to unpleasant consequences.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Anaplasmataceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ANAPLASMATACEAE.Saskatchewan: A province of Canada, lying between the provinces of Alberta and Manitoba. Its capital is Regina. It is entirely a plains region with prairie in the south and wooded country with many lakes and swamps in the north. The name was taken from the Saskatchewan River from the Cree name Kisiskatchewani Sipi, meaning rapid-flowing river. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1083 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p486)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Arteritis Virus, Equine: The type species of the genus ARTERIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of an important equine respiratory disease causing abortion, pneumonia, or other infections.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Mongolia: The country is bordered by RUSSIA on the north and CHINA on the west, south, and east. The capita is Ulaanbaatar.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Guaifenesin: An expectorant that also has some muscle relaxing action. It is used in many cough preparations.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Individualized Medicine: Therapeutic approach tailoring therapy for genetically defined subgroups of patients.Metmyoglobin: Myoglobin which is in the oxidized ferric or hemin form. The oxidation causes a change in color from red to brown.Heredity: The transmission of traits encoded in GENES from parent to offspring.Hospitals, AnimalPrince Edward Island: An island in the Gulf of St. Lawrence constituting a province of Canada in the eastern part of the country. It is very irregular in shape with many deep inlets. Its capital is Charlottetown. Discovered by the French in 1534 and originally named Ile Saint-Jean, it was renamed in 1799 in honor of Prince Edward, fourth son of George III and future father of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p981 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p433)Myoglobin: A conjugated protein which is the oxygen-transporting pigment of muscle. It is made up of one globin polypeptide chain and one heme group.Tuna: Common name for various species of large, vigorous ocean fishes in the family Scombridae.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Varicellovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Actinomycetales Infections: Infections with bacteria of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.EuropeArterivirus Infections: Infections caused by viruses of the genus ARTERIVIRUS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Phenylbutazone: A butyl-diphenyl-pyrazolidinedione that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic activities. It has been used in ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; and REACTIVE ARTHRITIS.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Endophenotypes: Measurable biological (physiological, biochemical, and anatomical features), behavioral (psychometric pattern) or cognitive markers that are found more often in individuals with a disease than in the general population. Because many endophenotypes are present before the disease onset and in individuals with heritable risk for disease such as unaffected family members, they can be used to help diagnose and search for causative genes.Metacarpal Bones: The five cylindrical bones of the METACARPUS, articulating with the CARPAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF FINGERS distally.Encephalomyelitis: A general term indicating inflammation of the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD, often used to indicate an infectious process, but also applicable to a variety of autoimmune and toxic-metabolic conditions. There is significant overlap regarding the usage of this term and ENCEPHALITIS in the literature.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Genetic Drift: The fluctuation of the ALLELE FREQUENCY from one generation to the next.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Housing, AnimalBayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Nutrigenomics: The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Diseases in Twins: Disorders affecting TWINS, one or both, at any age.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Herpesvirus 4, Equid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS and the chief cause of rhinopneumonitis in horses.Genotyping Techniques: Methods used to determine individuals' specific ALLELES or SNPS (single nucleotide polymorphisms).Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Theileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Doping in Sports: Illegitimate use of substances for a desired effect in competitive sports. It includes humans and animals.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Twins, Monozygotic: Two off-spring from the same PREGNANCY. They are from a single fertilized OVUM that split into two EMBRYOS. Such twins are usually genetically identical and of the same sex.Hendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
... in the Appaloosa Horse (Equus caballus)". Genetics. Genetics Society of America. 179 (4): 1861-1870. doi:10.1534/genetics. ... Franches Montagnes horses, South German Draft horses, and in one family of the Arabian horse. The American White Horse, which ... "Horse Coat Color Tests". Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. University of California - Davis. Retrieved 2009-07-08. Horses with 2 ... Genetics. 33 (1): 22. No true albino mutation of the color gene is known among horses, though several varieties of white horse ...
Champagne Horse Breeders and Owners Association (2007-05-26). "The Genetics of Champagne Coloring". The Horse. Retrieved 2009- ... Racking horse, Kentucky Mountain Saddle Horse, Spanish Mustang, American Quarter Horse, American Paint Horse, Appaloosa and ... "Champagne Horses". Horse Genetics. Retrieved 2009-06-04. Sponenberg, DT; AT Bowling (1996). "Champagne, a dominant color ... International Champagne Horse Registry "Genetics of Champagne Coloring." The Horse online edition. ...
