Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome: An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 184.108.40.206.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Thymus Hormones: Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Triiodothyronine, Reverse: A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyBreast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Triptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Teriparatide: A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Receptors, Ghrelin: Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 2: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype found in the BRAIN and the PANCREAS. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor with a ligand specificity that varies between homologs from different species.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Estrogens, Conjugated (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Granulosa Cells: Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).Estrous Cycle: The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Corpora Allata: Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Receptors, Thyrotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary THYROTROPIN (also named thyroid stimulating hormone or TSH) and trigger intracellular changes of the target cells. TSH receptors are present in the nervous system and on target cells in the thyroid gland. Autoantibodies to TSH receptors are implicated in thyroid diseases such as GRAVES DISEASE and Hashimoto disease (THYROIDITIS, AUTOIMMUNE).Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Receptors, Prolactin: Labile proteins on or in prolactin-sensitive cells that bind prolactin initiating the cells' physiological response to that hormone. Mammary casein synthesis is one of the responses. The receptors are also found in placenta, liver, testes, kidneys, ovaries, and other organs and bind and respond to certain other hormones and their analogs and antagonists. This receptor is related to the growth hormone receptor.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Antithyroid Agents: Agents that are used to treat hyperthyroidism by reducing the excessive production of thyroid hormones.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Dwarfism: A genetic or pathological condition that is characterized by short stature and undersize. Abnormal skeletal growth usually results in an adult who is significantly below the average height.Receptors, Neuropeptide: Cell surface receptors that bind specific neuropeptides with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Many neuropeptides are also hormones outside of the nervous system.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Adrenal Cortex HormonesDNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Leydig Cells: Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Pituitary Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate functions of the pituitary gland.Puberty: A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.
Growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 infusion synchronizes growth hormone, thyrotrophin and prolactin release in prolonged critical illness. (1/3396)OBJECTIVE: During prolonged critical illness, nocturnal pulsatile secretion of GH, TSH and prolactin (PRL) is uniformly reduced but remains responsive to the continuous infusion of GH secretagogues and TRH. Whether such (pertinent) secretagogues would synchronize pituitary secretion of GH, TSH and/or PRL is not known. DESIGN AND METHODS: We explored temporal coupling among GH, TSH and PRL release by calculating cross-correlation among GH, TSH and PRL serum concentration profiles in 86 time series obtained from prolonged critically ill patients by nocturnal blood sampling every 20 min for 9 h during 21-h infusions of either placebo (n=22), GHRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=10), GH-releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2; 1 microg/kg/h; n=28), TRH (1 microg/kg/h; n=8) or combinations of these agonists (n=8). RESULTS: The normal synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL was absent during placebo delivery. Infusion of GHRP-2, but not GHRH or TRH, markedly synchronized serum profiles of GH, TSH and PRL (all P< or =0.007). After addition of GHRH and TRH to the infusion of GHRP-2, only the synchrony between GH and PRL was maintained (P=0.003 for GHRH + GHRP-2 and P=0.006 for TRH + GHRH + GHRP-2), and was more marked than with GHRP-2 infusion alone (P=0.0006 by ANOVA). CONCLUSIONS: The nocturnal GH, TSH and PRL secretory patterns during prolonged critical illness are herewith further characterized to include loss of synchrony among GH, TSH and PRL release. The synchronizing effect of an exogenous GHRP-2 drive, but not of GHRH or TRH, suggests that the presumed endogenous GHRP-like ligand may participate in the orchestration of coordinated anterior pituitary hormone release. (+info)
Long-term results of GH therapy in GH-deficient children treated before 1 year of age. (2/3396)OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the long-term effects of GH therapy in early diagnosed GH-deficient patients treated before 1 year of age. STUDY DESIGN: We studied all 59 patients (33 males) recorded by Association France-Hypophyse and treated with GH (0.50+/-0.15 IU/kg (S.D.) per week) before 1 year of age. Clinical presentation and growth parameters under GH treatment were analyzed. RESULTS: Neonatal manifestations of hypopituitarism were frequent: hypoglycemia (n=50), jaundice (n=25) and micropenis (n=17/33). Although birth length was moderately reduced (-0.9+/-1.4), growth retardation at diagnosis (5.8+/-3.8 months) was severe (-3.5+/-1.9 standard deviation scores (SDS)). Fifty patients (85%) had thyrotropin and/or corticotropin deficiency. After a mean duration of GH therapy of 8.0+/-3.6 years, change in height SDS was +3.11+/-2.06 S.D., exceeding 4 SDS in 19 patients. Only 9 patients (15%) did not reach a height of -2 S.D. for chronological age and 20 patients (34%) exceeded their target height. Pretreatment height SDS was independently associated with total catch-up growth. CONCLUSION: Conventional doses of GH allow normalization of height in patients with early GH deficiency and treatment. (+info)
Changes in body composition and leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children with various GH secretory capacities. (3/3396)OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to follow changes in body composition, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in relation to changes in leptin during the first year of GH therapy in order to test the hypothesis that leptin is a metabolic signal involved in the regulation of GH secretion in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 33 prepubertal children were investigated. Their mean (S.D.) chronological age at the start of GH treatment was 11.5 (1.6) years, and their mean height was -2.33 (0.38) S.D. scores (SDS). GH was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 0.1 (n=26) or 0.2 (n=7) IU/kg body weight. Ten children were in the Swedish National Registry for children with GH deficiency, and twenty-three children were involved in trials of GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Spontaneous 24-h GH secretion was studied in 32 of the children. In the 24-h GH profiles, the maximum level of GH was determined and the secretion rate estimated by deconvolution analysis (GHt). Serum leptin levels were measured at the start of GH treatment and after 10 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Body composition measurements, by DXA, were performed at baseline and 12 months after the onset of GH treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of GH treatment, mean height increased from -2.33 to -1.73 SDS and total body fat decreased significantly by 3.0 (3.3)%. Serum leptin levels were decreased significantly at all time points studied compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation between the change in total body fat and the change in serum leptin levels during the 12 months of GH treatment, whereas the leptin concentration per unit fat mass did not change. In a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with 12 month change in leptin levels as the dependent variable, the percentage change in fat over 12 months, the baseline fat mass (%) of body mass and GHt accounted for 24.0%, 11.5% and 12.2% of the variability respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant correlations between changes in leptin and fat and endogenous GH secretion in short children with various GH secretory capacities. Leptin may be the messenger by which the adipose tissue affects hypothalamic regulation of GH secretion. (+info)
Hormone-related, muscle-specific changes in protein metabolism and fiber type profile after faba bean intake. (4/3396)Male growing Wistar rats were fed, over 15 days, isoenergetic (16.72 +/- 0.49 MJ) and isoproteic (11%) diets containing either lactalbumin or raw Vicia faba L. (Vf) as the sole source of protein. Compared with pair-fed controls (PF), soleus muscles of Vf-fed rats showed increased (P < 0.05) synthesis and breakdown rates. In addition, the soleus of Vf-fed rats displayed a decrease (P < 0.05) in type I and an increase (P < 0.01) in type IIc fibers compared with that of PF animals. On the contrary, extensor digitorum longus muscles of both Vf-fed and PF rats showed an increase (P < 0.01) in type I and a reduction (P < 0.05) in type IIb fibers together with a decrease (P < 0.05) in the cross-sectional area of the latter fibers. Vf-fed rats exhibited a significant decrease in serum insulin (P < 0.05) and thyrotropin (P < 0.01) levels, together with an increase in plasma glucagon (P < 0.05) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (P < 0.01) concentrations, compared with the PF group. Both Vf-fed and PF rats experienced an increase in corticosterone concentrations (P < 0.01 vs. control; P < 0.05 vs. PF). The muscle-specific changes in both protein metabolism and fiber type composition may partly depend on the hormonal changes that were observed after Vf intake. (+info)
