A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The common name of wild rye is used with some other grasses.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.
A photo-active pigment localized in prolamellar bodies occurring within the proplastids of dark-grown bean leaves. In the process of photoconversion, the highly fluorescent protochlorophyllide is converted to chlorophyll.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.
Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
An exocellulase with specificity for 1,3-beta-D-glucasidic linkages. It catalyzes hydrolysis of beta-D-glucose units from the non-reducing ends of 1,3-beta-D-glucans, releasing GLUCOSE.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.
A group of cells at the base of a leaf in certain plants that, by rapidly losing water, brings about changes in the position of the leaves. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Diseases of plants.
Products of the hydrolysis of chlorophylls in which the phytic acid side chain has been removed and the carboxylic acids saponified.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.
An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.
A colorless compound formed in the intestines by the reduction of bilirubin. Some is excreted in the feces where it is oxidized to urobilin. Some is reabsorbed and re-excreted in the bile as bilirubin. At times, it is re-excreted in the urine, where it may be later oxidized to urobilin.
A large family of proteins that have been traditionally classified as the light-harvesting proteins of the photosynthetic reaction complex. Chlorophyll binding proteins are also found in non-photosynthetic settings where they may play a photoprotective role in response to light stress.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
A vine (Uncaria tomentosa) indigenous to the Amazon rainforest whose name is derived from its hook-like thorns. It contains oxindole alkaloids and glycosides and has many medicinal uses.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)
Accumulation of purulent material in tissues, organs, or circumscribed spaces, usually associated with signs of infection.
A syndrome characterized by HYPERPIGMENTATION, enlarging pituitary mass, visual defects secondary to compression of the OPTIC CHIASM, and elevated serum ACTH. It is caused by the expansion of an underlying ACTH-SECRETING PITUITARY ADENOMA that grows in the absence of feedback inhibition by adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS, usually after ADRENALECTOMY.
Common name for the order Pleuronectiformes. A very distinctive group in that during development they become asymmetrical, i.e., one eye migrates to lie adjacent to the other. They swim on the eyeless side. FLOUNDER, sole, and turbot, along with several others, are included in this order.
Acquired or learned food preferences.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The addition of descriptive information about the function or structure of a molecular sequence to its MOLECULAR SEQUENCE DATA record.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The small pointed seeds are grown for hay in North America and western Europe and important as food in China and other Asian countries.
A plant growing in a location where it is not wanted, often competing with cultivated plants.
Shortened forms of written words or phrases used for brevity.
Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.
The prevention of growth and or spread of unwanted plants.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. I. Natural occurrence and diagnosis. (1/2002)

Clinical sickness was observed in domestic ducks, geese, horses and swine during October 1973. All species showed upper alimentary distress with mortalities occurring in the geese. Barley derived from a common source had been fed. Examination of the barley revealed invasion by Fusarium spp and detection of a high level of dermatitic fusariotoxins.  (+info)

Fusariotoxicosis from barley in British Columbia. II. Analysis and toxicity of syspected barley. (2/2002)

Fusariotoxin T-2, a trichothecene, was tentatively identified in barley samples which caused field outbreaks of mycotoxicosis in British Columbia. Geese died when fed the contaminated barley experimentally but mice were little affected after long term feeding. The methods used in the laboratory for trichothecene extraction and identification of T-2 toxin are described.  (+info)

A single limit dextrinase gene is expressed both in the developing endosperm and in germinated grains of barley. (3/2002)

The single gene encoding limit dextrinase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.41) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) has 26 introns that range in size from 93 to 822 base pairs. The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. Gibberellic acid response elements were found in the promoter region of the gene. These observations suggest that the enzyme participates in starch hydrolysis during endosperm mobilization in germinated grain. The mRNA encoding the enzyme is present at lower levels in the developing endosperm of immature grain, a location consistent with a role for limit dextrinase in starch synthesis. Enzyme activity was also detected in developing grain. The limit dextrinase has a presequence typical of transit peptides that target nascent polypeptides to amyloplasts, but this would not be expected to direct secretion of the mature enzyme from aleurone cells in germinated grain. It remains to be discovered how the enzyme is released from the aleurone and whether another enzyme, possibly of the isoamylase group, might be equally important for starch hydrolysis in germinated grain.  (+info)

Primary and secondary structural elements required for synthesis of barley yellow dwarf virus subgenomic RNA1. (4/2002)

Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) generates three 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) in infected cells. The promoter of sgRNA1 is a putative hot spot for RNA recombination in luteovirus evolution. The sgRNA1 transcription start site was mapped previously to either nucleotide 2670 or nucleotide 2769 of BYDV genomic RNA (gRNA) in two independent studies. Our data support the former initiation site. The boundaries of the sgRNA1 promoter map between nucleotides 2595 and 2692 on genomic RNA. Computer prediction, phylogenetic comparison, and structural probing revealed two stem-loops (SL1 and SL2) in the sgRNA1 promoter region on the negative strand. Promoter function was analyzed by inoculating protoplasts with a full-length infectious clone of the BYDV genome containing mutations in the sgRNA promoter. Because the promoter is located in an essential coding region of the replicase gene, we duplicated it in a nonessential part of the genome from which a new sgRNA was expressed. Mutational analysis revealed that secondary structure, but not the nucleotide sequence, was important at the base of SL1. Regions with both RNA primary and secondary structural features that contributed to transcription initiation were found at the top of SL1. Primary sequence, but not the secondary structure, was required in SL2, which includes the initiation site. Disruption of base pairing near the sgRNA1 start site increased the level of transcription three- to fourfold. We propose that both primary and secondary structures of the sgRNA1 promoter of BYDV play unique roles in sgRNA1 promoter recognition and transcription initiation.  (+info)

Barley BLZ2, a seed-specific bZIP protein that interacts with BLZ1 in vivo and activates transcription from the GCN4-like motif of B-hordein promoters in barley endosperm. (5/2002)

A barley endosperm cDNA, encoding a DNA-binding protein of the bZIP class of transcription factors, BLZ2, has been characterized. The Blz2 mRNA expression is restricted to the endosperm, where it precedes that of the hordein genes. BLZ2, expressed in bacteria, binds specifically to the GCN4-like motif (GLM; 5'-GTGAGTCAT-3') in a 43-base pair oligonucleotide derived from the promoter region of a Hor-2 gene (B1-hordein). This oligonucleotide also includes the prolamin box (PB; 5'-TGTAAAG-3'). Binding by BLZ2 is prevented when the GLM is mutated to 5'-GTGctTCtc-3' but not when mutations affect the PB. The BLZ2 protein is a potent transcriptional activator in a yeast two-hybrid system where it dimerizes with BLZ1, a barley bZIP protein encoded by the ubiquitously expressed Blz1 gene. Transient expression experiments in co-bombarded developing barley endosperms demonstrate that BLZ2 transactivates transcription from the GLM of the Hor-2 gene promoter and that this activation is also partially dependent on the presence of an intact PB. A drastic decrease in GUS activity is observed in co-bombarded barley endosperms when using as effectors equimolar mixtures of Blz2 and Blz1 in antisense constructs. These results strongly implicate the endosperm-specific BLZ2 protein from barley, either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with BLZ1, as an important transcriptional activator of seed storage protein genes containing the GLM in their promoters.  (+info)

Protochlorophyllide b does not occur in barley etioplasts. (6/2002)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) etioplasts were isolated, and the pigments were extracted with acetone. The extract was analyzed by HPLC. Only protochlorophyllide a and no protochlorophyllide b was detected (limit of detection < 1% of protochlorophyllide a). Protochlorophyllide b was synthesized starting from chlorophyll b and incubated with etioplast membranes and NADPH. In the light, photoconversion to chlorophyllide b was observed, apparently catalyzed by NADPH :protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. In darkness, reduction of the analogue zinc protopheophorbide b to zinc 7-hydroxy-protopheophorbide a was observed, apparently catalyzed by chlorophyll b reductase. We conclude that protochlorophyllide b does not occur in detectable amounts in etioplasts, and even traces of it as the free pigment are metabolically unstable. Thus the direct experimental evidence contradicts the idea by Reinbothe et al. (Nature 397 (1999) 80-84) of a protochlorophyllide b-containing light-harvesting complex in barley etioplasts.  (+info)

Formation of lipoxygenase-pathway-derived aldehydes in barley leaves upon methyl jasmonate treatment. (7/2002)

In barley leaves, the application of jasmonates leads to dramatic alterations of gene expression. Among the up-regulated gene products lipoxygenases occur abundantly. Here, at least four of them were identified as 13-lipoxygenases exhibiting acidic pH optima between pH 5.0 and 6.5. (13S,9Z,11E,15Z)-13-hydroxy-9,11,15-octadecatrienoic acid was found to be the main endogenous lipoxygenase-derived polyenoic fatty acid derivative indicating 13-lipoxygenase activity in vivo. Moreover, upon methyl jasmonate treatment > 78% of the fatty acid hydroperoxides are metabolized by hydroperoxide lyase activity resulting in the endogenous occurrence of volatile aldehydes. (2E)-4-Hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and (3Z)- plus (2E)-hexenal were identified as 2,4-dinitro-phenylhydrazones using HPLC and identification was confirmed by GC/MS analysis. This is the first proof that (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal is formed in plants under physiological conditions. Quantification of (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, hexanal and hexenals upon methyl jasmonate treatment of barley leaf segments revealed that hexenals were the major aldehydes peaking at 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment. Their endogenous content increased from 1.6 nmol.g-1 fresh weight to 45 nmol.g-1 fresh weight in methyl-jasmonate-treated leaf segments, whereas (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal, peaking at 48 h of methyl jasmonate treatment increased from 9 to 15 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. Similar to the hexenals, hexanal reached its maximal amount 24 h after methyl jasmonate treatment, but increased from 0.6 to 3.0 nmol.g-1 fresh weight. In addition to the classical leaf aldehydes, (2E)-4-hydroxy-2-hexenal was detected, thereby raising the question of whether it functions in the degradation of chloroplast membrane constituents, which takes place after methyl jasmonate treatment.  (+info)

Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects. (8/2002)

BACKGROUND: Diets with a low glycemic index (GI) have been shown to improve glucose tolerance in both healthy and diabetic subjects. Two potential mechanisms are discussed in relation to long-term metabolic effects: a decreased demand for insulin in the postprandial phase and formation of short-chain fatty acids from fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates in the colon. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to study the effect of the GI and the indigestible carbohydrate--resistant starch (RS) and dietary fiber (DF)--content of cereal-based breakfasts on glucose tolerance at a second meal (lunch) in healthy subjects. DESIGN: The effects of 7 test breakfasts with known GIs (GI: 52-99) and RS + DF contents (2-36 g) were evaluated. White-wheat bread was used as a reference breakfast (high GI, low RS + DF content). Glucose and insulin responses after the second meal were measured in healthy subjects. In addition, the satiating capacity of 4 of the 7 test breakfasts was estimated before and during the second meal. RESULTS: Two of the 4 low-GI breakfasts improved glucose tolerance at the second meal. Only these 2 breakfasts were capable of postponing the in-between-meal fasting state. There was no measurable effect of fermentable carbohydrates on glucose tolerance at the second meal. The highest satiety score was associated with the barley breakfast that had a low GI and a high RS + DF content. CONCLUSIONS: Glucose tolerance can improve in a single day. Slow absorption and digestion of starch from the breakfast meal, but not the content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast meal, improved glucose tolerance at the second meal (lunch).  (+info)