Horses without any sooty effect are termed "clear-coated." Seal brown (horse) Dan Phillip Sponenberg. "Horse Color Genetics". " ... A horse coat color that has the Sooty trait is characterized by black or darker hairs mixed into a horse's coat, typically ... Many horses with the sooty trait have a darker mask on the bony parts of the face. It was once thought that the sooty trait was ... Just as in horses, the degree of sootiness in mice varies widely; some individuals have darker hairs that form a dorsal line, ...
One other horse, a mare, aborted her foal and died, and most of the other horses lost a great deal more weight than did Naborr ... "Gray". Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. University of California - Davis. Retrieved 2 March 2016. Magid, Arlene (2005). "The ... An asterisk in front of an Arabian horse's name indicates that the horse was foaled outside of the United States and imported ... the gestation period for horses is approximately 11 months. Most Arabian horses do not begin showing under saddle until age ...
... a horse variant of Hirschsprung disease". Human Molecular Genetics. 7 (6): 1047-52. doi:10.1093/hmg/7.6.1047. PMID 9580670. AG ... In horses, a mutation in the middle of the EDNRB gene, Ile118Lys, when homozygous, causes Lethal White Syndrome. In this ... Nature Genetics. 12 (4): 445-7. doi:10.1038/ng0496-445. PMID 8630503. Attié T, Till M, Pelet A, Amiel J, Edery P, Boutrand L, ... Human Molecular Genetics. 5 (3): 351-4. doi:10.1093/hmg/5.3.351. PMID 8852659. Amiel J, Attié T, Jan D, Pelet A, Edery P, ...
2006). "Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in extant Irish horse populations and in ancient horses". Animal Genetics. 37 (5 ... However, horses have been present in Britain for hundreds of thousands of years. Two species of wild horse were identified from ... 1985). "Limited number of patrilines in horse domestication" (PDF). Nature Genetics. 36 (4): 335-6. doi:10.1038/ng1326. PMID ... subfossil horse tracks have been found in the Bristol Channel / Severn Estuary area, and pre-domesticated horse bones have been ...
A roan horse may not fit into any of the traditional categories as there is much still to be learned about the genetics of roan ... Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. "Introduction to Coat Color Genetics". The Regents of the University of California. Retrieved ... Overton, Rebecca (2004-12-15). "In The Genes" (PDF). Quarter Horse News. American Quarter Horse Association. pp. 24-6. Archived ... Horses with the classic or true roan pattern may be any base color which is intermingled with unpigmented white hairs on the ...
... new series of articles on Brindle horses in The Horse. Needs to become part of footnoting in article Dog Coat Colour: Genetics ... The brindling pattern has no effect on dark points on horses. Some brindle-colored horses are more eye-catching than others. ... Genetics of dog brindling with reference to Shetland Sheepdogs Genetics of brindling in the Corgi Cat coat color genetics. ... Genetics. 6 (9): 2963-70. Lusis, J.A. (1942). "Striping Patterns in Domestic Horses". Genetica. 23: 31-62. doi:10.1007/ ...
"Horse Coat Color", Veterinary Genetics Lab, University of California, Davis. Web Site accessed May 29, 2008 Smoky Black ... A smoky black horse usually appears to be a black horse and the dilution gene dilution factor is not visible. However, the coat ... maps to horse chromosome 21". Animal Genetics. 32 (6): 340-343. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2052.2001.00806.x. PMID 11736803. The eyes ... Champagne horses have pinkish, freckled skin and green, hazel or amber eyes, as opposed to the dark skin and brown or amber ...
Genetic diversity of a large set of horse breeds raised in France assessed by microsatellite polymorphism. Genetics Selection ... A genetic study of French horse breeds in 2008 suggested that, to maximise genetic diversity among the French horse population ... Traditionally, two distinct types of pony or small horse lived in a feral or semi-feral state in the Landes de Gascogne (fr) ... Due to influences from Arab and Welsh blood, it shows more similarity to Oriental horses than to other Celtic breeds.:482 It is ...
The Genetics of the Horse. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK: CABI Publishing. pp. 392-393. ISBN 0-85199-429-6. Retrieved September ... Cadieu, Edouard; Ostrander, Elaine A. (2007). "Canine Genetics Offers New Mechanisms for the Study of Human Cancer". Cancer ... link) Larson, G (2012). "Rethinking dog domestication by integrating genetics, archeology, and biogeography". Proc. Natl. Acad ... with the establishment of the English Kennel Club in 1873 in imitation of other stud book registries for cattle and horses. For ...
