An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids (depending on species) that regulates the synthesis of eumelanin (brown/black) pigments in MELANOCYTES. Agouti protein antagonizes the signaling of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS and has wide distribution including ADIPOSE TISSUE; GONADS; and HEART. Its overexpression in agouti mice results in uniform yellow coat color, OBESITY, and metabolic defects similar to type II diabetes in humans.
A nucleus located in the middle hypothalamus in the most ventral part of the third ventricle near the entrance of the infundibular recess. Its small cells are in close contact with the ependyma.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The system of all phenomena in space and time; the totality of physical reality. It is both a scientific and philosophic concept appearing in all historic eras. (Webster 2d; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The absence of light.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
General name for two extinct orders of reptiles from the Mesozoic era: Saurischia and Ornithischia.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
The ability to understand and manage emotions and to use emotional knowledge to enhance thought and deal effectively with tasks. Components of emotional intelligence include empathy, self-motivation, self-awareness, self-regulation, and social skill. Emotional intelligence is a measurement of one's ability to socialize or relate to others.
Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
General term for a group of MALNUTRITION syndromes caused by failure of normal INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of nutrients.
An early local inflammatory reaction to insult or injury that consists of fever, an increase in inflammatory humoral factors, and an increased synthesis by hepatocytes of a number of proteins or glycoproteins usually found in the plasma.
Proteins that are secreted into the blood in increased or decreased quantities by hepatocytes in response to trauma, inflammation, or disease. These proteins can serve as inhibitors or mediators of the inflammatory processes. Certain acute-phase proteins have been used to diagnose and follow the course of diseases or as tumor markers.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Plasma glycoproteins that form a stable complex with hemoglobin to aid the recycling of heme iron. They are encoded in man by a gene on the short arm of chromosome 16.
The appetite-stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibited by the hormone leptin and activated by the hormone ghrelin. Adipocytes ... Orthologs of AgRP, ASIP, MCIR, and MC4R have been found in mammalian, teleost fish, and avian genomes. This suggests that the ... Studies suggest that systems involved in the regulation of stress response and of energy balance are highly integrated. Loss or ... The protein blocks α-MSH-induced secretion of corticosterone. ... This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/ ...
According to their study, low baseline levels of corticosterone (CORT), a hormone involved in stress response, predicted better ... Relating to the implications of bird intelligence, avian innovation and creativity led to more robust populations. According to ... The researchers suggested a trade-off hypothesis where the cost of reversal learning would inhibit the development of other ... "Associative learning is inversely related to reversal learning and varies with nestling corticosterone exposure". Animal ...
CB1 is shown to co-localize with the food intake inhibiting neuropeptide, corticotrophin-releasing hormone, in the ... A related study examined the effect of THC on the hedonic (pleasure) value of food and found enhanced dopamine release in the ... These findings show that anandamide and 2-AG divergently regulate the HPA axis response to stress: while habituation of the ... A decrease of anandamide was found along the axis that contributed to basal hypersecretion of corticosterone; in contrast, an ...
... is positively correlated with parental family income and this correlation is thought to be mediated by income related stress. A ... This was thought to be due to neuroprotective ovarian hormones. In rats, DNA damage increases in the hippocampus under ... Colombo M, Broadbent N (Jun 2000). "Is the avian hippocampus a functional homologue of the mammalian hippocampus?". ... that animals with hippocampal damage often have difficulty learning to inhibit responses that they have previously been taught ...
StressEdit. The hippocampus contains high levels of glucocorticoid receptors, which make it more vulnerable to long-term stress ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hippocampus.. *Stained brain slice images which include the "hippocampus" at the ... This was thought to be due to neuroprotective ovarian hormones.[109][110] In rats, DNA damage increases in the hippocampus ... Colombo M, Broadbent N (Jun 2000). "Is the avian hippocampus a functional homologue of the mammalian hippocampus?". ...
Sex-specific responses to stress have also been demonstrated in the rat, to have an effect on the hippocampus. Chronic stress ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Hippocampus.. *Stained brain slice images which include the "hippocampus" at the ... Garcia-Segura LM (2009). Hormones and Brain Plasticity. Oxford University Press US. ISBN 978-0-19-532661-1.. ... Colombo M, Broadbent N (Jun 2000). "Is the avian hippocampus a functional homologue of the mammalian hippocampus?". ...
The appetite-stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibited by the hormone leptin and activated by the hormone ghrelin. Adipocytes ... Orthologs of AgRP, ASIP, MCIR, and MC4R have been found in mammalian, teleost fish, and avian genomes. This suggests that the ... Studies suggest that systems involved in the regulation of stress response and of energy balance are highly integrated. Loss or ... The protein blocks α-MSH-induced secretion of corticosterone. ... This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/ ...
Recently, it has been shown that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), also called RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP) in ... Glucocorticoid acts as a mediator that interacts between stress and hypothalamic GnIH/RFRP-3. GnIH/RFRP-3 also plays important ... Glucocorticoid acts as a mediator that interacts between stress and hypothalamic GnIH/RFRP-3. GnIH/RFRP-3 also plays important ... GnIH/Rfrp (the gene coding RFRP-3) expression and activity are increased by psychological and immune stress, and this ...
... moderate elevations of corticosterone in avian young, we artificially elevated the hormone levels in two ways: feeding ... Corticosterone inhibits feather growth: potential mechanism explaining seasonal down regulation of corticosterone during molt. ... Sockman, K. W. and Schwabl, H. (2001). Plasma corticosterone in nestling American kestrels: effects of age, handling stress, ... Related articles. Cited by.... More in this TOC section. *. Nest substrate and tool shape significantly affect the mechanics ...
Hormone imbalances may lead to serious health problems. ... Hormones in birds ensure physical health and influencing ... Corticosterone production increases during activity and stress, inhibiting reproduction. In contrast, prolactin stimulates ... Another hormone-related disorder in birds is iodine deficiency, which PetMD defines as affecting the thyroid gland, "enlarging ... In the hormonal disorder avian diabetes mellitus, a birds pancreas produces too much glucagon and too little insulin. This ...
... implications for stress-related disorders. Hormones and Behavior, 53, 386-394.. *CrossRef , ... In snowshoe hares, the chronic stress effects of their mammalian and avian predators are unmistakably present. Their ... 1998). The rats showed evidence of chronic stress, including higher basal corticosterone concentrations, adrenal hypertrophy ... Thus, the hares are not inherently nonviable nor is reproduction totally inhibited (although it is reduced), and there is no ...