The inheritance of resistance to barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) in barley was investigated in the Steptoe/Morex doubled haploid population developed by the North American Barley Genome Mapping Project. The number of resistant (66) and susceptible (84) progeny approximated a 1:1 ratio, indicating that a single gene was involved in conferring resistance to BSMV strain CV42 in Morex barley. This resistance gene was mapped to the centromeric region of the plus (short) arm of chromosome 1, based on its linkage to molecular markers on the Steptoe/Morex map, and was found to cosegregate with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker ABC455. Marker ABG011 was located 6.1 centimorgans (cM) distal to the resistance locus. The nearest opposite flanking marker mapped was Amy2, located at a distance of 8.1 cM and on the other side of the centromere. The identification of a cosegregating marker may facilitate both the selection for BSMV resistance in barley breeding programs and the high ...
Contact transmissibility of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was examined in field plots using seed-infected plants of wild oats (Avena fatua), Herta barley (Hordeum distichum), and Conquest barley (H. vulgare) as virus sources and healthy plants of the same species as test material. The virus was transmitted by contract from wild oats to both Herta and Conquest barley but in reciprocal tests was transmitted only from Conquest barley to wild oats. The frequencies of contact transmission of BSMV in these tests were lower than the frequencies of contact transmission of the virus from infected to healthy plants of either Herta or Conquest barley. There was no evidence of contact transmission of BSMV from infected to healthy wild oats. Results obtained in this study support the notion that wild oats are involved in the epidemiology of BSMV in barley. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diversity for seedling vigor in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. spontaneum) germplasm. AU - Tyagi, Kuldeep. AU - Park, Myoung Ryoul. AU - Lee, Hyo Jeong. AU - Lee, Chong Ae. AU - Rehman, Shafiq. AU - Steffenson, Brian. AU - Lee, Kui Jae. AU - Yun, Song Joong. PY - 2011/8/1. Y1 - 2011/8/1. N2 - Seedling vigor is important for improving stand establishment of barley crops, particularly in arid regions and areas where the soil temperature is low at sowing time. Three hundred and fifteen wild barley accessions from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) were evaluated for nine seedling vigor traits in a polyhouse and growth chamber under hydroponic conditions. The accessions exhibited significant differences for all traits investigated. Traits showing greatest phenotypic variation were seedling visual score, plant height, shoot fresh weight, shoot dry weight and shoot length. Seed weight exhibited the least variation. Seed weight was significantly correlated with visual ...
Malting-quality barley must meet strict standards to produce high quality malt. Several organizations work with producers, maltsters, and brewers to ensure these standards are understood and met, as well as researching methods for producing the highest quality product and approving varieties for malting purposes.. American Malting Barley Association, Inc. is a nonprofit trade association of major U.S. malting and brewing companies with the objectives of enhancing the national public sector barley research infrastructure; developing malting barley varieties with improved agronomic and quality characters; helping implement programs to benefit producers and increase production; and representing the malting and brewing industry regarding public and regulatory issues that impact barley. This website provides information on malting barley varieties, barley variety surveys, a variety dictionary, harvesting,drying, and storage, and malting quality.. Master Brewers Association of the Americas. This ...
Physiological leaf spot (PLS) is a disorder of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), which has become more pronounced in recent years. The initial symptoms are small chlorotic/brown spots on the upper four leaves, which may develop into necrotic lesions with an irregular shape. As PLS occurs on leaves that are directly exposed to sunlight, it is thought that high light stress could be a trigger for the condition. This study concentrates on two cultivars, Cooper and Crusader, which display differential sensitivity to PLS. Biochemical measurements and enzyme assays revealed substantial difference in levels of ascorbate, type III peroxidases, and superoxide dismutase between the chosen cultivars during the 2003 growing season. A global gene expression study, using these field samples, was performed by microarray analysis. This supported the biochemical findings and highlighted additional sets of genes differentially expressed between the cultivars. Transcripts of particular interest, which appeared, ...
The fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei develops on the barley leaf via distinct, morphologically well-defined stages. After landing on a host plant, the conidia rapidly germinate to form a primary germ tube. Subsequently, an appressorial germ tube emerges from the conidium and differentiates an appressorium from which penetration of the host cell wall is attempted. We have used serial analysis of gene expression to provide a measurement of messenger RNA contents in ungerminated conidia, during conidial germination, and during appressorium formation. The resulting data provide a resource for the characterization of changes in transcript accumulation during early development of B. graminis.. ...
Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and Montana Microbial Products (MMP) of Butte, Mont., have developed a barley protein concentrate that could be fed to trout and other commercially produced fish.. Physiologist Rick Barrows at the ARS Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research Unit in Aberdeen, Idaho, teamed with MMP to apply for a patent on a new enzymatic method that concentrates barley protein and produces raw material for another valuable commodity--ethanol. This process provides a high-protein ingredient that may replace other, more expensive protein sources like fishmeal and soy protein concentrate in commercial fish feed.. Currently there is no commercial production of barley protein concentrate, but MMP is producing small quantities for fish-feeding studies with trout, salmon and other species. MMP projects that the concentrate will sell for $700 to $1,200 per ton. Since fishmeal costs about $1,200 per ton, the projected costs of barley protein concentrate compare ...