Mechanism for the posture-specific plasma volume increase after a single intense exercise protocol. (5/3396)To test the hypothesis that exercise-induced hypervolemia is a posture-dependent process, we measured plasma volume, plasma albumin content, and renal function in seven healthy subjects for 22 h after single upright (Up) or supine (Sup) intense (85% peak oxygen consumption rate) exercise. This posture was maintained for 5 h after exercise. Plasma volume decreased during exercise but returned to control levels by 5 h of recovery in both postures. By 22 h of recovery, plasma volume increased 2.4 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Up but decreased 2.1 +/- 0.8 ml/kg in Sup. The plasma volume expansion in Up was accompanied by an increase in plasma albumin content (0.11 +/- 0.04 g/kg; P < 0.05). Plasma albumin content was unchanged in Sup. Urine volume and sodium clearance were lower in Up than Sup (P < 0.05) by 5 h of recovery. These data suggest that increased plasma albumin content contributes to the acute phase of exercise-induced hypervolemia. More importantly, the mechanism by which exercise influences the distribution of albumin between extra- and intravascular stores after exercise is altered by posture and is unknown. We speculate that factors associated with postural changes (e.g., central venous pressure) modify the increase in plasma albumin content and the plasma volume expansion after exercise. (+info)
Physiological variability of fluid-regulation hormones in young women. (6/3396)We tested the physiological reliability of plasma renin activity (PRA) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (P[AVP]), aldosterone (P[ALD]), and atrial natriuretic peptide (P[ANP]) in the early follicular phase and midluteal phases over the course of two menstrual cycles (n = 9 women, ages 25 +/- 1 yr). The reliability (Cronbach's alpha >/=0.80) of these hormones within a given phase of the cycle was tested 1) at rest, 2) after 2.5 h of dehydrating exercise, and 3) during a rehydration period. The mean hormone concentrations were similar within both the early follicular and midluteal phase tests; and the mean concentrations of P[ALD] and PRA for the three test conditions were significantly greater during the midluteal compared with the early follicular phase. Although Cronbach's alpha for resting and recovery P[ANP] were high (0.80 and 0.87, respectively), the resting and rehydration values for P[AVP], P[ALD], and PRA were variable between trials for the follicular (alpha from 0.49 to 0.55) and the luteal phase (alpha from 0.25 to 0. 66). Physiological reliability was better after dehydration for P[AVP] and PRA but remained low for P[ALD]. Although resting and recovery P[AVP], P[ALD], and PRA were not consistent within a given menstrual phase, the differences in the concentrations of these hormones between the different menstrual phases far exceeded the variability within the phases, indicating that the low within-phase reliability does not prevent the detection of menstrual phase-related differences in these hormonal variables. (+info)
Endotoxin-induced changes in IGF-I differ in rats provided enteral vs. parenteral nutrition. (7/3396)The purpose of the present study was to determine whether acute changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system induced by mild surgical trauma/fasting or endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] are differentially modulated by total enteral nutrition (TEN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Rats had vascular catheters and a gastrostomy tube surgically placed and were fasted overnight. The next morning animals randomly received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous (250 kcal. kg-1. day-1, 1.6 g N. kg-1. day-1) infusion of either TEN or TPN for 48 h. Then rats were injected intravenously with Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg) while nutritional support was continued. Time-matched control animals were injected with saline. After mild surgical trauma and an 18-h fast, TEN was more effective at increasing plasma IGF-I levels than TPN. Subsequent injection of LPS decreased IGF-I in blood, liver, and muscle in both TEN- and TPN-fed rats compared with saline-injected control animals. However, this decrease was approximately 30% greater in rats fed TPN compared with those fed TEN. LPS-induced downregulation of IGF-I mRNA expression in liver and muscle was also more prominent in TPN-fed rats. The LPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was greater (2- and 1.6-fold, respectively) in TPN-fed rats, and these changes were consistent with the greater reduction in IGF-I seen in these animals. In similarly treated rats allowed to survive for 24 h after LPS injection, the LPS-induced increase in the urinary 3-methylhistidine-to-creatinine ratio was smaller in TEN-fed rats. In summary, LPS reduced systemic levels of IGF-I as well as IGF-I protein and mRNA in critical target organs. Enteral feeding greatly attenuated this response. Maintenance of higher IGF-I levels in TEN-fed rats was associated with a reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels and lower rates of myofibrillar degradation. (+info)
The importance of pyruvate availability to PDC activation and anaplerosis in human skeletal muscle. (8/3396)No studies have singularly investigated the relationship between pyruvate availability, pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activation, and anaplerosis in skeletal muscle. This is surprising given the functional importance attributed to these processes in normal and disease states. We investigated the effects of changing pyruvate availability with dichloroacetate (DCA), epinephrine, and pyruvate infusions on PDC activation and accumulation of acetyl groups and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates (TCAI) in human muscle. DCA increased resting PDC activity sixfold (P < 0.05) but decreased the muscle TCAI pool (mmol/kg dry muscle) from 1.174 +/- 0.042 to 0.747 +/- 0.055 (P < 0.05). This was probably a result of pyruvate being diverted to acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine after near-maximal activation of PDC by DCA. Conversely, neither epinephrine nor pyruvate activated PDC. However, both increased the TCAI pool (1.128 +/- 0.076 to 1.614 +/- 0.188, P < 0.05 and 1.098 +/- 0.059 to 1.385 +/- 0.114, P < 0.05, respectively) by providing a readily available pool of pyruvate for anaplerosis. These data support the hypothesis that TCAI pool expansion is principally a reflection of increased muscle pyruvate availability and, together with our previous work (J. A. Timmons, S. M. Poucher, D. Constantin-Teodosiu, V. Worrall, I. A. Macdonald, and P. L. Greenhaff. J. Clin. Invest. 97: 879-883, 1996), indicate that TCA cycle expansion may be of little functional significance to TCA cycle flux. It would appear therefore that the primary effect of DCA on oxidative ATP provision is to provide a readily available pool of acetyl groups to the TCA cycle at the onset of exercise rather than increasing TCA cycle flux by expanding the TCAI pool. (+info)
HGH: The General Frequently Asked Questions About The Hormone | Nvbhme
It is necessary for you to understand that there are various ways for you to improve your health. Basically, you could consider altering the production of various hormones in your body in order to affect various systems in your body.. By doing so, you would be certain that even other systems in your body could also be considered and be paid attention. However, you have to assure that you would affect the right set of hormones.. This is brought by the fact that there are hormones, which may only put you at risk if you would let them increase or multiply in multitude.. In addition to this, moderation is needed. For instance, you want to increase the levels of HGH in your body. In that case, you could consider the task moderately done.. This is due to the fact that increasing HGH levels in your body abnormally would only trigger complications.. In order to give you added information regarding the human growth hormone, here are the general frequently asked questions about the hormone:. ...
Hormonal mechanisms in the onset of puberty | Postgraduate Medical Journal
Sexual maturation is associated with increasing levels of sex steroids. These steroidal events are the result of complex changes that occur at several functional levels including the hypothalamus, pituitary, gonad and adrenal gland. These changes, as outlined in Table 3, are often interrelated.. While considerable progress has been made in our understanding of the hormonal events associated with sexual maturation, many important questions remain unanswered. Further intensive investigation will be required before we have a lucid understanding of the physiological basis of the sequence of hormonal events which occur during the pubertal process.. ...
