The simultaneous or sequential binding of multiple cell surface receptors to different ligands resulting in coordinated stimulation or suppression of signal transduction.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.
High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.
Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Those protein complexes or molecular sites on the surfaces and cytoplasm of gonadal cells that bind luteinizing or chorionic gonadotropic hormones and thereby cause the gonadal cells to synthesize and secrete sex steroids. The hormone-receptor complex is internalized from the plasma membrane and initiates steroid synthesis.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.
Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
Absence of hair from areas where it is normally present.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Cell surface proteins that bind neuropeptide Y with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Proteins, generally found in the CYTOPLASM, that specifically bind ANDROGENS and mediate their cellular actions. The complex of the androgen and receptor migrates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it induces transcription of specific segments of DNA.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A gland in males that surrounds the neck of the URINARY BLADDER and the URETHRA. It secretes a substance that liquefies coagulated semen. It is situated in the pelvic cavity behind the lower part of the PUBIC SYMPHYSIS, above the deep layer of the triangular ligament, and rests upon the RECTUM.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Hormone receptors can behave as transcription factors by interacting directly with DNA or by cross-talking with signaling ... A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone. Hormone receptors are a wide family of proteins ... hormone receptors Glucagon receptors Gonadotropin receptors Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors Growth hormone receptors ... Androgen receptors Calcitriol receptors Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 ...
1991). "Point mutation causing a single amino acid substitution in the hormone binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor in ... "Negative cross-talk between RelA and the glucocorticoid receptor: a possible mechanism for the antiinflammatory action of ... interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor and affects the receptor function". Biochem. J. 349. Pt 3 (3): 885-93. doi:10.1042/ ... The unbound receptor resides in the cytosol of the cell. After the receptor is bound to glucocorticoid, the receptor- ...
Progesterone receptor-mediated induction of Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15), which can bind to GC-rich DNA within the E2F1 ... The data indicates an example of cross talk between white adipose tissue and pancreatic β cells mediated through modulation of ... KLF15 specifically interacts with MEF2A and synergistically activates the GLUT4 promoter via an intact KLF15-binding site ... Insulin and its counteracting hormones regulate the hepatic expression of KLF15. Forced expression of KLF15 in cultured ...
"Negative cross-talk between RelA and the glucocorticoid receptor: a possible mechanism for the antiinflammatory action of ... Lee SK, Kim JH, Lee YC, Cheong J, Lee JW (Apr 2000). "Silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptors, as a ... Aarnisalo P, Palvimo JJ, Jänne OA (Mar 1998). "CREB-binding protein in androgen receptor-mediated signaling". Proceedings of ... It is shown that ERα interacts with both p50 and RELA in vitro and in vivo, and RELA antibody can reduce ERα:ERE complex ...
Chen JD, Evans RM (October 1995). "A transcriptional co-repressor that interacts with nuclear hormone receptors". Nature. 377 ( ... cross-talk between Notch and NFkappaB pathways". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 14 (2): 491-502. doi:10.1091/mbc.E02-07-0404. ... facilitating the recruitment of histone deacetylases to the DNA promoters bound by its interacting transcription factors. It is ... Chen JD, Evans RM (October 1995). "A transcriptional co-repressor that interacts with nuclear hormone receptors". Nature. 377 ( ...
"CREB binding protein is a coactivator for the androgen receptor and mediates cross-talk with AP-1". The Journal of Biological ... The androgen receptor dimer binds to a specific sequence of DNA known as a hormone response element. Androgen receptors ... "The scaffolding protein RACK1 interacts with androgen receptor and promotes cross-talk through a protein kinase C signaling ... As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors, androgen receptors can have actions that ...
Silencing Mediator for Retinoic Acid and Thyroid Hormone (SMRT) receptors and Nuclear Receptor Co-Repressor (N-CoR) factors ... HDAC1 KO leads researchers to believe that there are both functional uniqueness to each HDAC as well as regulatory cross-talk ... HDACs 1 and 2 can also bind directly to DNA binding proteins such as Yin and Yang 1 (YY1), Rb binding protein 1 and Sp1. HDACs ... C-terminus end of the protein along with a basic helix-loop-helix and PAS A and PAS B domains with a LXXLL receptor interacting ...
TNF can bind two receptors, TNFR1 (TNF receptor type 1; CD120a; p55/60) and TNFR2 (TNF receptor type 2; CD120b; p75/80). TNFR1 ... Pedersen BK (December 2009). "The diseasome of physical inactivity - and the role of myokines in muscle-fat cross talk". J ... mTNF-α is mainly found on monocytes/macrophages where it interacts with tissue receptors by cell-to-cell contact. sTNF-α ... TNF parallels parathyroid hormone both in causing secondary hypercalcemia and in the cancers with which excessive production is ...
Cross-talk between many of these pathways links cyclin B levels indirectly to induction of apoptosis. The cyclin B/CDK1 complex ... Immunohistologically assessed levels of cyclin B could determine if women with stage 1, node negative, hormone receptor ... The amount of cyclin B (which binds to Cdk1) and the activity of the cyclin B-Cdk complex rise through the cell cycle until ... The cyclin B/CDK1 complex also interacts with a variety of other key proteins and pathways which regulate cell growth and ...
"Inhibitory cross-talk between estrogen receptor (ER) and constitutively activated androstane receptor (CAR). CAR inhibits ER- ... "An orphan nuclear hormone receptor that lacks a DNA binding domain and heterodimerizes with other receptors". Science. 272 ( ... "A new orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that interacts with a subset of retinoic acid response elements ... Choi HS, Seol W, Moore DD (Jan 1996). "A component of the 26S proteasome binds on orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor ...
Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins gH/gL and gB Bind Toll-Like Receptor 2, and Soluble gH/gL Is Sufficient To Activate NF-κB ... Avitabile E, Forghieri C, Campadelli-Fiume G (2009). "Cross Talk among the Glycoproteins Involved in Herpes Simplex Virus Entry ... of nuclear thyroid hormone receptors of cultured skin fibroblasts from patients with resistance to thyroid hormone". Metab. ... Heptad Repeat 2 in Herpes Simplex Virus 1 gH Interacts with Heptad Repeat 1 and Is Critical for Virus Entry and Fusion MacLeod ...
... evidence for cross-talk between orphan nuclear receptors and myokines". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (10): 8651-9. ... and shows an extremely small ligand-binding pocket. However, Rev-erbβ has been shown to interact with heme, which appears ... Koh YS, Moore DD (April 1999). "Linkage of the nuclear hormone receptor genes NR1D2, THRB, and RARB: evidence for an ancient, ... Rev-erbβ, like Rev-erbα, belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and can modulate gene expression by directly binding to ...
Chen, J. D. & Evans, R. M. (1994). "A transcriptional co-repressor that interacts with nuclear hormone receptors". Nature. 377 ... model accommodates the ability of membrane G protein coupled signaling pathways and tyrosine receptor signaling to cross-talk ... such as thyroid hormone receptor, were sufficient to repress, or silence, reporter genes when fused to DNA-binding domains of ... "Ligand-independent repression by the thyroid hormone receptor mediated by a nuclear receptor co-repressor". Nature. 377 (6548 ...
Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ... "Two sequence motifs from HIF-1alpha bind to the DNA-binding site of p53". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... HIF1A has been shown to interact with: ARNTL, ARNT, CREBB, EP300, HIF1AN, Mdm2, NR4A, P53, PSMA7, STAT3, UBC, VH and VHL. GR ( ... Hormones and Behavior. 87: 122-128. doi:10.1016/j.yhbeh.2016.11.013. PMID 27865789. S2CID 4108143. Semenza GL (August 2000). " ...
2006). "Mesd binds to mature LDL-receptor-related protein-6 and antagonizes ligand binding". J. Cell Sci. 118 (Pt 22): 5305-14 ... Katoh M, Katoh M (2006). "Cross-talk of WNT and FGF signaling pathways at GSK3beta to regulate beta-catenin and SNAIL signaling ... Zilberberg A, Yaniv A, Gazit A (2004). "The low density lipoprotein receptor-1, LRP1, interacts with the human frizzled-1 (HFz1 ... LRP6 is critical in bone's anabolic response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment, whereas LRP5 is not involved. On the other ...
This often occurs when hormone binding to hormone receptors stimulates ubiquitin-associated degradation of repressor proteins ... Salicylic acid Jasmonic acid Ethylene There can be substantial cross-talk among these pathways. As with many signal ... Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 26: 9-16. doi:10.1094/MPMI-05-12-0106-FI. PMID 22809272. Hammond-Kosack KE; Parker JE (Apr 2003). " ... The net result is hormone-activated gene expression. Examples: Auxin: binds to receptors that then recruit and degrade ...
Bridgham JT, Carroll SM, Thornton JW (April 2006). "Evolution of hormone-receptor complexity by molecular exploitation". ... Talk.origins archive (see talk.origins) TalkDesign.org (sister site to talk.origins archive on intelligent design) The ... A mousetrap consists of five interacting pieces: the base, the catch, the spring, the hammer, and the hold-down bar. All of ... A computer model of the co-evolution of proteins binding to DNA in the peer-reviewed journal Nucleic Acids Research consisted ...
... and it competes with the endogeous hormone for binding with the estrogen receptors ERα and ERβ. Nonylphenol was discovered to ... Gao, Q.; Horvath, T.L. (2008). "Cross-talk between estrogen and leptin signaling in the hypothalamus". Am. J. Physiol. ... Nonylphenol can cause endocrine disruption in fish by interacting with estrogen receptors and androgen receptors. Studies ... It has much less affinity for the estrogen receptor than estrogen in trout (5 x 10−5 relative binding affinity compared to ...
An irreversible antagonist binds so strongly to the receptor as to render the receptor unavailable for binding to the agonist. ... Flores A, Maldonado R, Berrendero F (2013). "Cannabinoid-hypocretin cross-talk in the central nervous system: what we know so ... Apart from recreational use, medications that directly and indirectly interact with one or more transmitter or its receptor are ... hormones, neurotransmitters) from binding to and activating it. Antagonists may be "competitive" or "irreversible". A ...
DNA sequences for ethylene receptors have also been identified in many other plant species and an ethylene binding protein has ... Cellular Cross-talk of H2S andS-Nitrosothiols". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 134 (29): 12016-12027. doi:10.1021/ ... Gillman MA, Lichtigfeld FJ (May 1983). "Nitrous oxide interacts with opioid receptors: more evidence". Anesthesiology. 58 (5): ... Ethylene serves as a hormone in plants. It acts at trace levels throughout the life of the plant by stimulating or regulating ...