In order to analyse the effects of temperature (9-22 °C) and light intensity (170-576 μmol m −2 s −1 ) on plant development two barley varieties with contrasting seasonal growth habits were included in a series of experiments consisting of controlled environment tests. The effect of constant (18 °C) and daily fluctuating (18/16 °C) temperature with a long photoperiod was also examined in a set of barley varieties including winter, facultative and spring barleys. Dicktoo with facultative growth habit was more sensitive to unfavourable conditions than Kompolti korai with winter growth habit; the flowering of Dicktoo was significantly delayed by sub-and supra-optimal temperatures and low light intensity accompanied by higher or fluctuating temperatures. The optimal temperature at flowering was also significantly lower for Dicktoo than for Kompolti korai (16.0 °C vs. 21.0 °C, respectively). Plant development was the fastest when there was no fluctuating environmental factor in the growing ...
The effect of cadmium on protein expression in the aerial parts of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Mandolina) seedlings was investigated by proteomic analysis of leaf apoplast proteins. Dramatic changes were observed in the protein pattern of intercellular washing fluid from Cd-treated (0-300 μM) barley leaves both by 1D- and 2D-PAGE. By mass spectrometric (MALDI-TOF and/or LC-MS/MS) analysis of induced proteins PR1 proteins, certain 1-3-glucanases (PR2), chitinases (PR3), members of the chitin binding PR4 family, a rich set of thaumatin-like proteins (PR5) and two PR17 proteins were identified, indicating that a general plant defence response, inducing massive secretion of pathogenesis-related proteins (PR) into the extracellular space, is an important part of the Cd-induced stress reactions. Although systemic induction of PR proteins is probably important for an adequate plant response to cadmium stress, many of these proteins are known to have an allergenic potential and as such present a ...
The RNA2 of a German isolate of the bipartite barley mild mosaic bymovirus (BaMMV-ASL1) is 3524 nucleotides long excluding the 3… Expand ...
Read The transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Whether the caryopsis of barley is naked or covered is controlled by the Nud gene encoding an ethylene response factor (ERF) family transcription factor (TF) of the AP2/ERF TF superfamily that is involved in the lipid biosynthesis pathway. In covered barley, lipids on the surface of caryopses act as a glue for their tight adhesion with hulls. Separation of hulls in naked barley is due to the absence of surface lipids on caryopses. A natural deletion event of Nud was found to be the determinant of naked caryopsis and had been proposed as the monophyletic origin of domesticated naked barley. In the present study, we re-sequenced the nud locus in 162 barleys, comprising 79 covered and 83 naked barleys varieties. Besides the normal deletion mutation of Nud contributing to naked caryopsis, we found a novel allele of Nud, designated as nud1.g, distinctly in three naked barleys collected from Tibet. nud1.g contains a non-synonymous SNP T643A when compared with the functional Nud gene. Genetic analysis
There are many different barley varieties available for planting across Alberta. Each variety has different characteristics that make it well suited to certain regions of the province and particular end uses. Additionally, different varieties possess varying degrees of resistance to disease, weeds, drought, frost and insect pests. As a result, variety selection is a very important part of maximizing barleys potential yield and profitability.. For more information:. ...
Fulltext - Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Some Yield and Yield Related Traits in Ethiopian Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Landraces and Crosses
Pereladova T. P., Tordansky A. B. Intra- and Intervarietal Polymorphism of Chromosomes in Eight Barley Varieties, Tsitol Genet., 1989, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 19-27 ...
Barley is the second after wheat most important for Kazakhstan cereal crop with total annual grain yield of more than 2 mln tons [1]. SR caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici, Pgt, is one of the most powerful factors affecting barley production in Kazakhstan. Sometimes annual yield losses exceed 50 % [2]. Currently, six genes are known to confer barley resistance to Pgt in the US, including well characterized Rpg1 [3, 4], rpg4 [5], and Rpg5 [6, 7], and less studied Rpg2, Rpg3, and rpg6 [8]. Most of these genetic studies were performed in relation to North American Pgt pathogen races MCCF and QCCJ by using conventional bi-parental genetic mapping approach. In addition, in response to serious threat of the new and highly infectious race of Pgt (TTKSK) in Africa and Near East, also known as Ug99, Steffenson with coauthors were able to identify qualitative Pgt-TTKSK locus on the long arm of chromosome 5H [9]. Also, Moscou with coauthors [10] showed that high-throughput genotyping in studies of ...
The Mla locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare) conditions isolate-specific immunity to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) and encodes intracellular coiled-coil (CC) domain, nucleotide-binding (NB) site, and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)- containing receptor proteins. Over the last decades, genetic studies in breeding material have identified a large number of functional resistance genes at the Mla locus. To study the structural and functional diversity of this locus at the molecular level, we isolated 23 candidate MLA cDNAs from barley accessions that were previously shown by genetic studies to harbor different Mla resistance specificities. Resistance activity was detected for 13 candidate MLA cDNAs in a transient gene expression assay. Sequence alignment of the deduced MLA proteins improved secondary structure predictions, revealing four additional previously overlooked LRRs. Analysis of nucleotide diversity of the candidate and validated MLA cDNAs revealed 34 sites of positive ...
Spring barley ( Hordeum vulgarecv. Triumph) was grown hydroponically over a 6-week period. Two treatments were incorporated either into the hydroponic solution or sprayed onto the plants at rates of...