NewYork-Presbyterian Queens - Hormone Therapy
Your physician may recommend a hormone receptor test to help determine treatment options and to help learn more about the tumor. This test can help to predict whether the cancer cells are sensitive to hormones.. The hormone receptor test measures the amount of certain proteins (called hormone receptors) in cancer tissue. Hormones (such as estrogen and progesterone that naturally occur in the body) can attach to these proteins. If the test is positive, it is indicating that the hormone is probably helping the cancer cells to grow. In this case, hormone therapy may be given to block the way the hormone works and help keep the hormone away from the cancer cells (hormone receptors). If the test is negative, the hormone does not affect the growth of the cancer cells, and other effective cancer treatments may be given. Always discuss the results of the hormone receptor test with your physician.. If the test indicates that the hormones are affecting your cancer, the cancer may be treated in one of ...
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Keep Stress Eating on the Holiday "To Don't" List
There are several ways in which stress can contribute to weight gain. One has to do with cortisol, a stress hormone. When were under stress, the fight or flight response is triggered in our bodies, leading to the release of various hormones. Whether were stressed because of holiday demands or were really in danger, our…
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Bio-identical Hormone Optimization Therapy | Key Largo Regenerative Medicine
Bio-identical hormones are made at a compounding pharmacy and have the exact biochemical structure as those naturally made in your body. They are more effective and less costly than the synthetic hormones made by pharmaceutical companies.. Maintaining hormones at the average blood levels of a 30-year old is safe and effective. Modern scientific evidence concludes that Bio-identical Hormone Optimization Therapy is both desirable and beneficial for your health.. Bio-identical hormones are not unsafe, dangerous, or a threat to your health or life. More often than not, they are underused and under prescribed. Bio-identical hormones are the safest and most natural way to replace your hormones, which diminish and may become out of balance over time.. Over-the-counter, non-prescription hormone remedies can mask symptoms, but leave the problem unresolved. They produce some effects that may reduce symptoms, but do not provide the full benefits of the actual hormones they are trying to ...
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Stress and Diabetes Mellitus - PubMed
Stress is a potential contributor to chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes. Stress has long been shown to have major effects on metabolic activity. Energy mobilization is a primary result of the fight or flight response. Stress stimulates the release of various hormones, which can result in elevated blo …
Hormones, Receptors and Target Cells
What exactly are hormones and how are they different from "non-hormones"? Hormones are chemical messengers secreted into blood or extracellular fluid by one cell that affect the functioning of other cells. Most hormones circulate in blood, coming into contact with essentially all cells. However, a given hormone usually affects only a limited number of cells, which are called target cells. A target cell responds to a hormone because it bears receptors for the hormone. In other words, a particular cell is a target cell for a hormone if it contains functional receptors for that hormone, and cells which do not have such a receptor cannot be influenced directly by that hormone. Reception of a radio broadcast provides a good analogy. Everyone within range of a transmitter for National Public Radio is exposed to that signal (even if they dont contribute!). However, in order to be a NPR target and thus influenced directly by their broadcasts, you have to have a receiver tuned to that frequency. ...
kenowapsychology - Hormones
Hormones are chemicals which are released by cells that affect cells in other parts of the body. Only a small amount of hormone is required to alter cell metabolism. It is essentially a chemical messenger that transports a signal from one cell to another. All multicellular organisms produce hormones; plant hormones are also called phytohormones. Hormones in animals are often transported in the blood. Cells respond to a hormone when they express a specific receptor for that hormone. The hormone binds to the receptor protein, resulting in the activation of a signal transduction mechanism that ultimately leads to cell type-specific responses ...
Best 25+ Balancing hormones ideas on Pinterest | Balance hormones naturally, Foods to balance hormones and Hormone diet
Best 25+ Balancing hormones ideas on Pinterest | Balance hormones naturally, Hormone imbalance and Hormone diet
hormone imbalance - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for hormone imbalance
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How hormones interact including: The relationships between hypothalamic (releasing & inhibiting) hormones, pituitary (tropic)...
Get an answer for How hormones interact including: The relationships between hypothalamic (releasing & inhibiting) hormones, pituitary (tropic) hormones, and end hormones Short and long loop feedback The types of interactions among hormones (synergistic, antagonistic, permissive, etc.). and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Lost and in need of advice, please help. - Undiagnosed Symptoms - MedHelp
We have a generation of people who have been poisoned by artificial hormones, hormone havoc. From their teenage years many women have taken the pill were initially delighted that they were able to gain control over such an important part of their lives. It did liberate women to a certain point, but then enslaved them again when some discovered that they couldnt conceive naturally after taking it or that later in life they suffered from hormonal imbalances and cancer.. The artificial hormones we have been taking by the ton are excreted in urine and become environmental poisons within our food and water chains so that not just the women suffer - men are getting more breast, testicular and prostate cancer, than ever before. It is time to stop. Our systems have been unbalanced by these foreign hormones so we often need help to detox and get back on track.. So, where did it all go wrong?. Normally Oestrogen and Progesterone are finely balanced in the human body. Oestrogen is not a single hormone ...
How hormones interact including: what are the relationships between hypothalamic (releasing & inhibiting) hormones,...
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Growth: Although children with CAH grow too rapidly, they may finish growth prematurely, so that adult height is shorter than average. Balancing medical treatment to maintain appropriate blood hormone levels is often complicated in CAH. Untreated or inadequately treated children grow rapidly and may not reach their height potential, but on the other hand, those treated with excessive medication doses suffer growth retardation. Since over-zealous medical treatment is a major cause of poor growth, it is important to treat CAH children with the lowest dose effective in maintaining adrenocortical hormones in a reasonable range. Optimal levels of these hormones will change with age and sex. Although the topic of growth inhibition by excessive treatment has been studied in infants and young children, there has been no careful study of whether less stringent control at puberty is effective in promoting maximal growth. There is still only very scant information about experimental treatment regimens and ...
Hormone Imbalance Symptoms - Your Hormone Balance
While the symptoms of out of whack hormones are anything but laughable for many, I hope you may recognize some of your own symptoms of hormone imbalance in the gallery, above, with a smile and renewed hope for relief! Please note that many women are not familiar with the red flags of estrogen dominance symptoms; they deserve special attention in relation to breast cancer; they are shown in bold on this list. ...
Hormones - Getting Started & Next Steps | 3Hoo
Hormones | ProSpec
The word Hormone comes means, to spur on which reflects how hormones acts as catalysts for other chemical changes at the cellular level necessary for growth, development, and energy. Hormones are chemical messengers that carry and travel signals in the blood stream from 1 cell or glands to other tissues and organsto maintain chemical levels in the bloodstream that achieve homeostasis.
13 Tips To Balance Your Hormones Naturally - Collective Evolution
Do not underestimate the power of hormones! They affect people in so many different ways, and are crucial to good moods and a healthy body. So What Exactly Are Hormones? Hormones are your bodys chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs and affect many different processes, including: Growth and development Metabolism […]
Is it realistic to expect to be a dd cup on just male to female hormones? ? | Yahoo Answers
I am going on hormones as soon as I get permission from my dr. want to be a dd chest but want to avoid surgery if possible. I follow someone who said she developed a dd chest with just six months on hormones and no surgery. Is that possible or is she lying. PS any tips to increase my chest size? I wear a bra constantly and do chest increasing exercises (pushups, etc.) and already have developed a small chest. I read online greens help.
