Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Molecular Sequence Data
Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H)
Chlorophyll Binding Proteins
Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis. (1/2002)Clinical sickness was observed in domestic ducks, geese, horses and swine during October 1973. All species showed upper alimentary distress with mortalities occurring in the geese. Barley derived from a common source had been fed. Examination of the barley revealed invasion by Fusarium spp and detection of a high level of dermatitic fusariotoxins. (+info)
Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. II. Analysis and toxicity of syspected barley. (2/2002)Fusariotoxin T-2, a trichothecene, was tentatively identified in barley samples which caused field outbreaks of mycotoxicosis in British Columbia. Geese died when fed the contaminated barley experimentally but mice were little affected after long term feeding. The methods used in the laboratory for trichothecene extraction and identification of T-2 toxin are described. (+info)
A single limit dextrinase gene is expressed both in the developing endosperm and in germinated grains of barley. (3/2002)The single gene encoding limit dextrinase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase; EC 126.96.36.199) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) has 26 introns that range in size from 93 to 822 base pairs. The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. Gibberellic acid response elements were found in the promoter region of the gene. These observations suggest that the enzyme participates in starch hydrolysis during endosperm mobilization in germinated grain. The mRNA encoding the enzyme is present at lower levels in the developing endosperm of immature grain, a location consistent with a role for limit dextrinase in starch synthesis. Enzyme activity was also detected in developing grain. The limit dextrinase has a presequence typical of transit peptides that target nascent polypeptides to amyloplasts, but this would not be expected to direct secretion of the mature enzyme from aleurone cells in germinated grain. It remains to be discovered how the enzyme is released from the aleurone and whether another enzyme, possibly of the isoamylase group, might be equally important for starch hydrolysis in germinated grain. (+info)
Primary and secondary structural elements required for synthesis of barley yellow dwarf virus subgenomic RNA1. (4/2002)Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) generates three 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) in infected cells. The promoter of sgRNA1 is a putative hot spot for RNA recombination in luteovirus evolution. The sgRNA1 transcription start site was mapped previously to either nucleotide 2670 or nucleotide 2769 of BYDV genomic RNA (gRNA) in two independent studies. Our data support the former initiation site. The boundaries of the sgRNA1 promoter map between nucleotides 2595 and 2692 on genomic RNA. Computer prediction, phylogenetic comparison, and structural probing revealed two stem-loops (SL1 and SL2) in the sgRNA1 promoter region on the negative strand. Promoter function was analyzed by inoculating protoplasts with a full-length infectious clone of the BYDV genome containing mutations in the sgRNA promoter. Because the promoter is located in an essential coding region of the replicase gene, we duplicated it in a nonessential part of the genome from which a new sgRNA was expressed. Mutational analysis revealed that secondary structure, but not the nucleotide sequence, was important at the base of SL1. Regions with both RNA primary and secondary structural features that contributed to transcription initiation were found at the top of SL1. Primary sequence, but not the secondary structure, was required in SL2, which includes the initiation site. Disruption of base pairing near the sgRNA1 start site increased the level of transcription three- to fourfold. We propose that both primary and secondary structures of the sgRNA1 promoter of BYDV play unique roles in sgRNA1 promoter recognition and transcription initiation. (+info)
Barley BLZ2, a seed-specific bZIP protein that interacts with BLZ1 in vivo and activates transcription from the GCN4-like motif of B-hordein promoters in barley endosperm. (5/2002)A barley endosperm cDNA, encoding a DNA-binding protein of the bZIP class of transcription factors, BLZ2, has been characterized. The Blz2 mRNA expression is restricted to the endosperm, where it precedes that of the hordein genes. BLZ2, expressed in bacteria, binds specifically to the GCN4-like motif (GLM; 5'-GTGAGTCAT-3') in a 43-base pair oligonucleotide derived from the promoter region of a Hor-2 gene (B1-hordein). This oligonucleotide also includes the prolamin box (PB; 5'-TGTAAAG-3'). Binding by BLZ2 is prevented when the GLM is mutated to 5'-GTGctTCtc-3' but not when mutations affect the PB. The BLZ2 protein is a potent transcriptional activator in a yeast two-hybrid system where it dimerizes with BLZ1, a barley bZIP protein encoded by the ubiquitously expressed Blz1 gene. Transient expression experiments in co-bombarded developing barley endosperms demonstrate that BLZ2 transactivates transcription from the GLM of the Hor-2 gene promoter and that this activation is also partially dependent on the presence of an intact PB. A drastic decrease in GUS activity is observed in co-bombarded barley endosperms when using as effectors equimolar mixtures of Blz2 and Blz1 in antisense constructs. These results strongly implicate the endosperm-specific BLZ2 protein from barley, either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with BLZ1, as an important transcriptional activator of seed storage protein genes containing the GLM in their promoters. (+info)
Protochlorophyllide b does not occur in barley etioplasts. (6/2002)Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) etioplasts were isolated, and the pigments were extracted with acetone. The extract was analyzed by HPLC. Only protochlorophyllide a and no protochlorophyllide b was detected (limit of detection < 1% of protochlorophyllide a). Protochlorophyllide b was synthesized starting from chlorophyll b and incubated with etioplast membranes and NADPH. In the light, photoconversion to chlorophyllide b was observed, apparently catalyzed by NADPH :protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. In darkness, reduction of the analogue zinc protopheophorbide b to zinc 7-hydroxy-protopheophorbide a was observed, apparently catalyzed by chlorophyll b reductase. We conclude that protochlorophyllide b does not occur in detectable amounts in etioplasts, and even traces of it as the free pigment are metabolically unstable. Thus the direct experimental evidence contradicts the idea by Reinbothe et al. (Nature 397 (1999) 80-84) of a protochlorophyllide b-containing light-harvesting complex in barley etioplasts. (+info)
Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (7/2002)In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment. (+info)
Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects. (8/2002)BACKGROUND: Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) have been shown to improve glucose tolerance in both healthy and diabetic subjects. Two potential mechanisms are discussed in relation to long-term metabolic effects: a decreased demand for insulin in the postprandial phase and formation of short-chain fatty acids from fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of the GI and the indigestible carbohydrate--resistant starch (RS) and dietary fiber (DF)--content of cereal-based breakfasts on glucose tolerance at a second meal (lunch) in healthy subjects. DESIGN: The effects of 7 test breakfasts with known GIs (GI: 52-99) and RS + DF contents (2-36 g) were evaluated. White-wheat bread was used as a reference breakfast (high GI, low RS + DF content). Glucose and insulin responses after the second meal were measured in healthy subjects. In addition, the satiating capacity of 4 of the 7 test breakfasts was estimated before and during the second meal. RESULTS: Two of the 4 low-GI breakfasts improved glucose tolerance at the second meal. Only these 2 breakfasts were capable of postponing the in-between-meal fasting state. There was no measurable effect of fermentable carbohydrates on glucose tolerance at the second meal. The highest satiety score was associated with the barley breakfast that had a low GI and a high RS + DF content. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose tolerance can improve in a single day. Slow absorption and digestion of starch from the breakfast meal, but not the content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast meal, improved glucose tolerance at the second meal (lunch). (+info)
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Protochlorophyllide is a green pigment that is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll, the green pigment found in plants and some bacteria. It is synthesized in the chloroplasts of plant cells and is converted to chlorophyll by the enzyme chlorophyllase. Protochlorophyllide is important in the process of photosynthesis, as it is the precursor to chlorophyll and is necessary for the conversion of light energy into chemical energy. In the medical field, protochlorophyllide is sometimes used as a supplement to treat certain types of anemia, as it can help increase the production of red blood cells.
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in plants, algae, and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth and metabolism. In the medical field, chlorophyll has been studied for its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that chlorophyll may have antioxidant properties, which could help protect against damage from free radicals and reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as cancer and heart disease. Chlorophyll has also been studied for its potential to support liver health, improve digestion, and boost energy levels. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of chlorophyll, and it is not currently used as a medical treatment. It is typically consumed as a dietary supplement or found in foods that are rich in chlorophyll, such as leafy green vegetables, broccoli, and parsley.
Glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes beta-1,3-glycosidic linkages in beta-glucans, a type of polysaccharide found in various plant and fungal cell walls. This enzyme is also known as beta-glucanase or 1,3-beta-D-glucan glucohydrolase. In the medical field, glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase has been studied for its potential therapeutic applications. For example, it has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, making it a potential treatment for various inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Additionally, it has been studied for its potential use in cancer therapy, as it has been shown to enhance the immune response against cancer cells. In the food industry, glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase is used as a food additive to improve the texture and nutritional value of various food products, such as bakery products, breakfast cereals, and dairy products. It is also used in the production of biofuels and in the bioremediation of contaminated soils.
Potassium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element potassium that are used in medical imaging and treatment. Potassium is a naturally occurring element that is essential for many bodily functions, including the regulation of fluid balance, nerve function, and muscle contractions. There are several different potassium radioisotopes that are used in medical applications, including potassium-40, potassium-39, and potassium-42. These isotopes are typically produced in a nuclear reactor or cyclotron and then purified and concentrated for use in medical procedures. Potassium radioisotopes are used in a variety of medical applications, including: 1. Cardiac imaging: Potassium-40 is used to image the heart and assess its function. It is injected into the bloodstream and taken up by the heart muscle, where it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. 2. Kidney imaging: Potassium-42 is used to image the kidneys and assess their function. It is injected into the bloodstream and taken up by the kidneys, where it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. 3. Cancer treatment: Potassium-40 and potassium-39 are used in cancer treatment as part of a process called targeted radionuclide therapy. These isotopes are attached to molecules that are specific to cancer cells, and then delivered directly to the tumor. The radiation emitted by the isotopes damages the cancer cells, leading to their destruction. Overall, potassium radioisotopes play an important role in medical imaging and treatment, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions with greater accuracy and effectiveness.