In this study we report the development of primers to amplify polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeats in the genus Hordeum, which includes cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and its wild progenitor H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum. Polymorphic products were amplified in a wide range of Hordeum spp. and intraspecific variation was detected in both cultivated and wild barley. A decrease in cytoplasmic diversity was observed between sspp. spontaneum and vulgare as well as between ssp. vulgare landraces and cultivars, which is characteristic of domestication processes in many crop species. We also observed possible evidence for reticulate evolution of H. brachyantherum polyploids, with apparent multiple cytoplasmic introgressions during successive polyploidization events. ...
Fertilization programs Malting barley, Malting barley is used for the production of barley malt required in the alcoholic fermentation of beer and whisky. For brewing purposes only malting varieties can be cultivated, which are assessed
Two Australian (Buloke and Commander) and two Canadian (CDC Meredith and Bentley) barley varieties were grown under four levels of nitrogen fertilization (0, 20, 40 and 80 kg ha−1). Barley samples were assessed by barley brewing with the Ondea Pro enzyme cocktail for mashing analysis and were compared with typical malt brewing quality specifications. The study observed that increased nitrogen fertilization resulted in increased barley kernel nitrogen content which significantly impacted a range of wort quality parameters including increased soluble nitrogen, free amino nitrogen and barley beta‐amylase level, but also reduced extract, barley Kolbach index, β‐glucan and colour. Increased grain nitrogen had relatively little effect on apparent attenuation limit, lautering and barley limit dextrinase level. Knowledge of the effects of interactions between barley of different qualities (e.g. nitrogen content) and the Ondea Pro enzymes on wort quality will result in enhanced barley to directly ...
Although second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result: Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI ) of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also ...
The field experiment was conducted in 2002-2006 at the Experimental Farm Czesławice (central part of Lublin region) on lessive soil developed from loess (2nd bonitation class). The study included naked form of spring barley cultivated in crop rotation and in 6-year monoculture. In both crop...
Frost is an important stress factor both at vegetative and reproductive stages of barley. Frost, otherwise known as low temperature stress, damages leaf and stem, causes floret sterility, increases screenings, and reduces grain yield and germination causing substantial loses. To curb these problems, numerous studies have been undertaken elsewhere on frost tolerance in barley both at vegetative and reproductive stages. These studies used field or controlled environments, or a combination of field and controlled environments to understand response of barley genotypes to frost. At the vegetative stage, percentage survival, electrolyte leakage, ABA content, cold induced protein contents, and molecular markers as diagnostic tools have been used to distinguish between barley cultivars for frost tolerance. Reproductive stage traits used to distinguish between barley genotypes for frost tolerance include floret sterility, grain damage, and grain yield and associated molecular markers. Measurement for ...
This paper describes a series of winter wheat - winter barley disomic addition lines developed from hybrids between winter wheat line Triticum aestivum L. Martonvásári 9 kr1 and the German 2-rowed winter barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. Igri. The barley chromosomes in a wheat background were identified from the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns obtained with various combinations of repetitive DNA probes: GAA-HvT01 and pTa71-HvT01. The disomic addition lines 2H, 3H, and 4H and the 1HS isochromosome were identified on the basis of a 2-colour FISH with the DNA probe pairs GAA-pAs1, GAA-HvT01, and pTa71-HvT01. Genomic in situ hybridization was used to confirm the presence of the barley chromosomes in the wheat genome. The identification of the barley chromosomes in the addition lines was further confirmed with simple-sequence repeat markers. The addition lines were also characterized morphologically. ...
We used Sequenom® MassARRAY® and iPLEX™ Gold genotyping assay to develop a multiplexed variety identification assay for the Australian barley industry. Correct identification and traceability of barley varieties is a prominent issue for quality assurance throughout the entire barley production supply chain in Australia and worldwide. Malting characteristics are variety dependent thus sourcing approved varieties which are uncontaminated with other malting or feed varieties is vital to product consistency. Fast, robust variety identification requires a stable marker that is not influenced by environment, and a platform which is capable of high throughput genotyping. In order to facilitate rapid, high throughput identification of barley varieties, we have developed a multiplexed SNP genotyping assay capable of determining the identity of each of 60 Australian barley varieties with precision and speed. Sequenom® MassARRAY® and iPLEX™ Gold genotyping was precise and a unique SNP barcode of up to 20
Rain has once again stopped harvesting in this stop start harvest. Winter barley and winter oilseed raped are finished and growers have made a start on spring barley and winter wheat. Grain quality is excellent to date but yields are variable depending on how affected crops were by the drought in April and May.. In drought affected areas some crops of winter barley struggled to surpass 7.5t/ha whereas yields in excess of 10t/ha were achieved in southern areas, mainly from six row varieties. Winter wheat and spring barley are following a similar trend where with better yields coming from land further south where the effect of the drought were least evident in April and May.. Specific weights in cereals are excellent to date, oats in the mid to high 50s, barley in the high 60s and some wheat reaching 80 kph. Green grains in the sample has resulted in some higher moistures but has caused some rejections for malting barley growers. Grain skinning is also an issue for malting barley growers this ...
Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux rates into and from excised barley roots are compared with the maximum capacity of accumulation. Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux involve a cation exchange that is independent of simultaneous exchange of the accompanying anion. These exchange fluxes depend on the concentration and cation composition of the solutions from which they originate. Selective differences between K+ and Na+ fluxes are sufficient to account for a cationic distribution within the roots that differs markedly from that of the external solution and that persists for extended time periods. The accumulation maximum is a cation exchange equilibrium with the cation influx and efflux rates approaching equality. The equilibrium level is independent of the individual cation fluxes and the external solution concentration. It is a finite quantity which appears to be determined by the internal anion concentration including accumulated as well as endogenous anions.. ...
Read Cellular analysis of UV-B-induced barley root subapical swelling, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Brüggemann, W. and Moog, P. R. (1989), NADH-dependent Fe3+EDTA and oxygen reduction by plasma membrane vesicles from barley roots. Physiologia Plantarum, 75: 245-254. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1989.tb06176.x ...
In this study, proteomic and metabolomic changes in leaves and roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerance, subjected to water deficit were investigated. Our two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses revealed 121 drought-responsive proteins in leaves and 182 in roots of both genotypes. Many of the identified drought-responsive proteins were associated with processes that are typically severely affected during water deficit, including photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, the highest number of identified leaf and root proteins represented general defense mechanisms. In addition, changes in the accumulation of proteins that represent processes formerly unassociated with drought response, e.g. phenylpropanoid metabolism, were also identified. Our tandem gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/MS TOF) analyses revealed
The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy and convergence of newly developed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genomic resources, primarily genome zipper (GZ) and population sequencing (POPSEQ), at the genome-wide level and to assess their usefulness in applied barley breeding by analyzing seven known loci. Comparison of barley GZ and POPSEQ maps to a newly developed consensus genetic map constructed with data from 13 individual linkage maps yielded an accuracy of 97.8% (GZ) and 99.3% (POPSEQ), respectively, regarding the chromosome assignment. The percentage of agreement in marker position indicates that on average only 3.7% GZ and 0.7% POPSEQ positions are not in accordance with their centimorgan coordinates in the consensus map. The fine-scale comparison involved seven genetic regions on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 6H, and 7H, harboring major genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for disease resistance. In total, 179 GZ loci were analyzed and 64 polymorphic markers were developed. Entirely, ...
Water-soluble (1→3), (1→4)-β-d-glucans from barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm. I. Physicochemical properties Academic Article ...
Rice is more sensitive to salinity, particularly at its early vegetative and later productive stages. Wild plants growing in harsh environments such as wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau adapt to the adverse environment with allelic variations at the loci responsible for stressful environment, which could be used for rice genetic improvement. In this study, we overexpressed HsCBL8 encoding a calcium-sensor calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein in rice. The gene was isolated from XZ166, a wild-barley (Hordeum spontanum) line originated from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that XZ166 responded to high NaCl concentration (200 mM) with more HsCBL8 transcripts than CM72, a cultivated barley line known for salinity tolerance. XZ166 is significantly different from CM72 with nucleotide sequences at HsCBL8. The overexpression of HsCBL8 in rice resulted in significant improvement of water protection in vivo and plasma membrane, more proline accumulation, and a reduction of overall Na+ uptake but little change in K
Seed set limits use of certain barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes in H. bulbosum L. doubled-haploid production. This study was conducted to determine the genetic basis of low seed set in the spring barley cultivar Apex crossed with H. bulbosum. Two hundred F₂ plants, all having Apex as one parent and either Havila, Krystal or Roland as the other parent, were crossed with one clone of H. bulbosu ...
Seed set limits use of certain barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes in H. bulbosum L. doubled-haploid production. This study was conducted to determine the genetic basis of low seed set in the spring barley cultivar Apex crossed with H. bulbosum. Two hundred F₂ plants, all having Apex as one parent and either Havila, Krystal or Roland as the other parent, were crossed with one clone of H. bulbosu ...
Barley is the worlds fourth most cultivated cereal and is an important crop model for genetic studies. One layer of genomic information that remains poorly explored in barley is presence/absence variation (PAV), which has been suggested to contribute to phenotypic variation of agronomic importance in various crops. An mRNA sequencing approach was used to study genomic PAV and transcriptomic variation in 23 spring barley inbreds. 1502 new genes identified here were physically absent from the Morex reference sequence, and 11,523 previously unannotated genes were not expressed in Morex. The procedure applied to detect expression PAV revealed that more than 50% of all genes of our data set are not expressed in all inbreds. Interestingly, expression PAV were not in strong linkage disequilibrium with neighboring sequence variants (SV), and therefore provided an additional layer of genetic information. Optimal combinations of expression PAV, SV, and gene abundance data could enhance the prediction accuracy of
Mayer, K.F.X., Martis, M., Hedley, P.E. et al. 2011. Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics. Plant Cell 23, 1249-1263. (doi:10.1105/tpc.110.082537 ...