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Name the source gland of leutinising hormone (LH) - CBSE Class 11 Biology - Learn CBSE Forum
Balance Hormones Naturally
Hormones are chemical messengers that travel throughout the body in the bloodstream. When things are good, the organs and glands work together to regulate hormone production, affecting many different processes including metabolism, sexual function, reproduction, mood and much more. But when production is even slightly
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Product information, instructions, health benefits, and usage for Hormones
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Plasma Hormone Profiles of Young Women at Risk for Familial Breast Cancer<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma Hormone Profiles of Young Women at Risk for Familial Breast Cancer. AU - Lynch, Henry T.. AU - Lynch, Jane F.. AU - Guirgis, Hoda. AU - Maloney, Kathleen. PY - 1978. Y1 - 1978. N2 - The plasma hormone concentrations of 30 young women, who were judged by genetic analysis to be at high risk for familial breast cancer, were compared with those of 30 matched controls identified as at low risk for the disease. The hormone measurements were obtained every second day throughout the menstrual cycle, and the results were analyzed in terms of follicular, luteal, and full-cycle mean concentrations. Comparison was carried out in a paired fashion with each high-risk and low-risk pair matched closely for height, weight, age, and reproductive history. No statistically significant differences were found in prolactin, gonadotropin, estrone, estradiol, or estriol plasma concentrations although the high-risk group displayed consistently lower values in all of the above except estriol.. AB - ...
Outline and evaluate hormonal mechanisms in human aggression - Flashcards in A Level and IB Psychology
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Should Moms Eat Placentas?
Another belief thats rising in popularity is that eating the placenta will help restore the mothers hormone balance. This is an odd claim which requires some unpacking. First of all, there are important reasons that a new mothers hormone levels are way out of whack, breast feeding being an obvious one. These changes to a womans body are largely driven by the endocrine system; and a New Agey mother is probably best advised to allow her body to do what its trying to do naturally, rather than attempt to interfere with her hormones by taking a non-prescribed supplement.. But for the mother who does wish to interfere with her bodys hormones at this delicate stage, its not at all clear that eating a placenta would be the way to do it. A placenta does indeed have a whole cocktail party of various hormones in it, but there is no science at all saying that the mother would be well served by adding these to her own body. But even if there was, actually eating the placenta wouldnt be the way to get ...
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Why Are Hormone Disrupting Chemicals So Bad? - Kathryn Woods
Its probably best to start by talking about what our endocrine system is. Our endocrine system is our hormone system, which includes many hormones and glands that impact most of our bodys functions across all our body systems. They influence our reproductive system, our metabolism, and our circulatory system amongst others. Our different hormone functions are also very connected, so we often find that if someone has a problem with one area of hormone function there will be other hormone dysfunctions.. The definition of a HDC is that they impact or disrupt our normal or natural hormone functions, thereby potentially causing dysfunction within our bodies. HDC have similar properties to the receptors and enzymes in our bodies that stimulate the hormonal response, and so are sometimes called hormone-mimicking chemicals. Whilst initially most of the evidence of this was connected to effects on the reproductive systems, it now appears that these chemicals may impact all of our hormonal ...
CompPLUS HORMONE PROFILE with 2/16 EQ - Dr. Dana Myatt's Wellness Club
The CompPlus is one of the most complete, accurate and advanced hormone profiles for both men and women. This test is the "Gold Standard" for balancing male and female sex hormones, adrenal and thyroid hormones. It also includes the 2/16α EQ (estrogen quotient) ratio, an important and modifiable predictor of hormone-related cancer risk.. Why is 24-hour urine testing the "Gold Standard" of hormone evaluation? Sex hormones are released in "pulsed doses" throughout the 24-hour period. Single blood tests can be high or low depending on where in this cycle they occur. They are the least accurate of hormone tests. Saliva is the next best, because saliva represents some degree of "averaging" of the total sex hormones. However, various physical conditions can alter the concentration of hormones in saliva and decrease the accuracy of the test. 24-hour urine testing collects the "peaks and valleys" of hormone release and averages it. This gives an extremely accurate profile of the daily amount of ...
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Hormone Management Archives - Senior Fitness
Strategies for Hormone optimization:. Hormone management can be roughly broken into two strategies. The first is to eat, exercise and take supplements that enhance your own hormone production and optimization. The second involves directly supplementing with bio-identical hormones. In either case, you really dont know where you stand with hormone levels and balance unless you test them relatively often. Because hormone levels and ratios make you more or less susceptible to cancer and other diseases associated with hormone imbalance, it is prudent to pay the money and find out the levels of the significant hormones and their metabolites, particularly as we get older. In your youth, exercise and nutrition will work to keep you fit and trim, because the natural hormone levels of youth, especially if you eat correctly and exercise enough. As we enter our thirties, anabolic hormone production starts to decline. Then it becomes important to increase the muscle-building types of exercise that boost ...
The loss of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent activity continues to be a problem in the use of cultured hepatocytes in xenobiotic toxicity studies. It has been reported that the inclusion of pyruvate and various hormones in the culture medium improves the maintenance of various hepatic functions, including that of CYP2C11 mRNA expression. We have studied this further, by investigating the effects of the addition of pyruvate and hormones on various CYP-dependent enzyme activities and on the CYP-dependent toxicity of precocene II in rat hepatocyte cultures. No beneficial effects of this medium supplementation could be demonstrated ...
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Signal Transduction - QIAGEN
QIAGEN provides a broad range of assay technologies for signal transduction research, enabling analysis of gene expression and regulation, epigenetic modification, genotyping, and signal transduction pathway activation. Signal transduction transmits and amplifies signals of stimuli from extracellular sources to the nucleus. Signaling molecules include various hormones, growth factors, metabolites, cytokines, chemokines, neurotransmitters, extracellular matrix components, receptors, protein kinases, protein phosphatases, and DNA-binding proteins. The purpose of signal transduction is to regulate the cellular response to the molecular stimuli via changes in gene and protein expression. Solutions optimized for these research studies are organized into more focused research topics, shown below ...
Subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy: should it be treated?
YOU DON'T NEED TO KNOW THE FULL DETAILS OF HORMONE NAMES FOR THEM TO WORK - VITALCOACHING.COM
I am right now experimenting with hormone names and feeling on the impact these have on me.. Neuroscience is complex and we still dont know the full details of what goes on biochemically inside of us.. We have glimpses, pieces of information!. There is much more to learn that we didnt yet tap into.. A hormone name connects you with the actual energy of that biochemical.. Can you overdo it?. Can you make mistakes and get too much of a certain quality?. I dont have the full science and dont know yet the exact details of what each hormone does.. Right now, I am already playing with 20+ different hormone names and I have a code defining term for each hormone.. I am naturally attracted to certain terms or qualities more than others.. I feel that eventually, my body and mind need more of all of them and as I start building a deeper connection with the energies of these hormones, my body and mind want to take more of them in.. Can I overdo it?. I listen to my energy wisdom.. My reasoning ability is ...
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China 98% Injectable Polypeptide Hormones PEG-MGF for Cutting Cycles Photos & Pictures - Made-in-china.com
China 98% Injectable Polypeptide Hormones PEG-MGF for Cutting Cycles Photos & Pictures - Made-in-china.com
All aspects of your life influence your hormones, your sleep habits, your diet, exercise, breathing, and your thoughts and feelings all affect your hormone system. Your hormones are an orchestra within your body, a master system that can make profound changes in the rest of your body.. The modern idea that simply taking a single action (like one pill) will balance the system has felt wrong to almost everyone who has tried it.. Bringing about a balance and rhythm to healthy hormones is a process that takes intricate involvement of your lifestyle, diet, exercise, attitude, stress management, sleep, and even your relationships. There is no aspect of life that does not have an influence upon your hormone levels and the quality of their function. Anything that is going to be a true balancer, true correction of your hormone system is going to take a little bit of time and you will have to roll up your sleeves and work for it. Working with someone that understands how all these different puzzle pieces ...
