Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Thyroid Hormones: Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Human Growth Hormone: A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Pituitary Hormones: Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.Men: Human males as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Hormone Replacement Therapy: Therapeutic use of hormones to alleviate the effects of hormone deficiency.Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of 44 amino acids in most species that stimulates the release and synthesis of GROWTH HORMONE. GHRF (or GRF) is synthesized by neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, GHRF stimulates GH release by the SOMATOTROPHS in the PITUITARY GLAND.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Thyroxine: The major hormone derived from the thyroid gland. Thyroxine is synthesized via the iodination of tyrosines (MONOIODOTYROSINE) and the coupling of iodotyrosines (DIIODOTYROSINE) in the THYROGLOBULIN. Thyroxine is released from thyroglobulin by proteolysis and secreted into the blood. Thyroxine is peripherally deiodinated to form TRIIODOTHYRONINE which exerts a broad spectrum of stimulatory effects on cell metabolism.Hypothalamic Hormones: Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.Gonadal Hormones: Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRB gene (also known as NR1A2, THRB1, or ERBA2 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing. Mutations in the THRB gene cause THYROID HORMONE RESISTANCE SYNDROME.Thyrotropin: A glycoprotein hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Thyrotropin stimulates THYROID GLAND by increasing the iodide transport, synthesis and release of thyroid hormones (THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE). Thyrotropin consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH; LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Pituitary Hormones, Anterior: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Gastrointestinal Hormones: HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.Thyroid Hormone Receptors alpha: High affinity receptors for THYROID HORMONES, especially TRIIODOTHYRONINE. These receptors are usually found in the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. They are encoded by the THRA gene (also known as NR1A1, THRA1, ERBA or ERBA1 gene) as several isoforms produced by alternative splicing.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Men's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of men.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones: Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.Pituitary Hormones, Posterior: Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.Estrogens: Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Receptors, Somatotropin: Cell surface proteins that bind GROWTH HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Activation of growth hormone receptors regulates amino acid transport through cell membranes, RNA translation to protein, DNA transcription, and protein and amino acid catabolism in many cell types. Many of these effects are mediated indirectly through stimulation of the release of somatomedins.Testicular Hormones: Hormones produced in the testis.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormones: Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.Hypothyroidism: A syndrome that results from abnormally low secretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND, leading to a decrease in BASAL METABOLIC RATE. In its most severe form, there is accumulation of MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the SKIN and EDEMA, known as MYXEDEMA.Pituitary Gland, Anterior: The anterior glandular lobe of the pituitary gland, also known as the adenohypophysis. It secretes the ADENOHYPOPHYSEAL HORMONES that regulate vital functions such as GROWTH; METABOLISM; and REPRODUCTION.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 1: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype that recognizes both PARATHYROID HORMONE and PARATHYROID HORMONE-RELATED PROTEIN. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor that is expressed at high levels in BONE and in KIDNEY.Placental Hormones: Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).Pancreatic Hormones: Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptors, Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activated TRH receptors in the anterior pituitary stimulate the release of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH); TRH receptors on neurons mediate neurotransmission by TRH.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Receptors, Parathyroid Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind PARATHYROID HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Parathyroid hormone receptors on BONE; KIDNEY; and gastrointestinal cells mediate the hormone's role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Thyroid Gland: A highly vascularized endocrine gland consisting of two lobes joined by a thin band of tissue with one lobe on each side of the TRACHEA. It secretes THYROID HORMONES from the follicular cells and CALCITONIN from the parafollicular cells thereby regulating METABOLISM and CALCIUM level in blood, respectively.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Receptors, LHRH: Receptors with a 6-kDa protein on the surfaces of cells that secrete LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE, usually in the adenohypophysis. LUTEINIZING HORMONE-RELEASING HORMONE binds to these receptors, is endocytosed with the receptor and, in the cell, triggers the release of LUTEINIZING HORMONE or FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE by the cell. These receptors are also found in rat gonads. INHIBINS prevent the binding of GnRH to its receptors.