Sleep deprivation-induced impairment of memory consolidation is not mediated by glucocorticoid stress hormones. Journal of ... Dekens, D. W., De Deyn, P. P., Sap, F., Eisel, U. L. M., & Naudé, P. J. W. (2020). Iron chelators inhibit amyloid-beta-induced ... van der Feen, F. E., Zickert, N., Groothuis, T. G. G., & Geuze, R. H. (2020). Does hand skill asymmetry relate to creativity, ... Huffeldt, N. P., Merkel, F. R., Jenni-Eiermann, S., Goymann, W., & Helm, B. (2020). Melatonin and corticosterone profiles under ...
Regulation of agouti-related protein and pro-opiomelanocortin gene expression in the avian arcuate nucleus. Frontiers in ... Dunn IC, Wilson PW, DEath RB, Boswell T. Hypothalamic Agouti-Related Peptide mRNA is Elevated During Natural and Stress- ... Teshigawara K, Takahashi S, Boswell T, Li Q, Tanaka S, Takeuchi S. Identification of avian alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone ... Circulating prolactin and corticosterone concentrations during the development of migratory condition in the Dark-eyed Junco, ...
... levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular ... Constant light alters serum hormone levels related to thyroid function in male CD-1 mice *Marissa J. Maroni ... A previous study used corticosterone levels to evaluate stress levels9, whereas electrolyte levels in blood were used to ... The circadian clock and metabolism are intrinsically related42. On the one hand, light signals are perceived by the avian brain ...
"Vitamin E and vitamin C supplementation improves antioxidant status and immune function in oxidative-stressed breeder roosters ... Effects of corticosterone on innate and humoral immune functions and oxidative stress in barn owl nestlings. J. Exp. Biol. 212 ... In future, further studies are needed on the related molecular mechanism when birds exposed to oxidative stress: 1) genome-wide ... Avian Dis. 57: 730- 736 Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed Jena S., Chainy G. B. N., Dandapat J.. 2012. Expression of ...
There were no differences in Cort indicating that our brief father-pup separations likely had no consequences on stress ... and examined differences in adult offspring OT-ir within social brain areas as well as basal T and corticosterone (Cort) levels ... like regulation of stress reactivity and social behavior. Using the bi-parental California mouse, we have demonstrated that ... like regulation of stress reactivity and social behavior. Using the bi-parental California mouse, we have demonstrated that ...
g., heat stress) also. Thus, shifts in gene expression related to PRL signaling may provide an environmentally mediated ... This study demonstrates that cooperation of endogenous NE and corticosterone are involved in a time-dependent fall or rise of ... Pongratz G, Härle P, Schnellinger G, Janele D, Scholmerich J, Straub R. Norepinephrine in mice inhibits secretion of splenic IL ... Caras M, O Brien M, Brenowitz E, Rubel E. Estradiol selectively enhances auditory function in avian forebrain neurons. J ...
2007). Stress, corticosterone responses and avian personalities. J. Ornithol. 148, S169-S178. ... the avian stress hormone) raises lipid peroxidation (a measure of oxidative damage) (Lin et al., 2004a), but acute exposure to ... However, it should also be noted that personality traits are not always related to either baseline or stress-induced Cort, and ... chemicals produced during normal metabolism that can induce reactive oxygen species and/or inhibit antioxidant systems, exceed ...
According to their study, low baseline levels of corticosterone (CORT), a hormone involved in stress response, predicted better ... Relating to the implications of bird intelligence, avian innovation and creativity led to more robust populations. According to ... The researchers suggested a trade-off hypothesis where the cost of reversal learning would inhibit the development of other ... "Associative learning is inversely related to reversal learning and varies with nestling corticosterone exposure". Animal ...
... brain suggest the relation between stress hormone and the song system development2011. *. Author(s). Suzuki K, Matsunaga E, ... Synthetic f-2 exerted a growth-inhibiting activity toward the gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram-positive ... Journal Article] Decreased fecal corticosterone levels due to domestication : a comparison between the white-backed Munia ( ... has implication for the evolution of the avian vocal learning2011. *. Author(s). Matsunaga E, Suzuki K, Kobayashi T, Okanoya K. ...
Corticosterone inhibits male rodent sexual behavior while the mechanism remains obscured. Recent studies have disclosed that ... In the mammalian cerebrum, the ependyma is varied by the regions to cortex or basal ganglia (BG). In the avian telencephalon ( ... Because the very high expression of monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) in the subventricular area has been related to epithelial and ... It has been elucidated that cognitive dysfunction following cranial radiotherapy might be linked to the oxidative stress- ...
Nutrition Practice to Alleviate the Adverse Effects of Stress on Laying Performance, Metabolic Profile, and Egg Quality in Peak ... corticosterone and thyroid hormones. Poult. Sci. 79:514-518. ... Humic acids inhibit the formation but not the mutagenicity of N ... Evaluation of the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Dis. 27:972-929. ... Exploration of stress-induced immunosuppression in chickens reveals both stress-resistant and stress-susceptible antigen ...
Among various factors implicated in regulation of immobility in the FS test, monoamines, hormones related to the hypothalamic- ... In addition, no marked differences in the circadian pattern of the plasma corticosterone concentration or in the FS stress- ... An increase in the level of phosphorylation at the autophosphorylation site of SFKs (Tyr416 for avian c-Src) reflects an ... imipramine and desipramine each increase the extracellular concentrations of monoamines in the brain by inhibiting their uptake ...
8-hydroxycorticosterone - A hormone with an unknown function. *Corticosterone - Stress reaction, protein breakdown, fat and ... Performing many other related functions.. Filed Under: Body Systems, Chickens, The Science of Chickens Tagged With: avian, ... Macrophages also join the fight, coming to gobble-up the antigens which the antibodies have inhibited. After a war is over, the ... Avian Endocrine Systems - Hormones in Poultry. August 28, 2012 By ChickenGirl Leave a Comment ...
Baseline and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced levels of testosterone, but not baseline corticosterone, were ... Physiological differences in testosterone or baseline corticosterone were not related to differences in parental care, ... However, the profile of both hormones may indicate quality traits that influence the likelihood of the respective male to lose ... Further, males that lost paternity also expressed higher baseline levels of corticosterone. ...
Adrenal Gland, Stress Hormone and Nutrient Requirements. Corticosterone is the main stress hormone that is produced and ... This paper will review some of the nutritional factors related to stress in poultry. ... It is well known that deficiencies of vitamin E and selenium will inhibit the immune response in poultry. Selenium works with ... Avian macrophages: Regulators of local and systemic immune responses. Poultry Sci. 77:983-989. ...
FGLamide allatostatins are invertebrate neuropeptides which inhibit juvenile hormone biosynthesis in Dictyoptera and related ... N-acetyl carnosine was more potent than carnosine in inhibiting the release of the inflammatory and oxidative stress mediators ... In avian species, ghrelin is mainly produced by the proventriculus but reduces food intake whereas its effect on lipogenesis in ... Besides food intake and plasma corticosterone levels, mRNA levels of the key lipogenic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FAS) and its ...
