Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.
Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.
A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
Hormones produced in the testis.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.
Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).
Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.
Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.
Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.
A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The surgical removal of one or both testicles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.
A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype found in the BRAIN and the PANCREAS. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor with a ligand specificity that varies between homologs from different species.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).
A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Glucose in blood.
Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.
Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.
The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.
The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.
Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.
Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.
The consumption of edible substances.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)

Growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 infusion synchronizes growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin release in prolonged critical illness. (1/3396)

OBJECTIVE: During prolonged critical illness, nocturnal pulsatile secretion of GH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) is uniformly reduced but remains responsive to the continuous infusion of GH secretagogues and TRH. Whether such (pertinent) secretagogues would synchronize pituitary secretion of GH, TSH and/or PRL is not known. DESIGN AND METHODS: We explored temporal coupling among GH, TSH and PRL release by calculating cross-correlation among GH, TSH and PRL serum concentration profiles in 86 time series obtained from prolonged critically ill patients by nocturnal blood sampling every 20 min for 9 h during 21-h infusions of either placebo (n=22), GHRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=10), GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2; 1 microg/kg/h; n=28), TRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=8) or combinations of these agonists (n=8). RESULTS: The normal synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL was absent during placebo delivery. Infusion of GHRP-2, but not GHRH or TRH, markedly synchronized serum profiles of GH, TSH and PRL (all P< or =0.007). After addition of GHRH and TRH to the infusion of GHRP-2, only the synchrony between GH and PRL was maintained (P=0.003 for GHRH + GHRP-2 and P=0.006 for TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2), and was more marked than with GHRP-2 infusion alone (P=0.0006 by ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The nocturnal GH, TSH and PRL secretory patterns during prolonged critical illness are herewith further characterized to include loss of synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL release. The synchronizing effect of an exogenous GHRP-2 drive, but not of GHRH or TRH, suggests that the presumed endogenous GHRP-like ligand may participate in the orchestration of coordinated anterior pituitary hormone release.  (+info)

Long-term results of GH therapy in GH-deficient children treated before 1 year of age. (2/3396)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term effects of GH therapy in early diagnosed GH-deficient patients treated before 1 year of age. STUDY DESIGN: We studied all 59 patients (33 males) recorded by Association France-Hypophyse and treated with GH (0.50+/-0.15 IU/kg (S.D.) per week) before 1 year of age. Clinical presentation and growth parameters under GH treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: Neonatal manifestations of hypopituitarism were frequent: hypoglycemia (n=50), jaundice (n=25) and micropenis (n=17/33). Although birth length was moderately reduced (-0.9+/-1.4), growth retardation at diagnosis (5.8+/-3.8 months) was severe (-3.5+/-1.9 standard deviation scores (SDS)). Fifty patients (85%) had thyrotropin and/or corticotropin deficiency. After a mean duration of GH therapy of 8.0+/-3.6 years, change in height SDS was +3.11+/-2.06 S.D., exceeding 4 SDS in 19 patients. Only 9 patients (15%) did not reach a height of -2 S.D. for chronological age and 20 patients (34%) exceeded their target height. Pretreatment height SDS was independently associated with total catch-up growth. CONCLUSION: Conventional doses of GH allow normalization of height in patients with early GH deficiency and treatment.  (+info)

Changes in body composition and leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children with various GH secretory capacities. (3/3396)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to follow changes in body composition, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in relation to changes in leptin during the first year of GH therapy in order to test the hypothesis that leptin is a metabolic signal involved in the regulation of GH secretion in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 33 prepubertal children were investigated. Their mean (S.D.) chronological age at the start of GH treatment was 11.5 (1.6) years, and their mean height was -2.33 (0.38) S.D. scores (SDS). GH was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 0.1 (n=26) or 0.2 (n=7) IU/kg body weight. Ten children were in the Swedish National Registry for children with GH deficiency, and twenty-three children were involved in trials of GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Spontaneous 24-h GH secretion was studied in 32 of the children. In the 24-h GH profiles, the maximum level of GH was determined and the secretion rate estimated by deconvolution analysis (GHt). Serum leptin levels were measured at the start of GH treatment and after 10 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Body composition measurements, by DXA, were performed at baseline and 12 months after the onset of GH treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of GH treatment, mean height increased from -2.33 to -1.73 SDS and total body fat decreased significantly by 3.0 (3.3)%. Serum leptin levels were decreased significantly at all time points studied compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation between the change in total body fat and the change in serum leptin levels during the 12 months of GH treatment, whereas the leptin concentration per unit fat mass did not change. In a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with 12 month change in leptin levels as the dependent variable, the percentage change in fat over 12 months, the baseline fat mass (%) of body mass and GHt accounted for 24.0%, 11.5% and 12.2% of the variability respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant correlations between changes in leptin and fat and endogenous GH secretion in short children with various GH secretory capacities. Leptin may be the messenger by which the adipose tissue affects hypothalamic regulation of GH secretion.  (+info)

Hormone-related, muscle-specific changes in protein metabolism and fiber type profile after faba bean intake. (4/3396)

Male growing Wistar rats were fed, over 15 days, isoenergetic (16.72 +/- 0.49 MJ) and isoproteic (11%) diets containing either lactalbumin or raw Vicia faba L. (Vf) as the sole source of protein. Compared with pair-fed controls (PF), soleus muscles of Vf-fed rats showed increased (P < 0.05) synthesis and breakdown rates. In addition, the soleus of Vf-fed rats displayed a decrease (P < 0.05) in type I and an increase (P < 0.01) in type IIc fibers compared with that of PF animals. On the contrary, extensor digitorum longus muscles of both Vf-fed and PF rats showed an increase (P < 0.01) in type I and a reduction (P < 0.05) in type IIb fibers together with a decrease (P < 0.05) in the cross-sectional area of the latter fibers. Vf-fed rats exhibited a significant decrease in serum insulin (P < 0.05) and thyrotropin (P < 0.01) levels, together with an increase in plasma glucagon (P < 0.05) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (P < 0.01) concentrations, compared with the PF group. Both Vf-fed and PF rats experienced an increase in corticosterone concentrations (P < 0.01 vs. control; P < 0.05 vs. PF). The muscle-specific changes in both protein metabolism and fiber type composition may partly depend on the hormonal changes that were observed after Vf intake.  (+info)

Mechanism for the posture-specific plasma volume increase after a single intense exercise protocol. (5/3396)

To test the hypothesis that exercise-induced hypervolemia is a posture-dependent process, we measured plasma volume, plasma albumin content, and renal function in seven healthy subjects for 22 h after single upright (Up) or supine (Sup) intense (85% peak oxygen consumption rate) exercise. This posture was maintained for 5 h after exercise. Plasma volume decreased during exercise but returned to control levels by 5 h of recovery in both postures. By 22 h of recovery, plasma volume increased 2.4 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Up but decreased 2.1 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Sup. The plasma volume expansion in Up was accompanied by an increase in plasma albumin content (0.11 +/- 0.04 g/kg; P < 0.05). Plasma albumin content was unchanged in Sup. Urine volume and sodium clearance were lower in Up than Sup (P < 0.05) by 5 h of recovery. These data suggest that increased plasma albumin content contributes to the acute phase of exercise-induced hypervolemia. More importantly, the mechanism by which exercise influences the distribution of albumin between extra- and intravascular stores after exercise is altered by posture and is unknown. We speculate that factors associated with postural changes (e.g., central venous pressure) modify the increase in plasma albumin content and the plasma volume expansion after exercise.  (+info)

Physiological variability of fluid-regulation hormones in young women. (6/3396)

We tested the physiological reliability of plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (P[AVP]), aldosterone (P[ALD]), and atrial natriuretic peptide (P[ANP]) in the early follicular phase and midluteal phases over the course of two menstrual cycles (n = 9 women, ages 25 +/- 1 yr). The reliability (Cronbach's alpha >/=0.80) of these hormones within a given phase of the cycle was tested 1) at rest, 2) after 2.5 h of dehydrating exercise, and 3) during a rehydration period. The mean hormone concentrations were similar within both the early follicular and midluteal phase tests; and the mean concentrations of P[ALD] and PRA for the three test conditions were significantly greater during the midluteal compared with the early follicular phase. Although Cronbach's alpha for resting and recovery P[ANP] were high (0.80 and 0.87, respectively), the resting and rehydration values for P[AVP], P[ALD], and PRA were variable between trials for the follicular (alpha from 0.49 to 0.55) and the luteal phase (alpha from 0.25 to 0. 66). Physiological reliability was better after dehydration for P[AVP] and PRA but remained low for P[ALD]. Although resting and recovery P[AVP], P[ALD], and PRA were not consistent within a given menstrual phase, the differences in the concentrations of these hormones between the different menstrual phases far exceeded the variability within the phases, indicating that the low within-phase reliability does not prevent the detection of menstrual phase-related differences in these hormonal variables.  (+info)

Endotoxin-induced changes in IGF-I differ in rats provided enteral vs. parenteral nutrition. (7/3396)

The purpose of the present study was to determine whether acute changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system induced by mild surgical trauma/fasting or endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] are differentially modulated by total enteral nutrition (TEN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Rats had vascular catheters and a gastrostomy tube surgically placed and were fasted overnight. The next morning animals randomly received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous (250 kcal. kg-1. day-1, 1.6 g N. kg-1. day-1) infusion of either TEN or TPN for 48 h. Then rats were injected intravenously with Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg) while nutritional support was continued. Time-matched control animals were injected with saline. After mild surgical trauma and an 18-h fast, TEN was more effective at increasing plasma IGF-I levels than TPN. Subsequent injection of LPS decreased IGF-I in blood, liver, and muscle in both TEN- and TPN-fed rats compared with saline-injected control animals. However, this decrease was approximately 30% greater in rats fed TPN compared with those fed TEN. LPS-induced downregulation of IGF-I mRNA expression in liver and muscle was also more prominent in TPN-fed rats. The LPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was greater (2- and 1.6-fold, respectively) in TPN-fed rats, and these changes were consistent with the greater reduction in IGF-I seen in these animals. In similarly treated rats allowed to survive for 24 h after LPS injection, the LPS-induced increase in the urinary 3-methylhistidine-to-creatinine ratio was smaller in TEN-fed rats. In summary, LPS reduced systemic levels of IGF-I as well as IGF-I protein and mRNA in critical target organs. Enteral feeding greatly attenuated this response. Maintenance of higher IGF-I levels in TEN-fed rats was associated with a reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels and lower rates of myofibrillar degradation.  (+info)

The importance of pyruvate availability to PDC activation and anaplerosis in human skeletal muscle. (8/3396)

No studies have singularly investigated the relationship between pyruvate availability, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activation, and anaplerosis in skeletal muscle. This is surprising given the functional importance attributed to these processes in normal and disease states. We investigated the effects of changing pyruvate availability with dichloroacetate (DCA), epinephrine, and pyruvate infusions on PDC activation and accumulation of acetyl groups and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates (TCAI) in human muscle. DCA increased resting PDC activity sixfold (P < 0.05) but decreased the muscle TCAI pool (mmol/kg dry muscle) from 1.174 +/- 0.042 to 0.747 +/- 0.055 (P < 0.05). This was probably a result of pyruvate being diverted to acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine after near-maximal activation of PDC by DCA. Conversely, neither epinephrine nor pyruvate activated PDC. However, both increased the TCAI pool (1.128 +/- 0.076 to 1.614 +/- 0.188, P < 0.05 and 1.098 +/- 0.059 to 1.385 +/- 0.114, P < 0.05, respectively) by providing a readily available pool of pyruvate for anaplerosis. These data support the hypothesis that TCAI pool expansion is principally a reflection of increased muscle pyruvate availability and, together with our previous work (J. A. Timmons, S. M. Poucher, D. Constantin-Teodosiu, V. Worrall, I. A. Macdonald, and P. L. Greenhaff. J. Clin. Invest. 97: 879-883, 1996), indicate that TCA cycle expansion may be of little functional significance to TCA cycle flux. It would appear therefore that the primary effect of DCA on oxidative ATP provision is to provide a readily available pool of acetyl groups to the TCA cycle at the onset of exercise rather than increasing TCA cycle flux by expanding the TCAI pool.  (+info)