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Thyroid Hormone Resistance Syndrome: An inherited autosomal recessive trait, characterized by peripheral resistance to THYROID HORMONES and the resulting elevation in serum levels of THYROXINE and TRIIODOTHYRONINE. This syndrome is caused by mutations of gene THRB encoding the THYROID HORMONE RECEPTORS BETA in target cells. HYPOTHYROIDISM in these patients is partly overcome by the increased thyroid hormone levels.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Pituitary Neoplasms: Neoplasms which arise from or metastasize to the PITUITARY GLAND. The majority of pituitary neoplasms are adenomas, which are divided into non-secreting and secreting forms. Hormone producing forms are further classified by the type of hormone they secrete. Pituitary adenomas may also be characterized by their staining properties (see ADENOMA, BASOPHIL; ADENOMA, ACIDOPHIL; and ADENOMA, CHROMOPHOBE). Pituitary tumors may compress adjacent structures, including the HYPOTHALAMUS, several CRANIAL NERVES, and the OPTIC CHIASM. Chiasmal compression may result in bitemporal HEMIANOPSIA.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Receptors, FSH: Cell surface proteins that bind FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone: Cell surface receptors that bind the hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary cell differentiation, proliferation, and hormone synthesis and release, including the pituitary-releasing and release-inhibiting hormones. The pituitary hormone-regulating hormones are also released by cells other than hypothalamic neurons, and their receptors also occur on non-pituitary cells, especially brain neurons, where their role is less well understood. Receptors for dopamine, which is a prolactin release-inhibiting hormone as well as a common neurotransmitter, are not included here.Luteinizing Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.alpha-MSH: A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Orchiectomy: The surgical removal of one or both testicles.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Castration: Surgical removal or artificial destruction of gonads.Hyperthyroidism: Hypersecretion of THYROID HORMONES from the THYROID GLAND. Elevated levels of thyroid hormones increase BASAL METABOLIC RATE.Thymus Hormones: Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Hypogonadism: Condition resulting from deficient gonadal functions, such as GAMETOGENESIS and the production of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES. It is characterized by delay in GROWTH, germ cell maturation, and development of secondary sex characteristics. Hypogonadism can be due to a deficiency of GONADOTROPINS (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or due to primary gonadal failure (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Triiodothyronine, Reverse: A metabolite of THYROXINE, formed by the peripheral enzymatic monodeiodination of T4 at the 5 position of the inner ring of the iodothyronine nucleus.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Hypopituitarism: Diminution or cessation of secretion of one or more hormones from the anterior pituitary gland (including LH; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; SOMATOTROPIN; and CORTICOTROPIN). This may result from surgical or radiation ablation, non-secretory PITUITARY NEOPLASMS, metastatic tumors, infarction, PITUITARY APOPLEXY, infiltrative or granulomatous processes, and other conditions.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Growth Disorders: Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.Dwarfism, Pituitary: A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Gonadotropins, Pituitary: Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR) that stimulate gonadal functions in both males and females. They include FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE that stimulates germ cell maturation (OOGENESIS; SPERMATOGENESIS), and LUTEINIZING HORMONE that stimulates the production of sex steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE; ANDROGENS).Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neurosecretory Systems: A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Inhibins: Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectivelyDehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Leuprolide: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.Parathyroid Glands: Two pairs of small oval-shaped glands located in the front and the base of the NECK and adjacent to the two lobes of THYROID GLAND. They secrete PARATHYROID HORMONE that regulates the balance of CALCIUM; PHOSPHORUS; and MAGNESIUM in the body.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Sexual Maturation: Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Placental Lactogen: A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Receptors, Pituitary Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Dihydrotestosterone: A potent androgenic metabolite of TESTOSTERONE. It is produced by the action of the enzyme 3-OXO-5-ALPHA-STEROID 4-DEHYDROGENASE.