Narayan EJ, Cockrem JF, Hero J-M (2013) Sight of a predator induces a corticosterone stress response and generates fear in an ... Additionally, it has been found that the stress hormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) increases the duration of TI when ... Genetic factors relating to the mechanism of TI have also been shown to influence when TI will be deployed as an anti-predatory ... TI is thought to inhibit further attack by predators and reduce the perceived need of the predator to subdue prey further. The ...
Tatemoto K (1982) Isolation and characterization of peptide YY (PYY): a candidate gut hormone that inhibits pancreatic exocrine ... Blundell TL, Pitts JE, Tickle IJ, Wood SP, Wu C-W (1981) X-ray analysis (1.4-A resolution) of avian pancreatic polypeptide: ... McDonald JK (1988) NPY and related substances. In: Nelson J (ed) CRC Critical Reviews in Neurobiology, Vol 4. Boca Raton: CRC ... Rivier C, Vale W (1983) Modulation of stress-induced ACTH release by corticotropin-releasing factor, catecholamines and ...
... rats that were prenatally stressed showed persistent elevation of plasma corticosterone in response to repeated stress induced ... 1988) Prenatal stress increases anxiety related behavior and alters cerebral lateralization of dopamine activity. Life Sci 42: ... 1987) Thyroid hormones influence the development of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors in the rat: a mechanism for the ... 1990) Glucocorticoids inhibit the expression of an inducible, but not the constitutive, nitric oxide synthase in vascular ...
Hõrak, P.; Männiste, M.; Meitern, R.; Sild, E.; Saks, L.; Sepp, T. (2013). Dexamethasone inhibits corticosterone deposition in ... Effects of endotoxin and psychological stress on redox physiology, immunity and feather corticosterone in greenfinches. PLoS ... Journal of Avian Biology, Journal of Ornithology, Condor, Ibis, Avian Science, Ardea, Ardeola, Ornis Fennica, Acta ... Hormones & Behavior, Animal Biology, Ecography, Chemoecology, Journal of Chemical Ecology, Environmental Pollution, Science of ...
In hormone assays, PBO at both doses reduced serum E2 levels, but did not affect corticosterone levels. An anti-uterotrophic ... Except for low hatchability, transovarian exposure to p,p-DDT or p,p-DDE did not markedly impair the avian reproductive ... MeHg inhibited Akt1/mTOR signaling that led to induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis and autophagy in the NSCs. Furthermore ... Expression of VEGF-related proteins in cultured human brain microvascular endothelial cells and pericytes after exposure to ...
Higher doses of corticosterone or selective glucocorticoids were able to reverse the MR-mediated effect on accommodation/AHP, ... Pantac is a drug that helps treat problems related to acid reflux and peptic ulcers. It works by decreasing acid in the stomach ... Wild ducks as long-distance vectors of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1). The aim of our study was to evaluate the ... Insulin inhibited the activity of alkaline phosphatase on brain microvessels in in vitro experiments. Bromination of ...
The appetite-related effects of one such melanocortin, beta-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), are well documented in ... Islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) is postulated to act as a hormonal signal from the pancreas to the brain to inhibit food ... To investigate the physiological roles of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) in avian species ... This study was conducted to define the regulatory mechanisms underlying stress-induced decreases in food intake and weight gain ...
Below the neck, stress biology centers on the regulation of glucocorticoids or CORT (cortisol in primates, corticosterone in ... The -adrenergic effect of catechol-amines by inhibiting insulin secretion further accentuates the contribution of age-related ... Avian migration and navigation Last Updated on Tue, 16 Oct 2018 , Breeding Season ... Glucocorticoids are classic stress hormones and have been commonly used as biochemical markers of stress reactions (McEwen, ...
TM improved thermotolerance acquisition by decreasing basal metabolic rate and muscle injury during thermal stress. Basal ... corticosterone, total proteins, albumin, selected enzymes and some electrolytes at the beginning (0 h) and after 1, 3 and 5 h ... The importance of thyroid gland hormones in adaptation to heat stress is related to the central role that thyroid hormones play ... thyroid hormones, some enzyme activities and corticosterone considered as useful biomarkers of stress response [1, 12]. The ALT ...
  • The protein blocks α-MSH-induced secretion of corticosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnIH/Rfrp (the gene coding RFRP-3) expression and activity are increased by psychological and immune stress, and this alteration suppresses GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. (frontiersin.org)
  • Similar to other stressors, these stresses induce some sickness behaviors, and they also suppress HPG activity through inhibition of GnRH synthesis and secretion in several mammals and birds ( 10 - 17 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, it has been well established that the actions of some stress-related endocrine, neuroendocrine, and inflammatory factors, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and glucocorticoid/corticosterone, are increased by stress and that these alterations act to decrease GnRH and gonadotropin secretion in times of stress ( 15 , 18 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. (nature.com)
  • Tatemoto K (1982) Isolation and characterization of peptide YY (PYY): a candidate gut hormone that inhibits pancreatic exocrine secretion. (springer.com)
  • One way in which animals respond to environmental challenges is through the secretion of glucocorticoid stress hormones. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Basal and pulsatile secretion of growth hormone (GH) is increased, with a peripheral resistance to its effects. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Plenum, New York, 1991, pp Mess B., Csernus V., Rékási Z.: The role of different neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the regulation of pineal hormone secretion. (docplayer.hu)
  • Although the secretion of stress hormones provides birds for fight or flight that is essential for survival in nature but it has been shown that they inhibits different functions of the immune system, leading not only to the incidence of diseases and mortality in birds and also to their reduced performance ( Virden and Kidd, 2009 ). (ac.ir)
  • Tests for relationships to relative body mass, hemoglobin concentration, molt status and date complemented this evaluation of the time of day effect on corticosterone secretion in free-living tropical rainforest birds. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To test this question, we manipulated paternal care (high and low care) and examined differences in adult offspring OT-immunoreactive (OT-ir) within social brain areas as well as basal T and corticosterone (Cort) levels. (frontiersin.org)
  • There were no differences in Cort indicating that our brief father-pup separations likely had no consequences on stress reactivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, recent studies that experimentally elevated corticosterone ('cort', the primary GC in birds) levels within the baseline range found support for a positive influence of baseline cort on reproductive effort, such as increases in incubation and parental care [ 22 - 24 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This experiment investigated the effects of different doses of Bacillus subtilis spore as a probiotic on the immune response , intestinal morphology and ileal dry matter digestibility in broiler chicks exposed to stress induced by corticosterone (CORT). (ac.ir)
  • Corticosterone (CORT) is the major corticosteroid in avian species. (ac.ir)
  • The administration of adolescent chronic stimuli to males decreased the adult plasma corticosterone (CORT) and progesterone levels after restraint. (erythromycin2020.site)
  • Glucocorticoid acts as a mediator that interacts between stress and hypothalamic GnIH/RFRP-3. (frontiersin.org)
  • The two receptors that mediate the effects of glucocorticoids are the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). GR is bound only when levels are intermediate to high, such as during the peak of a circadian response or after the initiation of a stress response. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • To investigate the effects of glucocorticoids on reproductive decisions, we experimentally increased corticosterone levels (the primary glucocorticoid in birds) in free-living female tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor , during the chick-rearing stage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Glucocorticoid hormones were found to regulate DNA demethylation within a key enhancer of the rat liver‐specific tyrosine aminotransferase ( Tat ) gene. (embopress.org)