Growth hormone-releasing hormone. GHRH. Growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor. -. PP: Somatostatins. Somatostatin. ... "Cannabinoid-hypocretin cross-talk in the central nervous system: what we know so far". Front Neurosci. 7: 256. PMC 3868890 . ... An irreversible antagonist binds so strongly to the receptor as to render the receptor unavailable for binding to the agonist. ... Apart from recreational use, medications that directly and indirectly interact one or more transmitter or its receptor are ...
Cross talk also occurs between JA and other plant hormone pathways, such as those of abscisic acid (ABA) and Ethylene as a ... Specifically, JA-Ile binds both to a ligand-binding pocket in COI1 and to a 20 amino-acid stretch of the conserved Jas motif in ... from COI1 suggest InsP5 is a necessary component of the co-receptor and plays a role in potentiating the co-receptor complex. ... JA can interact with many kinases and transcription factors associated with senescence. JA can also induce mitochondrial death ...
It interacts predominantly with the μ-δ-opioid (Mu-Delta) receptor heteromer. The μ-binding sites are discretely distributed in ... Morphine can cross the blood-brain barrier, but, because of poor lipid solubility, protein binding, rapid conjugation with ... Long after the physical need for morphine has passed, the addict will usually continue to think and talk about the use of ... Morphine can interfere with menstruation in women by suppressing levels of luteinizing hormone. Many studies suggest the ...
Most karyopherins interact directly with their cargo, although some use adaptor proteins.[11] Steroid hormones such as cortisol ... There they serve as transcription factors when bound to their ligand; in the absence of a ligand, many such receptors function ... A cross section of a nuclear pore on the surface of the nuclear envelope (1). Other diagram labels show (2) the outer ring, (3 ... The nucleus was also described by Franz Bauer in 1804[2] and in more detail in 1831 by Scottish botanist Robert Brown in a talk ...
When this occurs, complexes like SWI/SNF and other transcriptional factors can bind to the DNA and allow transcription to occur ... Chahwan R, Wontakal SN, Roa S (October 2010). "Crosstalk between genetic and epigenetic information through cytosine ... he used it as a conceptual model of how genes might interact with their surroundings to produce a phenotype; he used the phrase ... that governs the functioning of an odor receptor in the nose that responds specifically to this cherry blossom smell. There ...
CSA is caused by mutations in the cross-complementing gene 8 (ERCC8), which encodes for the CSA protein. These mutations are ... The Bloom syndrome protein interacts with other proteins, such as topoisomerase IIIα and RMI2,[28][29][30] and suppresses ... WR is associated with abnormalities in bone maturation, and lipids and hormone metabolism.[93] Affected individuals exhibit ... difficulty swallowing and talking, and seizures; these effects tend to become progressively worse over time. All affected ...
protein binding. • protease binding. • tumor necrosis factor receptor binding. • cytokine activity. • identical protein binding ... The myriad and often-conflicting effects mediated by the above pathways indicate the existence of extensive cross-talk. For ... TNFα has been shown to interact with TNFRSF1A.[45][46] Nomenclature[edit]. Some recent papers have argued that TNFα should ... In 1985, Bruce A. Beutler and Anthony Cerami discovered that cachectin (a hormone which induces cachexia) was actually TNF.[18] ...
receptor binding. • neurotrophin TRKB receptor binding. • growth factor activity. • GO:0001948 protein binding. ... While the TrkB receptor interacts with BDNF in a ligand-specific manner, all neurotrophins can interact with the p75 receptor.[ ... Exposure to stress and the stress hormone corticosterone has been shown to decrease the expression of BDNF in rats, and, if ... "Endocrine Crosstalk Between Skeletal Muscle and the Brain". Frontiers in Neurology. 9: 698. doi:10.3389/fneur.2018.00698. ISSN ...
Hormone receptors can behave as transcription factors by interacting directly with DNA or by cross-talking with signaling ... A hormone receptor is a receptor molecule that binds to a specific hormone. Hormone receptors are a wide family of proteins ... hormone receptors Glucagon receptors Gonadotropin receptors Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors Growth hormone receptors ... Androgen receptors Calcitriol receptors Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 Corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 ...
... the progesterone receptor assumes control when both receptors are present and exposed to ... Although the estrogen receptor is considered dominant in breast cancer, ... these receptor proteins interact with different sets of binding sites in the cells chromosomes, with the progesterone receptor ... Cross Talk Between Hormone Receptors Has Unexpected Effects. Finding suggests novel ways to improve breast cancer care. ...
SOCS2 mediates the cross talk between androgen and growth hormone signaling in prostate cancer. ... growth factor receptor-bound protein; IRS, insulin receptor substrate; JAK2, Janus Kinase 2; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; MEK ... Growth hormone and testosterone interact positively to enhance protein and energy metabolism in hypopituitary men. ... Growth without growth hormone receptor: estradiol is a major growth hormone-independent regulator of hepatic IGF-I synthesis. ...
The most common treatments are corticosteroids and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, which target inflammation and airway ... The most common treatments are corticosteroids and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, which target inflammation and airway ... Peptide growth factor cross-talk with the estrogen receptor requires the A/B domain and occurs independently of protein kinase ... or the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled ER) to varying degrees and can respond to the hormone. Together these receptors have ...
GPER has been also reported to interact with classic ER-alpha or its splice variants in order to modify immune functions. This ... GPER has been also reported to interact with classic ER-alpha or its splice variants in order to modify immune functions. This ... is a functional estrogen receptor involved in estrogen related actions on several systems including processes of the nervous, ... is a functional estrogen receptor involved in estrogen related actions on several systems including processes of the nervous, ...
... these data indicate that glucocorticoids capably interact with ARC signaling and that this cross-talk may represent a key ... Identification of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in thyrotropin-releasing hormone neurons of the hypothalamic ... in conjunction with the presence of glucocorticoid-binding elements in the NPY gene (32). In addition, the effects of ghrelin, ... thyroid hormone, ghrelin, or glucocorticoids. Moreover, the receptors for all of these hormones are abundantly expressed in ...
cross-talk. Inevitable progression of prostate cancer to the hormone refractory stage makes prostate cancer the second leading ... Ack1 was identified as a 120-kDa protein that interacts with activated GTP-bound Cdc42. Structural studies have revealed sites ... Subsequently, Ack1 binds and phosphorylates AR protein. The AR-Ack1 complex translocates to the nucleus and binds to the AREs ... TAD, transactivation domain; DBD, DNA-binding domain; LBD, ligand-binding domain. (D) Purified GST-AR and GST-cAR proteins were ...
An example of such a complex is found with the nuclear hormone receptors which interact with both p300/CBP and other, non-DNA- ... 6), this mutually exclusive binding might only partially contribute to the transcriptional cross talk observed. Interestingly, ... 1996) CREB binding-protein acts synergistically with steroid-receptor coactivator-1 to enhance steroid receptor-dependent ... also interact with p300 and CBP (4, 28, 35, 48) and have been shown to interact with and bind DNA cooperatively with NF-κB (69 ...
Cyclin D1 binds the androgen receptor and regulates hormone-dependent signaling in a p300/CBP-associated factor (P/CAF)- ... Negative cross-talk between hematopoietic regulators: GATA proteins repress PU.1 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF ... PDEF also directly interacts with the DNA binding domain of androgen receptor and enhances androgen-mediated activation of the ... An increasing number of proteins which bind to hormone-dependent nuclear receptors and mediate their effects on gene expression ...
FGF21 treatment has been shown to inhibit hepatic growth hormone (GH) intracellular signaling. To evaluate GH axis involvement ... hormone-like effects. There is evidence that FGF21 initiates its action by interacting with a dual receptor complex of β-klotho ... J. S. Moyers, T. L. Shiyanova, F. Mehrbod et al., "Molecular determinants of FGF-21 activity-synergy and cross-talk with PPARγ ... "A mammalian model for Laron syndrome produced by targeted disruption of the mouse growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene ...
The scaffolding protein RACK1 interacts with androgen receptor and promotes cross-talk through a protein kinase C signaling ... Src has previously been found to bind to and phosphorylate the estrogen receptor (ER) and regulate the hormone binding capacity ... Activation of the Src/p21ras/Erk pathway by progesterone receptor via cross-talk with estrogen receptor. EMBO J 1998; 17: 2008- ... Culig Z. Androgen receptor cross-talk with cell signalling pathways. Growth Factors 2004; 22: 179-84. ...
CREB binding protein is a coactivator for the androgen receptor and mediates cross-talk with AP-1. J Biol Chem 273: 31853- 9, ... way hormone-liganded steroid receptors interact with specific binding sites in hormone-regulated genes and the role of receptor ... the hormones freely enter the nucleus and bind to their cognate receptor. Binding of hormone ligand to the receptor activates ... A structural role for hormone in the thyroid hormone receptor: A structural role for hormone in the thyroid hormone receptor. ...
May have important functional implications in ER/growth factor cross-talk. Interacts with several growth factor signaling ... Coactivator of estrogen receptor-mediated transcription and a corepressor of other nuclear hormone receptors and sequence- ... GO annotations related to this gene include poly(A) RNA binding and binding. ... May have important functional implications in ER/growth factor cross-talk. Interacts with several growth factor signaling ...
... on advances in basic research focusing on mechanisms involved in the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ... "Cross-talk between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α and liver X receptor (LXR) in nutritional regulation of ... "The orphan nuclear hormone receptor LXRα interacts with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and inhibits peroxisome ... "Specific gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters and nuclear hormone receptors in rat liver parenchymal, ...
Transcription activation by steroid hormone receptors, such as the androgen receptor, is mediated through interaction with ... POPX1 was isolated as a binding partner for the PAK interacting guanine nucleotide exchange factor PIX. The dephosphorylating ... a PAK-homologous protein and suggests a potential unique mechanism by which other signal transduction pathways may cross-talk ... Most chemoattractants bind to serpentine cell surface receptors that activate the Gi family of G proteins to elicit a range of ...
The binding of CHK2 with AR can be disrupted with CHK2 kinase inhibitors suggesting that the kinase activity of CHK2 is ... The AR directly interacts with CHK2, and that interaction increases with radiation. We found that the interaction of CHK2 and ... It has long been known that the AR is regulated not only by its cognate steroid hormone, but also by interactions with a ... Checkpoint kinase 2 and androgen receptor cross-talk regulate the DDR and prostate cancer growth. Huy Q Ta, Rosalie Sleppy, ...