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Acromegaly: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excessive HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE in adults. It is characterized by bony enlargement of the FACE; lower jaw (PROGNATHISM); hands; FEET; HEAD; and THORAX. The most common etiology is a GROWTH HORMONE-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch36, pp79-80)Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Endocrine System: The system of glands that release their secretions (hormones) directly into the circulatory system. In addition to the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, included are the CHROMAFFIN SYSTEM and the NEUROSECRETORY SYSTEMS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Teriparatide: A polypeptide that consists of the 1-34 amino-acid fragment of human PARATHYROID HORMONE, the biologically active N-terminal region. The acetate form is given by intravenous infusion in the differential diagnosis of HYPOPARATHYROIDISM and PSEUDOHYPOPARATHYROIDISM. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Buserelin: A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.Triptorelin Pamoate: A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.Propylthiouracil: A thiourea antithyroid agent. Propythiouracil inhibits the synthesis of thyroxine and inhibits the peripheral conversion of throxine to tri-iodothyronine. It is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopeoia, 30th ed, p534)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Receptors, Ghrelin: Transmembrane proteins that recognize and bind GHRELIN, a potent stimulator of GROWTH HORMONE secretion and food intake in mammals. Ghrelin receptors are found in the pituitary and HYPOTHALAMUS. They belong to the family of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Receptor, Parathyroid Hormone, Type 2: A parathyroid hormone receptor subtype found in the BRAIN and the PANCREAS. It is a G-protein-coupled receptor with a ligand specificity that varies between homologs from different species.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Hyperparathyroidism: A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Infertility, Male: The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Secretory Rate: The amount of a substance secreted by cells or by a specific organ or organism over a given period of time; usually applies to those substances which are formed by glandular tissues and are released by them into biological fluids, e.g., secretory rate of corticosteroids by the adrenal cortex, secretory rate of gastric acid by the gastric mucosa.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Sperm Count: A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Estrogens, Conjugated (USP): A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Pro-Opiomelanocortin: A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
"Growth hormone in the aging male". Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 27 (4): 541-55. doi:10.1016/j.beem.2013.05.003. ... Hormone treatment[edit]. The anti-aging industry offers several hormone therapies. Some of these have been criticized for ... While growth hormone (GH) decreases with age, the evidence for use of growth hormone as an anti-aging therapy is mixed and ... 1 June 2013 This Man Is Not a Cyborg. Yet. *^ Garcia JH, Liu KF, Ho KL (1995). "Neuronal necrosis after middle cerebral artery ...
Brueggemeier RW (September 16, 2006). "Sex Hormones (Male): Analogs and Antagonists". In Meyers RA. Encyclopedia of Molecular ... Hydroaromatic steroid hormones. Part I. 10-Nortestosterone". Journal of the Chemical Society (Resumed): 367. doi:10.1039/ ... Baselt RC (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical Publications. pp. 1078 ... de Souza GL, Hallak J (2011). "Anabolic steroids and male infertility: a comprehensive review". BJU Int. 108 (11): 1860-5. doi: ...
Testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels with 100 mg/day oral cyproterone acetate in men.[123] ... and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and are peptide hormones that signal the gonads to produce sex hormones. By suppressing ... Transgender hormone therapy[edit]. See also: Feminizing hormone therapy § Antiandrogens. Antiandrogens are used to prevent or ... Male contraception[edit]. Antiandrogens, such as cyproterone acetate, have been studied for potential use as male hormonal ...
hormone . human nutrition . hydrocarbon An organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon atoms. Hydrocarbons from ... hermaphrodite A sexually reproducing organism with both male and female reproductive organs. herpetology The branch of zoology ... abscisic acid A plant hormone with the formula C15H20O4. abscission The shedding of flowers, leaves and/or fruit following ... Insect molting hormones are generally called ecdysteroids. ecological efficiency ecological efficiency describes the efficiency ...
Wilson JD (September 2001). "Androgens, androgen receptors, and male gender role behavior". Hormones and Behavior. 40 (2): 358- ... In addition to their role as natural hormones, estrogens are used as medications, for instance in menopausal hormone therapy ... Häggström, Mikael (2014). "Reference ranges for estradiol, progesterone, luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone ... The estrogen steroid hormones are estrane steroids. History[edit]. See also: Estradiol § History, Estrone § History, and ...
Fraternal Birth Order and the Maternal Immune Hypothesis of Male Homosexuality. Hormones and Behavior. 2001, 40 (2): 105-114. ... Men Like Us: The GMHC Complete Guide to Gay Men's Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Well-being; Wolfe, Daniel; Gay Men's Health ... UNAIDS: Men who have sex with men. UNAIDS. [2008-07-24]. (原始内容 (asp)存档于2008-06-18).. ... FDA Policy on Blood Donations from Men Who Have Sex with Other Men. Web.archive.org. [2010-08-24]. (原始内容存档于2007-10-11).. ...