  • Roles and mechanistic bases of glucocorticoid regulation of avian reproduction. (asu.edu)
  • It deregulated the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in rats as observed by increase in plasma corticosterone levels apart from decreased corticotrophin releasing hormone-2 (CRH-2) and Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression in amygdala. (ninamvseeno.org)
  • This study on 41 passerine species of the Ecuadorian Chocó applied a standardized capture-and-restraint protocol to examine diurnal variation in baseline and stress-related release of corticosterone, the primary avian glucocorticoid. (beds.ac.uk)
  • A similar administration of VP at the end of the light period completely prevented the diurnal rise in plasma corticosterone. (pianolarge.ml)
  • In response to physical and psychological stressors, input from the limbic system and brain stem triggers release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The ability of many drugs of abuse, including cocaine, to mediate reinforcement and drug-seeking behaviors is in part mediated by the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) system, in which CRH exerts its effects partly via the CRH receptor subtype 1 (CRHR1) in extra-hypothalamic areas. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • My research interests are centred on the neural and endocrine mechanisms that underpin feeding behaviour, metabolism, reproduction and stress responsiveness. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Oxidative stress occurs when pro-oxidants, chemicals produced during normal metabolism that can induce reactive oxygen species and/or inhibit antioxidant systems, exceed the body's antioxidant capacity ( Finkel and Holbrook, 2000 ). (biologists.org)
  • These stressors cause hormone changes, declines in feed intake, altered nutrient metabolism and suppressed immune function. (ufl.edu)
  • Glucocorticoids exert a multitude of acute effects, some of which include enhancing metabolism and channelling energy to muscles, stimulation of the immune system, inhibiting reproductive behaviours, enhancing cognitive abilities and cerebral glucose utilization, and decreasing appetite. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Deviche P ., Massa R., Bottoni L. & Hendrick J.C. (1985) Corticosterone influences on testosterone metabolism in the brain and cloacal gland of male quail. (asu.edu)
  • Thus, in contrast to D2, D3 catalyzes the inactivation pathway of thyroid hormone metabolism. (hindawi.com)
  • Inflammation and metabolism in cattle under heat stress. (edu.au)
  • From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. (ninamvseeno.org)
  • INTRODUCTION Oxidative stress is commonly defined as an imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants at the cellular or individual level. (deepdyve.com)
  • Here, we tested whether greenfinches Carduelis chloris differing in personality traits differed in various plasma indices of oxidative profile: antioxidant capacity (OXY), pro-oxidant status (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs), oxidative stress (OS) and an end-product of oxidative damage: malondialdehyde (MDA). (biologists.org)
  • Costs, in terms of tissue damage and also investment in cellular repair and replacement, accrue under oxidative stress. (biologists.org)
  • Functional Ecology erinumbri 'The ecology of antioxidants and oxidative stress in animals' (v24, okt. (etis.ee)
  • HEK293 cells transfected with a double-stranded siRNA to suppress expression of the homeobox gene HOXB13 were highly resistant to oxidative stress-inducing agents, such as hydrogen peroxide, N -ethylmaleimide (NEM), and paraquat. (go.jp)
  • This finding suggests that HOXB13 might enhance cell injury caused by oxidative stress. (go.jp)
  • Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. (hindawi.com)
  • For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. (hindawi.com)
  • However, oxidative stress and meat lipid peroxidation during storage were aggravated by GS with 40% CO 2 compared to GS with 79% CO 2 and no GS. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, it has been shown that gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), also called RFamide-related peptide 3 (RFRP) in mammals, which is a potent inhibitory regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropin, is involved in stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review summarizes what is currently known about the roles of GnIH in stress-induced reproductive dysfunction. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several kinds of stress, such as infection, psychological burden, and excess of exercise, are thought to be pivotal triggers of reproductive dysfunctions in humans and animals ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • When the relationships between stress and reproductive functions are evaluated experimentally, inflammatory stress induced by a Gram-negative bacterial cell wall component, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and psychological stress induced by restraint stress are frequently used. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hormones other than testosterone have also been suggested to play a role in the regulation of reproductive traits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results also demonstrate a causal relationship between corticosterone concentrations and individual reproductive behaviors, and point to a mechanism for why naturally disturbed populations, which experience multiple stressors, could be more susceptible and unable to respond adaptively to changing environmental conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pierre Deviche is an animal physiologist who studies how the environment controls the reproductive system and stress responses of vertebrates. (asu.edu)
  • More specifically, they study the relationships that exist between different hormonal systems and the contrasting behavioral effects that reproductive and stress hormones can elicit. (asu.edu)
  • Little is known about the impact of female reproductive hormones on the course of bipolar disorder. (pianolarge.ml)
  • All patients and control subjects underwent comprehensive andrological examination that included reproductive hormone profiles and the analysis of the (CAG)n in the AR gene that was done by means of PCR and DNA sequencing. (storysteel.cf)
  • Physical and psychological stressors suppress HPG activity through inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in both males and females ( 5 - 7 ), thereby decreasing luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone release from the pituitary ( 8 , 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Baseline and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-induced levels of testosterone, but not baseline corticosterone, were significantly higher during the mating than during the provisioning phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an evolutionarily conserved neuropeptide with 10 amino acid residues, which possesses some structural variants. (biomedsearch.com)
  • I argue that when such stressors occur (e.g. periods of high predation risk, food limitation, prolonged severe weather, social conflict, etc.), although the animal may be chronically stressed, its responses are adaptive and continue to promote fitness. (wiley.com)
  • An organism is chronically stressed when there is long-term activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) caused by unpredictable or uncontrollable stimuli (stressors) in its environment. (wiley.com)
  • The first is that it does not occur because if it did, it would be fatal and thus an understanding of chronic stress has contributed little to our understanding of how animals in nature cope with stressors (Wingfield et al . (wiley.com)
  • During adulthood, offspring of both groups were subjected to two stressors (restraint and isolation), and corticosterone concentrations were measured. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this stressing method, rodents are exposed to 4℃ water and forced exercise of swimming that invokes a complex paradigm of stressors, including anxiety and hypothermia [ 9 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Severe stress induces changes in neuronal function that are implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression. (jneurosci.org)
  • Chronic or acute exposure to severe stress, however, often results in long-term neuronal changes that are implicated in stress-related disorders such as depression. (jneurosci.org)
  • SIRPα was also found to regulate the FS stress-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of other neuronal proteins. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, retinoic acid (RA)-induced neuronal differentiation was inhibited by MeHg. (go.jp)