Not every horse with leopard genetics will exhibit hair coat spotting. However, even solid individuals will exhibit secondary ... Most "white" horses are actually grays with a fully white hair coat. A gray horse is distinguished from a white horse by dark ... Gray: A horse with black skin but white or mixed dark and white hairs. Gray horses can be born any color, and lighten as they ... Cremello: A horse with a chestnut base coat and two cream genes that wash out almost all color until the horse is a pale cream ...
2008 Pinto horse American Paint Horse Equine coat color American Paint Horse Association Tobiano test from Veterinary Genetics ... "Horse coat color tests" from the UC Davis Veterinary Genetics Lab "Introduction to Coat Color Genetics" from Veterinary ... coloration is a mix of tobiano and overo colorations in Pinto horses and American Paint Horses. The genetics of pinto ... University of Minnesota Genetics Group. "Stalking the Lethal White Syndrome". Paint Horse Journal. July 1998. " ...
A horse may carry the genes for both patterns, however. Equine coat color Equine coat color genetics Caudill, Andrea (25 July ... Quarter Horse News. American Quarter Horse Association. pp. 24-6. Retrieved 2008-06-04. B. Kostelnik. "Rabicano". The Horse ... Veterinary Genetics Laboratory. "Introduction to Coat Color Genetics". The Regents of the University of California. Retrieved ... "Rabicano: caballo que tiene cerdas blancas á la raíz de la cola." [Rabicano: a horse that has white hairs at the root of the ...
Many horses were inbred in the early years of Thoroughbred development, which increased the chances of early horses appearing ... 2002). "History and Integrity of Thoroughbred Dam Lines Revealed in Equine mtDNA Variation" (PDF). Animal Genetics. 33 (4): 287 ... By comparing the values for horses in a given race, a bettor can identify which horses have a more speed oriented pedigree, and ... Racing also tests the horse's strength, soundness and will to win. Horses that fail the Racecourse Test, either because they ...
American Paint Horse Association. Bailey, Ernest Frank; Brooks, Samantha A. (2013). Horse Genetics. CABI. pp. 73-76. ISBN ... American Paint Horse, Icelandic horse, Miniature horse, Morgan horse, Shetland pony and Trakehner. SW-2 and SW-3 appear at ... Domestic horses often cope well with deafness, and deaf horses may go undiagnosed. Some deaf horses are more skittish than ... SW-3, the MITFC280Sfs*20 mutation, has been seen in Quarter Horses but is very rare. Some horses of Quarter Horse lineage carry ...
Genetics and Molecular Biology. 30: 37-42. doi:10.1590/s1415-47572007000100009. Lydekker, Richard. The horse and its relatives ... Which Horse of Course p. 61 Sliver, Caroline. Guide to the Horses of the World, Chartwell Books, 1991 and Illustrated Guide to ... International Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds, p. 60 "Razas Autóctonas de las Illes Balears" (in Spanish). Govern de las Illes ... This breed is used by the local population only as a riding horse; farm work in the islands was traditionally done by the ...
Equine coat color genetics Equine coat color Dilution gene "Horse coat color tests -Silver Dilution" from the UC Davis ... Most horses can produce both types; the brown appearance of a bay horse's coat is caused by alternating bands of eumelanin and ... Castle, W. E. (1954). "Coat Color Inheritance in Horses and in Other Mammals". Genetics. 39 (1): 35-44. PMC 1209634 . PMID ... In a 2013 study of Comtois horses and Rocky Mountain Horses, all animals carrying the mutated form of PMEL17 had some eye ...
A.T. Bowling & A. Ruvinsky (2000). "The Genetics of the Horse": 174. Retrieved 29 June 2015. "The Kulan in Turkmenistan". World ... The Turkmenian kulans, along with the Przewalski's horse, have been reintroduced to the Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve in ...
". "Horse Genome Project - Coat Color Genetics". www.uky.edu. Retrieved 2017-09-25. "Dog Coat Colour Genetics". www.doggenetics ... In horses, the agouti gene suppresses the action of the extension locus that produces black pigment (eumelanin) into point ...
Bodó, Imre; Alderson, Lawrence; Langlois, Bertrand (2005). Conservation Genetics of Endangered Horse Breeds. Wageningen ... A bay horse with a white blaze, he was imported by Henry Curwen in 1698 from France. He had originally been a present to Louis ... One of his early sons, Mixbury, stood just over 13 hands high and apparently "there were not more that two horses of his day ... Retrieved 2012-08-29 Taunton, Theo (1901). Famous horses. Sampson Low, Marston. ...