As teens, XXY males may develop breast tissue[15] and also have weaker bones, and a lower energy level than other males.[14] ... Astwood, E. B. (2013-10-22). Recent Progress in Hormone Research: Proceedings of the 1967 Laurentian Hormone Conference. ... XXY males are also more likely than other men to have certain health problems that typically affect females, such as autoimmune ... This happens in XXY males, as well as normal XX females.[28] However, in XXY males, a few genes located in the pseudoautosomal ...
"Psychological State and Mood Effects of Steroidal Chemosignals in Women and Men". Hormones and Behavior. 37 (1): 57-78. doi: ... Thorne, Frances, Fink, Bernhard (2002). "Effects of putative male pheromones on female ratings of male attractiveness: ... with conception-risk being related to a preference for the scent of male symmetry.[72] Men also prefer the scent of women at ... attractiveness to males, little research has been done into the effect of fragrance on males' attractiveness to females. ...
"Adrenocortical Hormone Abnormalities in Men with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome". Urology. 71 (2): 261-266. ... Healthy men have slightly more bacteria in their semen than men with CPPS. The high prevalence of WBCs and positive bacterial ... It is found in men of any age, with the peak incidence in men aged 35-45 years. CP/CPPS may be inflammatory (Category Ⅲa) or ... and serves to distinguish CP/CPPS patients from men with BPH or normal men. Some patients report low libido, sexual dysfunction ...
Male sweat boosts women's hormone levels-from UC Berkeley, February 2007. *Pheromones In Male Perspiration Reduce Women's ... In addition, male copepods can follow a three-dimensional pheromone trail left by a swimming female, and male gametes of many ... The first from 1998, by Cutler, had 38 male volunteers apply either a "male pheromone" or control odor and record six different ... "Male axillary extracts contain pheromones that affect pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone and mood in women recipients" ...
An androgen (from Greek andr-, the stem of the word meaning "man") is any natural or synthetic steroid hormone that regulates ... Male pubertal development[edit]. At the time of puberty, androgen levels increase dramatically in males, and androgens mediate ... Although androgens are commonly thought of only as male sex hormones, females also have them, but at lower levels: they ... In males, certain Y chromosome genes, particularly SRY, control development of the male phenotype, including conversion of the ...
Male cartilaginous fishes (sharks and rays), as well as the males of some live-bearing ray finned fishes, have fins that have ... Hormone treated females may develop gonopodia. These are useless for breeding. Similar organs with similar characteristics are ... The male shortly inserts the organ into the sex opening of the female, with hook-like adaptations that allow the fish to grip ... This male mosquitofish has a gonopodium, an anal fin which functions as an intromittent organ[35][36] ...
... and an imbalance of such hormones has been shown to cause feminizing effects in males.[citation needed] This is not only a ... In respect to the deficiency of the male's reproductive system, these chemicals begin affecting a male as early as birth. As ... A build up of EDCs in streams, lakes, and rivers creates confusion in the hormone vitellogenin, the reproductive hormone in ... reduced male gonadosomatic index (sperm production), decreased sexual behavior in males and increased physical deformities in a ...
"Long-term effects of calorie restriction on serum sex-hormone concentrations in men". Aging Cell. 9 (2): 236-42. doi:10.1111/j. ... This argument seems to be supported by recent work studying hormones. Prolonged severe CR lowers total serum and free ... Because the men were receiving 40% CR and subject to malnutrition this study was not one of calorie restriction per se.[nb 1] ... calorie reduction on male college students at the Carnegie Institution for Science.[35] Reduced rations had turned out to be " ...
Delta cells which produce somatostatin which is a growth hormone inhibiting hormone and has important function in the ... Lin, C. L.; Vuguin, P. M. (2012). "Determinants of pancreatic islet development in mice and men: a focus on the role of ... Epsilon cells produce Ghrelin (hunger hormone) which is a neuropeptide that acts on the hypothalamic center of the brain, where ... and hormone producing cells (endocrine cells). These endocrine cells develop in discrete areas within the pancreas known as the ...