Several hormones likes hCG, hPL, estrogen, progesterone are produced by Option 1) ovary Option 2) placenta Option 3) fallopian tube Option 4) pituitary
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It is necessary for you to understand that there are various ways for you to improve your health. Basically, you could consider altering the production of various hormones in your body in order to affect various systems in your body.. By doing so, you would be certain that even other systems in your body could also be considered and be paid attention. However, you have to assure that you would affect the right set of hormones.. This is brought by the fact that there are hormones, which may only put you at risk if you would let them increase or multiply in multitude.. In addition to this, moderation is needed. For instance, you want to increase the levels of HGH in your body. In that case, you could consider the task moderately done.. This is due to the fact that increasing HGH levels in your body abnormally would only trigger complications.. In order to give you added information regarding the human growth hormone, here are the general frequently asked questions about the hormone:. ...
Sexual maturation is associated with increasing levels of sex steroids. These steroidal events are the result of complex changes that occur at several functional levels including the hypothalamus, pituitary, gonad and adrenal gland. These changes, as outlined in Table 3, are often interrelated.. While considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the hormonal events associated with sexual maturation, many important questions remain unanswered. Further intensive investigation will be required before we have a lucid understanding of the physiological basis of the sequence of hormonal events which occur during the pubertal process.. ...
Your physician may recommend a hormone receptor test to help determine treatment options and to help learn more about the tumor. This test can help to predict whether the cancer cells are sensitive to hormones.. The hormone receptor test measures the amount of certain proteins (called hormone receptors) in cancer tissue. Hormones (such as estrogen and progesterone that naturally occur in the body) can attach to these proteins. If the test is positive, it is indicating that the hormone is probably helping the cancer cells to grow. In this case, hormone therapy may be given to block the way the hormone works and help keep the hormone away from the cancer cells (hormone receptors). If the test is negative, the hormone does not affect the growth of the cancer cells, and other effective cancer treatments may be given. Always discuss the results of the hormone receptor test with your physician.. If the test indicates that the hormones are affecting your cancer, the cancer may be treated in one of ...
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read more] This gene encodes a secreted, homodimeric glycoprotein that is expressed in a wide variety of tissues and may have autocrine or paracrine functions. The encoded protein has 10 of its 15 cysteine residues conserved among stanniocalcin family members and is ...
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A womans fertility depends on many factors. It is essential to measure the levels of the various hormones in the body, which play a part in the control of ovulation. Only after proper assessment ,can the real cause of infertility found.
There are several ways in which stress can contribute to weight gain. One has to do with cortisol, a stress hormone. When were under stress, the fight or flight response is triggered in our bodies, leading to the release of various hormones. Whether were stressed because of holiday demands or were really in danger, our…
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Bio-identical hormones are made at a compounding pharmacy and have the exact biochemical structure as those naturally made in your body. They are more effective and less costly than the synthetic hormones made by pharmaceutical companies.. Maintaining hormones at the average blood levels of a 30-year old is safe and effective. Modern scientific evidence concludes that Bio-identical Hormone Optimization Therapy is both desirable and beneficial for your health.. Bio-identical hormones are not unsafe, dangerous, or a threat to your health or life. More often than not, they are underused and under prescribed. Bio-identical hormones are the safest and most natural way to replace your hormones, which diminish and may become out of balance over time.. Over-the-counter, non-prescription hormone remedies can mask symptoms, but leave the problem unresolved. They produce some effects that may reduce symptoms, but do not provide the full benefits of the actual hormones they are trying to ...
Thyrocare tests several hormones and provides these tests at very low prices. Hormonal Imbalances affect growth or fertility. Thyrocare tests Testosterone, Progesterone, Cortisol, PRL, LH, FSH, TSH, AMH, DHEAS and several more.
Stress is a potential contributor to chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes. Stress has long been shown to have major effects on metabolic activity. Energy mobilization is a primary result of the fight or flight response. Stress stimulates the release of various hormones, which can result in elevated blo …
What exactly are hormones and how are they different from non-hormones? Hormones are chemical messengers secreted into blood or extracellular fluid by one cell that affect the functioning of other cells. Most hormones circulate in blood, coming into contact with essentially all cells. However, a given hormone usually affects only a limited number of cells, which are called target cells. A target cell responds to a hormone because it bears receptors for the hormone. In other words, a particular cell is a target cell for a hormone if it contains functional receptors for that hormone, and cells which do not have such a receptor cannot be influenced directly by that hormone. Reception of a radio broadcast provides a good analogy. Everyone within range of a transmitter for National Public Radio is exposed to that signal (even if they dont contribute!). However, in order to be a NPR target and thus influenced directly by their broadcasts, you have to have a receiver tuned to that frequency. ...
Hormones are chemicals which are released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. All multicellular organisms produce hormones; plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Hormones in animals are often transported in the blood. Cells respond to a hormone when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. The hormone binds to the receptor protein, resulting in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism that ultimately leads to cell type-specific responses ...
There are several hormones that regulate the making and ejection of milk from human breasts as well as from the breasts of all female mammals after childbirth.
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hormone imbalance - MedHelps hormone imbalance Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for hormone imbalance. Find hormone imbalance information, treatments for hormone imbalance and hormone imbalance symptoms.
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Get an answer for How hormones interact including: The relationships between hypothalamic (releasing & inhibiting) hormones, pituitary (tropic) hormones, and end hormones Short and long loop feedback The types of interactions among hormones (synergistic, antagonistic, permissive, etc.). and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Hey, Im a 26 year old young woman whom desperately needs some advice. In the past Ive had reoccurring miscarriages and therefor have been tested for several hormone imbalances and all that might be t...
We have a generation of people who have been poisoned by artificial hormones, hormone havoc. From their teenage years many women have taken the pill were initially delighted that they were able to gain control over such an important part of their lives. It did liberate women to a certain point, but then enslaved them again when some discovered that they couldnt conceive naturally after taking it or that later in life they suffered from hormonal imbalances and cancer.. The artificial hormones we have been taking by the ton are excreted in urine and become environmental poisons within our food and water chains so that not just the women suffer - men are getting more breast, testicular and prostate cancer, than ever before. It is time to stop. Our systems have been unbalanced by these foreign hormones so we often need help to detox and get back on track.. So, where did it all go wrong?. Normally Oestrogen and Progesterone are finely balanced in the human body. Oestrogen is not a single hormone ...
Get an answer for How hormones interact including: what are the relationships between hypothalamic (releasing & inhibiting) hormones, pituitary (tropic) hormones, and end hormones and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Growth: Although children with CAH grow too rapidly, they may finish growth prematurely, so that adult height is shorter than average. Balancing medical treatment to maintain appropriate blood hormone levels is often complicated in CAH. Untreated or inadequately treated children grow rapidly and may not reach their height potential, but on the other hand, those treated with excessive medication doses suffer growth retardation. Since over-zealous medical treatment is a major cause of poor growth, it is important to treat CAH children with the lowest dose effective in maintaining adrenocortical hormones in a reasonable range. Optimal levels of these hormones will change with age and sex. Although the topic of growth inhibition by excessive treatment has been studied in infants and young children, there has been no careful study of whether less stringent control at puberty is effective in promoting maximal growth. There is still only very scant information about experimental treatment regimens and ...
While the symptoms of out of whack hormones are anything but laughable for many, I hope you may recognize some of your own symptoms of hormone imbalance in the gallery, above, with a smile and renewed hope for relief! Please note that many women are not familiar with the red flags of estrogen dominance symptoms; they deserve special attention in relation to breast cancer; they are shown in bold on this list. ...
How hormone therapy can help you The use of hormones that are delivered naturally to treat diseases is known as the hormone treatment. This is a combination of
The word Hormone comes means, to spur on which reflects how hormones acts as catalysts for other chemical changes at the cellular level necessary for growth, development, and energy. Hormones are chemical messengers that carry and travel signals in the blood stream from 1 cell or glands to other tissues and organsto maintain chemical levels in the bloodstream that achieve homeostasis.
Do not underestimate the power of hormones! They affect people in so many different ways, and are crucial to good moods and a healthy body. So What Exactly Are Hormones? Hormones are your bodys chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs and affect many different processes, including: Growth and development Metabolism […]
Hormones are wild. Women are sharing the most irrational things theyve done while under the influence of hormones. The resulting thread went viral. Its no wonder. People just kind of lose themselves (temporarily) while theyre working through the ups and downs of hormones. ...
I am going on hormones as soon as I get permission from my dr. want to be a dd chest but want to avoid surgery if possible. I follow someone who said she developed a dd chest with just six months on hormones and no surgery. Is that possible or is she lying. PS any tips to increase my chest size? I wear a bra constantly and do chest increasing exercises (pushups, etc.) and already have developed a small chest. I read online greens help.
Why Hormone is the basic chemical messengers. In this chapter includes what are hormone, properties, location of hormones and its classification. Basics....
Some contraceptives contain hormones. These hormones make sure that you dont get pregnant. Read more about hormones and their effect on your body.
Name the source gland of leutinising hormone (LH). Mention the other hormone along with which it acts on its target cells/ organ. Give their two functions
Hormones are chemical messengers that travel throughout the body in the bloodstream. When things are good, the organs and glands work together to regulate hormone production, affecting many different processes including metabolism, sexual function, reproduction, mood and much more. But when production is even slightly
Tired all the time? Irregular periods? Unexplained weight gain? Mood swings? These are all signs and symptoms that your hormones may be out of whack. Here, Rosie Millen shares her top five tips to balance your hormones naturally
This is a very natural hormone thought to be a building block for all the other steroid hormones. It certainly helps with all round well-being, but as we get older its productionRead More…. ...
TweetVirtually everything you do in life triggers a hormonal response in the body. Hormonal levels control our bodys actions. It is very important to
Hormones can be a confusing thing for many women. How do you know if you need them? What do your symptoms mean? Learn the top 5 most asked hormone questions by women in 2017.
Study Flashcards On Hormones at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Hormones list and information including what is Hormones, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Hormones list and information including what is Hormones, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
Improve your health, lifestyle, diet & nutrition with hormone conditions news, facts, tips, & other information. Educate yourself about hormone conditions & help yourself and other...
See Jerry Hormones contact, representation, publicist, and legal information. Explore Jerry Hormones credits, follow attached in-development titles, and track popularity with STARmeter. IMDbPro - The essential resource for entertainment professionals.
Bio-Identical Hormones pellet therapy can help reduce various issues related to hormones. Learn more about how Skintastic can help you.
Bio-identical hormones have the exact same chemical structure as hormones that are made by the human body. As such, they are able to fully replicate the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma Hormone Profiles of Young Women at Risk for Familial Breast Cancer. AU - Lynch, Henry T.. AU - Lynch, Jane F.. AU - Guirgis, Hoda. AU - Maloney, Kathleen. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - The plasma hormone concentrations of 30 young women, who were judged by genetic analysis to be at high risk for familial breast cancer, were compared with those of 30 matched controls identified as at low risk for the disease. The hormone measurements were obtained every second day throughout the menstrual cycle, and the results were analyzed in terms of follicular, luteal, and full-cycle mean concentrations. Comparison was carried out in a paired fashion with each high-risk and low-risk pair matched closely for height, weight, age, and reproductive history. No statistically significant differences were found in prolactin, gonadotropin, estrone, estradiol, or estriol plasma concentrations although the high-risk group displayed consistently lower values in all of the above except estriol.. AB - ...
1.TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone) -----| TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) -----| Thyroid hormone 2.CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone) ---
Sex hormones may act on gene switches turning on or off a cascade of genes in neurons, that will shape male and female brains in different ways e.g. testosterone receptors in amygdala and hypothalamus- contribute to high physical aggression in men ...
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Another belief thats rising in popularity is that eating the placenta will help restore the mothers hormone balance. This is an odd claim which requires some unpacking. First of all, there are important reasons that a new mothers hormone levels are way out of whack, breast feeding being an obvious one. These changes to a womans body are largely driven by the endocrine system; and a New Agey mother is probably best advised to allow her body to do what its trying to do naturally, rather than attempt to interfere with her hormones by taking a non-prescribed supplement.. But for the mother who does wish to interfere with her bodys hormones at this delicate stage, its not at all clear that eating a placenta would be the way to do it. A placenta does indeed have a whole cocktail party of various hormones in it, but there is no science at all saying that the mother would be well served by adding these to her own body. But even if there was, actually eating the placenta wouldnt be the way to get ...