This suggests that Cd may be a risk factor for uterine fibroids through cross talk between hormone and growth factor receptor ... and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) expression/activation. Also, phospho-Src could interact directly to ... but not through classical estrogen receptor (ER) binding. Whether nongenomic ER pathways are involved in Cd-induced ... Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/efeitos adversos , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/uso ...
1991). "Point mutation causing a single amino acid substitution in the hormone binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor in ... "Negative cross-talk between RelA and the glucocorticoid receptor: a possible mechanism for the antiinflammatory action of ... interacts with the glucocorticoid receptor and affects the receptor function". Biochem. J. 349. Pt 3 (3): 885-93. doi:10.1042/ ... The unbound receptor resides in the cytosol of the cell. After the receptor is bound to glucocorticoid, the receptor- ...
However, in addition to ligand binding, several recent studies provide evidence that cross talk from other signaling pathways ... The binding of hormone to the GR allows for DNA binding and the subsequent alteration of gene transcription. The ... We found that in the presence of Dex, WT and phospho-deficient GRs (S404A) were able to interact similarly with GR interacting ... Crosstalk between the glucocorticoid receptor and other transcription factors: molecular aspects. Mol. Cell Endocrinol.275:13- ...
However, whether C4 can interact with RLKs in other subfamilies and, if so, what the biological impact of such interactions ... Our results show that C4 can interact with RLKs from different subfamilies including, but not restricted to, members of the ... The C4 protein from different geminiviruses has been found to interact with RLKs in the CLAVATA 1 (CLV1) clade. ... Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) exert an essential function in the transduction of signals from the cell exterior to the ...
... and it interacts with downstream signals to upregulate EMT-associated factors. Estrogen and progesterone signaling in EMT also ... The protein binds to estradiol with high affinity as the third estrogen receptor [125]. The binding of estrogen to GPER ... Novel Aspects Concerning the Functional Cross-Talk between the Insulin/IGF-I System and Estrogen Signaling in Cancer Cells. ... TGF-β interacts with the TGF-β receptor type I membrane receptor to phosphorylate the adaptor protein SRC homology 2 domain- ...
BR signaling also appears to exhibit cross-talk with that of other plant hormones, including jasmonic acid (OPR1 in Table II; ... 2001) Expression of a plant gene with sequence similarity to animal TGF-beta receptor interacting protein is regulated by ... 1999) Binding of phytochrome B to its nuclear signalling partner PIF3 is reversibly induced by light. Nature 400:781-784. ... It is important to know how BRs regulate P450 genes because it will help elucidate signaling network cross-talk between BRs and ...
These studies therefore evidenced that stress hormones and GR may be capable of functional "cross-talk" [152] with TrkB that ... It is believed that mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) binding is saturated by basal stress hormone concentrations, and that ... as well as address mounting evidence whereby stress hormones interact with endogenous BDNF-TrkB signaling to alter brain ... A new first step in activation of steroid receptors: hormone-induced switching of FKBP51 and FKBP52 immunophilins. J Biol Chem ...
Prolactin Regulatory Element Binding Proteine * Prolactin Releasing Hormone Receptor Proteine * Prolactin-Induced Protein ... REA modulates cross talk among multiple cell types in the uterine tissue and host background, serving as a brake on the ... BIG3 (ARFGEF3) is predicted to interact with its partner PHB2 through an ARM-type alpha-helical structure. ... Intracellular Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling Pathway * Intracellular Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling Pathway ...
... these data suggest that the ethylene pathway cross talks with the ABA pathway through ethylene receptors and AtCTR1 in ... it is important to consider another plant stress hormone, ABA. The ABA signaling pathway is activated by the binding of ABA to ... first by testing their abilities to interact with ethylene receptors. CTR1 proteins interact physically with ethylene receptors ... while cross talk between ethylene and ABA signaling pathways has been studied in angiosperms, the nature of this cross talk in ...
Retinoid receptor cross-talk in respiratory epithelium cancer chemoprevention. Trends Mol Med 2005;11:10-6. ... 1). Physiologically, Raf activity is modulated by binding of growth factors, hormones, and cytokines to receptors on the cell ... GTP-bound Ras interacts with Raf and mobilizes the inactive protein from the cytoplasm. Once the Ras-Raf complex is ... Binding of DHT to the AR induces dissociation from HSPs and receptor phosphorylation. DHT-bound ARs enter the nucleus as ...
Steroid hormones Consequently, the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR) are validated ... allowing for cross-talk with other growth and survival pathways (e.g. kinases/phosphatases, acetyltransferases/deacetylases, ... Bert OMalleys lab, we also demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase adaptor speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) interacts ... We recently reported that in prostate cancer, prostate specific mutations of the SPOP gene abolished its substrate binding ...
4 5 Upon ligand binding BMP type II receptor recruits type I receptor to create a complicated and mediates type I receptor ... and theres been increasing proof cross-talk between Wnt and BMP indicators on the promoter level in the cytoplasm and in the ... LRP6 has also been shown to interact with the PTH signaling pathway by directly forming a complex with PTH1R (33). Therefore we ... Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone tissue remodeling and induces differentiation of. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) ...
... binding channel discovery unraveling the unexpected perception mechanism of hormone signal by gibberellin receptor. Journal of ... subunit of switch/sucrose nonfermenting chromatin remodeling complex modulates gibberellin responses and hormonal cross talk in ... DNA‐binding allowing for reduced elongation growth by releasing the growth‐inhibitory function of PRE. ‐interacting bHLH ... can at least partially suppress the DELLA‐mediated repression by binding DELLAs to the GID1. receptors. ...
The signaling pathways activated by hormones interact or cross talk with the signaling pathways activated by growth factors. ... The binding of hormones and growth factors to their cell surface receptors leads to an orderly cascade of events leading to ... The signaling pathways activated by hormones interact or cross talk with the signaling pathways activated by growth factors. ... The signaling pathways activated by hormones interact or cross talk with the signaling pathways activated by growth factors. ...
  • Hormone receptors are a wide family of proteins made up of receptors for thyroid and steroid hormones, retinoids and Vitamin D, and a variety of other receptors for various ligands, such as fatty acids and prostaglandins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormone receptor proteins bind to a hormone as a result of an accumulation of weak interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The features of G proteins include GDP/GTP binding, GTP hydrolysis and guanosine nucleotide exchange. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a ligand binds to a GPCR the receptor changes conformation, which makes the intracellular loops between the different membrane domains of the receptor interact with G proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • They show that when exposed to estrogens and progestins, these receptor proteins interact with different sets of binding sites in the cell's chromosomes, with the progesterone receptor dramatically altering how estrogen receptors interact with the cell's DNA. (newswise.com)
  • Both p53 and RelA(p65) interact with the transcriptional coactivator proteins p300 and CREB-binding protein (CBP), and we demonstrate that these results are consistent with competition for a limiting pool of p300/CBP complexes in vivo. (asm.org)
  • To a large extent these changes are mediated by nuclear DNA-binding proteins which function in a combinatorial manner to activate or repress the transcription of target genes. (asm.org)
  • These proteins cluster signaling molecules to facilitate tight regulation of cellular pathways as well as controlled cross-talk with different signaling cascades. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Later reports showed that RACK1 associates with a large number of signaling proteins, including Src family kinases, integrin β subunit, PDE4D5, signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1), insulin-like growth factor-I receptor, and others ( 7 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These proteins have been identified in yeast and mammalian two hybrid screening, during purification, in immunoprecipitation assays, and by cross-linking studies. (glowm.com)
  • 32 , 41 , 101 In general, interaction of steroid and nuclear receptors with these proteins represses gene transcription in cell systems. (glowm.com)
  • Receptor kinases (or receptor-like kinases (RLKs) in plants) are transmembrane proteins localized at the surface of eukaryotic cells, containing an extracellular domain (ECD), a transmembrane domain (TMD), and an intracellular kinase domain (KD). (mdpi.com)
  • The Ras subfamily of small GTP-binding proteins direct signal transduction between the membrane and the nucleus. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 6 (LRP6) particularly features in the canonical wnt pathway (27) and there's been increasing proof cross-talk between Wnt and BMP indicators on the promoter level in the cytoplasm and in the extracellular space (28). (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • Once activated, the receptor releases other proteins inside the cell, kicking off the "cascade" of reactions that ultimately delivers the message to the cell's command center. (psu.edu)
  • The G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, the largest group of membrane receptors, uses guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to couple to specific intracellular effector systems. (glowm.com)
  • To maintain homeostasis of the entire cell, an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by encoded noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), as well as proteins, is required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is not surprising that an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by proteins as well as noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), is required for cellular homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) maybe play a role in the lncRNA transport system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the absence of hormone, the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) resides in the cytosol complexed with a variety of proteins including heat shock protein 90 ( hsp90 ), the heat shock protein 70 ( hsp70 ) and the protein FKBP52 ( FK506 -binding protein 52). (wikidoc.org)
  • [7] The endogenous glucocorticoid hormone cortisol diffuses through the cell membrane into the cytoplasm and binds to the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) resulting in release of the heat shock proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • Ligand-activated AR, complexed with coactivator proteins and general transcription factors, binds to androgen response elements located in the promoter and enhancer regions to activate or repress the transcription of specific target genes suspected to be involved in proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is then reasonable to expect that related proteins will conserve a mode of association with their conserved binding tarObtains. (lw90.com)
  • Of these, estrogen is now believed to have the most direct effect on bone cells, interacting with specific proteins, or receptors, on the surface of osteoblasts and osteoclasts [12]. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • In the genomic actions of thyroid hormone, T 4 serves as a prohormone for T 3 and the latter is the principal ligand of TR proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We shall also discuss our futuristic ideas about understanding the hydrophobic effects around a complex molecular surface (e.g. proteins), which seem to play a very important role in various self-assembly, aggregation and binding processes. (tifr.res.in)
  • In quest for partners of PSMD9, we perfo rmed C-terminal tetrapeptide screen representing the C-termini of proteins of human proteome to test the ability of these peptides to bind to PSMD9 and consequently demonstrate that proteins harbouring those C-terminal residues interact with PSMD9. (tifr.res.in)
  • The binding of the development elements to syndecan-4 might have many outcomes: activation of mobile signalling may appear through syndecan-4 performing like a co-receptor that displays the development element ligand to its UCPH 101 signalling receptor, as regarding FGF, or there may be immediate activation of downstream signalling mediated by syndecan-4 itself, such as for example proteins kinase C (PKC) (Oh et al. (beloranib.net)
  • Receptors are proteins shaped like malleable satellite dishes. (townsendletter.com)
  • Filamins are large (280 KDa) actin-binding proteins that stabilize three-dimensional actin filament networks and link them to cellular membranes where they integrate cell architectural and signaling functions: Filamin A is a scaffold protein interacting with a variety of signal transducers important for cell locomotion. (neidos.it)