The male hormone, testosterone, is produced in limited quantities following treatment with Zeuterin, but after two years, ... Romich, Janet Amundson (2005). "Male hormone-like drugs". Fundamentals of pharmacology for veterinary technicians. Clifton Park ... "Neutersol and Esterilsol: Injectable Sterilization for Male Dogs". Retrieved 3 January 2010. "Ark Sciences Releases Canine ... which is used for sterilizing young male dogs without the removal of the testicles. The product is injected directly into the ...
As a result, women absorb more alcohol into their bloodstreams than men. Hormones. Changes in hormone levels during the ... Women tend to weigh less than men, and-pound for pound-a woman's body contains less water and more fatty tissue than a man's. ... Non-depressed men consumed 436 drinks per year, compared to 579 drinks for depressed men not using antidepressants, and 414 ... Men taking antidepressants consumed significantly less alcohol than depressed men who did not use antidepressants. ...
"Male contraception: A clinically-oriented review". Hormones. doi:10.14310/horm.2002.1623. Zhen-Wen, Chen; Yi-Qun, GU; Xiao-Wei ... Male Contraception. [Updated 2015 Dec 18]. In: De Groot LJ, Chrousos G, Dungan K, et al., editors. Endotext [Internet]. South ... Song, L.; Gu, Y.; Lu, W.; Liang, X.; Chen, Z. (2006). "A phase II randomized controlled trial of a novel male contraception, an ... Injection of medical polyurethane (MPU) to form a plug in the vas deferens resulted in azoospermia in 96% of men, though these ...
AMH is a glycoprotein hormone that is secreted by sustentacular cells (Sertoli cells) in males as they begin their morphologic ... Anti-Müllerian hormone[edit]. Main article: Anti-Müllerian hormone. The development of the paramesonephric (Müllerian) ducts is ... They degenerate in males of certain species, but the adjoining mesonephric ducts develop into male reproductive organs. The sex ... Rey R, Grinspon R (2011-07-27). "Normal male sexual differentiation and aetiology of disorders of sex development". Male ...
"Hypogonadism as a possible link between metabolic diseases and erectile dysfunction in aging men". Hormones (Athens). 14 (4): ... Compared to men with a BMI of 21-23, men with a BMI of 30-35 have 2.3 times more gout, and men with a BMI of greater than 35 ... This reduces gonadotropin-releasing hormone, in turn reducing both luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. The ... Obese men can experience erectile dysfunction, (as well as, in association with diabetes), however weight loss causes an ...
There may be testicular malformations, hormone imbalance, or blockage of the man's duct system. Although many of these can be ... Males[edit]. Further information: Male infertility. The main cause of male infertility is low semen quality. In men who have ... There is now substantial evidence that coeliac sprue is associated with infertility both in men and women. (...) In men it can ... Coeliac men may have reversible infertility, and as in women, if gastrointestinal symptoms are mild or absent the diagnosis may ...
Hormone treatment alone does not seem to produce female finches with brain structures or behavior exactly like males. ... Leonard, S. L. (1 May 1939). "Induction of Singing in Female Canaries by Injections of Male Hormone". Experimental Biology and ... A male blackbird (Turdus merula) singing, Bogense havn, Funen, Denmark. Blackbird song recorded at Lille, France (help·info) ... males that have bred and reproduced successfully sing to their offspring to influence their vocal development, while males that ...
"What is Male Hypogonadism? Learn Hormone.org's Hypogonadism Definition". www.hormone.org. Retrieved 2015-10-26. Juberg, R. C.; ... Males also suffer from gynecomastia and hypogonadism. In order to be diagnosed with Wilson-Turner Syndrome, male patients must ... This condition may result from the lack of sex hormone synthesis, such as androgen and estrogen. Hormones produced by the ... such as gynecomastia and decreased testes size in males. It can also cause short stature in men and women. In addition to ...