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Its probably best to start by talking about what our endocrine system is. Our endocrine system is our hormone system, which includes many hormones and glands that impact most of our bodys functions across all our body systems. They influence our reproductive system, our metabolism, and our circulatory system amongst others. Our different hormone functions are also very connected, so we often find that if someone has a problem with one area of hormone function there will be other hormone dysfunctions.. The definition of a HDC is that they impact or disrupt our normal or natural hormone functions, thereby potentially causing dysfunction within our bodies. HDC have similar properties to the receptors and enzymes in our bodies that stimulate the hormonal response, and so are sometimes called hormone-mimicking chemicals. Whilst initially most of the evidence of this was connected to effects on the reproductive systems, it now appears that these chemicals may impact all of our hormonal ...
Amines are derived from the amino acid tyrosine and are secreted from the thyroid and the adrenal medulla. Solubility of the various hormone classes varies. Amine hormones (notably epinephrine) are stored as granules in the cytoplasm until needed.. ...
The CompPlus is one of the most complete, accurate and advanced hormone profiles for both men and women. This test is the Gold Standard for balancing male and female sex hormones, adrenal and thyroid hormones. It also includes the 2/16α EQ (estrogen quotient) ratio, an important and modifiable predictor of hormone-related cancer risk.. Why is 24-hour urine testing the Gold Standard of hormone evaluation? Sex hormones are released in pulsed doses throughout the 24-hour period. Single blood tests can be high or low depending on where in this cycle they occur. They are the least accurate of hormone tests. Saliva is the next best, because saliva represents some degree of averaging of the total sex hormones. However, various physical conditions can alter the concentration of hormones in saliva and decrease the accuracy of the test. 24-hour urine testing collects the peaks and valleys of hormone release and averages it. This gives an extremely accurate profile of the daily amount of ...
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Strategies for Hormone optimization:. Hormone management can be roughly broken into two strategies. The first is to eat, exercise and take supplements that enhance your own hormone production and optimization. The second involves directly supplementing with bio-identical hormones. In either case, you really dont know where you stand with hormone levels and balance unless you test them relatively often. Because hormone levels and ratios make you more or less susceptible to cancer and other diseases associated with hormone imbalance, it is prudent to pay the money and find out the levels of the significant hormones and their metabolites, particularly as we get older. In your youth, exercise and nutrition will work to keep you fit and trim, because the natural hormone levels of youth, especially if you eat correctly and exercise enough. As we enter our thirties, anabolic hormone production starts to decline. Then it becomes important to increase the muscle-building types of exercise that boost ...
I am glad that I am not the only one. When I was used about 2 years ago, the Mirena, I had a huge pleasure with it. I started a new job, had a new husband and my FA thought this contraceptive fits exactly in your new life! Great! , I thought so. I have to say that five years ago I had tried various hormone supplements for contraception (various pills, nuvaring, …) as well as to alleviate my menstrual problems (severe, very painful menstrual period). The same side effects always occurred. And my FA always told me that Im imagining them all. So I was glad when it said that the hormone spiral only releases hormones locally and the rest of the body is not burdened. I was well prepared with vaginal tablets to soften the cervix. The insertion itself hurt me terribly. It was a strong pain inside that caused nausea - indefinable. For two days I had a dull ache. The spotting bleed quickly and meanwhile I had no mens left. Every day I needed a bag of magnesium, otherwise I had abdominal cramps. Well - ...
The loss of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent activity continues to be a problem in the use of cultured hepatocytes in xenobiotic toxicity studies. It has been reported that the inclusion of pyruvate and various hormones in the culture medium improves the maintenance of various hepatic functions, including that of CYP2C11 mRNA expression. We have studied this further, by investigating the effects of the addition of pyruvate and hormones on various CYP-dependent enzyme activities and on the CYP-dependent toxicity of precocene II in rat hepatocyte cultures. No beneficial effects of this medium supplementation could be demonstrated ...
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This product group includes immunoassays for the determination of various hormones (steroid and protein-based hormones) from different animal species like rat and mouse (murine), dogs (canine), and horse (equine).. ...
QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for signal transduction research, enabling analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. Signal transduction transmits and amplifies signals of stimuli from extracellular sources to the nucleus. Signaling molecules include various hormones, growth factors, metabolites, cytokines, chemokines, neurotransmitters, extracellular matrix components, receptors, protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and DNA-binding proteins. The purpose of signal transduction is to regulate the cellular response to the molecular stimuli via changes in gene and protein expression. Solutions optimized for these research studies are organized into more focused research topics, shown below ...
When a woman becomes pregnant, many changes occur in her body. One of those changes is in the levels of various hormones produced by the body, including those produced by the thyroid.
I am right now experimenting with hormone names and feeling on the impact these have on me.. Neuroscience is complex and we still dont know the full details of what goes on biochemically inside of us.. We have glimpses, pieces of information!. There is much more to learn that we didnt yet tap into.. A hormone name connects you with the actual energy of that biochemical.. Can you overdo it?. Can you make mistakes and get too much of a certain quality?. I dont have the full science and dont know yet the exact details of what each hormone does.. Right now, I am already playing with 20+ different hormone names and I have a code defining term for each hormone.. I am naturally attracted to certain terms or qualities more than others.. I feel that eventually, my body and mind need more of all of them and as I start building a deeper connection with the energies of these hormones, my body and mind want to take more of them in.. Can I overdo it?. I listen to my energy wisdom.. My reasoning ability is ...
Here you will find medical specialists in the field Hormone analysis. All listed physicians are specialists in their field and have been carefully selected for you according to the strict Leading Medicine guidelines. The experts are looking forward to your inquiry ...
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The adrenal glands produce several hormones responsible for everything from your height and weight to your blood pressure. Learn more about these important glands and how to support them for your health.
Synonyms for adrenotropic hormone in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenotropic hormone. 6 synonyms for adrenocorticotropic hormone: ACTH, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, adrenocorticotrophin, adrenocorticotropin, corticotrophin, corticotropin. What are synonyms for adrenotropic hormone?
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All aspects of your life influence your hormones, your sleep habits, your diet, exercise, breathing, and your thoughts and feelings all affect your hormone system. Your hormones are an orchestra within your body, a master system that can make profound changes in the rest of your body.. The modern idea that simply taking a single action (like one pill) will balance the system has felt wrong to almost everyone who has tried it.. Bringing about a balance and rhythm to healthy hormones is a process that takes intricate involvement of your lifestyle, diet, exercise, attitude, stress management, sleep, and even your relationships. There is no aspect of life that does not have an influence upon your hormone levels and the quality of their function. Anything that is going to be a true balancer, true correction of your hormone system is going to take a little bit of time and you will have to roll up your sleeves and work for it. Working with someone that understands how all these different puzzle pieces ...
Peptide hormones are synthesized as precursor molecules and processed by the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi where they are stored in secretory granules. When needed, the granules are dumped into the bloodstream.. Different hormones can often be made from the same precursor molecule by cleaving it with a different enzyme. ...
Hormones, produced by glands or cells, are messengers which act locally or at a distance to coordinate the function of cells and organs. Types of hormone include (1) peptides (e.g hypothalamic releasing factors) and proteins (e.g. insulin, growth hormone)-these generally interact with membrane receptors located on the cell surface, causing activation of downstream signalling pathways leading to alteration in gene transcription or modulation of biochemical pathways to effect a physiological response; (2) steroids (e.g. cortisol, progesterone, testosterone, oestradiol) and other lipophilic substances (e.g. vitamin D, retinoic acid, thyroid hormone)-these act by crossing the plasma membrane to interact with intracellular receptors, with hormone action via nuclear receptors altering cellular gene expression directly....
Up one minute, down the next!!!ouch but did you know hormones dont just affect your mood ,but your health too?. Discover the whole truth From the moment we hit puberty, our hormones seem to rule our moods. the question is how much do they role in your health and wellbeing?. Hormones are chemical messengers that effectively encourage every cell to function and as such if they are out of balance the whole body can be affected….says leading hormones specialists.. Scientists are continuing to discover new hormones all the time (say hello to gonadotropin - inhibitory hormone. a fertility aid found in humans for the first time last year) and in the coming pages we have spoken to some of our most highly regarded experts (gurus) to help you understand yours. The key players are. ...
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Specialized cells in the pancreas that produce and secrete one of several hormones that affect certain body functions; some examples include alpha cells that produce glucagon and beta cells that produce insulin ...
These electrolytes must be replaced to maintain healthy levels. The kidneys and several hormones regulate the concentration of each.
Womens hormones are a complex symphony of chemical messengers that, in an ideal world, harmoniously ebb and flow over the course of a womens life in a natural rhythm. However, in a modern world, our hormones are influenced by a number of factors including stress, poor diet, chemicals and pesticides that disrupt our endocrine system, genetics and contraceptives. Thanks this, nearly all women experience hormonal health issues at some stage in their lives. Liver and bowel function play a crucial role in hormone metabolism and if these organs are sluggish in their function they can contribute to hormone disruption, oestrogen dominance and a range of proliferative conditions.. Common hormonal conditions. ...
Polyclonal antibody for Stanniocalcin 2/STC2 detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive species: Human. Stanniocalcin 2/STC2 information: Molecular Weight: 33249 MW; Subcellular Localization: Secreted ; Tissue Specificity:
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Your hormone levels are as unique and varied as the fingerprints on your hands. So you need a hormonal program that is tailored to you. Mead Labs saliva testing is an easy, non-invasive way of assessing your hormone balance. This information allows you to supplement hormones according to a plan tailored for only you. Well-balanced hormones regulate everything from reproduction to emotions, general health and well-being. An imbalance of any one hormone can throw your physical and mental health out of balance, causing aggravating and even serious health problems ...
When we supplement our bodies with bio identical hormones we are replenishing it with identically structured hormones that it has always made. Our bodies recognise these hormones allowing them to bind to receptors quickly and metabolise so they may be excreted from the body. Synthetic hormones cause some of the same actions as our bodys own hormones, but as they have been chemically altered may have different or unintended effects.. ...
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An examination of serum hormone levels of men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) population to determine whether levels have declined over time and whether they correlate with serum levels of endocrine disrupting chemicals. ...
The Hormones chapter of this MCAT Prep Help and Review course is the simplest way to master the mechanisms of hormone action. This chapter uses...
... signs or symptoms of excessive production of androgen hormones, cortisol, and growth hormone.[15] Comedones (blackheads and ... Hormones[edit]. Hormonal activity, such as occurs during menstrual cycles and puberty, may contribute to the formation of acne ... High levels of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are also associated with worsened acne.[42] Both ... During puberty, an increase in sex hormones called androgens causes the skin follicle glands to grow larger and make more oily ...
Bovine growth hormone[edit]. Main article: Bovine somatotropin. In 1937, it was found that bovine somatotropin (BST or bovine ... "Safeway milk free of bovine hormone". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Associated Press. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2008.. ... growth hormone) would increase the yield of milk. Several pharmaceutical companies developed commercial rBST products and they ...
Hormones[edit]. The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone ... and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine (and by extension thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ( ... In contrast to the female-associated sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, the male-associated sex hormones, the androgens, ... follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), from the pituitary gland.[2][3] The secreted gonadotropins ...
Role of hormones[edit]. Age distribution and relation to breastfeeding duration is suggestive of some sort of involvement of ... hormones in the aetiology, however significant differences exist compared to normal breast cancer. ...
Hormones. Some hormones play a role in the development of cancer by promoting cell proliferation.[69] Insulin-like growth ... Women who take hormone replacement therapy have a higher risk of developing cancers associated with those hormones.[69] On the ... These higher hormone levels may explain their higher risk of breast cancer, even in the absence of a breast-cancer gene.[69] ... Hormones are important agents in sex-related cancers, such as cancer of the breast, endometrium, prostate, ovary and testis and ...
Hormone treatment[edit]. There is widespread evidence of prenatal testing and hormone treatment to prevent intersex traits.[40] ... Potential surgical problems: A lifetime of hormone replacement will be required, to avoid osteoporosis and enable sexual ... It examined the use of "prenatal hormone screening or treatment for the prevention of homosexuality" using research conducted ... Hormone Research in Paediatrics. 85 (3): 158-180. doi:10.1159/000442975. ISSN 1663-2818. PMID 26820577.. ...