Chlorophyllides are a group of pigments that are responsible for the green color of plants. They are a type of chlorophyll, which is the pigment that allows plants to photosynthesize and convert light energy into chemical energy. Chlorophyllides are found in the chloroplasts of plant cells and are involved in the process of photosynthesis. They are not typically used in the medical field, as they are not directly related to human health. However, chlorophyllides may have potential therapeutic applications, as they have been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Gibberellins are a group of plant hormones that play important roles in plant growth and development. They are synthesized in the shoot apical meristem and other parts of the plant, and are transported to other parts of the plant where they regulate various aspects of growth and development. In the medical field, gibberellins have been studied for their potential therapeutic applications. For example, some studies have suggested that gibberellins may have anti-cancer properties, as they have been shown to inhibit the growth of certain types of cancer cells in vitro. Additionally, gibberellins have been studied for their potential to promote wound healing, as they have been shown to stimulate the production of growth factors and other molecules that are important for tissue repair. However, it is important to note that the use of gibberellins in medicine is still in the experimental stage, and more research is needed to fully understand their potential therapeutic effects and to determine the safety and efficacy of their use in humans.
Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase (GPA) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose in the body. It is responsible for converting glucose-1-phosphate to glucose-6-phosphate, which is an essential step in the glycolytic pathway, the process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy. GPA is a cytosolic enzyme that is encoded by the G6PC gene and is found in most tissues of the body, with the highest levels found in the liver and kidneys. It is a member of the family of transferases, which are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a functional group from one molecule to another. Mutations in the G6PC gene can lead to a deficiency in GPA, which can result in a rare genetic disorder called glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSD-Ia). This disorder is characterized by an inability to break down glycogen, leading to a buildup of glycogen in the liver and kidneys, as well as other symptoms such as hypoglycemia, liver enlargement, and kidney dysfunction.
Urobilinogen is a yellowish-brown substance that is produced in the liver as a breakdown product of the heme molecule, which is found in red blood cells. It is then excreted in the urine and feces. In the medical field, urobilinogen is often used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate liver function and detect certain types of liver disease. High levels of urobilinogen in the blood or urine can indicate liver damage or dysfunction, while low levels may suggest liver disease or other health problems. Urobilinogen is also used as a component in the testing of urine for the presence of bilirubin, a yellowish-brown pigment that is produced when red blood cells are broken down. Bilirubin is normally excreted in the urine and feces, but when liver function is impaired, it can build up in the blood and cause jaundice, a condition characterized by yellowing of the skin and eyes.
Chlorophyll binding proteins (CBPs) are a group of proteins that are responsible for binding and transferring energy from light to the photosynthetic reaction center in plants, algae, and some bacteria. These proteins are essential for the process of photosynthesis, which is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of glucose. CBPs are found in the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts, which are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells. There are several different types of CBPs, including light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein (LHCAB), light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein 2 (LHCB2), and light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein 3 (LHCB3). These proteins are responsible for capturing light energy and transferring it to the reaction center, where it is used to power the process of photosynthesis. In the medical field, CBPs are not typically studied directly, as they are not directly involved in human health. However, understanding the process of photosynthesis and the role of CBPs in this process is important for understanding how plants and other photosynthetic organisms are able to produce the oxygen that is essential for life on Earth. Additionally, some researchers are studying the potential of using CBPs as a source of renewable energy, as they are able to convert light energy into chemical energy in a way that is similar to how solar panels work.
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- Produção e avaliação sensorial de cervejas de malte de cevada (hordeum vulgare) e. (usp.br)
- Barley - Jau - Hordeum Vulgare - 100 g is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. (thewholesaler.in)
- At TheWholesalerCo, Buy online Barley, Jau, Hordeum Vulgare at wholesale or bulk prices (500 g, 1 Kg) and get it delivered to your door. (thewholesaler.in)
- Comparison of the Two and Six-Rowed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Genotypes Based on Yield and Agronomic Characters. (bio.gov.ua)
- Reactive oxygen species metabolism and photosynthetic performance in leaves of Hordeum vulgare plants co-infested with Heterodera filipjevi and Aceria tosichella. (bvsalud.org)
- We identified Rph24 as a locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) controlling adult plant resistance (APR) to leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei. (qld.gov.au)
- Hordeum" is Latin for barley, the appearance of which a hordeolum can resemble. (medscape.com)
- Phenotypic characterization, genetic diversity assessment in 6,778 accessions of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. (cgiar.org)
- The genetic diversity among 32 accessions ofHordeum bogdanii Wilensky native to Xinjiang, China, was evaluated by 22 STS-PCR primer sets derived from RFLP clones of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) or barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mapping. (jipb.net)
- This study characterizes barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm that evolved under continuous cultivation in highly drought-prone areas of the Near East. (cgiar.org)
- barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (vtt.fi)
- Hordeum" is Latin for barley, the appearance of which a hordeolum can resemble. (medscape.com)
- Barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) contains starch, dietary fiber such as beta-glucan, and the enzyme diastase. (nih.gov)
- Hordeum vulgare subsp. (ensembl.org)
- This name is a synonym of Hordeum vulgare L. . (theplantlist.org)