Both male and female hormones are present in the human body, and though only one of them is predominant in an adult, the other ... hormone has effects on body's shape to some extent. Widening of the shoulders occurs as part of the male pubertal process. ... ". "Why men store fat in bellies, women on hips". The Times Of India. 2011-01-03. Retrieved 2011-10-09. "Sex hormone making ... Males have less subcutaneous fat in their faces due to the effects of testosterone; testosterone also reduces fat by aiding ...
Changing hormone levels during pregnancy and postpartum as well as parental experience cause changes in the parental brain. ... In prairie voles, the neuropeptide vasopressin was found to induce paternal behaviors in virgin-offspringless males suggesting ... Oxytocin's interactions with other hormones is thought to be responsible for creating variability in parent behaviors such as ... "Is prolactin the "breastfeeding hormone"? What is it doing in fathers? - fatherhood". fatherhood. 2016-11-11. Retrieved 2017-09 ...
"Stud males and dud males: intrauterine position effects on the reproductive success of male gerbils". Animal Behaviour. 43 (2 ... Medland, S.E.; Loehlin, J.C.; Martin, N.C. (2008). "No effect of prenatal hormone transfer on digit ratio in a large sample of ... Vuoksimma, E.; Kaprio, J.; Kremen, W.S.; Hokkanen, L.; Viken, R.J.; Tuulio-Henriksson, A.; Rose, R.J. (2010). "Having a male co ... Females of opposite-sex twin pairs are thought to have partially masculinized traits as a result of gestating along with a male ...
Redline RW, Williams AJ, Patterson P, Collins T (1992). "Human HOX4E: a gene strongly expressed in the adult male and female ...
... improves psychological well-being in male and female hypopituitary patients on maintenance growth hormone replacement". J Clin ... As a hormone precursor, there have been reports of side effects possibly caused by the hormone metabolites of prasterone. It is ... In middle-aged men, no significant effect of prasterone supplementation on lean body mass, strength, or testosterone levels was ... Patients on hormone replacement therapy may have more estrogen-related side effects when taking prasterone. This supplement may ...
Male-limited familial precocious puberty in three generations. Apparent Leydig-cell autonomy and elevated glycoprotein hormone ... Pulsatile release of bioactive luteinizing hormone in prepubertal girls: discordance with immunoreactive luteinizing hormone ... "Pituitary Hormones, Anterior" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and ...
Alcohol can lower the production of sperm and of the male hormone testosterone. ... Male Factor Infertility Improving Male Fertility Low Sperm Count Varicocele Low Testosterone ... Additionally, our powerful and highly effective male factor Chinese herbs may be prescribed. Call our team of male reproductive ... The average man can produce this many sperm multiple times per day. If there are no sperm at all in a semen sample, the ...
Eight adolescents (six males and two females; 17.2±2.6 years; age range, 13.7-21.2 years) participated in a randomized double- ... Hannon, TS, Dimeglio, LA, Pfefferkorn, MD, Carroll, AE & Denne, SC 2011, Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on ... Eight adolescents (six males and two females; 17.2±2.6 years; age range, 13.7-21.2 years) participated in a randomized double- ... Eight adolescents (six males and two females; 17.2±2.6 years; age range, 13.7-21.2 years) participated in a randomized double- ...
Male hypogonadism is a condition in which the body does not produce enough of the testosterone hormone; the hormone that plays ... As men age, a decline in testicular production of testosterone are seen, as well as an increase in sex hormone binding globulin ... Testosterone intramuscular (IM) injections have been available since the 1940s for hormone replacement in hypogonadal men. ... It is also important for doctors to recognize that testosterone is not just a sex hormone. There is an important research being ...
... sexual energy and sense of well-being they had in their youth.Thats why millions of American males are asking their ... Many men, as they move into middle age, yearn for the same muscular strength, ... Concerns rise as more men use hormone therapy. Testosterone replacement has become popular as a way to restore vigor, but ... Physicians sometimes recommend testosterone supplementation when a mans hormone level falls below 350 nanograms per deciliter ...
... love hormone and how it could help prevent infidelity. ... Can A Hormone Prevent Men From Cheating?. By YourTango Experts ... This effect did not occur with single men, nor did the distancing effect occur when the men were exposed to men. ... The idea was that if a woman engaged in sex with a man, she would release the love hormone and want to bond with him. She would ... Home » Eating Disorders » Can A Hormone Prevent Men From Cheating?. .fn{margin:-2px 0 0 0;font-size:90%!important}.time-read{ ...