Other hormones secreted[edit]. *C-peptide, which is secreted into the bloodstream in equimolar quantities to insulin. C-peptide ... Both are hormones which reduce blood glucose levels by different mechanisms. Beta cells can respond quickly to spikes in blood ... DPP-4 inhibitors block DPP-4 activity which increases postprandial incretin hormone concentration, therefore increasing insulin ... islet hormones and hypoglycemic agents". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 179 (1): 1-9. doi:10.1016/0006- ...
BRA imitates the female's hormone called estrogen. PBD destroys and causes damage to thyroid hormones, which are vital hormone ... Sex hormones. BPA can disrupt normal, physiological levels of sex hormones. It does this by binding to globulins that normally ... Thyroid hormone axis. Bisphenol A affects gene expression related to the thyroid hormone axis, which affects biological ... BPA can also affect the metabolism or the catabolism of sex hormones. It often acts as an antiandrogen or as an estrogen, which ...
Other hormones allow for the relaxation and further storing of bile.[3][4] A disruption in the hormones, ducts, or gallbladder ... This scan assesses if the gallbladder is functioning as it is supposed to with a controlled amount of hormone.[1][8] In regards ... Menopausal hormone therapy[edit]. While some observational studies had suggested that estrogens increase the risk for ... This hormone causes bile release from the gallbladder.[8]. *Postcholecystectomy syndrome (cholesterosis, hydrops, perforation, ...
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) 3-5% 4. Gonadotropes gonadotropic hormone i.e., both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle ... Luteinizing hormone (LH).. *Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), both released under influence of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone ... Human growth hormone (HGH), also referred to as 'growth hormone' (GH), and also as somatotropin, is released under the ... Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is released under the influence of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and is ...
Hormones and neurotransmitters[edit]. Traumatic events can lead to a disruption of the standard development of the central ... Testosterone is a hormone that plays an important role in aggressiveness in the brain.[37] For instance, criminals who have ... nervous system, which can generate a release of hormones that can change normal patterns of development.[36] Aggressiveness and ...
Adrenal hormones and synthetic substitutes[edit]. *Fludrocortisone. *Hydrocortisone. Androgens[edit]. *Testosteroneα ...
Thyroid hormones[edit]. In general, increased levels of the thyroid hormones (thyroxine(T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)), ... These include hormones, notably epinephrine, norepinephrine, and thyroid hormones; levels of various ions including calcium, ... Most involve stimulant-like endorphins and hormones being released in the brain, many of which are those that are 'forced'/' ... The impact of thyroid hormones is typically of a much longer duration than that of the catecholamines. The physiologically ...
Hormone secretion[edit]. The kidneys secrete a variety of hormones, including erythropoietin, calcitriol, and renin. ... Each hormone acts via multiple mechanisms, but both increase the kidney's absorption of sodium chloride, thereby expanding the ... For example, they convert a precursor of vitamin D to its active form, calcitriol; and synthesize the hormones erythropoietin ... Various endocrine hormones coordinate these endocrine functions; these include renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, antidiuretic ...
Fetal hormones[edit]. Main article: Development of the endocrine system. Thyroid gland is the first to develop in fetus at 4th ...
Hormone signals[edit]. The hormones insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK) are released from the GI tract during food absorption and ... Leptin, a hormone secreted exclusively by adipose cells in response to an increase in body fat mass, is an important component ... The fluctuation of leptin and ghrelin hormone levels results in the motivation of an organism to consume food. When an organism ... Woods, S. C. (2004). "Lessons in the interaction of hormones and ingestive behavior". Physiology & Behavior. 82 (1): 187-190. ...
Main articles: Growth hormone 1 and Growth hormone 2. Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; ... These cells release the peptides growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin, also known as human growth hormone (hGH or HGH) in its human form, is a peptide hormone ... pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 (placental growth hormone; growth hormone variant), are localized in the q22-24 ...
Steroid hormones[edit]. Steroidogenesis, showing many of the enzyme activities that are performed by cytochrome P450 enzymes.[ ... A subset of cytochrome P450 enzymes play important roles in the synthesis of steroid hormones (steroidogenesis) by the adrenals ... Cytochrome P450 enzymes are present in most tissues of the body, and play important roles in hormone synthesis and breakdown ( ... These reactions lead to various fatty acid conjugates, plant hormones, secondary metabolites, lignins, and a variety of ...
Relaxin hormone[edit]. Relaxin is a hormone produced mainly by the corpus luteum of the ovary and breast, in both pregnant and ... Pregnancy hormones that are released to adapt the bodily changes also remodel the ligaments in the foot. In addition, the ... A combination of postural changes, baby, unstable pelvic joints under the influence of pregnancy hormones, and changes in the ...
Hormones[edit]. Many hormones can induce insulin resistance including cortisol,[13] growth hormone, and human placental ... "Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation. 33 (2). doi:10.1515/hmbci-2018-0005. ISSN 1868-1891. PMID 29596053. S2CID ... Leptin, a hormone produced from the ob gene and adipocytes[20] Its physiological role is to regulate hunger by alerting the ... Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter cells which also reduces blood glucose (blood sugar). Insulin is released by ...
Main articles: Growth hormone 1 and Growth hormone 2. Genes for human growth hormone, known as growth hormone 1 (somatotropin; ... These cells release the peptides Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH or somatocrinin) and Growth hormone-inhibiting hormone ... pituitary growth hormone) and growth hormone 2 (placental growth hormone; growth hormone variant), are localized in the q22-24 ... peptide hormones *GHRH (somatocrinin) through binding to the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor (GHRHR)[20] ...
Role in hormone research[edit]. A. rivulatus has also been used as a model for the effects of testosterone on lateralization.[8 ...
Use of hormones[edit]. Further information: Bovine somatotropin. It is possible to maintain higher milk production by ... "Safeway milk free of bovine hormone". Seattle Post-Intelligencer (via AP). 22 January 2007. Retrieved 4 April 2008.. ... "FDA Warns Milk Producers to Remove "Hormone Free" Claims From the Labeling Of Dairy Products". U.S. Food and Drug ... supplementing cows with growth hormones known as recombinant BST or rBST, but this is controversial due to its effects on ...
... is known to bind to two steroid hormone carrier proteins: sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), which binds androgens ... and direct binding to and occupation of steroid hormone carrier proteins and consequent displacement of steroid hormones from ... Although its does not significantly affect basal luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in ... Modulation of steroid hormone receptors[edit]. Danazol is described as a possessing high affinity for the androgen receptor (AR ...
Hormones[edit]. Estrogens are indirect anti-androgens and can be used to treat androgenetic hair loss in women with oral ... sex hormone-binding globulin levels, hair shaft diameter, and sexual function". Fertility and Sterility. 93 (6): 1997-2003. doi ...
Effects of exogenous hormones. To some extent, it is possible to change testicular size. Short of direct injury or subjecting ... Similarly, stimulation of testicular functions via gonadotropic-like hormones may enlarge their size. Testes may shrink or ... Testosterone release is controlled by the anterior pituitary luteinizing hormone; whereas sperm production is controlled both ... atrophy during hormone replacement therapy or through chemical castration.. In all cases, the loss in testes volume corresponds ...
This hormone is secreted in response to fat in chyme.. *Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) - is in the duodenum and decreases the ... This hormone responds to the acidity of the chyme.. *Cholecystokinin (CCK) - is in the duodenum and stimulates the release of ... However fats are mainly digested in the small intestine.[17] The presence of fat in the small intestine produces hormones that ... There are at least five hormones that aid and regulate the digestive system in mammals. There are variations across the ...
The major hormone that stimulates cortisol secretion in humans is the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is released from ... Testosterone: a hormone with a wide variety of effects, ranging from enhancing muscle mass and stimulation of cell growth to ... The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones. Mineralocorticoids[edit]. Main article: ... The adrenal cortex comprises three main zones, or layers that are regulated by distinct hormones as noted below. This anatomic ...
Catabolic hormones[edit]. There are many signals that control catabolism. Most of the known signals are hormones and the ... The so-called classic catabolic hormones known since the early 20th century are cortisol, glucagon, and adrenaline (and other ... Endocrinologists have traditionally classified many of the hormones as anabolic or catabolic, depending on which part of ... catecholamines). In recent decades, many more hormones with at least some catabolic effects have been discovered, including ...
Stress hormones affect memory[edit]. Effects of stress-related hormones, such as epinephrine and glucocorticoids are mediated ...
... androgens and growth hormone are factors in obesity. ... The hormones leptin and insulin, sex hormones and growth ... Obesity and hormones The hormones leptin, insulin, oestrogens, androgens and growth hormone are factors in obesity... ... Behaviour and obesity hormones. People who are obese have hormone levels that encourage the accumulation of body fat. It seems ... Obesity and growth hormone. The pituitary gland in our brain produces growth hormone, which influences a persons height and ...
... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ... When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes.[2][3][4][5] ... Side effects of GnRH agonists are related to sex hormone deficiency and include symptoms of low testosterone levels and low ...
Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones. It is likely that all cells in the body are targets for thyroid hormones. While not ... Thyroid Hormone Receptors and Mechanism of Action. Receptors for thyroid hormones are intracellular DNA-binding proteins that ... A few examples of specific metabolic effects of thyroid hormones include: *Lipid metabolism: Increased thyroid hormone levels ... A few additional, well-documented effects of thyroid hormones include: *Cardiovascular system: Thyroid hormones increases heart ...
Scientists find that rainfall runoff from biosolids amended fields may contain hormones at concentrations high enough to impact ... Hormones in Land-Applied Biosolids Could Affect Aquatic Organisms. Scientists setting up equipment used to apply artificial ... Hormones from biosolids applied to fields may be present in rainfall runoff at concentrations that are high enough to impact ... Yang, Y.-Y., Gray, J.L., Furlong, E.T., Davis, J.G., ReVello, R.C., and Borch, T., 2012, Steroid hormone runoff from ...
Learn About Treating Male Menopause with Hormone Replacement Therapy Today. ... Symptoms of Hormone Imbalance in Men. Its a fact of life: hormone levels decline as you age. Hormone imbalance in men can ... Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy for Men. Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy for Men. Guys, hormone balance is ... Hormone replacement therapy using bioidentical hormones is an effective and natural option for restoring and balancing hormone ...
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). ... The thyroid hormones function via a well-studied set of nuclear receptors, termed the thyroid hormone receptors. These ... The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. These hormones ... If there is a deficiency of dietary iodine, the thyroid will not be able to make thyroid hormone. The lack of thyroid hormone ...
The development of peptide chemistry in the second half of this century is so closely related to hormone research that it ... D.H. Copp, E.C. Cameron, B. Cheney, G.F. Davidson, K.G. Henze, Evidence for calcitonin, a new hormone from the parathyroid that ... K. Tatemoto, V. Mutt, Chemical determination of polypeptide hormones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 4115-4119 (1978).PubMed ... H.J. Keutmann, M.M. Sauer, G.N. Hendy, J.L.H. ORiordan, J. Potts, Complete amino acid sequence of human parathyroid hormone. ...
New parents are slammed with hormones, as is the rookie player on a sports team. And the endocrine system is so complex that ... Hormones are silent drivers of behavior and personality; their molecular fingerprints are on everything from attraction to ... Do Hormones Really Influence What Women Find Attractive?. Recent replication studies torpedo earlier research on hormones and ... Understanding Hormones. Hormones are silent drivers of behavior and personality; their molecular fingerprints are on everything ...
... hormone supplements, estrogen, testosterone, hormone therapy, steroids, endocrine system, glands, human growth hormone, insulin ... hormone supplements, estrogen, testosterone, hormone therapy, steroids, endocrine system, glands, human growth hormone, insulin ... News about Hormones, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. ...
Thyroid Hormones Definition Thyroid hormones are artificially made hormones that make up for a lack of natural hormones ... Thyroid Hormones. Definition. Thyroid hormones are artificially made hormones that make up for a lack of natural hormones ... The adrenal glands produce hormones that control many body functions.. Hormone- A chemical that is produced in one part of the ... thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotrophin) n. a hormone, synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland under ...
The Endocrine system has eight major glands that make hormones. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease in the USA. ... If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does ... Hormones are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work slowly and affect ... They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too ...
... Well go through all the glands and the hormones they produce in this PowerPoint Presentation! By Dawn ... Hormones of the Body * 1. Hormones of the Body Well go through all the glands and the hormones they produce in this PowerPoint ... As hormones are produced by the cells, the hormones are either released into the colloid or directly into the blood. ,/li,,/ul ... 4. What do these anterior pituitary hormones do? ,ul,,li,Growth Hormone : ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,stimulates cells to grow and divide ...
Not Just for GuitarsHow Hormones WorkHypothalamus: The Head HonchoPituitary: The First LieutenantThyroidKidneys: Not Just for ... slower way involves hormones, which are a collection of chemicals that alter the behavior of specific organs and tissues on the ...
Hormones in food: meat from hormone-treated animals versus other sources. 11. Economic implications of the use of hormones in ... CURRENT NATIONAL LEGISLATION RELATING TO THE USE OF CERTAIN HORMONES IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION (An annotated chronological index of ... 9. Residues in edible tissues of hormone-treated animals. 10. ... 2.1 Hormones of endogenous origin. 2.2 Hormones of exogenous ...
Too much or too little of a certain hormone can be serious. ... Hormones are your bodys chemical messengers. They affect many ... Growth hormone test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Luteinizing hormone (LH) blood test (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in ... Hormones, Women, and Breast Cancer (Hormone Health Network) * Menopause: MedlinePlus Health Topic (National Library of Medicine ... That is why too much or too little of a certain hormone can be serious. Laboratory tests can measure the hormone levels in your ...