  • Recent evidence on the direct paracrine impact of glial D2 on neuronal gene expression underlines the importance of glial-neuronal interaction in thyroid hormone regulation as a major regulatory pathway in the brain in health and disease. (hindawi.com)
  • These include neuronal and endocrine hormones and their release/inhibiting factors, growth factors and their receptors, adhesion molecules, etc. (societe-neuroendocrinologie.fr)
  • In birds, this neuropeptide was named gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), and later studies have shown that GnIH and its receptor, G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) 147, have pivotal roles in the regulation of physiological function of the HPG axis, such as GnRH pulses and surges, in many species ( 20 - 22 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • I propose that chronic stress evolves in a species only if it is adaptive. (wiley.com)
  • Physiological differences in testosterone or baseline corticosterone were not related to differences in parental care, suggesting that the variation of testosterone within a physiological range may not relate to the degree of paternal care in this species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Early-life stress caused by the deprivation of maternal care has been shown to have long-lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in offspring of uniparental mammalian species. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We asked if deprivation of maternal care in biparental species alters stress responsiveness of offspring, using a biparental avian species-the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In the present study, we sought to address the effect of maternal deprivation on the HPA axis of offspring of a monogamous and biparental avian species-the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata . (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This is despite evidence that environmental enrichment (EE) reduces stress, stereotypy, and promotes healthy species typical behaviors. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We selected goose ( Anas cygnoides ) as an ideal model species for investigating the role of DBH in avian reproduction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Competent hosts for WNV transmission are found almost exclusively among avian species [ 6 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Developing animals may face a cost-benefit tradeoff during growth mediated through hormones such as glucocorticoids, as the hormone is essential for development but can have detrimental consequences. (biologists.org)
  • Glucocorticoids are adrenal steroid hormones essential to homeostatic maintenance. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Glucocorticoids rise well above these baseline levels during stress to elicit emergency-state responses that increase short-term survival. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Glucocorticoids are adrenal steroid hormones integral to physiological and behavioral control in nearly all vertebrate animals. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Two separate experiments investigated whether (1) the complete absence of neonatal handling or (2) the administration of periodic prenatal stress could affect the expression and distribution of NADPH-d reactivity in the hippocampus, when compared with rats raised in normal standard laboratory conditions. (jneurosci.org)
  • When RNA interference was used to suppress Nogo receptor expression in rat retina, Rho kinase expression was obviously inhibited, and retinal ganglion cell apoptosis was evidently reduced in rats with diabetes mellitus. (courtfield.tk)
  • In response to a stressor such as restraint, ACTH and corticosterone levels in maternally deprived rats remained elevated for a longer duration of time when compared with control animals [ 12 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Sato and Woolley tested this by injecting rats with a drug that inhibits estrogen production, called an aromatase inhibitor, shortly after seizures began. (elifesciences.org)
  • Although physiologic leptin replacement lowered blood glucose levels only slightly, it fully normalized elevated plasma glucagon and corticosterone levels and reversed the increased hepatic expression of gluconeogenic enzymes characteristic of rats with uDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For instance, mice and rats exposed to cold water stress displayed decreased numbers of immune cells and a decreased capacity to secrete certain cytokines [ 8 , 13 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Effects of repeated stress on T cell numbers and function in rats. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Stress increases metastic spread of a mammary tumor in rats: evidence for mediation by the immune system. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Pancreatic acinar cell amylase gene expression: selective effects of adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement. (termsreign.tk)
  • Region-specific alterations of calbindin-D28k immunoreactivity in the rat hippocampus following adrenalectomy and corticosterone treatment. (speedlibbradary0.cf)
  • The effect of stress, corticosterone and adrenalectomy on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron from releasing orexigenic peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Generally, stress activates some endocrine and immune systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and pro-inflammatory cytokines, to regulate homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • These peptides stimulate the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary into the circulatory system. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Our laboratory recently demonstrated that seizures activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, increasing circulating levels of corticosterone (O'Toole et al. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Evidence is presented that isolated GH deficiency (IGHD), multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD) including GH, as well as primary IGF1 deficiency (GH resistance, Laron syndrome) present signs of early ageing such as thin and wrinkled skin, obesity , hyperglycemia and osteoporosis . (barnardhealth.us)
  • In stress conditions, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical system is activated by the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRF) secreted by the hypothalamus, which, in turn, stimulates the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from the pituitary. (ac.ir)
  • Recent studies in both humans and rodents indicate that age-related changes in the diurnal rhythm of pituitary growth hormone (GH) release may mediate some of the adverse effects of aging on a variety of physiological systems. (statescale.tk)
  • HIV protease inhibitors induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and disrupt barrier integrity in intestinal epithelial cells. (jove.com)
  • These results support the hypothesis that HCMV can induce the HIV-1 LTR when HIV-1 gene expression is minimal and that a threshold level of HIV-1 gene products is necessary for HCMV to inhibit this promoter. (pianolarge.gq)
  • Hens placed in high-density cages had greater serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, Ca, and P concentrations and tended to have greater serum corticosterone concentration than hens placed in normaldensity cages. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Little is known, however, as to whether the more subtle differences in physiological concentrations of testosterone that occur between individuals are related to differences in paternal care, extra-pair behavior, and genetic paternity between those males. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Studies suggest that systems involved in the regulation of stress response and of energy balance are highly integrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • I am currently applying my knowledge of the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying control of food intake and stress regulation to develop novel methods for assessing welfare in chickens and other livestock based on molecular markers. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Natural variations in parenting are associated with differences in expression of several hormones and neuropeptides which may mediate lasting effects on offspring development, like regulation of stress reactivity and social behavior. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα is important for regulation of depression-like behavior in the response of the brain to stress. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that exogenous corticosterone influenced the regulation of parental decisions in a context-dependent manner. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avian testicular structure, function, and regulation. (asu.edu)