... are synthesized as precursor molecules and processed by the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi where they are stored in secretory granules. When needed, the granules are dumped into the bloodstream.. Different hormones can often be made from the same precursor molecule by cleaving it with a different enzyme. ...
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Womens hormones are a complex symphony of chemical messengers that, in an ideal world, harmoniously ebb and flow over the course of a womens life in a natural rhythm. However, in a modern world, our hormones are influenced by a number of factors including stress, poor diet, chemicals and pesticides that disrupt our endocrine system, genetics and contraceptives. Thanks this, nearly all women experience hormonal health issues at some stage in their lives. Liver and bowel function play a crucial role in hormone metabolism and if these organs are sluggish in their function they can contribute to hormone disruption, oestrogen dominance and a range of proliferative conditions.. Common hormonal conditions. ...
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Your hormone levels are as unique and varied as the fingerprints on your hands. So you need a hormonal program that is tailored to you. Mead Labs saliva testing is an easy, non-invasive way of assessing your hormone balance. This information allows you to supplement hormones according to a plan tailored for only you. Well-balanced hormones regulate everything from reproduction to emotions, general health and well-being. An imbalance of any one hormone can throw your physical and mental health out of balance, causing aggravating and even serious health problems ...
Synthetic vs. Bio Identical Hormones - Custom Care Pharmacy
When we supplement our bodies with bio identical hormones we are replenishing it with identically structured hormones that it has always made. Our bodies recognise these hormones allowing them to bind to receptors quickly and metabolise so they may be excreted from the body. Synthetic hormones cause some of the same actions as our bodys own hormones, but as they have been chemically altered may have different or unintended effects.. ...
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We are now in a position to draw together the major concepts and components of signalling, and show how they operate in one well-understood system, namely the regulation of the storage or release of glucose in the human body. From this, you will be able to recognize archetypal pathways represented in specific examples, you will be able to appreciate how the same basic pathways can be stimulated by different hormones in different tissues, and you will see how opposing hormones activate separat ...
Stress hormone | What happens when we have high cortisol?
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... and thyroid hormones such as thyroxine (and by extension thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and thyrotropin-releasing hormone ( ... In contrast to the female-associated sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone, the male-associated sex hormones, the androgens, ... The master regulators of breast development are the steroid hormones, estrogen and progesterone, growth hormone (GH), mostly ... GnRH, in turn, induces the secretion of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), ...
This process is mainly controlled by the hormone glucagon, which acts in the opposite manner to insulin. If the amount of ... The following is a comprehensive list of other causes of diabetes: Insulin is the principal hormone that regulates the uptake ... Hormones. 11 (1): 109-13. PMID 22450352. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2017-01-04. Oxford English Dictionary. diabetes. ... which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed). Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage ...
22 October 2013). "Cortoic acids". Recent Progress in Hormone Research: Proceedings of the 1979 Laurentian Hormone Conference. ... Steroid hormones include: Sex hormones, which influence sex differences and support reproduction. These include androgens, ... Steroid hormones, lacking the side chain of cholesterol and bile acids, are typically hydroxylated at various ring positions or ... Wang F-Q, Yao K, Wei D-Z. "From Soybean Phytosterols to Steroid Hormones, Soybean and Health". In El-Shemy H. Soybean and ...
Androstadienedione is an important industrial-scale precursor for a wide variety of steroid hormones within the estrane and ... Sandow, Jürgen; Scheiffele, Ekkehard; Haring, Michael; Neef, Günter; Prezewowsky, Klaus; Stache, Ulrich (2000). "Hormones". ... is an important industrial precursor for various steroid hormones. In the United States the chemical is regulated as a Schedule ...
... or hypothyroidism is investigated by measuring thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4) and ... TSH - A thyroid-stimulating hormone level should be obtained first. If it is suppressed, then the nodule is likely a ... Measurement of thyroid stimulating hormone and anti-thyroid antibodies will help decide if there is a functional thyroid ... The expanding world of thyroid imaging and its translation to clinical practice". Hormones. 9 (4): 287-298. doi:10.14310/horm. ...
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... markedly suppresses circulating levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) at sufficiently high ... CPA is also widely used as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women. In the U.S., where CPA is not ... In terms of plasma protein binding, CPA does not bind to sex hormone-binding globulin or transcortin and is instead bound ... Wierckx K, Gooren L, T'Sjoen G (May 2014). "Clinical review: Breast development in trans women receiving cross-sex hormones". ...
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Hormones. Changes in hormone levels during the menstrual cycle may also affect how a woman metabolizes alcohol. Females ... Alcohol also limits the production of vasopressin (ADH) from the hypothalamus and the secretion of this hormone from the ... helsinki.fi - Effect of alcohol on hormones in women, Helsinki 2001 helsinki.fi - Clinical studies on dependence and drug ...
Champagne FA, Rissman EF (Mar 2011). "Behavioral epigenetics: a new frontier in the study of hormones and behavior". Hormones ... At puberty, sex hormones may exert epigenetic changes (via DNA methylation) on gene expression, thus accounting for higher ... Crews D (Mar 2011). "Epigenetic modifications of brain and behavior: theory and practice". Hormones and Behavior. 59 (3): 393-8 ... Crews D (2010). "Epigenetics, brain, behavior, and the environment". Hormones. 9 (1): 41-50. doi:10.14310/horm.2002.1251. PMID ...
History of biotechnology
1978 also saw the first application for a patent on a gene, the gene which produces human growth hormone, by the University of ... Sandow, Jürgen; Scheiffele, Ekkehard; Haring, Michael; Neef, Günter; Prezewowsky, Klaus; Stache, Ulrich (2000). "Hormones". ... human growth hormone and what promised to be a miraculous cure for viral diseases, interferon. Cancer was a central target in ... human growth hormone, hepatitis B vaccine, alpha-interferon, and tissue plasminogen activator (TPa), for lysis of blood clots. ...
Corticotropin-like intermediate peptide
... alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and an NH2-terminal fragment of the adrenocorticotropic hormone/beta-lipotropin precursor ... CLIP is generated as a proteolyic cleavage product of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which in turn is a cleavage product ... Anthony W. Norman; Gerald Litwack (26 September 1997). Hormones. Academic Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-12-521441-4. Retrieved 25 ... Corticotropin-like intermediate [lobe] peptide (CLIP), also known as adrenocorticotropic hormone fragment 18-39 (ACTH(18-39)), ...
Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ... In addition to their role as natural hormones, estrogens are used as medications, for instance in menopausal hormone therapy ... Like all steroid hormones, estrogens readily diffuse across the cell membrane. Once inside the cell, they bind to and activate ... Like other steroid hormones, estrogen enters passively into the cell where it binds to and activates the estrogen receptor. The ...
Fraenkel G, Friedman S (1957). "Carnitine". Vitamins Hormones. Vitamins & Hormones. 15: 73-118. doi:10.1016/s0083-6729(08)60508 ... These substances have the ability to modify how some hormones accelerate or slow down different enzymatic reactions in the body ... S4 Hormone and metabolic modulators. Antidoping Switzerland. https://www.nytimes.com/2016/04/14/sports/wada-meldonium-drug- ...
Hormones & Behavior. vol 48, no 1. Small T, Deviche P, Sharp PJ, Bentley GE, Millar RP & Tsutsui K. (2004). Supplementary ... Hormones & Behavior. vol 39, no 4. Small TW, Deviche P & Sharp P. (2003). Conspecific and heterospecific song exposure ... Deviche P, Small T, Sharp P & Tsutsui K. (2006). Control of luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in a flexibly ... Hormones and Behavior. vol 48, no 1. p. 128-128. Strand CR, Small TW & Deviche P. (2004). Singing in the rain: Growth of the ...