Might be those hormones kicking in for puberty, changing everything from height to hair to body shape! ...
3 Growth Hormone Tricks: Naturally Elevate GH For Faster Fat Loss - Duration: 6:34. Get Lean in 12 216,569 views ... How to Fix the HORMONE Imbalance in Male & Female , Tips by Guru Mann - Duration: 11:57. Guru Mann Fitness 323,636 views ... Girl Talk: How I Balanced My Hormones To Start Losing Weight Naturally! - Duration: 6:38. Vanessa Watson 74,440 views ... Weight Training for Women Balances Hormones w/ Dr. Tyna Moore - Duration: 58:24. High Intensity Health 55,230 views ...
... it may have less to do with your willpower to hit the gym and eat low fat foods and more to do with your hormones. Marjorie ... says the secret to maintaining a health weight may be in balancing your hormones by giving yourself a hunger hormone makeover. ... "Hormones play a role not only in weight gain but in our inability to lose weight once were already overweight or obese," Nolan ... There are two different types of hormones at play here: one that makes you feel hungry and one that makes you feel satiated. ...
What Other Hormone-Related Conditions Are Associated With Depression? The thyroid gland produces and regulates thyroid hormones ... What Do Hormones Have to Do With Depression?. Levels of certain hormones, such as those produced by the thyroid gland, can be ... What Are Hormones?. Hormones are substances produced by the endocrine glands that have a tremendous effect on bodily processes ... Thyroid gland hormones can affect food metabolism, mood, and sexual function. When the thyroid produces too much hormone, the ...
Hormones are special chemicals your body makes to help it do certain things - like grow up! ... Hormones. Say: hor-mones. Hormones are special chemicals your body makes to help it do certain things - like grow up! Hormones ... Insulin is an important hormone. It regulates the amount of sugar in your blood. That sugar, called glucose, is the bodys main ... During this time, youre loaded with hormones that tell your body that its time to start changing. ...
Bioidentical or plant-derived hormones have uncertain efficacy or safety in treating menopausal symptoms. What is the evidence ... Compounded hormones are available for menopause symptoms and could be considered if the exact doses of hormones are not ... Salivary hormone measurements are extremely variable, with no standards to indicate how hormone doses should be adjusted in ... In the future, new gels delivering small amounts of other hormones for menopause may reduce the need for compounded hormones ...
Exercise and metabolic hormones. However, while there is a lot of evidence outlining the various benefits of exercise on health ... The effects of various forms of exercise on better-known hormones such as insulin and adrenalin are already well-understood, ... This was a surprise to the researchers who were expecting it to rise, since animal studies suggest that the metabolic hormone ... So, they investigated this further by examining the impact of two forms of exercise on metabolic hormones, which are the ...
Hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body. ... Hormones. Hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body. After being made in one part of the ... For example, insulin is a hormone thats made by the beta cells in the pancreas. When its released into the blood, insulin ...
Media in category "Plant hormones". The following 23 files are in this category, out of 23 total. ... Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Plant_hormones&oldid=257583426" ...
An intimate relation between hormones and lipoprotein metabolism has been known for a long time especially from hormone- ... Sex-Hormones - Mechanism of Action, Epidemiology. * Pharmacology of Female Sex Hormones with Respect to Lipid and Lipoprotein ... An intimate relation between hormones and lipoprotein metabolism has been known for a long time especially from hormone- ... Sex-Hormones - Action on Plasma Lipoproteins. * Influence of Oral and Percutaneous Estrogen Therapy on the Lipoprotein Particle ...
Hormones are of vital importance for good health, both in men and women. ... These are hormones derived from plants, which are then modified in the lab to become exactly the same as the human hormones. ... HORMONES are vital to our health. They instruct our cells to do important metabolic functions. Too much or too little hormones ... So, although using natural human hormones or their equivalents makes more sense than using horse hormones or synthetics, we are ...
There are several hormones that regulate the making and ejection of milk from human breasts as well as from the breasts of all ... Hormones. *A hormone called Prolactin secreted by the pituitary gland in the brain is responsible for the alveoli making milk. ... There are several hormones that regulate the making and ejection of milk from human breasts as well as from the breasts of all ... There is another hormone called Oxytocin that causes tiny muscles around the alveoli to squeeze the milk via small tubes called ...
Ces presse-étoupe sont sans canal et sécrètent les hormones directement dans la circulation sanguine, qui les transporte à ... Des hormones sont produites par les cellules des glandes endocrines. ... Les hormones stéroïdes et les hormones thyroïdiennes fonctionnent différemment des hormones de peptide et de protéine, qui ... Action des hormones. Les hormones agissent lun sur lautre avec leurs récepteurs dobjectif sont présentés sur dont la surface ...
... in response to customer request and repeated questions from ... Growth Hormones Direct urges consumers to watch Science Meet Nature as they reap the benefits of optimizing their hormone ... Illegal Human Growth Hormone use is still dangerous. Pharmaceutical Growth Hormones needs a prescription that requires an ... Optimal hormone levels allow individuals to enjoy increased general health. Growth Hormones Direct is an Arizona based ...
This investigation into a controversial topic explains the basics of hormones, their risks and benefits, and their appropriate ... Hormones are the magic bullets of anti-ageing products. But are they safe? And how necessary and beneficial are they? ... steroid hormones supplemental hormones synthetic hormones taking DHEA thyroid hormone treat Type I diabetes types of hormones ... health food stores heart disease herbs hormone levels hormone production hormone replacement hot flashes human growth hormone ...
  • In addition to assessing signs and symptoms of PCOS, medical providers take a medical history, perform a physical exam, and check blood hormone levels (including testosterone). (hormone.org)
  • Side effects of GnRH agonists are related to sex hormone deficiency and include symptoms of low testosterone levels and low estrogen levels such as hot flashes , sexual dysfunction , vaginal atrophy , osteoporosis , infertility , and diminished sex-specific physical characteristics . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormone imbalance in men can occur at any point in the life cycle, but it is most commonly experienced around middle-age when testosterone levels reach a peak point of decline. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Though men can experience an imbalance of any number of hormones, low testosterone has the biggest impact on a man's health and quality of life. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Men have reported vast benefits from bioidentical testosterone therapy and fewer side effects than with synthetic hormones. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • 2003) examined the acute effects of the number of sets on testosterone, cortisol, and growth hormone responses after maximum strength (5 reps at 88% of 1RM, 3-min rest) and muscular hypertrophy (10 reps at 75% of 1RM, 3-min rest) protocols with 2, 4 and 6 sets of each exercise in 11 physically active (2-8 years resistance training experience) young men. (unm.edu)
  • Contrariwise, Kramer and Ratamess (2005) summarize that protocols high in volume do tend to produce acute hormonal elevations in testosterone, as well as cortisol, and growth hormone. (unm.edu)
  • Testosterone and estrogen are examples of male and female hormones. (cancer.org)
  • Levels of several sex hormones including estradiol (a form of estrogen ) and testosterone were gauged in multiple sclerosis patients and in 36 healthy volunteers. (webmd.com)
  • Only two of the sex hormones -- testosterone and estrogen --- appeared to be important to multiple sclerosis. (webmd.com)
  • Example adrenal complex hormones are corticosteroids such as immune system hormone glucocorticoid, and androgens such as testosterone. (nature.com)
  • The steps in the conversion of progesterone to the main estrogens-estradiol and estrone-include the intermediate formation of several androgens (male sex hormones): dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione, and testosterone . (britannica.com)
  • In males it is testosterone that plays a major role as sex hormones and in females the predominant role is that of estrogen and progesterone. (hindawi.com)
  • Comparing the hormone data with the results of the money game showed a correlation between high testosterone levels and an increased likelihood of refusing the low, "unfair" offer of $5. (newscientist.com)
  • He speculates that testosterone produces a greater aversion to unfair deals because the hormone is linked to dominance-seeking behaviours. (newscientist.com)
  • Children who later develop autism are exposed to elevated levels of steroid hormones (for example testosterone, progesterone and cortisol) in the womb, according to scientists from the University of Cambridge and the Statens Serum Institute in Copenhagen, Denmark. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Despite being compounded safely for decades, the bioidentical hormones estriol, estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone have been nominated to the list. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Other causes of hair loss include scalp infections, thyroid disorders and testosterone hormone imbalances. (womansday.com)
  • The pituitary gland in our brain produces growth hormone, which influences a person's height and helps build bone and muscle. (vic.gov.au)
  • J.G. Pierce, S. Gordon, V. du Vigneaud, Further distribution studies on the oxytocic hormone of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland and the preparation of an active crystalline flavianate. (springer.com)
  • A hormone called Prolactin secreted by the pituitary gland in the brain is responsible for the alveoli making milk. (news-medical.net)
  • For example, growth hormone released by the pituitary gland controls the growth of long bones of the body. (labtestsonline.org)
  • Released from your pituitary gland, growth hormone production peaks around puberty, and then slowly fades away as we age and plays a key role in the maintenance of muscle, bone mass and the balance of body fat. (military.com)
  • The medication Michael takes is a synthetic growth hormone that's virtually identical to a natural hormone we all produce in our pituitary gland. (cbsnews.com)
  • luteinizing hormone ( LH ) ( loo -ti-i-nyz-ing) n. a hormone (see gonadotrophin ), synthesized and released by the anterior pituitary gland , that stimulates ovulation, corpus luteum formation, progesterone synthesis by the ovary, and androgen synthesis by the testes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A hormone, secreted by the anterior pituitary gland in mammals, that stimulates in males the production of sex hormones ( androgens ) by the interstitial cells of the testes and in females ovulation, progesterone synthesis, and corpus luteum formation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For cattle, their natural hormones stimulate the pituitary gland and help cattle enhance their muscle-building ability while also decreasing the amount of fat deposited in and around muscles. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • All participants were 40 years or older when initial tests were done to measure levels of thyrotropin, a hormone released by the pituitary gland that is known to stimulate the thyroid. (marksdailyapple.com)
  • The hormones leptin and insulin, sex hormones and growth hormone influence our appetite, metabolism (the rate at which our body burns kilojoules for energy), and body fat distribution. (vic.gov.au)
  • People who are obese have levels of these hormones that encourage abnormal metabolism and the accumulation of body fat. (vic.gov.au)
  • Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, is important for the regulation of carbohydrates and the metabolism of fat. (vic.gov.au)
  • Growth hormone also affects metabolism (the rate at which we burn kilojoules for energy). (vic.gov.au)
  • While not strictly necessary for life, thyroid hormones have profound effects on many "big time" physiologic processes, such as development, growth and metabolism, and deficiency in thyroid hormones is not compatible with normal health. (colostate.edu)
  • Thyroid hormones stimulate almost all aspects of carbohydrate metabolism, including enhancement of insulin-dependent entry of glucose into cells and increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to generate free glucose. (colostate.edu)
  • This hormone controls the rate of metabolism - all the physical and chemical processes that occur in cells to allow growth and maintain body functions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By making up for the lack of natural thyroxine and bringing the rate of metabolism back to normal, artificially made thyroid hormone improves these symptoms. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If that problem causes too much thyroid hormone secretion, that person is said to have slight hyperthyroidism, and has increased metabolism. (slideshare.net)
  • More often we hear of cases of slight hypothyroidism, where a person's thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone… this causes a decreased metabolism, and often weight gain. (slideshare.net)
  • Ghrelin is a hunger-stimulating hormone that also controls metabolism and thirst. (yahoo.com)
  • Thyroid gland hormones can affect food metabolism , mood, and sexual function. (webmd.com)
  • So, they investigated this further by examining the impact of two forms of exercise on metabolic hormones, which are the chemical messengers that regulate the processes of metabolism. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • An intimate relation between hormones and lipoprotein metabolism has been known for a long time especially from hormone-deficiency or -overproduction syndromes. (springer.com)
  • The mechanisms through which hormones influence lipid metabolism have become a field of major interest in sci- ence. (springer.com)
  • It was an attempt to pull together knowledge in basic science from the mode of action of hormones all the way to clinical appearance of hor- monal disorders involving lipoprotein metabolism. (springer.com)
  • hormones include thyroxine and triiodothyronine, which regulate tissue metabolism. (britannica.com)
  • Hormones play a key role in maintaining homeostasis (a steady state of equilibrium) and regulating many bodily processes -- everything from growth and metabolism to sexual function and reproduction. (thebody.com)
  • hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, where it exerts some influence upon the metabolism of the target tissue. (factmonster.com)
  • And thyroid hormones (that's right, produced by the thyroid) control metabolism. (foxnews.com)
  • Thyroid hormones are the key determinants of your metabolism," Kent Holtorf, an endocrinologist in Los Angeles, said. (foxnews.com)
  • They are tyrosine-based hormones that are primarily responsible for regulation of metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These hormones also regulate protein, fat, and carbohydrate metabolism, affecting how human cells use energetic compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • All these are due to the sudden rapid decline in her oestrogens (female sex hormones). (thestar.com.my)
  • Hormones are chemical messengers that regulate processes in our body. (vic.gov.au)
  • Hormones, secreted by endocrine (hormone secreting) glands in the body, are substances that regulate the function of body cells, tissues, organs or systems. (unm.edu)
  • There are many hormones that regulate the body. (thestar.com.my)
  • There are several hormones that regulate the making and ejection of milk from human breasts as well as from the breasts of all female mammals after childbirth. (news-medical.net)
  • Insect hormones are generated and used by insects to regulate physiological, developmental and behavioural events. (nature.com)