... in the Appaloosa Horse (Equus caballus)". Genetics. Genetics Society of America. 179 (4): 1861-1870. doi:10.1534/genetics. ... Such horses are termed "non-characteristic" among Appaloosa horse aficionados. Horses with at least one Lp gene possess, at the ... Heterozygous Lp/lp horses and homozygous Lp/Lp horses, in the absence of dense white patterning, appear much the same. That is ... Again, these horses may varnish with age. Homozygous Lp/Lp horses with extensive white patterning at birth are white with tiny ...
Equine coat color genetics Equine coat color White (horse) Gray (horse) Palomino Buckskin (horse) Dun gene Champagne gene ... These horses are usually palomino, buckskin, or smoky black. These horses often have light brown eyes. Horses with 2 copies of ... "What Color Is Your Horse?". Missouri Fox Trotting Horse Breed Association. Retrieved 2008-12-30. American Miniature Horse ... Tennessee Walking Horse, and Missouri Fox Trotter. It is also seen in the Miniature horse, Akhal-Teke, Icelandic horse, ...
Equine coat color genetics Appaloosa Equine coat color Roan (horse) Terry, RB; S Archer; S Brooks; D Bernoco; E Bailey (April ... After the horse is mature, the coat color may lighten slightly when the horse has a long winter coat, and darken slightly in ... "Introduction to Coat Color Genetics" from Veterinary Genetics Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of ... As the horse ages, white hairs increase over most of the body, and many spotted markings blur or fade. The varnish roan pattern ...
... pedigree relatedness and the contributions of founder lineages to thoroughbred horses". Animal Genetics. 32 (6): 360-364. doi: ... This bay Arabian horse was bought in Aleppo, Syria, by Thomas Darley in 1704 and shipped back to Aldby Park in England, as a ... The Darley Arabian (foaled c. 1700) was one of three dominant foundation sires of modern Thoroughbred horse racing bloodstock, ... 1995). The Daily Telegraph Chronicle of Horse Racing. Enfield, Middlesex: Guinness Publishing. Cunningham, E. P.; Dooley, J. J ...
Genetics is the primary cause of acne in 80% of cases.[2] The role of diet and cigarette smoking in the condition is unclear, ... Acne can occur on cats,[198] dogs,[199] and horses.[200][201] ... Risk factors for the development of acne, other than genetics, ... Acne appears to be strongly inherited; genetics explain 81% of the variation in the population.[15] Studies performed in ... horses, sheep, pigs and goats. Elsevier Health Sciences. ISBN 9780702039911. . Archived from the original on 12 March 2017.. ...
... This page is part of a larger Veterinary Genetics Laboratory at the University of ... Introduction to [Horse] Coat Color Genetics is categorized in the following disciplines: * Science and Technology/Biology/ ... It has high quality images of horse coat colors and details the genetics causing them. It also discusses how to determine the ... The site contains current information on the horse genome as well as the genetics of specific traits and disorders. ...
The availability of the horse genome sequence will allow for the creation of tools that will allow equine genetic researchers ... to rapidly identify the underlying genetic defects of many Mendelian diseases in horses. ... Extension , Agriculture , Livestock , Horse , Horse care and management , Equine genetics: an important diagnostic tool ... Horses have approximately 20,000 different genes. Each horse has two copies of every gene; one is received from the sire and ...
The buzz around Seattle Genetics (NASDAQ: ]) has been about whether it will finally prove, after more than a decade, that an ... Seattle Genetics Dark Horse Drug Candidate Approaches Home Stretch in Leukemia Study ... Seattle Genetics decided to swing for the fence in this tough-to-treat group of people after preliminary studies showed that a ... If the company can prove its drug helps people live longer with this nasty malignancy, then Seattle Genetics could be in a ...
Search Funded PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships in Genetics, horses. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in ... Genetics (horses) PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships We have 1 Genetics (horses) PhD Projects, Programs & Scholarships. ...
Now an international team of scientists has discovered what causes the Dun pattern and why it is lost in most horses. The ... Most horses today are treasured for their ability to run, work, or be ridden, but have lost their wild-type camouflage: pale ... results, published today in Nature Genetics, reveal a new mechanism of skin and hair biology, and provide new insight into ... Non-dun horses have much more vibrant colour than Dun horses. Non-dun1 horses tend to show primitive markings similar to Dun ...
Now an international team of scientists has discovered what causes the Dun pattern and why it is lost in most horses. ... Most horses today are treasured for their ability to run, work, or be ridden, but have lost their wild-type camouflage: pale ... Non-dun horses have much more vibrant colour than Dun horses. Non-dun1 horses tend to show primitive markings similar to Dun ... Genetics of camouflage and the Dun pattern in horses 21 December 2015 ...