Find out if your male hormones are up to the task in this article from Mens Health. ... Yes, men have estrogen too. "In fact, the most widely spread hormone receptor in the body is the estrogen receptor," says ... Men Have Hormones Too. They help you beat stress, stay fit, and have better sex. Are yours slacking? ... Weight hormones: Leptin, ghrelin, CCK, insulin. You have an army of hormones telling you when to eat and when to put the fork ...
Men with high testosterone levels are more likely to refuse free money if they think the offer is too paltry - it could be ... Married men tend to have less of the hormone.. Journal reference: Proceedings of the Royal Society B (DOI: 10.1098/ ... Next time you have to negotiate a deal with a male business contact, you might want to check his hormone levels first. A new ... Men who rejected the deal had an average testosterone count of 380 picomoles per litre of saliva, whereas those who accepted it ...
... Hormone therapy isnt just for women anymore. Hormone therapy for men isnt brand new, but it is ... Male hormone therapy does not mean that a 50 year old man will have the body of a 30 year old man. We still age. However, with ... Hormones can be prescribed for a variety of conditions, but as men grow older, they will lose substantial portions of their ... Similar hormone treatments for women are also available, and yes men... they include just the right amount of testosterone for ...
... and I think there may be something wrong with my hormone levels. Im easily depressed,lethargic, unmotivated. But on the flip ... Getting my male hormone levels checked nickto21 Hey All, Im a 26 year old male, and I think there may be something wrong with ... Id really like to get a clue to what my hormone levels are, so Ive decided to have a lab test done. Im going to a lab(going ... Get the facts about this disease that affects more than 240,000 men each year. ...
Men with high levels of the hormone were significantly more likely to develop this rare form of breast cancer… ... Men with naturally high levels of the female hormone oestrogen are at greater risk of male breast cancer, The Daily Telegraph ... In women, breast cancer is known to be influenced by these hormones. The roles these hormones play in male breast cancer is not ... men who developed breast cancer did have higher levels of the hormone oestradiol (one form of oestrogen) than controls. Men who ...
Preliminary research in a small number of men suggests that the love hormone oxytocin may reduce appetite, potentially turning ... home/health & living center/ diet & weight management a-z list/ is the love hormone a weight-loss aid for men? article ... After receiving either the hormone or placebo, the men ordered breakfast from a menu. They were given double portions of ... FRIDAY, March 6, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Preliminary research in a small number of men suggests that the "love hormone" ...
Concerned that American men may be embracing the same kind of misguided sex-hormone use that brought calamity to women, the ... Hormone Boosts For Men Get A Test. Print this page Nov. 29--Concerned that American men may be embracing the same kind of ... "Right now, hormones are being tinkered with recklessly," Walsh said. "Men come in to to see me who went to another doctor for ... Home › News › Pharma Industry News › Hormone Boosts For Men Get A Test ...
For more information on adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD), see Hypopituitarism (Panhypopituitarism). ... Growth hormone and sex steroid administration in healthy aged women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Nov 13. ... Growth hormone replacement in healthy older men improves body composition but not functional ability. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Apr ... Effects of human growth hormone in men over 60 years old. N Engl J Med. 1990 Jul 5. 323(1):1-6. [Medline]. ...
Although male and female hormones are produced in the same place, the ways in which they are used by the body are very... ... Male and female hormones are produced in the pituitary gland. ... Male and female hormones are produced in the pituitary gland. ... When sex hormone production begins in the testes, males will experience several bodily changes during the course of a few years ... Although male and female hormones are produced in the same place, the ways in which they are used by the body are very ...
And while men and women share many of the same hormones that perform the same functions, there are other hormones that are ... In many instances, these hormones help create the physiological differences and distinctions in sexual activity between men and ... Hormones are produced by the glands, and they impact a number of bodily functions. ... present in greater volume in either men or women. ... Male Sex Hormones. In men, the hormones that play the greatest ...
Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (nmol/L). English Text: Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (nmol/L). Target: Males only 12 YEARS - 150 ... Sex Steroid Hormone - Men (Surplus) (SSCHL_A) Data File: SSCHL_A.xpt First Published: May 2010. Last Revised: March 2013. ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for testosterone and ... Males only 12 YEARS - 150 YEARS. SSTESTO - Testostosterone (ng/mL). Variable Name: SSTESTO. SAS Label: Testostosterone (ng/mL) ...
Sex hormone-binding globulin (nmol/L). English Text: Sex hormone-binding globulin (nmol/L). Target: Males only 12 YEARS - 150 ... Sex Steroid Hormone - Men (Surplus) (SSTESTOS) Data File: SSTESTOS.xpt First Published: October 2011. Last Revised: NA ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is the blood transport protein for testosterone and ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Avvakumov GV, Grishkovskaya I, Muller IA, Hammond GL. Resolution of the human sex hormone- ...
Now, new research has uncovered a biological reason for this association in men: horm ... www.healthcentral.com/article/hormone-imbalance-may-raise-diabetes-risk-in-sleep-deprived-men ... Previous studies have shown that sleep deprivation lowers testosterone levels and raises cortisol levels in men, which can lead ... Now, new research has uncovered a biological reason for this association in men: hormonal imbalance. ...
... a steroid from male sweat caused the elevation of a hormone tied to stress and mood in women ... Ingredient in Male Sweat Raises Womens Hormone Levels. Acting as a pheromone many in other animals, a steroid from male sweat ... Ingredient in Male Sweat Raises Womens Hormone LevelsActing as a pheromone many in other animals, a steroid from male sweat ... They also measured mood and sexual arousal by checking the levels of cortisol, a hormone that has been associated with arousal ...
"Our target is men age 40 onward since thats when we start feeling the increasing negative impact of dwindling hormones-- ... "The differences between male menopause and female menopause are quantitative, not qualitative," Mintz said. "Hormones start to ... Male Menopause Crisis Finds Solutions In Hormone Optimization Program. by Sam Savage ... So this area of male menopause is largely understudied . . . we simply do not study men the same way weve come to understand ...
Treatment for prostate cancer can affect the amount of sex hormones in your body. ... Hormones are substances that occur naturally in your body. ... Hormone therapy and male sex hormones Hormone therapy is one of ... Male sex hormones Hormones are natural substances made by the glands and organs of the hormone system. They occur naturally in ... The role of male sex hormones Testosterone is the main sex hormone in men. Most testosterone is made in the testes (testicles ...
Survival rate is more among men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer who received enzalutamide along with ... both for men who have been treated with docetaxel and men who have not. Other hormone treatments also have been approved.. ... Androgen receptor inhibitor Enzalutamide can improve outcomes among men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer ( ... The National Cancer Institute estimates that 175,000 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and 32,000 men will die from ...
... male hormones) impacts girls; in particular, they wanted to know ... Home » News » Prenatal Exposure to Male Hormones Can Impact ... In a new study, Penn State researchers explored how excessive prenatal exposure to androgens (male hormones) impacts girls; in ... Pedersen, T. (2018). Prenatal Exposure to Male Hormones Can Impact Girls Interests. Psych Central. Retrieved on September 21, ... psychcentral.com/news/2018/03/03/prenatal-exposure-to-male-hormones-can-impact-girls-interests/133243.html ...
Hormone,Spray,Help,Men,Stay,,Not,Stray?,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical ... The hormone which is produced in the brains hypothalamus plays an i...In this study researchers used nasal spray to give ... image.bio-medicine.org/img/Could-Hormone-Spray-Help-Men-Stay--Not-Stray-3F.gif alt=Could Hormone Spray Help Men Stay, Not ... Could Hormone Spray Help Men Stay, Not Stray?. ...TUESDAY Nov. 13 (HealthDay News) -- A quick spritz with the so-called... ...
  • The primary purpose of this study was to test whether recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) supplementation would enhance protein synthesis and accretion of lean body mass. (elsevier.com)
  • To study this, sepsis was induced in male rats by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). (elsevier.com)
  • Pulsatile release of bioactive luteinizing hormone in prepubertal girls: discordance with immunoreactive luteinizing hormone pulses. (umassmed.edu)
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