  • Sex hormones of reproductive system are one of the major factors that regulate immune system due to the presence of hormone receptors on immune cells. (hindawi.com)
  • The sex hormones also regulate the functioning of molecules of immune system as estradiol is reported to be one of the regulators of immune molecules like cytokines [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The posterior (rear) portion of the pituitary secretes antidiuretic hormone (ADH, or vasopressin), which helps regulate the body's fluid balance, and oxytocin, which triggers uterine contractions during labor and the release of milk. (thebody.com)
  • The thyroid, a butterfly-shaped gland located at the base of the neck, produces triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), two hormones that regulate basal metabolic rate. (thebody.com)
  • It acts to increase the basal metabolic rate, affect protein synthesis, help regulate long bone growth (synergy with growth hormone) and neural maturation, and increase the body's sensitivity to catecholamines (such as adrenaline) by permissiveness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among these substances are the hormones prolactin (associated with milk production) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and the neurotransmitter leucine enkephalin, all of which are released when the body is under stress. (nytimes.com)
  • The hormones of the anterior pituitary include thyrotropin , adrenocorticotropic hormone , the gonadotropic hormones , and growth hormone the posterior pituitary secretes antidiuretic hormone , prolactin, and oxytocin . (factmonster.com)
  • The hormone leptin is produced by fat cells and is secreted into our bloodstream. (vic.gov.au)
  • However, despite having higher levels of this appetite-reducing hormone, people who are obese aren't as sensitive to the effects of leptin and, as a result, tend not to feel full during and after a meal. (vic.gov.au)
  • The hormone, leptin, on the other hand is responsible for alerting you when you're stomach is full. (yahoo.com)
  • That's the work of three hormones in your body that control hunger -- insulin, ghrelin and leptin. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Being obese interferes with the proper functioning of your appetite, interfering with the regulating gastrointestinal hormones leptin ('I'm satisfied') and ghrelin ('Feed me! (newsmax.com)
  • Leptin, a hormone produced by fat cells, also tells your hypothalamus that you're full by prompting the secretion of alpha-MSH, which is another appetite-suppressing hormone. (menshealth.com)
  • Hormones, particularly leptin, play a large role in people's plans for losing weight. (prweb.com)
  • Leptin, a hormone that regulates the amount of fat stored in the body, also drives the increase in blood pressure that occurs with weight gain, according to researchers from Monash University and the University of Cambridge. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Thyroid hormones are artificially made hormones that make up for a lack of natural hormones produced by the thyroid gland . (encyclopedia.com)
  • So it is an embarrassment to medical science that we are forced to use the word 'bio-identical' for natural hormones found in the human body. (opednews.com)
  • These implants are placed under the skin behind the ear and stimulate the gland that produces natural hormones in the animal's body. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • A new contraceptive pill that contains natural hormones (and so may keep your libido intact) is under review by the Food and Drug Administration. (foxnews.com)
  • The evidence linking chemicals that can act like our natural hormones to cancer has generally been weak. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Compounded bioidentical hormones in the USA typically contain a large quantity of estriol, a weak estrogen. (medscape.com)
  • Estrogen , any of a group of hormones that primarily influence the female reproductive tract in its development, maturation, and function. (britannica.com)
  • At its target tissues, the free hormone penetrates the cell surface and then binds to a protein known as an estrogen receptor in the cytoplasm of the cells. (britannica.com)
  • MONDAY, Feb. 26, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- There may be a link between asthma in women and changes in levels of female hormones such as estrogen and progesterone , researchers report. (medicinenet.com)
  • In the non-organic meat and dairy industry, hormone implants are widely used (especially estrogen implants) to promote quicker growth and better yield. (whfoods.com)
  • Of course, since cows naturally make their own hormones (including estrogen), we would expect to some hormone residues in meat and dairy products even when those products had been certified as organic. (whfoods.com)
  • Estrogen may be responsible for giving you a greater "buzz" from addictive substances, like nicotine, so when this hormone level decreases in weeks three and four, you enjoy cigarettes less, making it easier to quit. (marieclaire.com)
  • Hormones and hormone-like compounds are found in different types of food including beef (1.3 - 1.9 nanograms of estrogen per 3oz. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • Girls start making more sex hormones (both estrogen and progesterone) in puberty. (sheknows.com)
  • Among women taking estrogen plus progestin, there was a 22 percent reduced risk, and a 45 percent reduced risk -- the highest seen -- among those who had stopped taking the combination hormones at least five years earlier. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Many women with PCOS have decreased sensitivity to insulin, the hormone that regulates glucose (sugar) in the blood. (hormone.org)
  • Insulin is an important hormone. (kidshealth.org)
  • The effects of various forms of exercise on better-known hormones such as insulin and adrenalin are already well-understood, says senior study author Christoffer Clemmensen, who is working as an associate professor in the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research in Copenhagen. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • For example, insulin is a hormone that's made by the beta cells in the pancreas. (kidshealth.org)
  • The reason is that while the blood is loaded with glucose, the cells are starving because of lack of instructions by the hormone insulin for the cells to assimilate (take-in) the glucose. (thestar.com.my)
  • A system of glands, known as the endocrine system, secretes hormones into our bloodstream. (vic.gov.au)
  • Hormone - A chemical that is produced in one part of the body and then travels through the bloodstream to another part of the body where it has its effect. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Hormones travel through the bloodstream and set in motion various body functions. (cancer.org)
  • to send hormones via the bloodstream to control and guide nearly every function in our body. (tgdaily.com)
  • While exocrine (e.g., sweat, salivary, digestive) glands secrete chemicals directly to their site of action, endocrine (or ductless) glands release hormones into the bloodstream to be transported throughout the body. (thebody.com)
  • In this way, hormones that travel throughout the bloodstream may target only a very small part of the body, as in the case of certain hypothalamic hormones acting only on the pituitary, which is no bigger than a pea! (factmonster.com)
  • Artificial rainfall runoff from agricultural test plots where biosolids were applied as fertilizer contained several different hormones (estrogens, androgens, and progesterone). (usgs.gov)
  • Above Right Image Provera: Note the Chemical alteration (see red side group) which creates a monster hormone called Provera, a synthetic altered version of progesterone. (opednews.com)
  • This means that millions of women would lose complete access to estriol and customized dosages of other important bioidentical hormones such as progesterone. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Bioidentical estriol, estradiol, and progesterone are crucial hormones women need when going through menopause, fertility challenges, or other hormonal imbalances. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Congress did not intend for the DQSA to remove patient access to compounded hormones such as estriol, estradiol, and progesterone, which have been safely compounded for decades and that many Americans rely upon for their health. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • The thyroid gland , a butterfly-shaped structure in the lower part of the neck, normally produces a hormone called thyroxine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The thyroid gland produces and regulates thyroid hormones. (webmd.com)
  • Levels of certain hormones, such as those produced by the thyroid gland, can be factors in depression . (webmd.com)
  • When the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormone, the body uses energy at a slower pace than it should. (webmd.com)
  • The thyroid gland uses iodine to make hormones. (webmd.com)
  • thyroiditis, an inflammation of the thyroid gland that can cause the release of stored hormones (If thyroiditis causes all the hormones to be released, hypothyroidism can follow. (webmd.com)
  • This triggers the production of thyroid hormones and affects the size of the thyroid gland. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • These are the most common tests used to check the thyroid gland as a blood test can be used to determine the amounts of hormones produced by it. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • More rarely, a blood test can be taken to measure another hormone produced by the thyroid gland called calcitonin. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). (wikipedia.org)
  • Androgen excess (male hormone excess), seen in 60-80% of girls and women with PCOS, is a key problem in the disorder and likely comes from ovaries in most women. (hormone.org)
  • Oestrogens are sex hormones made by the ovaries in pre-menopausal women. (vic.gov.au)
  • In reference to gender, the major differences in male and female endocrinology (the study of the hormone secreting glands) come down to the differing reproductive structures (testes versus ovaries). (unm.edu)
  • In addition, men produce hormones in their testes and women produce them in their ovaries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The adrenal cortex, ovaries, and testes in fact produce at least small amounts of all of the steroid hormones. (factmonster.com)
  • Unlike conventional hormone therapy that uses synthetic and animal-derived hormones that are slightly different from a woman's own hormones, bioidentical hormones are biochemically identical to those made by the ovaries during a woman's reproductive years. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • two thyroid hormones, thyroxine and triiodothyronine, with the former being produced in much greater quantities than the latter. (britannica.com)
  • thyroid hormones thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ). (britannica.com)
  • The thyroids secrete thyroxine and calcitonin, and the parathyroids secrete parathyroid hormone . (factmonster.com)
  • It manufactures the thyroid hormones, triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine - usually more commonly called thyroxine (T4). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The major form of thyroid hormone in the blood is thyroxine (T4), which has a longer half-life than T3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team of scientists collaborated with a local farmer to assess the potential for seventeen different hormones (including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens) and two sterols (waxy compounds such as cholesterol) to occur in the rainfall runoff from a winter wheat field in eastern Colorado where biosolids were applied. (usgs.gov)
  • A mineralocorticoid is a hormone that is made in the adrenal cortex that regulates the levels of specific minerals in the blood. (slideshare.net)
  • People who take thyroid hormones because their thyroid glands do not produce enough natural hormone may need to take the medicine for the rest of their lives. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The adrenal glands produce hormones that control many body functions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These glands make hormones . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Endocrine glands secrete their hormones into the blood. (slideshare.net)
  • 1. Hormones of the Body We'll go through all the glands and the hormones they produce in this PowerPoint Presentation! (slideshare.net)
  • Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hormones are substances produced by the endocrine glands that have a tremendous effect on bodily processes. (webmd.com)
  • Insect hormones can be produced by epithelial glands - for example, juvenile hormones or the steroid hormones ecdysteroids - or by neurosecretory cells, as for the neuropeptide hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone. (nature.com)
  • The term "hormone" broadly refers to any type of chemical messenger, but is most often used to denote chemicals produced by the endocrine glands. (thebody.com)
  • The hypothalamus secretes releasing hormones that direct the pituitary to increase or decrease production of its own hormones, which in turn stimulate subsidiary glands such as the thyroid, adrenal glands, and gonads. (thebody.com)
  • Located near the thyroid are four small parathyroid glands, which secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH). (thebody.com)
  • Overproduction of parathyroid hormone most commonly results from a benign tumour of one of the glands. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Natural desiccated thyroid hormones are derived from pig thyroid glands, and are a "natural" hypothyroid treatment containing 20% T3 and traces of T2, T1 and calcitonin. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who are obese have hormone levels that encourage the accumulation of body fat. (vic.gov.au)
  • The changes with age in the sex hormone levels of both men and women are associated with changes in body fat distribution. (vic.gov.au)
  • Researchers have found that growth hormone levels in people who are obese are lower than in people of normal weight. (vic.gov.au)
  • When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppressing sex hormone levels in transgender people , especially transgender women . (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased thyroid hormone levels stimulate fat mobilization, leading to increased concentrations of fatty acids in plasma. (colostate.edu)
  • Finally, plasma concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides are inversely correlated with thyroid hormone levels - one diagnostic indiction of hypothyroidism is increased blood cholesterol concentration. (colostate.edu)
  • Normal reproductive behavior and physiology is dependent on having essentially normal levels of thyroid hormone. (colostate.edu)
  • It's a fact of life: hormone levels decline as you age. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Men who are experiencing one or more of these symptoms should consider advanced laboratory testing to assess their hormone levels. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Bioidentical hormone replacement therapy has become the preferred treatment for men seeking to restore hormone levels to a balanced state and stop the symptoms of aging. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have a hormone disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stress, infection and changes in your blood's fluid and electrolyte balance can also influence hormone levels. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with slight hypothyroidism can usually take thyroid hormone as a medication to compensate for their naturally-occurring low levels. (slideshare.net)
  • These are hormones that are very important in regulating our blood glucose levels. (slideshare.net)
  • In the muscular hypertrophy and strength endurance protocol, there was an increase in cortisol and growth hormone levels in four sets of exercise versus two sets. (unm.edu)
  • Laboratory tests can measure the hormone levels in your blood, urine, or saliva. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These hormones can affect energy levels, mood, even weight . (webmd.com)
  • The goal of treatment for any thyroid disorder is to restore normal blood levels of thyroid hormone. (webmd.com)
  • The "rate of change" of ovarian hormones is calculated by determining the "slope of a rise or fall" in hormone levels around a hormonal peak. (medscape.com)
  • Magnitude of change" is defined as the absolute difference between peak and trough hormone levels of a hormonal peak. (medscape.com)