  • We discuss how thyroid hormone affects glial cell function followed by an overview on the fine-tuned regulation of T3 generation by D2 in different glial subtypes. (hindawi.com)
  • The present results suggest that behavioral manipulations in the early neonatal or prenatal period can significantly alter the neurodevelopment of the hippocampal NO system and these changes might be related to some of the behavioral abnormalities that emerge later in adulthood. (jneurosci.org)
  • These hormones mobilize energy stores and suppress non-essential physiological and behavioral processes until the challenge passes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In Avian Urban Ecology: Behavioral and Physiological Adaptations (Eds. (asu.edu)
  • The results of this study suggest a diurnal rhythmicity in baseline corticosterone release so robust as to emerge in pooled analyses across a highly variable dataset. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thus, shifts in gene expression related to PRL signaling may provide an environmentally mediated mechanism to alter production and health in cows as they transition into lactation. (labome.org)
  • do Amaral B, Connor E, Tao S, Hayen M, Bubolz J, Dahl G. Heat stress abatement during the dry period influences metabolic gene expression and improves immune status in the transition period of dairy cows. (labome.org)
  • Plasma hormone and substrate levels, hepatic gluconeogenic gene expression, and measures of tissue insulin signal transduction were also measured. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • T4 has to be converted to 3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (T3) in order to bind to TR and initiate thyroid hormone-mediated changes in gene expression profiles. (hindawi.com)
  • Meat color, serum variables, enzyme activities, and the gene expression of mitogen-activated protein kinase ( MAPK ), nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 ( Nrf2 ), glutathione S-transferase ( GST ) and superoxide dismutase ( SOD ) were determined. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The appetite-stimulating effects of AgRP are inhibited by the hormone leptin and activated by the hormone ghrelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The former experiment tested the effects of an acute corticosterone elevation (25 min) on begging behavior, whereas the latter explored the effects of artificially elevated corticosterone for 24 to 48 h on growth. (biologists.org)
  • Chronic activation of the stress axis caused by long-term uncontrollable and unpredictable factors in the environment has been regarded as causing maladaptive and/or pathological effects, both by those studying animals in the laboratory and in nature. (wiley.com)
  • Min, Y N;Niu, Z Y;Sun, T T;Wang, Z P;Jiao, P X;Zi, B B;Chen, P P;Tian, D L;Liu, F Z 2018-04-01 00:00:00 Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on antioxidant capacity and immune function in oxidative-stressed breeder roosters. (deepdyve.com)
  • Not only does the immune system benefit directly from proper nutrition, but indirectly proper nutrition will also prepare the bird for periods of stress, reducing the adverse effects of stress and enhancing recovery from stressful periods. (ufl.edu)
  • In this study, to investigate which cell death signaling pathway is related with MeHg-induced cytotoxicity, the effects of MeHg on apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated in HB1.F3 human neural stem cells (NSCs). (go.jp)
  • These effects can also be achieved by exogenous administration of hormones, through implants behind the ear in the case of estrogens and androgens, and via the diet in the case of p-adrenergic agonists. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Abstract Present knowledge on the effects of growth hormone (GH) insulin -like growth hormone (IGF)1 deficiency on ageing and lifespan are reviewed. (barnardhealth.us)
  • As a general conclusion, it may be claimed that administration of B. subtilis- based probiotic alleviates certain negative effects of the stress induced by the corticosterone injection. (ac.ir)
  • Different approaches of animal exposure to cold water have been widely used to study the effects of stress on resistance to infection [ 7 - 9 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Clinical trials are already underway to test the effects of inhibiting PCSK9 function on human dyslipidemias. (societe-neuroendocrinologie.fr)
  • The effects of whole body 2100 MHz with 0.84-1.86 W/kg of SAR, 4 h/day for 30 days Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)-RFR exposure for 4 h/day for 30 days on blood parameters (i.e. haemoglobin, leucocytes, thrombocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, white blood cell differential count, corticosterone, CKMB), and the histology of myocardium were investigated. (ninamvseeno.org)
  • It can also have hormonal effects by blocking the action of androgens, "male hormones", that are normally produced by women in low levels. (pianolarge.gq)
  • Diazepam and Xanax also inhibited the proliferative response of human lymphocytes/spleen cells in vitro but did not show noteworthy apoptotic effects. (bactrim2020.site)
  • L-theanine has been reported to inhibit the excitatory effects of caffeine. (herbalext.com)
  • Several NIH & FDA officials acknowledge a host of studies that repeatedly prove outrageous and irreversible adverse soy estrogenic hormone disruptor effects, yet refuse to post (in compliance to food laws) appropriate WARNING Labels that can save the health and well-being of yourself, your family, (especially your children), neighbors, and friends. (blogspot.com)
  • Serum estradiol (E2), progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at each visit. (statescale.tk)
  • Our results showed that the cognitive performances in CRS group were markedly deteriorated, accompanied by noticeable alterations in oxidative parameters and catecholamine levels in the hippocampus and the cerebral cortex as well as corticosterone and catecholamine levels in the serum. (herbalext.com)
  • However, not only did l-theanine treatment exhibit a reversal of the cognitive impairments and oxidative damage induced by CRS, but also reversed the abnormal level of corticosterone in the serum as well as the abnormal levels of catecholamines in the brain and the serum. (herbalext.com)
  • Agouti-related protein is expressed primarily in the adrenal gland, subthalamic nucleus, and hypothalamus, with lower levels of expression in the testis, kidneys, and lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate potential tradeoffs caused by brief, moderate elevations of corticosterone in avian young, we artificially elevated the hormone levels in two ways: feeding corticosterone-containing worms and applying corticosterone dermal patches. (biologists.org)
  • In a 2011 study, researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology found that hormone levels influence a successful breeding season. (pethealthpharmacy.com)
  • demonstrated that associative learning in Florida scrub-jays correlated with reversal learning, personality, and baseline hormone levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal Article] Decreased fecal corticosterone levels due to domestication : a comparison between the white-backed Munia (Lonchura striata) and its domesticated strain, the Bengalese finch (Lonchura striata var. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Further, males that lost paternity also expressed higher baseline levels of corticosterone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Investigating endogenous hormone levels can provide exceptional insight into the proximate mechanisms mediating context-dependent resource allocation decisions because hormone levels change in response to both environmental and internal stimuli [ 6 - 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although insulin deficiency clearly underlies hyperglycemia and weight loss in uDM, the contribution of markedly reduced plasma leptin levels to insulin resistance and related metabolic and endocrine derangements in this setting remains to be determined. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, various studies have demonstrated that the adipocyte-derived hormone leptin can potently lower blood glucose levels in rodent models of insulin-deficient diabetes. (ubc.ca)
  • Levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) were significantly increased in stressed mice receiving AHCC compared to stressed mice receiving PBS. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Results obtained in this study show that AHCC improves the function of immune cells as indicated by the restoration of levels of cytokines production that were suppressed under cold induced-stress conditions. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Of these, two studies reported a decrease in TSH level and one reported an increase in the hormone levels, while in the remaining studies non-significant changes were reported. (ninamvseeno.org)