Talk about horse colors, markings, and patterns and the horse genetics that result in them. ... The Horse Forum , Horse Breeds, Breeding, Genetics and Conformation Critiques > Horse Colors and Genetics ... Threads in Forum : Horse Colors and Genetics. Forum Tools Search this Forum. ... breeding, paint, roan is there such thing as a roan paint horse (Multi-page thread 1 2 ) ...
Talk about horse colors, markings, and patterns and the horse genetics that result in them. ... The Horse Forum , Horse Breeds, Breeding, Genetics and Conformation Critiques > Horse Colors and Genetics ... Threads in Forum : Horse Colors and Genetics. Forum Tools Search this Forum. ... arabian, gray, grey, supplement 384 Attachment(s) Dapple Grey Horse Supplement (Multi-page thread 1 2 3 ... Last Page) ...
Most domestic horses are non-dun, a more intensely pigmented phenotype caused by regulatory mutations impairing TBX3 expression ... non-dun2 is a recently derived allele, whereas the Dun and non-dun1 alleles are found in ancient horse DNA, demonstrating that ... Here we show that pigment dilution in Dun horses is due to radially asymmetric deposition of pigment in the growing hair caused ... Dun is a wild-type coat color in horses characterized by pigment dilution with a striking pattern of dark areas termed ...
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Meet the dancing part-bred Trotter who is proving heart can beat genetics… Alex Robinson 14 April, 2019 12:24. ... Summer trial offer* 5 issues of Horse & Hound for just £5 If you want to keep up with the latest from the equestrian world ... Tales from Hartpury: £200 unrideable rescue horse makes championship debut I truly believe Ziggy and I were sent to find one ... "Hes actually everything you wouldnt want in a dressage horse," says Joe, who has ridden Humbug for three years and has ...
Below is an article from BEVA Council Member Ben Sturgeon on equine genetics. Please note this article was written for the BEVA ... How genetics can create the next superstar racehorse. *Major outbreak of equine herpesvirus [EHV] among sport horses in Eastern ... Online sales of horses need closer scrutiny says Blue Cross. *A third of horses recorded with health problems are lame reveals ... New simple health checklist for horse owners helps ensure responsible horse care ...
Here, we report a DNA base substitution in the second exon of the horse gene SLC36A1 that changes an amino acid in the ... This discovery of the base substitution provides a molecular test for horse breeders to test their animals for the Champagne ... phenotypic effect of this base change is a diminution of hair and skin color intensity for both red and black pigment in horses ... Summary The purpose of this study was to uncover the molecular basis for the champagne hair color dilution phenotype in horses ...
A brown is a black horse that has genes which remove the black color from the soft body parts. A brown horse may have a black ... Brown horse Color Genetics, 3D software type (.3ds) 3D Studio by Unknown, ... File: brown-horse.zip Size: 74.14 KB Model views: 92. Downloaded: 29 times Rate it:. Current rate: 4.64. Wednesday, August 12, ... NOTE: Brown horse Color Genetics, (.3ds) 3D Studio Max PROVIDED AS IS ...
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... horse discipline, and a behavior survey from 801 gaited horses. Utilizing previously genotyped horses, an across-breed genome- ... Polymorphic Gait In The Horse: An Interaction Of Genetics, Morphology, And Behavior. ... of genetic tests to aid horse owners in their breeding and management decisions and help improve horse welfare as horses are ... An example are the "gaited" breeds, horses with the ability to perform either a lateral or diagonal fourbeat gait without a ...
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Covers various aspects of essential horse genetics basics including about genes, alleles, Mendelian inheritance and modified ... horse genetics. Ever wondered just what horse genetics really is? If so visit the "What is horse genetics" page to find out! ... horse genetics and evolution and conservation horse genetics. Over time I intend to extend this horse genetics site to cover ... especially if youre new to horse genetics. However horse genetics is a big subject! New horse genetics research findings ...
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Comprehensive information on horse color genetics. Some research findings have been assimilated especially for this web site, ... horse color genetics and the genes controlling horse colors. To understand horse color genetics you need to realise that horse ... and horse color genetics tests are now commercially available to horse breeders. Horse color genetics has also seen a renewed ... horse color genetics. melanin research. Quarter Horse colors. red factor test. horse colors. *chestnut ...
Genetics of equine insect bite hypersensitivity and genetic diversity in horses. ... Genetics of equine insect bite hypersensitivity and genetic diversity in horses. Author: Merina Shrestha; Sveriges ... It affects various horse breeds worldwide. With no effective treatment, IBH degrades horse health and causes economic loss. In ... The Friesian horse population had lowest diversity (mean inbreeding coefficients: fi: 30.4%, fiROH= 22.2%) in Study IV and was ...