  • A) "Rate of change" is calculated by the slope of the rise or decline in serum hormone levels. (medscape.com)
  • C) "Magnitude of change" signifies the absolute difference in peak and trough hormone levels. (medscape.com)
  • Anti-ageing doctors, on the other hand, will investigate at least 10 other hormones to have a better estimation of the state of the body, and to be able to optimise these hormones should they be at sub-optimal levels. (thestar.com.my)
  • Growth Hormones Direct urges consumers to watch 'Science Meet Nature' as they reap the benefits of optimizing their hormone levels through proper use of the homeopathic growth hormone formula. (prweb.com)
  • Optimal hormone levels allow individuals to enjoy increased general health. (prweb.com)
  • Men with multiple sclerosis and healthy men had similar sex hormone levels. (webmd.com)
  • If more attractive man comes along, women with high levels of this hormone are more willing to leave their partner for him," said Kristine Durante, a doctoral candidate in psychology at UT Austin and lead author on the study. (popsci.com)
  • But if you have migraines, it's best to use patches or a gel, as these types of HRT keep hormone levels more stable than tablets and are less likely to trigger migraines. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Researchers from Loughborough University have shown that a group of athletes who conducted a short series of 30-second sprints reached growth hormone levels 25 TIMES their resting levels approximately 30 minutes after training. (military.com)
  • Tests indicated Michael was producing adequate levels of growth hormone, but x-rays of his bones revealed his adult height would probably be only 5 feet 5 inches. (cbsnews.com)
  • Learn more about what affects your hormone levels, the benefits and risks of some medications and how to protect yourself. (cancer.ca)
  • However, we would expect hormone levels to be significantly lower in certified organic products. (whfoods.com)
  • But sometimes hormone levels can change and this imbalance can have serious side effects. (tgdaily.com)
  • In the course of a lifetime hormone levels are constantly changing, adapting to our age and needs. (tgdaily.com)
  • The problems start when the hormone levels are not intended by nature. (tgdaily.com)
  • This difference in hormone levels in both sexes leads to immune dimorphism. (hindawi.com)
  • A National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory study showed that atrazine produced extreme increases in stress-hormone levels in rats. (menshealth.com)
  • During perimenopause fluctuating hormone levels, especially estradiol, leave some women dealing with a variety of symptoms. (bellaonline.com)
  • Changes in hormone levels and the related hot flashes and sleep disturbances make it difficult to function and perform daily tasks. (bellaonline.com)
  • Next time you have to negotiate a deal with a male business contact, you might want to check his hormone levels first. (newscientist.com)
  • This revealed considerable variability in the levels of the hormone. (newscientist.com)
  • Teenage boys with symptoms of depression and raised levels of the stress hormone cortisol are up to 14 times more likely to develop major depression than those without these traits, Cambridge researchers have found. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The FDA sets a tolerance on hormone residue levels that can be found in food. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • Hormone levels go through dramatic changes during your menstrual cycle," Mary Jane Minkin, a clinical professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the Yale University School of Medicine, said. (foxnews.com)
  • Before turning to a sleep aid like Ambien, get your hormone levels checked. (foxnews.com)
  • Our natural hormone levels change across our lifetime, especially for women, because of things like puberty, pregnancy and menopause. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Our lifestyles, including drinking alcohol or being overweight, can also affect hormone levels and cancer risk. (cancerresearchuk.org)
  • Adults who report high levels of stress and who also had stressful childhoods are most likely to show hormone patterns associated with negative health outcomes. (psychologicalscience.org)
  • Levels of T3 and T4 hormones in the blood that are higher than normal can indicate an excess (hyperthyroidism) whereas if there are not enough thyroid hormones, this can be a sign of a thyroid deficiency (hypothyroidism). (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Is there any Gynecologist/doctor in South Africa, that would treat menopause patient with bio-identical hormones? (news24.com)
  • This type of hormone therapy is sometimes given to relieve symptoms of menopause. (cancer.org)
  • The hormone changes that happen as women approach the menopause mean that all types of headache, including migraines, become more common. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Is it menopause and hormones? (bellaonline.com)
  • So while some experts insist hormones cause depression during menopause, others point out that risk factors such as stress affect hormonal functions. (bellaonline.com)
  • Menopause, Depression & Hormones: What s the Connection? (bellaonline.com)
  • Over 2.5 million women rely on estriol and other natural bioidentical hormones to manage fertility, menopause, and other hormone imbalances, but the FDA is trying to take them away! (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Formulations of these hormones can relieve and control the symptoms of menopause as well as other hormonal imbalances. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • The interaction of reproductive system with that of immune system is attributed to the sex hormones and their hormone receptors on immune cells [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In order to address the problems of cheating and financial fraud on college campuses, researchers at Harvard and UT Austin decided to study reproductive hormones, thinking there may be clues behind such unethical conduct. (healthcentral.com)
  • If you are under 35 and trying to get pregnant and don't conceive within a year, see a reproductive endocrinologist to check for hormone-related fertility problems. (foxnews.com)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is a hormone disorder defined by a group of signs and symptoms. (hormone.org)
  • Symptoms of hormone balance generally begin to occur with greater frequency and intensity when a man reaches middle age. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Your hormone therapy practitioner will meet with you to review and discuss your medical history, symptoms, lifestyle and lab results. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Bio-identical hormone replacement therapy has been shown to be an effective treatment for men suffering from symptoms of hormone imbalance. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Anyone who has unusual symptoms while taking thyroid hormones should get in touch with his or her physician. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Your health care provider may perform these tests if you have symptoms of a hormone disorder . (medlineplus.gov)
  • [ 19 ] This study of estriol demonstrates that it may have beneficial effects as a single hormone for urogenital symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • We are now undertaking a project to clarify the role of contraceptives and HRT [ hormone replacement therapy ] in asthma and allergy symptoms. (medicinenet.com)
  • The list of symptoms related to hormonal imbalance is long, but luckily in most cases a hormone therapy can help. (tgdaily.com)
  • If you have any doubts about the cause of any symptoms you might have, visit an endocrinologist to see if they are hormone related. (tgdaily.com)
  • In search of relief, some consider hormone replacement therapy (HRT), which is proven to help these symptoms. (breastcancer.org)
  • The concentration of thyroid hormones in the blood is normally constant, but too much or too little thyroid hormone causes symptoms. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Receptors for thyroid hormones are intracellular DNA-binding proteins that function as hormone-responsive transcription factors, very similar conceptually to the receptors for steroid hormones . (colostate.edu)
  • Cholesterol is the parent molecule from which all ovarian steroid hormones are formed. (britannica.com)
  • Major pathways involved in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. (britannica.com)
  • Insects have a unique hormonal system that includes ecdysone, a steroid that influences molting and metamorphosis, and juvenile hormone, needed for early development. (factmonster.com)
  • In the case of steroid-based hormones, for example, they are lipid soluble (being lipids themselves), and so they pass right through the cell membrane. (factmonster.com)
  • Human Growth Hormone (HGH): Does It Slow Aging? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The homeopathic industry is slowly gaining distance from the negative reputation that held back all Human Growth Hormone based therapies and supplements after the major consequences in the athletic industry in the '80s and '90s. (prweb.com)
  • Illegal Human Growth Hormone use is still dangerous. (prweb.com)
  • Kids used to have to live with the teasing, but now, the 21st century family can change all this with injections of something called human growth hormone. (cbsnews.com)
  • The FDA's approval of human growth hormone for use in healthy children was based on studies presented by Eli Lilly. (cbsnews.com)
  • Human Growth Hormone An recent article in the Harvard Health Publications of the Harvard Medical School, argues that "Adults with bona fide GH [growth hormone] deficiencies benefit from GH injections. (amazonaws.com)
  • The major hypothalamic hormones are growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), and prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH). (thebody.com)
  • Prolactin and oxytocin , hormones thought only to be secreted by loving mothers, have recently turned up in a wildly unexpected place - the blood and saliva of new dads! (inhabitat.com)
  • Hormones such as prolactin and oxytocin," says Prof. Feldman, "have a significant role in establishing a sense of fatherhood during the infant's first growth stages. (inhabitat.com)
  • For additional details on mechanism of action and how these receptors interact with other transcription factors, examine the section Thyroid Hormone Receptors . (colostate.edu)
  • The interaction of sex hormones and immune cells through the receptors on these cells effect the release of cytokines which determines the proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of different types of immunocytes and as a result the outcome of inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • Hormones fit onto their receptors just like a 'lock and key', so any slight alteration of their chemical structure creates a 'monster hormone' These resulting 'monster hormones' are never found in the human body or anywhere else in nature. (opednews.com)
  • Some of them act as receptors for certain chemicals, such as hormones. (factmonster.com)
  • As some of those genes produce proteins that act as receptors for certain hormones, the presence of such a protein on a cell membrane makes that cell, and the tissues or organs that are comprised of such cells, targets for those hormones. (factmonster.com)
  • The location of such receptors says a lot about the type of hormone involved. (factmonster.com)
  • Vasopressin , also named antidiuretic hormone ( ADH ), arginine vasopressin ( AVP ) or argipressin , [5] is a hormone synthesized as a peptide prohormone in neurons in the hypothalamus , and is converted to AVP. (wikipedia.org)
  • More recently, science has also documented hormone secretion from 'non-traditional' sites such as the heart, kidney, liver, and adipose tissue. (unm.edu)
  • Secretion of hormones is regulated by feedback mechanisms and neurotransmitters. (labtestsonline.org)
  • In addition, the pyloric region of the stomach secretes gastrin, a hormone that increases the secretion of hydrochloric acid into the stomach. (factmonster.com)
  • They are agonists of the GnRH receptor and work by increasing or decreasing the release of gonadotropins and the production of sex hormones by the gonads . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones are chemical messengers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These hormones are chemical messengers that travel through the blood and control how your tissues and organs work. (cancer.ca)
  • Hormones are messengers that attach directly on to the DNA of trillions of our cells and influence gene expression. (opednews.com)
  • Disease is associated with both inadequate production and overproduction of thyroid hormones. (colostate.edu)
  • Adrenal complex hormones are lipid hormones, derived from the small molecule cholesterol and generated by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family in the adrenal gland that sits atop the kidneys. (nature.com)
  • For example, hormones can increase blood pressure, stimulate protein synthesis, and increase the body's metabolic rate. (unm.edu)
  • If your goal is to build muscle and lose fat, it's absolutely critical to maximize your body's natural production of growth hormone. (military.com)
  • Whether you're fending off an angry rottweiler or an angry client, your body's response to stress is the same: Your hypothalamus floods your blood with hormones to frighten you into action. (menshealth.com)
  • Cortisol and epinephrine are your body's alarm-system hormones," says Dr. Fonseca. (menshealth.com)
  • There are three major hormones-estradiol, estrone, and estriol-among the estrogens, and estradiol is the predominant one. (britannica.com)
  • However, a new study claims both the hourglass figure and the readiness to cheat on a man both result from the hormone Estradiol. (popsci.com)
  • The study, which looked at 52 female undergraduates at the University of Texas at Austin, claims that women with a high level of the hormone both expressed more desire to cheat on their partner and were ranked as more attractive than their Estradiol-impaired peers. (popsci.com)
  • The only way to properly control for the social factor would be to give women who have low estradiol the hormone and see if things change," said Sadock, "and that may not be possible. (popsci.com)
  • Thyroid hormones are clearly necessary for normal growth in children and young animals, as evidenced by the growth-retardation observed in thyroid deficiency. (colostate.edu)
  • Not surprisingly, the growth-promoting effect of thyroid hormones is intimately intertwined with that of growth hormone , a clear indiction that complex physiologic processes like growth depend upon multiple endocrine controls. (colostate.edu)
  • A significant finding is that endurance exercise increases a metabolic hormone called fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), whereas strength training decreases another called fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Growth Hormones Direct releases homeopathic FAQ video in response to customer request and repeated questions from interested consumers. (prweb.com)
  • Pharmaceutical Growth Hormones needs a prescription that requires an experienced professional closely monitoring effects of treatment and the exhibition of any potential side effects. (prweb.com)
  • The homeopathic formula from Growth Hormones Direct has no known side effects. (prweb.com)
  • The formula is created using strict quality control measures that ensure that the potency is accurate to provide the Growth Hormone therapy results users are searching for. (prweb.com)
  • Dr. J. Ronald Willis of Growth Hormones Direct said, 'It's difficult for many to separate homeopathic HGH from Growth Hormone injections. (prweb.com)
  • Growth Hormones Direct is an Arizona based distributor of quality health foods, supplements, pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. (prweb.com)
  • Many dairies in the U.S. are still using injections of Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) to increase milk yields in cows. (treehugger.com)
  • Humans who have too much growth hormone develop a disease called acromegaly (enlargement of hands, feet, and face), and some speculate that it is no more healthy for cows to have too much growth than it is for humans. (treehugger.com)
  • Recently, the Tillamook County Creamery Association, a large group of diary farmers in the U.S., voted to stop using the growth hormone in its diaries, due to pressure from its customers. (treehugger.com)
  • However, if done correctly, research has shown that naturally stimulating growth hormone can pay off with big dividends in a short period of time. (military.com)