  • In P1, lower leucocytes and neutrophils counts with high corticosterone levels were found compared with the control groups, whilst a significantly higher CKMB was observed compared with P2 (p = 0.034). (ninamvseeno.org)
  • Interspecific analyses indicated maximum baseline corticosterone levels at the onset of the active phase and reductions thereafter. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Stress-related levels did not correspond to time of day but accompanied baseline reductions during molt and elevations in birds sampled later during the September - November study period. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Baseline corticosterone related negatively to hemoglobin in the wedge-billed woodcreeper and stress-related levels increased with body mass in the olive-striped flycatcher. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The present study indicated that, TM improved thermotolerance acquisition by decreasing basal metabolic rate and muscle injury during thermal stress. (beds.ac.uk)
  • DNA from these patients revealed a mutation in the PROP1 gene (a transcription factor) causing MPHD ( thyroid -stimulating hormone, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and GH deficiencies) (Krzisnik et al 1999). (barnardhealth.us)
  • Agouti-related protein (AgRP), also called agouti-related peptide, is a neuropeptide produced in the brain by the AgRP/NPY neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, the agouti-related peptide is encoded by the AGRP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors are activated by the peptide hormone α-MSH (melanocyte-stimulating hormone) and antagonized by the agouti-related protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dunn IC, Wilson PW, D'Eath RB, Boswell T. Hypothalamic Agouti-Related Peptide mRNA is Elevated During Natural and Stress-Induced Anorexia . (ncl.ac.uk)
  • The regulated neural and endocrine PC1/3 and PC2 generate multiple endocrine peptide hormones and neuropeptides implicated in a variety of biological functions including the family of hypothalamic releasing/inhibiting factors. (societe-neuroendocrinologie.fr)
  • In the hormonal disorder avian diabetes mellitus, a bird's pancreas produces too much glucagon and too little insulin. (pethealthpharmacy.com)
  • In addition, the hormone glucagon is elevated in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and glucagon suppression therapy has shown promise as an agent to treat diabetes in mice. (ubc.ca)
  • CONCLUSIONS We conclude that leptin deficiency plays a key role in the pathogenesis of severe insulin resistance and related endocrine disorders in uDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we show that in mice lacking Crhr1, the medulla of the adrenal gland is atrophied and stress-induced release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone is reduced. (pianolarge.gq)
  • Both norepinephrine (NE) and CD47 were found to be important for the FS stress-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα. (jneurosci.org)
  • Release of stress hormones such as corticosterone and norepinephrine have been shown to inhibit immune responses and decrease resistance to bacterial infections [ 10 - 12 ]. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • At week 4, mice were subjected to Morris water maze and step-through tests to measure the cognitive function followed by oxidative parameters and corticosterone as well as catecholamines (norepinephrine and dopamine) subsequently. (herbalext.com)
  • In Functional Avian Endocrinology (Eds. (asu.edu)
  • In Aspects of Avian Endocrinology: Practical and Theoretical Implications (Scanes C.G. et al. (asu.edu)
  • In Sturkie's Avian Physiology , 6th Edition (Ed. C. Scanes), Elsevier, pp. 695-715. (asu.edu)
  • Dr. Lowry's research is focused on mechanisms underlying stress-related physiology and behavior, with a focus on the role of serotonergic systems. (colorado.edu)
  • Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, p Csernus V., Nagy A.D., Faluhelyi N.: The control of MT release from mammalian and avian pineal glands. (docplayer.hu)
  • The mGluR1a antagonist LY367385 significantly inhibited sexual motivation but mGluR2/3 and mGluR5 antagonists were ineffective. (jneurosci.org)
  • Splenic T cells from stressed and non-stressed cultured with supernatants of AHCC-treated J774.2 cell line resulted in significantly increased TNF-α or IFN-γ production. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Additionally, we investigated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on cell proliferation in control zebrafish utricles and saccules, since GH was significantly up-regulated following acoustic trauma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequent experiments showed that intraperitoneal injection of salmon growth hormone significantly increased cell proliferation in the zebrafish inner ear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested that Agouti-related protein binds MSH receptors and acts as a competitive antagonist of ligand binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another hormone-related disorder in birds is iodine deficiency, which PetMD defines as affecting the thyroid gland, "enlarging it from its usual size of three millimeters to about one centimeter, or more. (pethealthpharmacy.com)
  • Hormones dictate breeding success in birds. (pethealthpharmacy.com)
  • Using seasonally breeding birds in both laboratory and field-based experiments, he investigates the relative importance of various environmental factors such as day length, rainfall, food availability, and social interactions to reproduction, stress sensitivity, and metabolic responses. (asu.edu)
  • Experimental manipulation of corticosterone does not influence the clearance rate of plasma testosterone in birds. (asu.edu)
  • L-theanine (2 and 4 mg/kg) was administered 30 min before the animals subjected to acute immobilized stress. (herbalext.com)
  • Experiment 2 showed that prenatal stress, which involved the administration of daily restraint stress to pregnant dams throughout the gestation period, also led to a reduction in NADPH-d reactivity in the hippocampus of the offspring of these dam when they reached adulthood. (jneurosci.org)
  • The other is prenatal stress, which involves the periodic administration of mild restraint stress to the pregnant mother throughout the gestation period. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present work was aimed to study the protective effect of l-theanine on chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced cognitive impairments in mice. (herbalext.com)
  • For instance, stress is thought to downregulate the expression in the hippocampus of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which promotes the growth and development of immature neurons and enhances the survival of adult neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • The prolonged period of neurodevelopment of the hippocampus and related cortical structures suggests that the development of these areas may be particularly sensitive to the influence of such factors in early life. (jneurosci.org)
  • You will be witness to multiple published studies that in fact reveal soy estrogenic hormone disruptors in many foods, fillers, and formulas marketed in the USA are indeed "Misbranded," as soy phyto-toxic labeling remains FDA withheld from public disclosure. (blogspot.com)
  • If a bird's hormones become unbalanced, however, serious health problems may occur-either through excessive hormone production, hormonal deficiencies, or a combination of both. (pethealthpharmacy.com)
  • Second, although physiological differences (e.g. hormonal stress responsiveness) between personality types generally range along a linear continuum, physiological costs may not. (biologists.org)
  • an aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Males fed more often when temperatures decreased and fed less when they sang more, but we found no correlation between parental behavior and baseline or GnRH-induced testosterone, and baseline corticosterone - both measured during either the mating or the parental phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pharmacological administration of the natural lipid amide, oleoylethanolamide (OEA), inhibits food intake in free-feeding rodents by prolonging latency to feed and postmeal interval. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Therefore, the results suggest that addition of 300 mg/kg VC, 200 mg/kg VE or their combination could improve antioxidant ability and immune performance in oxidative-stressed breeder roosters through up-regulating the expression of GSH-Px gene. (deepdyve.com)