An Intronic MBTPS2 Variant Results in a Splicing Defect in Horses with Brindle Coat Texture. Leonardo Murgiano, View ORCID ... An Intronic MBTPS2 Variant Results in a Splicing Defect in Horses with Brindle Coat Texture. Leonardo Murgiano, View ORCID ... An Intronic MBTPS2 Variant Results in a Splicing Defect in Horses with Brindle Coat Texture. Leonardo Murgiano, View ORCID ... In some BR1 horses, the stripes were also differentially pigmented. Pedigree analyses were suggestive of a monogenic X- ...
Make the tools of population genetics available to Arabian horse breeders who wish to consider the long-term health of the ... Starting Your Horse Under Saddle - this series of articles picks up at the time when a horse is mature enough and has had ... 2017 The Institute for the Desert Arabian Horse · Site designed by Arabian Horse World and developed by Synthetic Press ... Institute For The Desert Arabian Horse. Working to save the desert Arabian horse through research, education, and conservation. ...
Find in this ring all manner of sites pertaining to colorful horses, and the genetics involves in breeding them, caring for ... Colorful Horses. Listed in:. Home , Animals , Mammals , Horses. Manager: genessa genessas profile Find in this ring all manner ... Troy Quarter Horses Preview - Go Raising foundation bred Quarter Horses in NW Kansas. Standing at stud, QCC Strawberry Glen, ... QUALITY QUARTER HORSES Preview - Go Breeders of Am/Aust Quarter Horses, Paints Pintos.Specializing In Duns/ Buckskins & ...
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  • Horse genomics. (cabi.org)
  • Highlights focused on the following: sex chromosomes and autosomes, cytogenetics and genomics, variations in chromosome arrangements, diseases associated with gain or loss of autosomes, fertility problems associated with autosome rearrangements, disorders of sexual development, prevalence of chromosome abnormalities among horses and the future of clinical cytogentics. (cabi.org)
  • The purpose of this review is to present new developments in equine genetics and genomics for performance evaluation and health markers after a short summary of the previous knowledge about the genetic components of the exercise performance traits. (wiley.com)
  • My research program is divided between to areas: genetic engineering of mammals and horse genomics. (ucdavis.edu)
  • I am currently a member of the Integrated Genetics and Genomics Graduate Group and the Animal Biology Graduate Group. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In 1996, the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) invited the Horse Genome Project participants to join their program for studying genomics of agriculturally important species. (uky.edu)
  • The feedback that we get is that everybody who has used it has found some benefit from it because not always will they be able to tell from the pedigree page what genetics will tell them. (thoroughbreddailynews.com)
  • Since the spread of the genetic defect is also a problem in horse-breeding in Germany, the Vereinigte Informationssysteme Tierhaltung (IT-Solutions for Animal Production) in Verden 2019 determined the possible origin of the genetic defect from the test results of around 2,000 horses and their pedigree records. (practicalhorsegenetics.com.au)
  • The Blood-Horse magazine, in conjunction with Pedigree Consultants, has announced the first Thoroughbred Pedigree and Genetics Symposium to be held at the Marriott Griffin Gate hotel in Lexington, Ky. (bloodhorse.com)
  • The date is significant - 6th of May 2016, this may be the date that horse racing changed, the date equine sports medicine changed, the date that we all changed a little. (beva.org.uk)
  • Animal rights groups say Tennessee walking horses' distinctive high-stepping gait is partly the result of trainers hurting the animals. (npr.org)
  • For instance, Icelandic Horses can tolt (ambling gait) and flying pace. (redorbit.com)
  • To anyone who saw it, the horse appeared to have a slow, steady gait as it came even with the mound (Ford, Patrick K, trans. (digitalmedievalist.com)
  • We firmly believe that equine genetics will enhance the Thoroughbred breed by allowing owners and trainers to understand more about how to get the absolute best out of each individual horse for both racing and breeding. (beva.org.uk)
  • This will allow for the development of genetic tests to aid horse owners in their breeding and management decisions and help improve horse welfare as horses are selected for appropriate disciplines. (cornell.edu)
  • Outside of horse breeding genetics is also important for other reasons, for example conservationists now use a knowledge of horse genetics to help conserve the Przewalski's and other endangered horse populations. (horse-genetics.com)
  • Knowledge of this aspect of horse genetics can be used to plan breeding programs to optimise the likelihood of foals with a certain sets of characteristics, and/or to minimise the spread of undesirable characters. (horse-genetics.com)
  • On the other hand breeding tobiano paint horses together does not carry this risk. (horse-genetics.com)
  • High genetic diversity in KWPN sport horse population might be a result of an open breeding scheme and interbreeding with other warmblood populations. (dissertations.se)