  • Upon binding, nuclear receptors modulate transcription through affecting the local chromatin environment via recruitment of various coregulatory proteins. (chemweb.com)
  • The binding of an androgen to the androgen receptor results in a conformational change in the receptor which in turn causes dissociation of heat shock proteins , transport from the cytosol into the cell nucleus , and dimerization. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Androgen receptors interact with other proteins in the nucleus resulting in up or down regulation of specific gene transcription . (thefullwiki.org)
  • [ 11 ] Thus, changes in levels of specific proteins in cells is one way that androgen receptors control cell behavior. (thefullwiki.org)
  • [ 6 ] [ 12 ] Androgen receptors interact with certain signal transduction proteins in the cytoplasm. (thefullwiki.org)
  • One function of androgen receptor that is independent of direct binding to its target DNA sequence, is facilitated by recruitment via other DNA binding proteins. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Transcription factor activity is modulated by bound coactivator and corepressor proteins. (t3db.ca)
  • To this end, we collected 193 PTM cross-talk pairs in 77 human proteins from the literature and then tested location preference and co-evolution at the residue and modification levels. (mcponline.org)
  • Upon hormone binding, the receptor can initiate multiple signaling pathways, which ultimately leads to changes in the behavior of the target cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sex hormones can modulate GH actions by acting centrally, regulating pituitary GH secretion, and peripherally, by modulating GH signaling pathways. (elsevier.es)
  • In fact, FGF21 has been shown to transduce its signal in a typical FGF manner by stimulating FGF receptor substrate (FRS2 α ) phosphorylation and activating ERK1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. (hindawi.com)
  • Substantial evidence indicates that the activity of the AR can be regulated not only by androgen but also by cross-talk with protein kinase signal transduction pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Several of these pathways have been shown to increase in activity during prostate cancer progression, and it is likely that this cross-talk plays a significant role in progression to hormone independence ( 1 - 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Among its related pathways are MNAR-PELP1 and Estrogen Receptor Interaction and Nongenotropic Androgen signaling . (genecards.org)
  • This report identifies a novel function for a PAK-homologous protein and suggests a potential unique mechanism by which other signal transduction pathways may cross-talk with AR pathways to regulate AR function in normal and malignant prostate cells (Yang, 2001). (sdbonline.org)
  • Cells expressing a GR that is incapable of GSK-3β phosphorylation had a redirection of the global transcriptional response to hormone, including the activation of additional signaling pathways, in part due to the altered ability of unphosphorylatable GR to recruit transcriptional cofactors CBP/p300 and the p65 (RelA) subunit of NF-κB. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, our results describe a novel convergence point of the GSK-3β and the GR pathways, resulting in altered hormone-regulated signaling. (asm.org)
  • However, in addition to ligand binding, several recent studies provide evidence that cross talk from other signaling pathways are able to directly modulate the GR transcriptional responses by phosphorylating the GR ( 17 ). (asm.org)
  • The SRCs can integrate input from other signaling cascades, allowing for cross-talk with other growth and survival pathways (e.g. kinases/phosphatases, acetyltransferases/deacetylases, etc) that can regulate SRC protein stability and activity, allowing for enormous plasticity of the steroid hormone signal but also for numerous mechanisms of signal amplification in a ligand-independent manner. (bcm.edu)
  • LRP6 also shares common antagonists with BMPs such as sclerostin (30 31 and antagonists of either BMP/LRP6 pathways such as noggin and sclerostin bind to each other with high affinity (Kd = 2.92 × 10?9M) (32). (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • Here, the author summarises the current knowledge of GA signal transduction, thereby putting an emphasis on the crosstalk of GA signalling with the light and jasmonic acid signalling pathways and with microtubule organisation. (els.net)
  • The signaling pathways activated by hormones interact or cross talk with the signaling pathways activated by growth factors. (elsevier.com)
  • But what makes understanding cell-signaling really interesting, Kester says, is that the individual pathways interact and overlap. (psu.edu)
  • Receptors for some hormones operate through effector systems that have yet to be definitively established, and others appear to use multiple regulatory pathways. (glowm.com)
  • In addition they cross-talk with other signaling pathways through nongenomic mechanisms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cooperation between various receptors and their signaling pathways is important in regulating cellular responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The PI3K/AKT pathway and interaction with Androgen Receptor (AR) pathways. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Endocrine disruptors are exogenous chemicals that can interfere and impair the function of the endocrine system due to their interaction with estrogen receptors or their estrogen signaling pathways inducing adverse effects in the normal mammary development, originating cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • We focus more specifically on the functions of E3 ligases as regulators of the jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and ethylene hormone signaling pathways that play important roles to mount a co-ordinated response to multiple environmental stresses. (deepdyve.com)
  • On the one hand, a number of findings indicate that the interaction of Ang II with the Ang II type-1 (AT 1 ) receptor located in cardiac fibroblasts results in induction of fibroblast hyperplasia, activation of collagen biosynthetic pathways, and inhibition of collagen degradative pathways. (ahajournals.org)
  • During andropause, changes in hormone ratios and nuclear receptor coregulator expression, in conjunction with crosstalk with fibroblast growth factors and bone stroma signaling pathways, reactivate the early metastasis. (kenzpub.com)
  • Aberrant expression of FGFs and FGF receptors (FGFRs) initiates MAPK, PI3K, and PLC γ pathways, resulting in proliferation, dedifferentiation, angiogenesis and survival. (kenzpub.com)
  • His studies are still focused on the mechanism of action of sex steroid hormones and have shown that a complex network including two signal transduction pathways, namely the src/ras/erk and PI3-K pathways, is responsible for hormone dependent DNA synthesis. (neidos.it)
  • Regulation of signal transduction pathways by cytoplasmic androgen receptors can indirectly lead to changes in gene transcription, for example, by leading to phosphorylation of other transcription factors. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The importance of PTM cross-talk has been recognized in various biological pathways ( 12 ⇓ ⇓ - 15 ), such as transcriptional regulation ( 16 ), DNA damage response ( 17 ), and protein stability regulation ( 18 ⇓ - 20 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Nuclear receptors are a special class of intracellular receptor that specifically aid the needs of the cell to express certain genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear receptors often bind directly to DNA by targeting specific DNA sequences in order to express or repress transcription of nearby genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies from many labs, including a group at Cambridge University, showed that when exposed to the primary female sex hormone, estradiol, the estrogen receptor activates genes that encourage tumor cells to grow and divide. (newswise.com)
  • Not only is the progesterone receptor an "essential modulator of estrogen-receptor-regulated genes," but it also significantly contributes to the "prognostic value of estrogen receptors in ER+/PR+ breast cancers. (newswise.com)
  • In most cases of advanced prostate cancer, the androgen receptor (AR) continues to be required and functions in the continued expression of "androgen-dependent" genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This gene encodes a transcription factor which coactivates transcription of estrogen receptor responsive genes and corepresses genes activated by other hormone receptors or sequence-specific transcription factors. (genecards.org)
  • Plays a role in estrogen receptor (ER) genomic activity when present in the nuclear compartment by activating the ER target genes in a hormonal stimulation dependent manner. (genecards.org)
  • GCs function by binding and activating the GC receptor (GR), which then regulates the transcription of target genes. (asm.org)
  • The list of BR-regulated genes is constituted of transcription factor genes including the phytochrome-interacting factor 3, auxin-related genes, P450 genes, and genes implicated in cell elongation and cell wall organization. (plantphysiol.org)
  • The nuclear GR regulates the activities of a large number of genes by binding as a homodimer to specific DNA sequences, known as GREs, and either activating or repressing gene transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • While the GRE-containing binding sites were more often located nearby genes involved in general cell functions and processes such as apoptosis, cell motion, protein dimerization activity and vasculature development, the binding sites without a GRE were located nearby genes with a clear role in neuronal processes such as neuron projection morphogenesis, neuron projection regeneration, synaptic transmission and catecholamine biosynthetic process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [10] However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and hence repress the expression of genes that are normally upregulated by NF-κB or AP-1. (wikidoc.org)
  • In response to Wnt ligands, β-catenin can also be detected in the nucleus and cytoplasm where it can interact with T-cell factor (TCF)/lymphoid enhancer factor (LEF) transcription factors to initiate transcription of target genes such as c-myc and cyclin D1 ( 9 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • ZSCAN5B and primate-specific paralogs bind RNA polymerase III genes and extra-TFIIIC (ETC) sites to modulate mitotic progression. (abcam.com)
  • The PBREM is conserved in the CYP2B genes from rodents to humans, providing us with a cross-species consensus enhancer for activation by PB and PB-type inducers as the experimental basis for subsequent investigations ( Fig. 2A ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor considered to be a master xenobiotic receptor that coordinately regulates the expression of genes encoding drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters to essentially detoxify and eliminate xenobiotics and endotoxins from the body. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Outlined is how to generate high quality ChIP DNA template derived from the colorectal carcinoma cell line, HCT116, in order to build a high-resolution map through sequencing to determine the genes bound by TCF7L2, giving further insight in to its key role in the pathogenesis of complex traits. (jove.com)
  • Of the approximately 1000 genes thought to encode GPCRs in humans, about 300 to 400 mediate the effects of endogenous ligands, with the remainder being sensory receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Much of the cross-talk communication that takes place to nudge life to unfold is due to hormonal (ligand to receptor) and genomic (delivering to genes) signaling. (townsendletter.com)
  • One of the known target genes of androgen receptor activation is insulin-like growth factor I ( IGF-1 ). (thefullwiki.org)
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors and play an important role in nutrient homeostasis [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. (dovepress.com)
  • After nearly 50 years of investigation, the molecular target of phenobarbital induction has now been delineated to phosphorylation at threonine 38 of the constitutive androstane receptor (NR1I3), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Unlike receptors found on the cell surface, members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NR) superfamily are restricted to metazoan organisms such as nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. (nrresource.org)
  • The largest class of cell surface receptors in mammalian genomes is the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs 1 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a superfamily of ligand-regulated transcription factors that interact with coregulators and other transcription factors to direct tissue-specific programs of gene expression. (chemweb.com)
  • The nuclear receptor superfamily consists of DNA binding transcription factors that are involved in regulating a wide variety of processes such as metabolism, development, reproduction, and immune responses. (chemweb.com)
  • Because signal transduction by growth factor receptors increases in advanced prostate cancer and is capable of sensitizing the AR to androgen, there is considerable interest in determining the mechanisms by which signaling systems can modulate AR function. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The mechanism of action of luteinizing hormone involves the stimulation of multiple signal transduction effector systems including adenylyl cyclase and inositol phospholipid-specific phospholipasc C (PLC). (elsevier.com)