Membrane progesterone receptor
Their roles in the process are unclear but it has been suggested that, at least, this steroid hormone may inhibit tumor ... Hormones & Cancer. 3 (3): 101-12. doi:10.1007/s12672-012-0106-x. PMID 22350867. Romero-Sánchez M, Peiper SC, Evans B, Wang Z, ... Hormones & Cancer. 1 (4): 167-76. doi:10.1007/s12672-010-0023-9. PMC 3926102 . PMID 21761364. Dressing GE, Alyea R, Pang Y, ...
Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome
The androgen sensitivity index (ASI), defined as the product of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T), is frequently ... Testosterone levels may be elevated despite normal levels of luteinizing hormone. Conversion of testosterone (T) to ... Hormones (Athens). 7 (3): 217-29. doi:10.14310/horm.2002.1201. PMID 18694860. Quigley CA, De Bellis A, Marschke KB, el-Awady MK ...
Women's Health Initiative
Most women take hormone therapy to treat symptoms of menopause rather than for disease prevention and therefore the risks and ... The wide nature of the age range balanced the need to observe the effects of hormone therapy on younger women, while also ... "Breast cancer and hormone replacement therapy: collaborative reanalysis of data from 51 epidemiological studies of 52,705 women ... Grady, D; Rubin, SM; Petitti, DB; Fox, CS; Black, D; Ettinger, B; Ernster, VL; Cummings, SR (Dec 15, 1992). "Hormone therapy to ...
Hormones | ProSpec
Hormones are chemical messengers that carry and travel signals in the blood stream from 1 cell or glands to other tissues and ... which reflects how hormones acts as catalysts for other chemical changes at the cellular level necessary for growth, ... The word Hormone comes means, to spur on ... About Hormones:. The word Hormone comes means, "to spur on" ... Hormones also regulate the function of their target cells whicht express a receptor for the hormone. The action of hormones is ...
hormone imbalance - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for hormone imbalance
Treatments and Tools for hormone imbalance. Find hormone imbalance information, treatments for hormone imbalance and hormone ... MedHelps hormone imbalance Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, ... Posts on hormone imbalance (24). Could my wife be suffering from some hormone imbalance/thyroid disorder ? - Thyroid Disorders ... Could my FM and CFS be linked to hormone deficiencies? - Fibromyalgia Community ...
Hormones, Receptors and Target Cells
... What exactly are hormones and how are they different from "non-hormones"? Hormones are ... Hormone antagonists are widely used as drugs.. Finally, a comment on the names given hormones and what some have called the ... Hormone receptors are found either exposed on the surface of the cell or within the cell, depending on the type of hormone. In ... Natural hormones are themselves agonists and, in many cases, more than one distinct hormone binds to the same receptor. For a ...
Hormone Assays (Tests)
It is essential to measure the levels of the various hormones in the body, which play a part in the control of ovulation. Only ... My Hormone Assays infertility profile:Luteinizing Hormone 4.87 iu/L (1.9-80). Follicle Stimulating Hormone 4.69iu/L (2.4-9.3). ... What will hormone assays tell the doctor There are certain key hormones that are involved in the whole process of ovulation. ... What will hormone assays tell the doctor There are certain key hormones that are involved in the whole process of ovulation. ...
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Jerry Hormone - Contact Info, Agent, Manager | IMDbPro
How you can balance your hormones naturally | Psychologies
Here, Rosie Millen shares her top five tips to balance your hormones naturally ... These are all signs and symptoms that your hormones may be out of whack. ... Hormones may be invisible but that doesnt stop them making an impact on every aspect of your life, from your energy levels to ... Too many endogenous toxins can alter hormone production and activity.. Get it tested. Tests are a great way to identify which ...
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Obesity and hormones - Better Health Channel
... androgens and growth hormone are factors in obesity. ... The hormones leptin and insulin, sex hormones and growth ... Obesity and hormones The hormones leptin, insulin, oestrogens, androgens and growth hormone are factors in obesity... ... Behaviour and obesity hormones. People who are obese have hormone levels that encourage the accumulation of body fat. It seems ... Obesity and growth hormone. The pituitary gland in our brain produces growth hormone, which influences a persons height and ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist - Wikipedia
... the release of the pituitary hormones follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). However, after the ... A gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH agonist) is a type of medication which affects gonadotropins and sex hormones.[1 ... When used to suppress gonadotropin release, GnRH agonists can lower sex hormone levels by 95% in both sexes. ... Side effects of GnRH agonists are related to sex hormone deficiency and include symptoms of low testosterone levels and low ...
Mechanism of Action and Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones
Physiologic Effects of Thyroid Hormones. It is likely that all cells in the body are targets for thyroid hormones. While not ... Thyroid Hormone Receptors and Mechanism of Action. Receptors for thyroid hormones are intracellular DNA-binding proteins that ... A few examples of specific metabolic effects of thyroid hormones include: *Lipid metabolism: Increased thyroid hormone levels ... A few additional, well-documented effects of thyroid hormones include: *Cardiovascular system: Thyroid hormones increases heart ...
Hormones in Land-Applied Biosolids Could Affect Aquatic Organisms
Scientists find that rainfall runoff from biosolids amended fields may contain hormones at concentrations high enough to impact ... Hormones in Land-Applied Biosolids Could Affect Aquatic Organisms. Scientists setting up equipment used to apply artificial ... Hormones from biosolids applied to fields may be present in rainfall runoff at concentrations that are high enough to impact ... Yang, Y.-Y., Gray, J.L., Furlong, E.T., Davis, J.G., ReVello, R.C., and Borch, T., 2012, Steroid hormone runoff from ...
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Thyroid hormones - Wikipedia
Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). ... The thyroid hormones function via a well-studied set of nuclear receptors, termed the thyroid hormone receptors. These ... The thyroid hormones are essential to proper development and differentiation of all cells of the human body. These hormones ... If there is a deficiency of dietary iodine, the thyroid will not be able to make thyroid hormone. The lack of thyroid hormone ...
Peptide Hormones | SpringerLink
The development of peptide chemistry in the second half of this century is so closely related to hormone research that it ... D.H. Copp, E.C. Cameron, B. Cheney, G.F. Davidson, K.G. Henze, Evidence for calcitonin, a new hormone from the parathyroid that ... K. Tatemoto, V. Mutt, Chemical determination of polypeptide hormones. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 75, 4115-4119 (1978).PubMed ... H.J. Keutmann, M.M. Sauer, G.N. Hendy, J.L.H. ORiordan, J. Potts, Complete amino acid sequence of human parathyroid hormone. ...
Hormones | Psychology Today
New parents are slammed with hormones, as is the rookie player on a sports team. And the endocrine system is so complex that ... Hormones are silent drivers of behavior and personality; their molecular fingerprints are on everything from attraction to ... Do Hormones Really Influence What Women Find Attractive?. Recent replication studies torpedo earlier research on hormones and ... Understanding Hormones. Hormones are silent drivers of behavior and personality; their molecular fingerprints are on everything ...
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Thyroid Hormones | Encyclopedia.com
Thyroid Hormones Definition Thyroid hormones are artificially made hormones that make up for a lack of natural hormones ... Thyroid Hormones. Definition. Thyroid hormones are artificially made hormones that make up for a lack of natural hormones ... The adrenal glands produce hormones that control many body functions.. Hormone- A chemical that is produced in one part of the ... thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, thyrotrophin) n. a hormone, synthesized and secreted by the anterior pituitary gland under ...