  • Along with links and Info on Genetics and Breeding for Clour. (webring.org)
  • Breeding and promoting a select number of horses through the years, we strive to raise and sell attractive, physically talented individuals, with the personalities to become members of the family. (webring.org)
  • She is an Associate Professor of Equine Science at University College Dublin as well as the Chief Science Officer for Plusvital Ltd., a world leader in the development and provision of genetic tests for the international thoroughbred breeding and horse racing industries. (thoroughbreddailynews.com)
  • Dark Ronald XX was an important thoroughbred stallion who had a great influence on German horse-breeding. (practicalhorsegenetics.com.au)
  • Why genetics if we are not a breeding facility? (wordpress.com)
  • With squamous cell carcinoma, breeding horses even if one is heterozygote (R/N), risks producing horses that can be affected with this disease. (wordpress.com)
  • The Blood-Horse, the nation's oldest continually-published weekly news magazine for Thoroughbred racing and breeding, will reduce its print advertising rates by 5% effective January 2009. (bloodhorse.com)
  • This is due to breeding practices, which use an increasingly limited number of stallions in reproduction, to such an extent that, today, almost all domestic horses share the same Y chromosome, unlike Scythian horses. (cnrs.fr)
  • Breeding your mare is an important time for you and your horse. (aqha.com)
  • Take a look at our FREE e-book, Mare Care: Breeding Tips , to learn all the tips and tricks for keeping your horses healthy in this important time. (aqha.com)
  • Looking at the DNA of horses to find good breeding stock may seem obvious, but it goes against centuries of tradition in this most conservative of sports where suspicion of applied molecular genetics is rife. (sporthorse-data.com)
  • Cothran says with more research, the findings could have critical importance to horse breeding and horseracing. (redorbit.com)
  • These findings could have a major impact on future horse breeding. (redorbit.com)
  • Subscribe to the Appaloosa Project's electronic classroom, where you can ask questions about the genetics of spotted horse breeding, or sign up for our private service - a comprehensive, personalized assessment of your program. (appaloosaproject.co)
  • Research in this area of horse genetics leads to an increased understanding of genetic disorders and can lead to genetic tests for identifying carriers, as well as to new or improved methods of managing or treating disorders in known sufferers. (horse-genetics.com)
  • Young horses with hair coats consisting of a mixture of colored and gray or white hairs are sometimes confused with roan . (wikipedia.org)
  • A 1979 study of American-bred Belgian draft horses found fewer roan offspring from roan-to-roan matings than anticipated for an easy dominant trait. (uconline.edu)
  • Dun is a wild-type coat color in horses characterized by pigment dilution with a striking pattern of dark areas termed primitive markings. (nature.com)
  • Here we show that pigment dilution in Dun horses is due to radially asymmetric deposition of pigment in the growing hair caused by localized expression of the T-box 3 (TBX3) transcription factor in hair follicles, which in turn determines the distribution of hair follicle melanocytes. (nature.com)
  • Dun horses are represented with (D). Horses that are DD or Dd will have diluted color throughout their body but the points such as legs, ears, mane, and tail will not be affected by the dilution. (slideplayer.com)
  • With the great development of biotechnologies, equine molecular genetics has come of age. (wiley.com)
  • Cell and developmental biologists at the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden devote their research to discovering how cell division and cell differentiation work, which structures can be found in cell organelles and how cells exchange information and materials. (mpg.de)
  • He recently was appointed as Director at the the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics, and the Klaus-Tschira Chair of the Systems Biology Center in Dresden. (mpg.de)
  • Kai Simons, founding director of the Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics (MPI-CBG) and managing director of Lipotype GmbH, receives the Robert Koch Medal in Gold for his lifetime achievements, in particular for his characterization of membrane-forming lipids and the development of the lipid raft concept. (mpg.de)
  • He is sometimes called the wealthiest ex-journalist in Britain and is fascinated, and knowledgeable, about molecular genetics. (sporthorse-data.com)
  • non-dun2 is a recently derived allele, whereas the Dun and non-dun1 alleles are found in ancient horse DNA, demonstrating that this polymorphism predates horse domestication. (nature.com)
  • The sabino allele is incompletely dominant over wild-type, as horses with two sabino alleles generally have more white (even to being almost completely white) than horses with one sabino and one wild-type allele. (wordpress.com)
  • Evolution and domestication of horses. (cabi.org)