  • The binding of peptide hormones, growth factors, cytokines, or eicosanoids to cell membrane receptors activates one or more signal transduction systems, which initiate different cascades of events that alter the concentration of intracellular second messengers, such as cAMP or Ca 2+ . (glowm.com)
  • The receptor complex, signal transduction components as well as repressors and activators in jasmonate‐induced gene expression have been elucidated. (els.net)
  • MIF signal transduction initiated by binding to CD74. (bio-rad.com)
  • The intracellular signal transduction events triggered by AT 1 receptors are well characterized and include G-protein coupling, as well as activation of several tyrosine kinases. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We show herein that the adaptor/scaffolding protein receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1), which was previously reported to interact with the AR, modulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of AR and its interaction with the Src tyrosine kinase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that RACK1 mediates the cross-talk of AR with additional binding partners, such as Src, and facilitates the tyrosine phosphorylation and transcriptional activity of the AR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we discovered a new target for GSK-3β phosphorylation: the human glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Glucocorticoid signaling is essential for life and regulates diverse biological functions from cell growth to metabolism to apoptosis. (asm.org)
  • Specifically, we found hormone-dependent GR phosphorylation on serine 404 by GSK-3β. (asm.org)
  • BMPs are portrayed within the bone tissue marrow stroma and so are the just known morphogens that can induce osteoblast and chondroblast differentiation from MSCs (4 5 Upon ligand binding BMP type II receptor recruits type I receptor to create a complicated and mediates type I receptor phosphorylation. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • Moreover, obestatin upregulated GLP-1R mRNA and insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) expression and phosphorylation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although interfaces mediating protein-protein interactions are thought to be under strong evolutionary constraints, binding of the chemotaxis histidine kinase CheA to its phosphorylation tarObtain CheY suggests otherwise. (lw90.com)
  • Threonine 38 is conserved as a phosphorylation motif in the majority of both mouse and human nuclear receptors, providing us with an opportunity to integrate diverse functions of nuclear receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On binding of androgens, e.g., 5α-dihydrotestosterone, AR dissociates from HSP-90, allowing AR phosphorylation at multiple sites. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of the PI3K pathway leads to AKT phosphorylation, triggering a downstream cascade of events that are likely to interact with AR transcriptional activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 1984 his studies led to observation that estrogen receptor phosphorylation responsible for hormone binding occurred only on a tyrosine residue at 537 position. (neidos.it)
  • They also look for the presence of progesterone receptors, primarily to confirm that the estrogen receptor is active. (newswise.com)
  • In the June 24 issue of Science Advances , however, researchers radically upgrade the significance of the progesterone receptor. (newswise.com)
  • In the last year or two, researchers have tuned into the extensive and previously unrecognized cross talk between the progesterone and estrogen receptors," said study author Geoffrey Greene, PhD, the Virginia and D. K. Ludwig Professor and Chairman of the Ben May Department for Cancer Research at the University of Chicago. (newswise.com)
  • This observation is important," he added, "because more than two-thirds of breast cancers contain both estrogen and progesterone receptors. (newswise.com)
  • It opens up a whole new set of binding sites for the estrogen receptor that now work in conjunction with the progesterone receptor. (newswise.com)
  • Our data further suggest that, despite the historical bias toward the effects of estrogen on the estrogen receptor, it's the progesterone receptor that dominantly controls estrogen receptor activity when both receptors are present and activated. (newswise.com)
  • The third group was treated with a progesterone receptor antagonist, an experimental drug known as CDB4124 (Telapristone). (newswise.com)
  • The fourth group was treated with tamoxifen plus CDB4124 to simultaneously block both the estrogen and progesterone receptors. (newswise.com)
  • These findings," the authors note, "emphasize the clinical value of assessing both progesterone receptor and estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer samples. (newswise.com)
  • Steroid hormones Consequently, the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR) are validated therapeutic targets for breast, prostate, and endometrial cancer treatment, respectively. (bcm.edu)
  • The ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone orchestrate postnatal mammary gland development and are implicated in breast cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most of our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) signaling stems from in vitro studies with hormone receptor-positive cell lines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet most of their known biological functions are mediated by their binding to and activation of the ligand-dependent transcription factors, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Akt regulates progesterone receptor B-dependent transcription and angiogenesis in endometrial cancer cells. (abcam.com)
  • independently of progesterone receptor expression). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For example, improved early-stage estrogen receptor-positive (ER + ) breast cancer prognosis appears to correlate with high ER and progesterone receptor (PR) expression and activity ( 1 ), while mechanisms of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) prognosis have yet to be well characterized ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • [ 2 ] The androgen receptor is most closely related to the progesterone receptor , and progestins in higher dosages can block the androgen receptor. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Upon binding, the receptor often undergoes a conformational change and may bind further, signaling ligands to activate a signaling pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a signaling pathway ends with the increase in production of a nutrient, that nutrient is then a signal back to the receptor that acts as a competitive inhibitor to prevent further production. (wikipedia.org)
  • LRP6 has also been shown to interact with the PTH signaling pathway by directly forming a complex with PTH1R (33). (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • The androgen-signaling pathway plays an important role in the development and hormonal progression of prostate cancer to the castrate-resistant stage (also called androgen-independent or hormone refractory). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this review, we evaluate the contribution of thyroxine interacting with integrin αvβ3 and crosstalking with EGFR/Ras signaling pathway non-genomically in CRC proliferation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It is now understood that persistent activation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway often underlies the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together these receptors have demonstrated the capacity to regulate a spectrum of immune functions, including adhesion, migration, survival, wound healing, and antibody and cytokine production. (frontiersin.org)
  • The experience and specificity of different BMP ligands are handled by several extracellular antagonists that regulate the binding of BMPs with their receptors. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • Hormone responsive effector systems, therefore, operate by activating families of protein kinases which regulate cell metabolism, secretion, and gene transcription. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, steroid receptors regulate non‐transcriptional events. (embopress.org)
  • They have shown that ER and PR regulate gene transcription either by binding to DNA response elements directly or via other transcription factors and recruiting co-regulators. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Osteopontin binds to integrin receptors (αvβ3, αvβ5, αvβ1) to regulate cell responses and is also a ligand for certain variant forms of CD44 receptor (v6 and/or v7), through which it acts as a chemoattractant factor for various cell types, notably monocytes/macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • Furthermore, syndecan-4 can regulate development element bioavailability by performing like a cell-bound tank that may be released by following proteolytic cleavage (Bergers et al. (beloranib.net)
  • Angiotensin receptors are expressed in a wide variety of cell types and regulate important physiological activities such as blood pressure, electrolyte balance, hormone secretion, tissue growth and neuronal activity by interacting with specific receptors on target organs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Nuclear receptors and coregulators regulate gene expression in physiology and disease. (chemweb.com)
  • however, they regulate transcription in a highly receptor- and gene-specific manner. (chemweb.com)
  • This study shows that dPak3 functions downstream of the guidance receptor signaling to regulate the level and distribution of F-actin in the migrating border cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • Interestingly, loss of apical-basal polarity was also observed in Rac1 depleted border cell cluster suggesting that the guidance receptor signaling functions through Rac GTPase and dPak3 to regulate overall polarity of the cluster to mediate efficient collective movement of the border cells to the oocyte boundary. (sdbonline.org)
  • Scribble interacts physically and genetically with Rac1, Pak3 , and Cofilin within MBn, nucleating a forgetting signalosome that is downstream of dopaminergic inputs that regulate forgetting. (sdbonline.org)
  • Steroid hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. (t3db.ca)
  • All nuclear receptors are very similar in structure, and are described with intrinsic transcriptional activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intrinsic transcriptional involves the three following domains: transcription-activating, DNA-binding, and ligand-binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Depending on the cell type and promoter context, the GR can either up- or downregulate gene expression by recruiting cofactors and interacting with transcriptional machinery ( 24 ). (asm.org)
  • Therefore, it is likely that transcriptional output will ultimately (i) determine how a cell will respond to hormone exposure and (ii) distinguish how GCs induce apoptosis in lymphocytes while inhibiting the same process in hepatocytes ( 10 , 34 , 41 ). (asm.org)
  • Since ligand binding to the GR enables its translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of a cell, the transcriptional activity of the GR appears to be mainly governed by ligand binding. (asm.org)
  • This resulted in stabilization of SPOP substrates in prostate cancer-androgen receptor and SRC-3-and altered AR transcriptional activity in prostate cancer. (bcm.edu)
  • This extensive crosstalk of GR with other TFs not only vastly expands the range of GR-control on physiological processes compared to the classical GRE-driven transcriptional control in simple GREs, but it also underlies the highly context-dependent action of GCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One mechanism suspected to play a role is related to the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR). (aacrjournals.org)
  • One important coregulator of the AR is β-catenin, which interacts with the AR in response to androgen to increase the transcriptional activity of the AR in cells maintained as a monolayer ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • and ( e ) the TCF/LEF target gene, cyclin D1 , can interact with the AR to inhibit AR transcriptional activity ( 22 - 24 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bardoxolone exerts transcriptional control by promoting nuclear translocation of Nrf2, facilitating antioxidant response element (ARE) binding that upregulates endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity. (intechopen.com)
  • Nuclear receptors (NRs) are key transcriptional regulators of metazoan physiology and metabolism. (chemweb.com)
  • Here, we review key molecular aspects of transactivation by NRs with special emphasis on the recent advances in the molecular mechanisms responsible for receptor- and gene-specific transcriptional activation. (chemweb.com)
  • Because of these highly specific and high affinity interactions between hormones and their receptors, very low concentrations of hormone can produce significant cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • GPER1 is a seven transmembrane-domain G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that in 2005 was reported independently by two research groups to bind 17β-estradiol (E2) with high affinity and to induce unique and specific signaling, upon its activation by this ligand ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The affinity of nonrelated steroid hormones to the receptor is generally about 100 times lower than the appropriate steroid hormone. (glowm.com)
  • Strict biunivocal binding affinity and activation of CXCR4/CXCL12 complex make CXCR4 a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer. (dovepress.com)