Endocrine Disorders | Hormones | MedlinePlus
The Endocrine system has eight major glands that make hormones. Diabetes is the most common endocrine disease in the USA. ... If your hormone levels are too high or too low, you may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also occur if your body does ... Hormones are chemical messengers. They travel through your bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work slowly and affect ... They are usually treated by controlling how much hormone your body makes. Hormone supplements can help if the problem is too ...
Hormones of the Body
... Well go through all the glands and the hormones they produce in this PowerPoint Presentation! By Dawn ... Hormones of the Body * 1. Hormones of the Body Well go through all the glands and the hormones they produce in this PowerPoint ... As hormones are produced by the cells, the hormones are either released into the colloid or directly into the blood. ,/li,,/ul ... 4. What do these anterior pituitary hormones do? ,ul,,li,Growth Hormone : ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,stimulates cells to grow and divide ...
Anatomy and Physiology: Hormones
hormones in animal production
Hormones in food: meat from hormone-treated animals versus other sources. 11. Economic implications of the use of hormones in ... CURRENT NATIONAL LEGISLATION RELATING TO THE USE OF CERTAIN HORMONES IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION (An annotated chronological index of ... 9. Residues in edible tissues of hormone-treated animals. 10. ... 2.1 Hormones of endogenous origin. 2.2 Hormones of exogenous ...
Hormones Responses Resistance Training
Hormones 101: The Basics. Hormones, secreted by endocrine (hormone secreting) glands in the body, are substances that ... and hormone elevations.. Hormone Function in Resistance Exercise: Concentric versus Eccentric Training. During conventional ... Hormone Function in Resistance Exercise: Training to Failure versus Non-Failure. In a unique recent study, Izquierdo et al. ( ... Hormone Function in Resistance Exercise: Rest Period. In a recent study, Ahtiainen et al. (2005) examined a shorter rest period ...
Hormones - BrainPOP
Do Female Hormones Affect Training? - YouTube
3 Growth Hormone Tricks: Naturally Elevate GH For Faster Fat Loss - Duration: 6:34. Get Lean in 12 216,569 views ... How to Fix the HORMONE Imbalance in Male & Female , Tips by Guru Mann - Duration: 11:57. Guru Mann Fitness 323,636 views ... Girl Talk: How I Balanced My Hormones To Start Losing Weight Naturally! - Duration: 6:38. Vanessa Watson 74,440 views ... Weight Training for Women Balances Hormones w/ Dr. Tyna Moore - Duration: 58:24. High Intensity Health 55,230 views ...
Are Hormones Sabotaging Your Weight Loss?
... it may have less to do with your willpower to hit the gym and eat low fat foods and more to do with your hormones. Marjorie ... says the secret to maintaining a health weight may be in balancing your hormones by giving yourself a hunger hormone makeover. ... "Hormones play a role not only in weight gain but in our inability to lose weight once were already overweight or obese," Nolan ... There are two different types of hormones at play here: one that makes you feel hungry and one that makes you feel satiated. ...
Depression, Thyroid Conditions, and Hormones
What Other Hormone-Related Conditions Are Associated With Depression? The thyroid gland produces and regulates thyroid hormones ... What Do Hormones Have to Do With Depression?. Levels of certain hormones, such as those produced by the thyroid gland, can be ... What Are Hormones?. Hormones are substances produced by the endocrine glands that have a tremendous effect on bodily processes ... Thyroid gland hormones can affect food metabolism, mood, and sexual function. When the thyroid produces too much hormone, the ...
How exercise affects metabolic hormones
Exercise and metabolic hormones. However, while there is a lot of evidence outlining the various benefits of exercise on health ... The effects of various forms of exercise on better-known hormones such as insulin and adrenalin are already well-understood, ... This was a surprise to the researchers who were expecting it to rise, since animal studies suggest that the metabolic hormone ... So, they investigated this further by examining the impact of two forms of exercise on metabolic hormones, which are the ...
Heroes and hormones | Salon.com
Category:Plant hormones - Wikimedia Commons
Hormones in Lipoprotein Metabolism | SpringerLink
An intimate relation between hormones and lipoprotein metabolism has been known for a long time especially from hormone- ... Sex-Hormones - Mechanism of Action, Epidemiology. * Pharmacology of Female Sex Hormones with Respect to Lipid and Lipoprotein ... An intimate relation between hormones and lipoprotein metabolism has been known for a long time especially from hormone- ... Sex-Hormones - Action on Plasma Lipoproteins. * Influence of Oral and Percutaneous Estrogen Therapy on the Lipoprotein Particle ...
Hormones for health | The Star
Hormones are of vital importance for good health, both in men and women. ... These are hormones derived from plants, which are then modified in the lab to become exactly the same as the human hormones. ... HORMONES are vital to our health. They instruct our cells to do important metabolic functions. Too much or too little hormones ... So, although using natural human hormones or their equivalents makes more sense than using horse hormones or synthetics, we are ...
Growth Hormones Direct Releases Homeopathic FAQ Video
... in response to customer request and repeated questions from ... Growth Hormones Direct urges consumers to watch Science Meet Nature as they reap the benefits of optimizing their hormone ... Illegal Human Growth Hormone use is still dangerous. Pharmaceutical Growth Hormones needs a prescription that requires an ... Optimal hormone levels allow individuals to enjoy increased general health. Growth Hormones Direct is an Arizona based ...
ABC's of Hormones - Jack Challam - Google Books
This investigation into a controversial topic explains the basics of hormones, their risks and benefits, and their appropriate ... Hormones are the magic bullets of anti-ageing products. But are they safe? And how necessary and beneficial are they? ... steroid hormones supplemental hormones synthetic hormones taking DHEA thyroid hormone treat Type I diabetes types of hormones ... health food stores heart disease herbs hormone levels hormone production hormone replacement hot flashes human growth hormone ...
Acne, hormones, and treatment. | The BMJ
Battles over Bovine Growth Hormones | TreeHugger
... are still using injections of Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) to increase milk yields in cows. rBGH has been banned in Canada, the ... Battles over Bovine Growth Hormones. Many dairies in the U.S. are still using injections of Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) to ... Many dairies in the U.S. are still using injections of Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH) to increase milk yields in cows. rBGH has ... Monsanto, a corporation known for its promotion of genetically modified food, created the synthetic hormone which is a " ...
Sex Hormones May Affect Multiple Sclerosis
Sex hormones may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), researchers say. Abnormal levels of estrogen and testosterone may ... Hormone Tests, Brain Scans Done. Levels of several sex hormones including estradiol (a form of estrogen) and testosterone were ... Womens hormones were measured throughout their menstrual cycle. Thats because womens hormones ebb and flow during the ... 18, 2005 -- Sex hormones may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), researchers say. Abnormal levels of estrogen and ...
Sex Hormones Fight Age | Science News
Science News was founded in 1921 as an independent, nonprofit source of accurate information on the latest news of science, medicine and technology. Today, our mission remains the same: to empower people to evaluate the news and the world around them. It is published by Society for Science & the Public, a nonprofit 501(c)(3) membership organization dedicated to public engagement in scientific research and education.. ...