  • After the recent publication of our article (Leroy, Genetics Selection Evolution 2009 41:5), we found several errors in the published Table Three, concerning the computation of contribution to within-breed diversity ( CW ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In a similar vein, the 'horse series,' which has been a vital icon of evolution for probably a century, displays a number of similar forms that--since horse varieties of differing sizes are found together in various parts of the fossil record--do not line up into the small-to-large evolutionary sequence that textbooks erroneously portray. (icr.org)
  • Most domestic horses are non-dun, a more intensely pigmented phenotype caused by regulatory mutations impairing TBX3 expression in the hair follicle, resulting in a more circumferential distribution of melanocytes and pigment granules in individual hairs. (nature.com)
  • However, LP seems to have largely disappeared during the late Bronze Age, suggesting selection against this phenotype in early domestic horses. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Despite its popularity, the underlying genetics of this phenotype was, for a long time, unknown. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Interesting genomic regions in the Icelandic horse population across the studies I and II, was observed on chromosomes 1, 7, 10, 15 and 17. (dissertations.se)
  • This chapter discusses the approaches and recent findings by cytogeneticists on the abnormalities of horse chromosomes. (cabi.org)
  • Researchers from the VGL's equine genetic research team (including Dr. Bellone and her undergraduate intern Izzie Hack) teamed up with equine ophthalmologist Dr. Brian Gilger and his residents, Drs. Oh and Crabtree, from North Carolina State to investigate the genetics of this disease in Tennessee Walking Horses. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Research on coat color and genetics is an ongoing research as new things are developed and discovered. (slideplayer.com)
  • All M.S. degree candidates share a common core of coursework in statistics, research methods, and multiple disciplines in horse science and animal science. (mtsu.edu)
  • Looking at the research with hindsight, it's possible to recognise two separate strands of horse and donkey DNA," she said. (cam.ac.uk)
  • But in many cases the science behind the powders, pellets, and liquids that these horses consume daily is lacking due to research challenges. (bloodhorse.com)
  • The genetics behind the athletic performance of Thoroughbred racehorses has been a popular area of research in the past few years. (bloodhorse.com)
  • As part of the ERC Pegasus project led by Ludovic Orlando, the researchers will now extend their paleogenetics research to other human cultures in order to understand how the domestication of horses has influenced the destiny of civilizations. (cnrs.fr)
  • Basically, we scientists agreed that while we might compete on other aspects of equine health research, we would enter into a strong collaboration to make a genetic map for the horse. (uky.edu)
  • Get straight answers on appaloosa genetics, backed by solid research. (appaloosaproject.co)
  • As international horse transport becomes more widespread, some owners might wonder if the same equine influenza vaccines designed to protect horses from common domestic strains of the disease will also shield them from foreign strains they might encounter in other countries or even at large domestic horse shows. (bloodhorse.com)
  • The viral strains found in the shrews correspond exactly with the strains from sick horses in the same region. (uni-protokolle.de)
  • Genetic variation contributing to the phenotypic variation was utilized in this thesis to understand the genetic background of a complex trait IBH, and to understand genetic diversity and relationships between various horse populations. (dissertations.se)
  • Related to this need to flee from predators in the wild is an unusual trait: horses are able to sleep both standing up and lying down, with younger horses tending to sleep significantly more than adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to be eligible, each horse or pony needs to be a carrier of the particular trait that we are working on. (practicalhorsegenetics.com.au)
  • Although the curly trait is dominant in these horses, it does have variable expression. (mindspring.com)
  • And Julius Caesar's horse, Bucephalus (probably named after Alexander the Great's favorite horse), was three-toed, showing that this trait was only bred out of the horse kind in recent history. (icr.org)
  • With the rapid progress in equine genetics, new applications in early performance evaluation and the detection of disease markers become available. (wiley.com)
  • In Study IV, pre-conceived understanding about evolutionary history of horse populations matched obtained results from investigation of genetic relationships within Dutch warmblood populations (pairwise mean FST ≤ 0.070), and within pony-like populations (pairwise mean FST ≤ 0.078). (dissertations.se)
  • This will provide horse and pony owners in Australia with a choice when they want to top-quality testing and advice from a local source. (practicalhorsegenetics.com.au)
  • Find some cool horse names to give your pony a name. (uconline.edu)
  • It is shown that horses of the Kyrgyz breed are genetically the closest to the Welsh pony and Warmblood horse. (springer.com)