  • Therefore, in many instances, proper nutrition lessens the immune suppression associated with the stress response in the bird. (ufl.edu)
  • Both stress and depression were associated with the decreased cytotoxic T-cell and natural killer cell activities affecting the processes of the immune surveillance of tumours, and the events that modulate the development and the accumulation of somatic mutations and genomic instability. (storysteel.cf)
  • A cold-induced stress mouse model for investigating chlamydia genital infection and immune response analysis was established in our laboratory. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Previous results showed that cold-induced stress results in suppression of the immune response and increased intensity of chlamydia genital infection in the mouse model. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Although numerous biological, epidemiological and clinical studies of chlamydia genital infection have been undertaken, the relationship of stress in the pathogenesis of chlamydia genital disease and its influence on the immune response against the disease remains unknown. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Information on the impact of stress-induced changes on immune response and risk of infectious diseases is growing. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • GnIH/RFRP-3 also plays important roles in stress-induced suppression of sexual behavior and infertility, and genetic silencing of GnIH/Rfrp completely recovers sexual behavior and fertility. (frontiersin.org)
  • In avian research, performance on simple associative learning tasks can be used to assess how cognitive abilities vary with experimental measures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Avian models of West Nile virus (WNV) disease have become pivotal in the study of infection pathogenesis and transmission, despite the intrinsic constraints that represents this type of experimental research that needs to be conducted in biosecurity level 3 (BSL3) facilities. (mdpi.com)
  • Viral and host factors that determine the infection outcome are analyzed in detail, as well as recent discoveries about avian immunity, viral transmission, and persistence achieved through experimental research. (mdpi.com)
  • Given the impact of chronic stress under this view, there is limited possibility for adaptation and thus for evolution to act on the mechanisms of coping. (wiley.com)
  • The molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the brain to stress remain primarily unknown, however. (jneurosci.org)
  • However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the response of the brain to stress as well as the pathogenesis of stress-related disorders remain unclear. (jneurosci.org)
  • Dialog-Campus Kiadó, Budapest, p Csernus V.: Avian pineal - a model for studying mechanisms of circadian rhythms. (docplayer.hu)
  • Abeta-dependent inactivation of the JAK2/STAT3 axis in hippocampal neurons causes cholinergic dysfunction via pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms, which leads to memory impairment related to AD. (termsreign.tk)
  • Biomarkers of stress. (edu.au)
  • Conversely, AgRP-secreting neurons inhibit the release of TRH from the PVN, which may contribute to conservation of energy in starvation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These differences can occur at the extent of neurotransmitter or hormones release, sensitivity (i.e., receptor expression), and/or molecular responses. (oxfordre.com)
  • Studies on the temporal relationships between receptor binding and cellular response, especially concerning the luteinizing hormone release rate. (storysteel.tk)
  • Congruity in daily rhythms and links to physiological and life-history state across disparate taxa and environments may promote the yet unresolved utility of corticosterone release as a global metric for population health. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Even less agreement has taken form on diel rhythms in avian stress-related corticosterone release. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Growth hormone must be given by intramuscular injection. (barnardhealth.us)
  • Of particular significance, a greater than 64-fold increase in growth hormone ( gh1 ) transcripts occurred, peaking at 2 days post-sound exposure (dpse) and decreasing to approximately 5.5-fold by 4 dpse. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that BMP4 inhibits proliferation in the brain glioma cell line U251 through a signaling pathway involving BMP4 and the mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 4 (SMAD4) protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • FS stress induced marked tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα in the brain of wild-type mice through activation of Src family kinases. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, FS stress induced rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα by SFKs in the brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Sato and Woolley therefore set out to test a two-part hypothesis: that seizures stimulate the production of estrogen in the brain, and that inhibiting this production process just as seizures begin would make seizures less severe. (elifesciences.org)
  • What circumstances other than seizures stimulate brain estrogen production, and what roles does this production process play in activity that is not related to seizures? (elifesciences.org)
  • Brain aromatase blockade acutely inhibited sexual motivation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Like environmental estrogens, pesticides, BPA plastics, and pharmaceutical DES estrogens, soy is another hormone disruptor, capable of damaging several hormone systems throughout the brain and body. (blogspot.com)
  • Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in brain development, which is illustrated by the dramatic neurologic impairment observed in untreated neonatal hypothyroidism, a condition leading to cretinism [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The adult brain is also sensitive to thyroid hormone in view of mood disorders, depression, memory, cognitive and motoric impairments frequently observed in hypothyroid patients [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Further studies are required to better understand the transport of different thyroid hormone derivatives across the blood-brain and CSF-brain barrier, the consequences of this mechanism, and the factors affecting this process (see also Section 3.3 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Beyond D2-mediated T3 generation, type 3 deiodinase (D3) is also similarly important for thyroid hormone economy in the brain [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Dialog- Campus Kiadó, Budapest, pp Csernus V., Mess, B.: The avian pineal gland - a model of the biological clock. (docplayer.hu)
  • Executive functioning and processing speed in age-related differences in memory: contribution of a coding task. (termsreign.ga)
  • There were no substantial sex-related differences. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Rodbell M (1980) The role of hormone receptors and GTP-regulatory proteins in membrane transduction. (springer.com)
  • Chick's response to TC evaluated by determination of plasma T 3 , T 4 , corticosterone, total proteins, albumin, selected enzymes and some electrolytes at the beginning (0 h) and after 1, 3 and 5 h of TC in TM and TN chicks. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This study investigated the role of leptin deficiency in the genesis of severe insulin resistance and related metabolic and neuroendocrine derangements induced by uDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The anticipatory stressor of persistent high predation risk does not elicit chronic stress in all prey classes. (wiley.com)
  • In addition, corticosterone may increase the permeability of intestinal mucosa into pathogenic antigens by inducing the production of the pro-inflammatory agent. (ac.ir)
  • Tatemoto K, Mutt V (1978) Chemical determination of polypeptide hormones. (springer.com)
  • Kimmel JR, Hayden LJ, Pollock HG (1975) Isolation and characterization of a new pancreatic polypeptide hormone. (springer.com)
  • A polypeptide hormone (60 kD) that is an alpha-2 globulin and the substrate for renin. (shepherdsheart.life)
  • Hormones affect diverse aspects of a bird's life, ensuring physical health and influencing instinctual behaviors. (pethealthpharmacy.com)
  • Normal behaviors such as breeding and sleeping are at least partially directed by hormone production. (pethealthpharmacy.com)
  • Our laboratory and others have demonstrated the importance of SRC-1 in the differentiation and activation of steroid-dependent sexual behaviors and the related neural genes. (ac.be)