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- At your first Skintastic consultation for hormone analysis, we will test your current levels of essential hormones such as testosterone, estradiol and progesterone. (skintastic.com)
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- After the happy ovulation, the follicle that had the egg inside starts to make the hormone called progesterone. (mia.health)
- Thus, progesterone levels in your body begin to rise and trigger the increase of cortisol (the stress hormone) to grow too. (mia.health)
- Symptoms of perimenopause/hormone imbalance? (medhelp.org)
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- If you haven't felt like yourself lately but haven't quite been able to put your finger on why, a hormone imbalance could be to blame. (skintastic.com)
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- A hormone imbalance can be the cause of many disruptions in your wellness, including your metabolism and energy levels. (arcadiawellnesscenter.com)
- Hormone imbalance could be the culprit behind these issues. (arcadiawellnesscenter.com)
- 1 major class of hormones is the Proteins, Peptides and modified amino acids which are hydrophilic (and mostly large) hormone molecules that bind to receptors on the surface of "target" cells, cells are able to respond to the presence of the hormone. (prospecbio.com)
- They do this as a result of hormone specific receptors that are located either on the cell membrane, or within the cell's cytoplasm itself. (enotes.com)
- testosterone plays a vital role in the hormone make-up of a woman. (fullcircleaz.com)
- However, if you suffer from deep, cystic acne all the time, then it could be androgens (male hormones such as testosterone) which are the culprit. (yourbesthealthever.com.au)
- The anabolic hormones insulin, insulin like growth factor, testosterone and growth hormone are all contributing factors to this process. (fitnessgeared.com)
- When things are good, the organs and glands work together to regulate hormone production, affecting many different processes including metabolism, sexual function, reproduction, mood and much more. (emmawinterwellness.com)
- Not only are these essential fats fundamental building blocks for hormone production, but they keep inflammation levels low, boost your metabolism and promote weight loss. (emmawinterwellness.com)
- Thyroid hormones control the body's metabolism, and when the hormone levels are low, all systems slow down, including heart rate, mental functioning, and digestion. (yourbesthealthever.com.au)
- These are all signs and symptoms that your hormones may be out of whack. (psychologies.co.uk)
- The good news, however, is that if your hormones are guilty of throwing you off your game, your issues and symptoms could be relieved significantly with professional bio-identical hormone therapies. (skintastic.com)
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- What are the Symptoms of Hormone Deficiency in Women? (fullcircleaz.com)
- Hormones also regulate the function of their target cells whicht express a receptor for the hormone. (prospecbio.com)
- Binding of the hormone to its receptor initiates a sequence of intracellular signals that alters the behavior of the cell (opening or closing of the membrane channels) or stimulate (or repress) gene expression in the nucleus by turning on (or off) the promoters and enhancers of the genes. (prospecbio.com)
- A hormone binds to a site on the extracellular portion of the receptor which acts as transmembrane protein that pass through the plasma membrane x7, with theN-terminal exposed at the exterior of the cell and the C-terminal projecting into the cytoplasm. (prospecbio.com)
- The lock-and-key theory states that a specific hormone interacts with a specific receptor site. (fitnessgeared.com)
- The hormone acts like a key while the receptor site is like a lock. (fitnessgeared.com)
- The hormone diffuses across the sarcolemma and binds with its receptor, thus activating it. (fitnessgeared.com)
- The hormone receptor-complex recognizes certain regulatory mechanisms of genes. (fitnessgeared.com)
- The change in the receptor as a result of the interaction with the hormone triggers the secondary messenger. (fitnessgeared.com)
- Hormones are chemical messengers that carry and travel signals in the blood stream from 1 cell or glands to other tissues and organsto maintain chemical levels in the bloodstream that achieve homeostasis. (prospecbio.com)
- It identifies various glands in your body that secrete hormones and describe the functioning of each. (theguardianonline.com)
- Hormones are chemical substances that are created by specific glands at certain locations in the body, then dumped into the blood stream where they influence and cause specific reactions from cells in other parts of the body. (enotes.com)
- Endocrine glands, which are special groups of cells that make hormones. (collective-evolution.com)
- Resistance training causes endocrine glands to secrete hormones. (fitnessgeared.com)
- The word Hormone comes means, "to spur on" which reflects how hormones acts as catalysts for other chemical changes at the cellular level necessary for growth, development, and energy. (prospecbio.com)
- Growth hormone, for example, helps us burn fat and build up muscles. (prospecbio.com)
- It is very important to understand the key role hormones play in inducing muscular growth as well as muscular breakdown. (fitnessgeared.com)
- Growth hormone and insulin are example of this classification. (fitnessgeared.com)
- An Example of antagonistic pairs of hormones is the Insulin, which causes the level of glucose to drop when it has risen and Glucagon causes blood sugar to rise when it has fallen. (prospecbio.com)
- Another peptide hormone, insulin, starts the process to convert sugar into cellular energy. (prospecbio.com)
- Bio-identical hormone pellet therapy re-introduces the necessary hormones in the form of time-released, plant-based hormone pellets that are biologically identical to your own hormones and placed in an inconspicuous area just below the skin's surface. (skintastic.com)
- Then, when you return for your first therapy, we will provide you a customized, optimal combination of bio-identical hormone supplements to suit your specific needs and deficiencies. (skintastic.com)
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- What is the Goal of Bio-identical Hormone Therapy? (fullcircleaz.com)
- Endocrine hormone are secreted into the blood and carried by blood and tissue fluids to the cells they act upon, while exocrine hormones are secreted into a duct, and then into the bloodstream. (prospecbio.com)
- Exocrine hormones are transferred from cell to cell by diffusion (paracrine signaling). (prospecbio.com)
Including saturated fat and cholesterol1
- Hormones have large effects and it takes picogram amounts to cause big changes in cells or even your whole body. (prospecbio.com)
- Soluble and insoluble fibre are both excellent for binding to excess hormones and pulling them out of the body. (psychologies.co.uk)
- Hormones are a certain type of chemicals produced in your body that affect the functioning of various activities in your body. (theguardianonline.com)
- Women can take control of their lives, have more energy, and a fitter body when their hormones are at their optimal levels. (theguardianonline.com)
- The Power of Hormones book empowers you to take charge of your body and mind to achieve an ideal hormonal balance. (theguardianonline.com)
- The book informs you about the different types of hormones in your body. (theguardianonline.com)
- The Power of Hormones enables you to use natural, efficient, and healthy methods to bring back balance to your body. (theguardianonline.com)
- You gain the benefit of understanding how hormones work in your body. (theguardianonline.com)
- This hormone produces the "fight or flight" response, where the heart rate accelerates, the respiratory rate quickens, the pupils dilate, and the body generally prepares to fight the fight of its life, or run the race of its life. (enotes.com)
- Hormones perform vital functions for the body, without which, life would not occur. (enotes.com)
- Toxins found in pesticides, plastics, household chemicals, beauty products and even mattresses can contain hormone disrupting chemicals that mimic hormones in the body and keep the body from producing real hormones. (collective-evolution.com)
- Magnesium - This supports hundreds of reactions in the body and often contributes to better sleep (which is great for hormones, obviously). (collective-evolution.com)
- Bio-identical hormones have the exact same chemical structure as hormones that are made by the human body. (fullcircleaz.com)
- The goal is to provide an adequate supply of a deficient hormone in a form that is molecularly identical to that which your body produces. (fullcircleaz.com)
- These hormones provide an excess of information to the body. (fitnessgeared.com)
Balance of your hormones1
- Healthy fats have the opposite effect of refined carbohydrates, which lead to inflammation and can mess with the balance of your hormones. (emmawinterwellness.com)
- The action of hormones is determined by numerous factors such as its pattern of secretion and the response of the receiving tissue (signal transduction response). (prospecbio.com)
- Any process that results in a change in state or activity of a cell (in terms of movement, secretion, enzyme production, gene expression, etc.) as a result of a hormone stimulus. (wikidata.org)
- If your hormone levels are unstable, then you can end up gaining weight, your skin might become dull, your libido might be at an all-time low, or you may be experiencing heightened mood swings. (theguardianonline.com)
- Maca root is a tuber in the radish family that has a history of boosting hormone production and libido. (collective-evolution.com)