  • In the brain there are two receptors for glucocorticoids, the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) and the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), that differ in their expression pattern and affinity for GCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CheA binds CheY with identical affinity in T. maritima and E. coli at the vastly different temperatures where the respective organisms live. (lw90.com)
  • Since Ang II binds to the two receptor subtypes, AT 1 and AT 2 , with similar affinity, the cellular response is highly dependent on the relative expression level and/or responsiveness of both receptors ( Nouet and Nahmias, 2000 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Intracellular receptors are activated by hydrophobic ligands that pass through the cellular membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The concept of cellular receptors for chemicals within living tissues was made possible by the availability of highly purified peptide hormones, the development of methods to iodinate them to high specific activity without the loss of biologic activity, and the application of the principle of competitive binding between labeled and unlabeled ligands. (glowm.com)
  • Ligands directly bind and enable CAR to be dephosphorylated for its activation ( Fig. 1C ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • C) Ligands such as CITCO directly bind phosphorylated CAR, dissociating P-ERK1/2 from XRS. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Early classification of these receptors was based on ligands, DNA binding properties or other functional characterization. (nrresource.org)
  • Residues within the binding pocket confer specificity, determining whether the LBD will accept steroid hormones, retinoid compounds or the host of xenobiotic ligands that affect receptor function. (nrresource.org)
  • First we present an overview of recent advances in knowledge on the role of BDNF within the fear circuitry, as well as address mounting evidence whereby stress hormones interact with endogenous BDNF-TrkB signaling to alter brain homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • Finally knockdown of LRP6 elevated the publicity of endogenous cell-surface BMPRII considerably in C2C12 cells and PTH treatment considerably enhanced cell surface area binding of 125I-BMP2 within a dosage- and time-dependent way implying that LRP6 organizes an extracellular network of BMP antagonists that prevent gain access to of BMPs to BMP receptors. (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • How these signaling molecules and various other endogenous (such as hormones) or external (such as diet and exercise) factors influence the cells involved in bone physiology is a topic of intense research activity. (iofbonehealth.org)
  • Both endogenous hormones and anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs characterize glucocorticoids. (physiology.org)
  • The endogenous nucleoside adenosine acts by binding to the four adenosine receptors, A1R, A2AR, A2BR and A3R. (ki.se)
  • Genetically modified mice where the A1R has been deleted (A1R (-/-) mice), drugs acting at the adenosine receptors and adenosine deaminase, which removes endogenous adenosine, have been used in studies included in this thesis and metabolic actions of adenosine have mainly been examined in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and pancreas. (ki.se)
  • Interactions between adenosine and the GHSR1a and its endogenous ligand ghrelin have therefore also been investigated by using transfected cells and receptor binding drugs. (ki.se)
  • Previous contrary results might be due to endogenous expression of adenosine receptors, presumably A2BRs, in the cell lines that have been used in these earlier studies. (ki.se)
  • Examples include cooperation between the tyrosine kinase receptor Ron and the epidermal growth factor receptor ( 28 ), between IGF-IR and epidermal growth factor receptor ( 29 ), between the estrogen receptor and IGF-IR ( 30 ), and between G protein-coupled receptors and IGF-IR ( 31 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thyroid hormone analogues also engage in crosstalk with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Signaling induced by thyroid hormone via integrin αvβ3 may be involve crosstalk with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras and contribute to the development of CRCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This interaction allows the hormone receptor to produce second messengers within the cell to aid response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we confirm the AR-RACK1 binding interaction and show that it is regulated by androgen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Steroid hormones exert profound effects on mood, mental state, behavior, and memory by acting by interaction with steroid receptors in the brain. (glowm.com)
  • Involved in nuclear receptor signaling via its interaction with AR and NR3C1. (genecards.org)
  • Transcription activation by steroid hormone receptors, such as the androgen receptor, is mediated through interaction with cofactors. (sdbonline.org)
  • PAK5 preferentially binds to CDC42 in the presence of GTP and the CRIB motif is essential for this interaction. (sdbonline.org)
  • The AR directly interacts with CHK2, and that interaction increases with radiation. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • AtCTR1 of Arabidopsis), PpCTR1L modulates downstream ethylene signaling via direct interaction with ethylene receptors. (plantphysiol.org)
  • a) Scheme of the conventional GA ‐dependent DELLA interaction mechanism where GA ‐dependent interactions between DELLAs and GID1 GA receptors promote the degradation of DELLAs by the 26S proteasome as indicated here by the attachment of a ubiquitin (Ubi) protein molecule. (els.net)
  • Hormone‐stimulated Src interaction with the androgen receptor and oestradiol receptor α or β is detected using glutathione S ‐transferase fusion constructs. (embopress.org)
  • These coregulators make a bridge between the basal transcription machinery and the receptors by protein-protein interaction. (novapublishers.com)
  • miRNAs then interact with target mRNA via interaction with Argonaute 2 and GW-182 [ 1 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • 5 On the other hand, more recent findings suggest that fibrosis may represent the reparative response to myocardial inflammation induced by Ang II through the interaction with AT 1 receptors present in cells from the cardiac microvasculature. (ahajournals.org)
  • The interaction of an agonist with a GPCR binding pocket elicits or stabilizes a conformational change in the receptor's transmembrane domains. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Interaction of glucocorticoid receptor isoforms with transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB: lack of effect of glucocorticoid receptor beta. (bio-rad.com)
  • The interaction between ER and GR activity highlights the importance of context-dependent nuclear receptor function in cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Investigate in animal models whether the interaction AR/Filamin-280KDa plays a major role in prostate cancer metastasis and in the loss of hormone responsive growth: we challenge the hypothesis that appearance of such a complex in the prostate cancer cells is associated with an aggressive, metastatic phenotype characterized by hormone independent growth and enhanced motility in response to androgens. (neidos.it)
  • Thus, in addition to their well-known direct peripheral effects, glucocorticoids may also affect glucose metabolism through receptor activation in defined circuits of the central nervous system (CNS). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones that are essential for human life. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, glucocorticoids appear to slow cell proliferation in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer whereas in TNBC, glucocorticoids inhibit chemotherapy-induced cytotoxicity by preventing apoptosis, resulting into increased cell proliferation ( 16 , 17 ). (jcancer.org)
  • The glucocorticoid receptor ( GR , or GCR ) also known as NR3C1 ( nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 1) is the receptor to which cortisol and other glucocorticoids bind. (wikidoc.org)
  • When the GR binds to glucocorticoids, its primary mechanism of action is the regulation of gene transcription. (wikidoc.org)
  • Historically, glucocorticoids were defined as a group of hormones released from the cortex of the adrenal gland. (physiology.org)
  • Glucocorticoids mediate these effects via the intracellular receptor GCR-alpha [ 1 ]. (bio-rad.com)
  • G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cell surface receptors that mediate physiological responses to a diverse array of stimuli. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. (hindawi.com)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is a hormone-dependent transcription factor that plays important roles in male sexual differentiation and development. (sdbonline.org)
  • The p160 steroid receptor coactivators (SRCs) SRC-1, SRC-2 (also known as TIF2, GRIP1, and NCOA2), and SRC-3 (also known as AIB1, ACTR, and NCOA3) are key pleiotropic "master regulators" of transcription factor activity necessary for cancer cell proliferation, survival, metabolism, and metastasis. (bcm.edu)
  • The remaining 42% of the GBS did not harbour a GRE and therefore likely bind GR via an intermediate transcription factor tethering GR to the DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The AR is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that is a member of the steroid receptor family. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Bioinformatics analysis was used to identify the regulatory promoter region and map transcription start site as well as transcription factor binding sites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The class 4 POU (Pit-Oct-Unc) transcription factor-2- related to Brn-3 (POU4F2/Brn-3b), is referred to as Brn-3b because of homology in the DNA binding domain to the related Brn-3a transcription factor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanisms of AR activation in AICaP include AR gene amplification or mutation, overexpression of AR or coactivators, and cross-talk with tyrosine kinases such as HER2 (ErbB2) ( 1 , 2 ). (pnas.org)
  • Growth factors activate specific receptor protein tyrosine kinases which recruit additional signaling molecules (phospholipase Cγ, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, She, Grb2, etc.) initiating a cascade of events mediated via MAP kinases. (elsevier.com)
  • The diversity of cellular signaling mechanisms elicited by hormones and the potential for interactions with signals generated by growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, may allow fine tuning of cellular responses during the life span of the corpus luteum. (elsevier.com)
  • Many transmembrane receptors are known to dimerize as part of their normal function, with receptor tyrosine kinases being a particularly well studied example. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Receptors for steroid hormones are usually found within the cytoplasm and are referred to as intracellular or nuclear receptors, such as testosterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon CORT binding, GR migrates from the cytoplasm to the nucleus where it is involved in the regulation of gene transcription. (biomedcentral.com)
  • AR is bound to heat-shock protein 90 (HSP-90) in the cytoplasm, which stabilizes AR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Then, loss of Scribble activates the mRNA binding protein HuR (ELAV in Drosophila) by facilitating translocation of HuR from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. (sdbonline.org)
  • Building on the well-established use of tamoxifen, an estrogen antagonist, to treat women with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers, they decided to inhibit the activities of both receptors with antagonists to see if there would be an added benefit of combining two receptor-selective drugs. (newswise.com)
  • The most common treatments are corticosteroids and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, which target inflammation and airway smooth muscle constriction, respectively. (frontiersin.org)
  • For a one-receptor system, the Schild regression has a slope of unity and an intercept of K B for competitive antagonists. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Adenosine receptor agonists may be used as drugs for lowering free fatty acid levels and adenosine receptor antagonists may be of importance for their role in regulating pancreatic release of insulin. (ki.se)
  • Here, I review the works and accomplishments of my laboratory at the National Institutes of Health National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the future research directions of where our study of the constitutive androstane receptor might take us. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To begin, the current cell signal/molecular mechanism of phenobarbital (PB) induction/constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation is depicted in Fig. 1 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • In mammalian cells, there are five distinct NF-κB subunits, NF-κB1(p105/p50), NF-κB2(p100/p52), RelA(p65), RelB, and c-Rel, all of which contain a highly conserved amino-terminal DNA-binding and dimerization domain of approximately 300 amino acids, the Rel homology domain ( 3 , 64 ). (asm.org)
  • Located within the second zinc finger is the distal or D-box, an α-helix which lies perpendicular to P-box helix, and is a site that mediates receptor dimerization. (nrresource.org)