  • This will help activate a lactic acid response in your muscles and lactic acid in turn activates the release of growth hormone. (military.com)
  • For nearly 20 years, artificial growth hormone has been used to successfully treat kids who don't produce the hormone on their own. (cbsnews.com)
  • What's different now is that last summer the FDA voted to approve Eli Lilly's growth hormone, Humatrope, for healthy children who do produce the hormone, but are still in the shortest 1.2 percent of their age group. (cbsnews.com)
  • The Finleys went to see Dr. Dana Hardin, a pediatric endocrinologist and head of the growth hormone program at Children's Hospital in Dallas. (cbsnews.com)
  • What made Michael a good candidate for growth hormone? (cbsnews.com)
  • Since artificial growth hormone was first manufactured in 1985, it's helped thousands of sick children. (cbsnews.com)
  • Most synthetic veterinary drugs - including antibiotics and growth hormones - are prohibited under organic regulations. (whfoods.com)
  • There is evidence that it even contains a substance similar to growth hormone. (factmonster.com)
  • Hormones are naturally occurring compounds in different animals and organisms that promote healthy growth. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • Hormones help promote healthy growth and are found naturally in plants, animals, humans, and the environment. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • Using supplemental growth promoting hormones helps the beef community raise beef with fewer natural resources like land and water. (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • Chickens do not receive growth hormones: so why all the confusion? (beefitswhatsfordinner.com)
  • Some species of bacteria that contribute to gum disease use sex hormones in place of vitamin K, which is essential for their growth. (sheknows.com)
  • Association against the use of growth hormones in the Australian beef industry. (newscientist.com)
  • Researchers extracted samples of knee joint and quadriceps muscle attachments before and after the course of growth hormone. (amazonaws.com)
  • Growth hormone had no effect on the protein fibres responsible for muscle contraction [myofibrillar protein]. (amazonaws.com)
  • So it may well be the case that torn muscles and damaged muscle attachments heal more quickly if growth hormone is administered, the Danes suggest. (amazonaws.com)
  • At University of Copenhagen in the Journal of Physiology, a human study was published by Sport Scientists that gives us the probable answer: Growth Hormones. (amazonaws.com)
  • During the first week daily injections of 33.3 micrograms of growth hormone per kg of bodyweight were given. (amazonaws.com)
  • There are a couple of animal studies in which growth hormone has been shown to boost recovery of damaged cartilage. (amazonaws.com)
  • But still, there is great concern about women with a history of breast cancer taking HRT, because we know that hormones can fuel breast cancer growth. (breastcancer.org)
  • The occurrence of natural and synthetic hormones in streams is a growing concern because low part-per-trillion concentrations of these chemicals have caused endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. (usgs.gov)
  • Biosolids are created from the sludge generated by the treatment of sewage at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and are known to contain natural and synthetic hormones. (usgs.gov)
  • First of all, let us look at the definition of a bioidentical hormone, and how they differ from the synthetic hormones offered by the mainstream medical system. (opednews.com)
  • Synthetic hormones are these very same human hormones that are chemically altered. (opednews.com)
  • This is due to the vast reach of your endocrine system, which commands body activity utilizing powerful hormones . (menshealth.com)
  • Are you sure you want to remove Hypothalamic hormones from your list? (openlibrary.org)
  • Thyroid hormones stimulate diverse metabolic activities most tissues, leading to an increase in basal metabolic rate. (colostate.edu)
  • As mentioned above, there do not seem to be organs and tissues that are not affected by thyroid hormones. (colostate.edu)
  • The other, slower way involves hormones, which are a collection of chemicals that alter the behavior of specific organs and tissues on the cellular level. (infoplease.com)
  • Oxytocin may be an archetypal social hormone, but it can be anti-social too. (psychologytoday.com)
  • There is another hormone called Oxytocin that causes tiny muscles around the alveoli to squeeze the milk via small tubes called milk ducts. (news-medical.net)
  • Researchers recently reported that a whiff of the hormone oxytocin can make someone more willing to invest their money in an anonymous trustee. (newscientist.com)
  • Oxytocin is known as the "love hormone" because it encourages trust, cooperation and social bonding. (scientificamerican.com)
  • As Cheryl Rios , the CEO of Go Ape Marketing, sees it: "We're built differently, we have different hormones. (cnn.com)
  • The regulation of immune response is different in males and females due to the presence of different hormones. (hindawi.com)
  • Hypothyroidism is the result from any condition that results in thyroid hormone deficiency. (colostate.edu)
  • Both T3 and T4 are used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism). (wikipedia.org)
  • Why Should Men Use Bioidentical Hormone Therapy? (bodylogicmd.com)
  • There are plenty of reasons men should consider choosing bioidentical hormone replacement therapy to restore hormonal balance. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Research has shown that bioidentical hormone therapy is both safe and effective, not to mention it has a very positive effect on the health of men. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Some practitioners in Europe may not consider vaginal estriol to be a bioidentical hormone, despite the fact that it has a structure like endogenous estriol. (medscape.com)
  • What is a Bioidentical Hormone? (opednews.com)
  • How is a Synthetic Hormone Different from A Bioidentical Hormone? (opednews.com)
  • Estriol is a critical component of compounded bioidentical hormone replacement therapy. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • The pancreas secretes some hormones into the blood. (slideshare.net)
  • What hormones does the pancreas release? (answers.com)
  • Three hormones are released in the pancreas. (answers.com)
  • Throughout history, male hormones have indeed impaired some male leaders' decision-making. (cnn.com)
  • Too much or too little hormones can cause cells and organs to malfunction. (thestar.com.my)
  • D'autres hormones telles que l'oestrogène, la progestérone, la testostérone et le cortisol sont également réglées par inhibition de contrôle par retour de l'information négatif. (news-medical.net)
  • Additionally, many of the effects of thyroid hormone have been delineated by study of deficiency and excess states, as discussed briefly below. (colostate.edu)
  • As lack of any one of them may cause serious disorders, many hormones are now produced synthetically and used in treatment where a deficiency exists. (factmonster.com)
  • Get hormone therapy from the comfort of your own home! (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Guys, hormone balance is not just a problem among women, which also means hormone therapy can help you. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Men who pursue bio-identical hormone therapy to treat hormonal imbalance may experience significant benefits, including more energy, increased muscle mass and strength, weight loss and improved sexual function. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Bioidentical hormones are one form of hormone therapy that has gained popularity in recent decades-though it dates back to the 1930s-because of its effectiveness in helping men and women achieve hormonal balance. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • There are a number of hormone replacement therapy options available to meet the medical needs, health goals and lifestyles of most men, including pellets, patches, creams, pills and injections. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Many women I see in my practice have questions about hormone replacement therapy, or HRT. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Cite this: Bioidentical Hormones for Menopausal Therapy - Medscape - Mar 01, 2008. (medscape.com)
  • The women studied weren't using oral contraceptives and hadn't had hormone replacement therapy . (webmd.com)
  • Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) can be helpful to treat hot flushes and sweats. (www.nhs.uk)
  • The Case Western Reserve University periodontist reviewed 61 journal articles with nearly 100 studies for a collective answer on whether hormones have a relationship to gum disease and specific women's health issues like preterm labor, bone loss, and the side effect of hormonal replacement therapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • However, five years is a long time to be without a natural menstrual cycle and most specialists would feel that some sort of hormone replacement therapy, either in the form of the contraceptive pill or its equivalent, would be a good idea. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • THURSDAY, Jan. 8 (HealthDay News) -- Hormone therapy may lower a woman's risk of colorectal cancer, especially if she is no longer taking the hormones. (washingtonpost.com)
  • This new finding, published in the January issue of Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention , further complicates an already murky picture of the risks and benefits of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). (washingtonpost.com)
  • More recent studies have found that the stage in life when a woman takes hormone therapy can influence the effect. (washingtonpost.com)
  • These data do add additional weight to prior reports suggesting that hormone replacement therapy reduces the risk of colorectal cancer,' said Dr. Neal Meropol, director of the Gastrointestinal Cancer Program at Fox Chase Cancer Center in Philadelphia. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The adrenal medulla produces two complementary hormones, epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). (thebody.com)
  • Ovarian hormones, whether encountered during menstrual cycles or with hormonal therapies, could modulate migraine headache through a number of mechanisms including the "rate of change,""magnitude of change,""hormonal burden," or a "threshold effect. (medscape.com)
  • The "hormonal burden" is calculated by measuring the area-under-the-curve of hormones during hormone peaks. (medscape.com)
  • B) "Hormonal burden" is determined by measuring the area-under-the-curve of hormone peaks. (medscape.com)
  • That's because women's hormones ebb and flow during the menstrual cycle, so the researchers wanted to take into account variations in hormonal changes. (webmd.com)
  • In carrying out this systematic review, we noted that there were many differences between studies investigating hormonal treatments in terms of the type and dose of hormone, and the way patients took the treatment," she said in a university news release. (medicinenet.com)
  • The last group of stimuli are called hormonal stimuli , in which the arrival of one hormone either stimulates or inhibits the release of another. (factmonster.com)
  • The hormone ghrelin begins the cycle when your stomach is empty by prompting neurons in your hypothalamus to make you feel hungry. (menshealth.com)
  • Self-help books and the internet promote that bioidentical hormones allow menopausal women to get the exact dose they require. (medscape.com)
  • I recently spoke with actress Suzanne Somers about her enthusiastic use of "bioidentical" hormones to combat menopausal hot flashes and the ravages of aging. (chicagotribune.com)
  • When the thyroid produces too much hormone, the body uses energy faster than it should. (webmd.com)
  • The duodenum can also be stimulated by the presence of fats in the chyme to secrete cholecystokinin, a hormone that stimulates the gall bladder to contract and release bile . (factmonster.com)
  • Those studies showed that if children received hormone injections "three times weekly," they would grow an average of 1.5 inches. (cbsnews.com)
  • Because of this definition, they have not been subject to reports of efficacy and adverse events compared with US FDA-approved hormones. (medscape.com)
  • Lehninger never used the word, bio-identical hormones, because all hormones are by definition, bioidentical hormones. (opednews.com)
  • Hormones are important when you start to go through puberty, which is when you begin developing into an adult. (kidshealth.org)
  • There could also be a "threshold effect" of ovarian hormones, which refers to a level of serum hormones above or below which migraine may be triggered or prevented (Figure 6). (medscape.com)
  • Theorized mechanisms through which ovarian hormones could modulate migraine headaches. (medscape.com)
  • D) The "threshold effect" indicates that a certain level of ovarian hormone exists above or below which migraine is triggered. (medscape.com)
  • Therefore, preliminary evidence would suggest that a "threshold effect" may be the most relevant mechanism through which ovarian hormones modulate migraine headache. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Ovarian Hormones and Migraine Headache: Understanding Mechanisms and Pathogenesis--Part 2 - Medscape - Mar 01, 2006. (medscape.com)
  • A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ( GnRH agonist ) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones . (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, bioidentical hormones cannot be patented and made into mass prescription forms by large pharmaceutical companies. (bodylogicmd.com)
  • Natural substances like human hormones cannot be patented, and are therefore generally not as profitable to manufacture. (opednews.com)
  • What the hell is going on with your hormones-and how can you harness them for happiness, health, fertility, brainpower, and energy? (marieclaire.com)
  • Hormones are chemical substances that act like messenger molecules in the body. (kidshealth.org)
  • It is likely that all cells in the body are targets for thyroid hormones. (colostate.edu)
  • Stress hormones have a profound effect on the body and brain. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Hormones work slowly and affect body processes from head to toe. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hormone diseases also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Levothyroxine is a synthetic hormone that replaces missing thyroid hormone in the body. (webmd.com)
  • Hormones are special chemicals your body makes to help it do certain things - like grow up! (kidshealth.org)
  • During this time, you're loaded with hormones that tell your body that it's time to start changing. (kidshealth.org)
  • Now you can see why my program " Optimum Anabolics " has a primary focus of stimulating natural anabolic hormone output within the body. (military.com)
  • After that, you start to see a rapid decline in hormone response in the body. (military.com)
  • Your body makes hormones that tell your cells what to do. (cancer.ca)
  • Diseases such as HIV that affect the whole body can interfere with proper endocrine function, and hormones, in turn, can affect HIV disease progression. (thebody.com)
  • Bioidentical hormones are the hormones that exist in the human body naturally. (opednews.com)
  • Even if hot flashes occur during the day, the hormone level changes still impact the body s ability to control temperature and overall performance. (bellaonline.com)
  • Hormones play a large role in weight management and inside this report about managing your hormones for weight loss, Joel Marion explains his story of winning a body transformation contest in just six months. (prweb.com)
  • Bioidentical hormones are products that are chemically identical to what's made in a woman's body. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Since these are identical to the hormones made by the human body, Somers reasons, they are safe and even beneficial to take well into old age--whereas, she believes, traditional hormone therapies, with slightly different molecular structures, are harmful. (chicagotribune.com)
  • If the amount of thyroid hormones T3 and T4 is too high or too low, there is an imbalance between the thyroid hormones needed by the body and the amount of thyroid hormones available. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The thyroid hormones act on nearly every cell in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. (wikipedia.org)