  • Early evidence for GPCR dimerization came from unexplained cooperativity observed in ligand binding assays and unexpectedly large estimates of the size of receptor complexes on gel filtration columns. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We therefore hypothesized that glucocorticoid action in the CNS might affect glucose metabolism through activation of receptors on preautonomic neurons in the PVN. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Activation of the androgen receptor (AR) may play a role in androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. (pnas.org)
  • Interestingly, RACK1 has been recently identified as an AR-interacting protein, which facilitates ligand-independent AR nuclear translocation on activation of PKC ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Activation of transcription by PPARs is dependent on a number of different steps including ligand binding to PPAR, binding of PPAR to the target gene, removal of corepressors and recruitment of coactivators, remodeling of the chromatin structure, and finally facilitation of gene transcription [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The transduction of the membrane-bound receptor activation signal to the nucleus is achieved through numerous intracellular biochemical cascades. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the extracellular space truncation from the LRP6 extracellular area leads to constitutive activation of the canonical wnt pathway implying that the extracellular domain exerts an inhibitory effect on signaling through this receptor (29). (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • The binding of hormones and growth factors to their cell surface receptors leads to an orderly cascade of events leading to activation of cytoplasmic effector molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • The role of this phosphotyrosine is stressed by its requirement for association of oestradiol receptor α with Src and consequent activation of Src in intact Cos cells. (embopress.org)
  • Inflammation is classically viewed as a feature of innate immunity, which differs from adaptive immunity by the receptors mediating its activation and its rapid onset. (jci.org)
  • Recent advances over the last decade have revealed that for many xenobiotics, these changes may be induced through a common mechanism of action involving activation of the nuclear hormone receptors CAR, PXR, or PPARα. (focusontoxpath.com)
  • B) PB binds EGFR and represses its signaling, dissociating ERK1/2 from XRS and allowing RACK1/PP2Ac to dephosphorylate threonine 38 for CAR activation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Activation of Src is associated with its translocation to the plasma membrane in which Src interacts with a number of important effectors in response to extracellular signals. (beds.ac.uk)
  • γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, and the physiological actions of GABA are mediated via activation of three distinct types of cell surface receptors: GABA A and GABA C receptors, which are ligand-gated chloride channels, and GABA B receptors, which are GPCRs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • MIF binds to the transmembrane protein CD74 , which is required for MIF -induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK(MARK1/3) cascade. (bio-rad.com)
  • Glucocorticoid receptor activation of the I kappa B alpha promoter within chromatin. (bio-rad.com)
  • 2000). Via the UCPH 101 binding and activation of PKC, syndecan-4 facilitates 51 integrin binding to its substrate fibronectin, permitting maturation of focal adhesions (Bass et al. (beloranib.net)
  • It has now observed that also progestins activate via a cross talk with estrogen receptor the same pathway, hereby suggesting that activation of src/ras/erk cascade can represent the main way by which steroid hormones stimulate cell growth. (neidos.it)
  • These differences in gene activation can most likely be accounted for by mechanisms involving receptor-specific interactions with DNA as well as receptor-specific interactions with protein complexes binding to adjacent and distant DNA sequences. (chemweb.com)
  • In some cell types testosterone interacts directly with androgen receptors while in others testosterone is converted by 5-alpha-reductase to dihydrotestosterone, an even more potent agonist for androgen receptor activation. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Interestingly, intracerebroventricular infusion of dexamethasone (a glucocorticoid receptor agonist) stimulates food intake and body weight gain ( 14 ), while it decreases peripheral glucose uptake ( 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • G-protein-coupled membrane receptors(GPCR) are a major class of transmembrane receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemokines bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. (dovepress.com)
  • 2 , 3 Chemokine receptors are a family of G protein-coupled cell surface receptors (GPCRs) with seven transmembrane-spanning domains. (dovepress.com)
  • Currently, the mechanisms underlying these sex differences are poorly understood, although the effect of sex hormones, such as estrogen, on allergic inflammation is gaining interest. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our perception of the mechanisms involved in estrogen (patho)physiological effects has progressed significantly in the last fifteen years, with the discovery of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1, previously known as G protein-coupled receptor 30 or GPR30). (frontiersin.org)
  • Analyzing the mechanisms that integrate steroid receptor function with regulatory protein kinase cascades is likely to be important for understanding progression to androgen independence and identifying ways to prevent or reverse that process. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our hypothesis is that inhibitors of the expression and/or function of steroid receptor coactivators could overcome endocrine resistance caused by multiple upstream mechanisms, and, thus, have wide therapeutic implications in prostate and breast cancer. (bcm.edu)
  • To investigate the molecular mechanisms of how BPA may affect ten different nuclear receptors, stable cell lines containing individual nuclear receptor ligand binding domain (LBD)-linked to the β-Gal reporter were examined by a quantitative high throughput screening (qHTS) format in the Tox21 Screening Program of the NIH. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The objective of the present study was to delineate the mechanisms of GC-A/natriuretic peptide receptor-A (GC-A/NPRA) gene ( Npr1 ) expression in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cross-talk between nuclear factor-kappa B and the steroid hormone receptors: mechanisms of mutual antagonism. (bio-rad.com)
  • His activity has been initially focused on the mechanisms regulating the ligand binding activity of estrogen receptor. (neidos.it)
  • The current scientific activity of Dr. Migliaccio is focused on the role of sex steroid in unconventional target of hormone action such as fibroblasts and the mechanisms involved in the loss of hormone dependence of prostate cancer. (neidos.it)
  • Because of the relatively large size of enzymes and receptors, the large amount of surface area provides the basis for these weak interactions to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • This binding is actually highly specific because of the complementarity of these interactions between polar, non-polar, charged, neutral, hydrophilic, or hydrophobic residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, hormone binding to its receptor is a complex process that can be mediated by cooperative binding, reversible and irreversible interactions, and multiple binding sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has long been known that the AR is regulated not only by its cognate steroid hormone, but also by interactions with a constellation of co-regulatory and signaling molecules. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • However, whether C4 can interact with RLKs in other subfamilies and, if so, what the biological impact of such interactions might be, is currently unknown. (mdpi.com)
  • c) In the absence of a functional protein degradation machinery, GA ‐dependent or GA ‐independent interactions between DELLAs and GID1 can at least partially suppress the DELLA‐mediated repression by binding DELLAs to the GID1 receptors. (els.net)
  • Glucocorticoid action in neurons is mediated by glucocorticoid receptors (GR) that operate as transcription factors in the regulation of gene expression and either bind directly to genomic glucocorticoid response elements (GREs) or indirectly to the genome via interactions with bound transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Such concerns are best addressed by considering the evidence that these receptor-receptor interactions are specific versus non-specific and that they are functionally important versus physiologically irrelevant. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As has been also found for other steroid hormone receptors such as estrogen receptors , androgen receptors can have actions that are independent of their interactions with DNA. (thefullwiki.org)
  • 4 , 5 The chemokine receptor CXCR4 is a 352-amino acid rhodopsin-like GPCR that selectively binds to the CXC chemokine SDF-1 or CXCL12. (dovepress.com)
  • Even those GPCRs that do not absolutely require heterodimerization may still specifically associate with other GPCR subtypes, sometimes resulting in dramatic effects on receptor pharmacology, signaling, and/or internalization. (aspetjournals.org)
  • One concern in the field has been that GPCR heterodimerization might be an artifact of receptor over-expression and/or a result of the techniques used to study receptor associations. (aspetjournals.org)
  • the first widely accepted demonstration of functional consequences for GPCR heterodimerization came from the GABA B receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Further evidence is provided that dPak3 genetically interacts with lateral polarity marker Scribble and regulates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in the moving border cells. (sdbonline.org)
  • Receptors for peptide hormones tend to be cell surface receptors built into the plasma membrane of cells and are thus referred to as trans membrane receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS- Obestatin showed specific binding on HIT-T15 and INS-1E β-cells, bound to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R), and recognized ghrelin binding sites. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ghrelin receptor antagonist [D-Lys 3 ]-growth hormone releasing peptide-6 and anti-ghrelin antibody prevented obestatin-induced survival in β-cells and human islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Initial evidence for hormones acting through cell surface receptors came from studies using antibodies to peptide hormones that caused cross-linking of hormone-receptor complexes, preventing mobility in the membrane and internalization, thereby blocking or reversing the biologic effects of these hormones. (glowm.com)
  • The concept of second messengers mediating the effects of peptide hormones was prompted by data from Sutherland in the 1960s showing that adenylate cyclase, an enzyme that forms cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), was present in cell membranes and that some peptide hormones increase its formation. (glowm.com)
  • In numerous studies, including knockout experiments, the AT 2 receptor has been shown to counteract the effects of Ang II mediated by the AT 1 receptor, suggesting that AT 2 might provide a brake for the peptide signal. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Oxytocin is a peptide hormone. (townsendletter.com)
  • Peptide hormones are made of amino acids. (townsendletter.com)
  • As far as peptide hormones go, oxytocin is a small thing, with only nine amino acids. (townsendletter.com)
  • The past 15 years have seen remarkable progress in our understanding of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones and receptor function. (glowm.com)
  • Therefore, attempts are being made to develop selective glucocorticoid receptor modulators that specifically antagonize GR activity in CRPC, and thereby provide clinical benefit by blocking the GR mechanism for tumor growth. (jcancer.org)
  • In conclusion, both nuclear- and mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs mediate an intense intercompartmental cross-talk, which opens a rich field for investigation of the mechanism underlying the intercompartmental coordination and the maintenance of whole cell homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A direct mechanism of action involves homodimerization of the receptor, translocation via active transport into the nucleus , and binding to specific DNA responsive elements activating gene transcription . (wikidoc.org)
  • Dr. Migliaccio is intersted from beginning of his activity in the mechanism of action of steroid hormones. (neidos.it)
  • The primary mechanism of action for androgen receptors is direct regulation of gene transcription . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Ligand binding to the extracellular domain of receptors like IGF-1R and EGFR signals conformational changes that induce receptor autophosphorylation and stimulation of its TK activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The D-domain appears to allow for conformational changes in the protein structure following ligand binding. (nrresource.org)
  • Mineralocorticoid receptors show weak immunoreactivity in the PVN, and its mRNA expression is not detectable by in situ hybridization methods ( 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our laboratory used a retrospective meta-analysis of more than 1,000 early-stage ER + breast cancer patients and found that high tumor glucocorticoid receptor (GR/ NR3C1 ) mRNA expression was associated with an improved prognosis compared with low or absent GR/ NR3C1 expression ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • By utilizing genomic, cistromic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data to dissect the various functions of steroid receptors and their coregulators. (bcm.edu)
  • In total we identified 1183 genomic binding sites of GR, the majority of which were novel and not identified in other ChIP-Seq studies on GR binding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Table 1 lists a number of these overlapping genomic and nongenomic functions of thyroid hormone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inevitable progression of prostate cancer to the hormone refractory stage makes prostate cancer the second leading cause of cancer deaths in American men. (pnas.org)
  • Although this is referred to as androgen-independent prostate cancer (AICaP), the androgen receptor (AR) is likely to be involved in the recurrence of most prostate cancers. (pnas.org)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) remains functionally important in the development and progression of prostate cancer even when the disease seems androgen "independent. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Prostate cancer initially presents as an androgen-dependent disease, and thus, hormone ablation is often used as a frontline therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The androgen receptor (AR) is a major driver of prostate cancer, even at the castration resistant stage of the disease. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Androgen ablation remains the mainstay of advanced prostate cancer treatment, but progression to hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC) is inevitable and usually occurs within 2 to 5 years. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, in prostate cancer cells, this is deregulated, allowing external stimuli to interact through membrane receptors with androgens and enhance their growth and proliferation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We recently reported that in prostate cancer, prostate specific mutations of the SPOP gene abolished its substrate binding capacities. (bcm.edu)
  • Interestingly, our preliminary studies indicate that these hormones also exert an inhibitory effect on EGF induced S-phase entry of fibroblasts without affecting EGF-stimulated migration, whereas association between AR and a 90 KDa Filamin A fragment has been previously observed in prostate cancer cell, involved in AR dependent transcription and DNA synthesis stimulation. (neidos.it)
  • thus, Gnb1 enlists Ppp1ca to modulate G protein-coupled receptor signaling. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, the effects of BPA were also evaluated in a nuclear translocation assays using EGPF-tagged receptors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Although BPA was able to bind AR, the nuclear translocation was reduced. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Glucocorticoid signaling involves two receptor systems, i.e., the mineralocorticoid receptor, which in the CNS is mainly restricted to the septum, hippocampus and amygdala, and the glucocorticoid receptor, which is more widely expressed in different brain regions including the hypothalamus ( 7 - 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By influencing the hormones, the cells' growth can be changed along with its function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormone receptor interacts with different molecules to induce a variety of changes, such as an increase or decrease of nutrient sources, growth, and other metabolic functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • GH and sex hormones are critical regulators of body growth and composition, somatic development, intermediate metabolism, and sexual dimorphism. (elsevier.es)
  • If growing follicles are detected, follicle growth is stimulated by injection of hormones (gonadotropins). (stanford.edu)
  • FGF21 treatment has been shown to inhibit hepatic growth hormone (GH) intracellular signaling. (hindawi.com)
  • There is evidence that FGF21 initiates its action by interacting with a dual receptor complex of β -klotho and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), activating the tyrosine-kinase activity of the FGFR. (hindawi.com)
  • Lately, it has been suggested that there is crosstalk between FGF21 and growth hormone (GH) signaling and that FGF21 can cause a state of GH resistance [ 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • May have important functional implications in ER/growth factor cross-talk. (genecards.org)
  • Interacts with several growth factor signaling components including EGFR and HRS. (genecards.org)
  • The PI3K/AKT pathway activates the ransforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)-mediated endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and it interacts with downstream signals to upregulate EMT-associated factors. (mdpi.com)
  • Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroidal plant hormones that are essential for growth and development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Accumulated evidence signifies that PTH anabolic results instead derive from the orchestration of the consequences of local elements such as bone tissue morphogentic protein (BMPs) Wnts or changing growth aspect beta (TGFβ) through recruitment of their receptors to PTH1R and/or endocytosis (16-18). (angiogenesis-blog.com)
  • In the light, DELLAs become stabilised and prevent PIF4 and BZR1 DNA‐binding allowing for reduced elongation growth by releasing the growth‐inhibitory function of PRE ‐interacting bHLH transcription factors. (els.net)
  • DELLAs released after JA ‐induced JAZ degradation will restrain growth by interacting with PIF transcription factors. (els.net)
  • Moreover, it was found to counteract ghrelin stimulatory effects on these end points ( 1 , 9 ) and to inhibit ghrelin-induced growth hormone secretion in vivo ( 9 ) but not in vitro ( 10 ), suggesting that it would serve as a physiological opponent of ghrelin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The effects of growth factors are mediated through the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, whereas hormone effects act via oestrogen receptor α (ERα). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pancreatic carcinoma cells overexpress the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) receptor (IGF-IR) and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) receptor, c-Met, which are both known to mediate tumor cell migration and invasion. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3 - 13 ) and its receptor, IGF-I receptor(IGF-IR), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor ( 14 - 18 ) and its receptor, c-Met, have been implicated in the development and progression of a variety of human cancers, including pancreatic adenocarcinoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Third, growth factor receptor binding protein 2-associated binder-1, which is the main substrate and docking protein regulating downstream signaling by c-Met, has also been shown to function as a signaling intermediate for IGF-I ( 36 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thyroid hormones, T 4 and to a less extend T 3 bind cell surface integrin αvβ3, to stimulate the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway to stimulate cancer cell growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we report that PSMD9 interacts with the C-terminal residues of hnRNPA1, S14, a ligand growth hormone and IL6 receptor via its PDZ-like domain. (tifr.res.in)
  • Osteopontin expression is induced in cardiovascular cells in response to a number of stimuli, including cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adenosine has previously been reported to interact with the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), which is a receptor with a major role in metabolism. (ki.se)
  • Intracellular and nuclear receptors are a direct way for the cell to respond to internal changes and signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hormones, or other extracellular signals, are able to induce changes within the cell by binding to membrane-bound receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newswise - One of the first clues pathologists look for in tissue from a newly diagnosed breast cancer patient is the estrogen receptor, a nuclear protein that converts hormonal messages in the bloodstream into instructions for the cell about how to behave. (newswise.com)
  • Plays a role in E2-mediated cell cycle progression by interacting with RB1. (genecards.org)
  • Plant receptor-like kinases (RLKs) exert an essential function in the transduction of signals from the cell exterior to the cell interior, acting as important regulators of plant development and responses to environmental conditions. (mdpi.com)
  • REA modulates cross talk among multiple cell types in the uterine tissue and host background, serving as a brake on the estradiol-ER axis and restraining multiple aspects that contribute to the pathologic progression of endometriosis. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Steroid hormones play a key regulatory role in many malignancies, including breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers, where they promote cell proliferation and survival. (bcm.edu)
  • Treatment of human prostate carcinoma‐derived LNCaP cells with androgen or oestradiol triggers simultaneous association of androgen receptor and oestradiol receptor β with Src, activates the Src/Raf‐1/Erk‐2 pathway and stimulates cell proliferation. (embopress.org)
  • A chemical messenger, in the form of a hormone or other protein, is dispatched by the initiating cell to finds its way to the surface of the cell that is its chosen target. (psu.edu)
  • 2 , 3 In contrast, antibodies to steroid hormones could not achieve the same effects, suggesting that steroid hormone receptors were not located on the cell surface. (glowm.com)
  • there have since been numerous studies demonstrating that functional cell membrane receptors are also present in intracellular organelles and that steroid hormone receptors are present on the cell surface. (glowm.com)
  • 4 In the ensuing years, there has been a virtual explosion of information on cell membrane receptors and on the signal transducers and effectors that mediate hormone action in the cell. (glowm.com)
  • Most cell membrane receptors can be grouped into three major classes on the basis of the transducer and effector systems that mediate their action in the cell 5 ( Table 1 ). (glowm.com)
  • [1] [2] The unbound receptor resides in the cytosol of the cell. (wikidoc.org)
  • Consistent with its role in cell adhesion, β-catenin is predominantly detected at the cell membrane where it interacts with E-cadherin and α-catenin ( 8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • For these reasons, it is thought that the variable N- terminal sequences may be responsible for the receptor-, species-, and cell type-specific effects as well as promoter context-dependent properties of NR transactivation. (nrresource.org)
  • In particular, recent evidence indicates that Androgen Receptor (AR) interacts with Filamin A in different cell types. (neidos.it)
  • Androgen binding to cytoplasmic androgen receptors can cause rapid changes in cell function independent of changes in gene transcription, such as changes in ion transport . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Model of JA‐Ile perception via the SCF COI1 -JAZ co‐receptor complex and regulation of JA‐induced gene expression. (els.net)
  • JA/JA‐Ile perception by the SCF COI1 -JAZ co‐receptor complex leads to JA/JA‐Ile‐induced gene expression. (els.net)
  • Glucocorticoid receptors are highly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and arcuate nucleus (ARC). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For example, RMRP , a component of the mitochondrial RNase MRP, is important for mitochondrial DNA replication and RNA processing, and the steroid receptor RNA activator, SRA , is a key modulator of hormone signaling and is present in both the nucleus and mitochondria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All natural steroid hormones share a common chemical structure and have additional chemical groups bound to the steroid nucleus that confer specificity to their actions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The AR-androgen complex translocates to the nucleus, binding to specific androgen response elements on target gene promoters, leading to gene transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Briefly, estrogen mediates its multiple functions in the brain through two well-characterized receptors: ERá and ERâ. (novapublishers.com)
  • P3 dimerizes the CheA subunits and P5 mediates CheW binding and receptor coupling. (lw90.com)
  • 1 The concept of receptors as molecules that specifically recognize and bind chemical compounds, leading to a series of cellular events culminating in biologic responses, was further developed by pharmacologists and then by endocrinologists. (glowm.com)
  • Hormones are signaling molecules, or "e-mailers" in the body's physiologic Internet system. (townsendletter.com)
  • More recently, androgen receptors have been shown to have a second mode of action. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The A1R is the adenosine receptor that has been proposed to be the one most involved in metabolism. (ki.se)
  • In this talk, I shall take up the example of the fascinating molecular machinery involved in the proton transport processes in a trans-membrane enzyme Cytochrome c Oxidase (C c O), which reduces oxygen (O 2 ) to water in our respiratory cycle and uses the released energy to pump protons across the membrane. (tifr.res.in)
  • Preface: A special issue on nuclear receptors with a special view on the molecular basis of disease by Antonio Moschetta (807) . (chemweb.com)
  • Most immune cells express estrogen receptors (ERα, ERβ, or the membrane-bound G-protein-coupled ER) to varying degrees and can respond to the hormone. (frontiersin.org)