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the one of crucial cereal species used as meals and feed crops, in addition to for malting and alcohol manufacturing. At the top of the final century, conventional breeding methods have been complemented by the use of DNA markers. Molecular markers have additionally been used extensively for molecular genetic mapping and QTL evaluation. In 2012, the barley genome sequencing was accomplished, which offered a broad vary of new alternatives - from a extra environment friendly seek for candidate genes controlling economically vital traits to genomic choice.. The evaluate summarizes the outcomes of the research carried out after barley genome sequencing, which found new areas of barley genetics and breeding with excessive throughput screening and genotyping strategies. During this era, intensive research aimed toward identification of barley genomic loci related to economically vital traits have been carried out; on-line databases and instruments for working with barley ...
Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the one of crucial cereal species used as meals and feed crops, in addition to for malting and alcohol manufacturing. At the top of the final century, conventional breeding methods have been complemented by the use of DNA markers. Molecular markers have additionally been used extensively for molecular genetic mapping and QTL evaluation. In 2012, the barley genome sequencing was accomplished, which offered a broad vary of new alternatives - from a extra environment friendly seek for candidate genes controlling economically vital traits to genomic choice.. The evaluate summarizes the outcomes of the research carried out after barley genome sequencing, which found new areas of barley genetics and breeding with excessive throughput screening and genotyping strategies. During this era, intensive research aimed toward identification of barley genomic loci related to economically vital traits have been carried out; on-line databases and instruments for working with barley ...
Barley limit dextrinase [Hordeum vulgare limit dextrinase (HvLD)] catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in limit dextrins. This activity plays a role in starch degradation during germination and presumably in starch biosynthesis during grain filling. The crystal structures of HvLD in complex with the competitive inhibitors α-cyclodextrin (CD) and β-CD are solved and refined to 2.5 Å and 2.1 Å, respectively, and are the first structures of a limit dextrinase. HvLD belongs to glycoside hydrolase 13 family and is composed of four domains: an immunoglobulin-like N-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain, a six-stranded β-sandwich domain belonging to the carbohydrate binding module 48 family, a catalytic (β/α)8-like barrel domain that lacks α-helix 5, and a C-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain of unknown function. The CDs are bound at the active site occupying carbohydrate binding subsites + 1 and + 2. A glycerol and three water molecules mimic a glucose residue at ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Virulent ¤Blumeria graminis¤ infection induces penetration susceptibility and suppresses race-specific hypersensitive resistance against avirulent attack in ¤Mla1¤-barley. AU - Lyngkjær, M.L.. AU - Carver, T.L.W.. AU - Zeyen, R.J.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Leaves of near isogenic barley lines containing the race-specific resistance alleles. Mla1 or mla1 were subjected to double inoculation treatments with virulent and avirulent Blumeria graminis isolates. Attack by the avirulent isolate alone frequently caused hypersensitive death of individual Mla1 epidermal cells, but underlying mesophyll cells survived. Virulent and avirulent B. graminis isolates Were inoculated sequentially (inducer followed by challenger) in all possible combinations. As shown previously, where a papilla formed due to inducer attacks, the attacked epidermal cell, and to some extent its neighbours, showed highly increased resistance to challenger penetration. When epidermal cells died in response to ...
Salinity can negatively impact crop growth and yield. Changes in DNA methylation are known to occur when plants are challenged by stress and have been associated to the regulation of stress-response genes. However, the role of DNA-methylation in moderating gene expression in response to salt stress has been relatively poorly studied among crops such as barley. Here we assess the extent of salt-induced alterations of DNA methylation in barley, and their putative role in perturbed gene expression. Using Next Generation Sequencing, we screened the leaf and root methylomes of five divergent barley varieties grown under control and three salt concentrations, to seek genotype independent salt-induced changes in DNA methylation. Salt stress caused increased methylation in leaves but diminished methylation in roots with a higher number of changes in leaves than in roots, indicating that salt induced changes to global methylation are tissue specific. DMMs were mostly located in close proximity to repeat elements
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Changes in calmodulin (CaM) mRNA and protein were investigated in aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) incubated in the presence and absence of calcium, gibberellic acid (GA3), and abscisic acid (ABA). CaM mRNA levels increased rapidly and transiently following incubation of aleurone layers in H2O, CaCl2, or GA3. The increase in CaM mRNA was prevented by ABA. This increase in CaM mRNA was brought about by physical stimulation during removal of the starchy endosperm from the aleurone layer. CaM protein levels did not increase in response to physical stimulation. Only incubation in GA3 plus CaCl2 brought about a rapid increase in CaM protein levels in the aleurone cell. ABA reduced the level of CaM protein below that found at the beginning of the incubation period. The rise in CaM protein preceded increases in the synthesis and secretion of [alpha]-amylase. Immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to carrot and mung bean CaM was used to localize CaM in aleurone ...
Effects of waterlogging on photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of six barley genotypes with different waterlogging tolerance
This paper is focused on behaviour of starch in wheat-barley composite flours modified by 5.0% or 10.0% chia and teff, determined by amylograph and RVA apparatuses, and on baking test results. Regarding the temperature at gelatinization beginning and viscosity maximum, curves appearance depended on both type of non-traditional crop and amount added. In wheat-barley flour premix, barley flour increased amylograph viscosity (790 units in wheat-barley mixture vs. 680 units for control). Combined addition of chia and teff lowered viscosity about approximately 35%. RVA test distinctly differentiated the flour composites. Barley flour and chia wholemeal significantly reduced the specific volume of composite bread, while both teff wholemeal types partially compensated that volume diminishing (approx. -37%, -25% and -12%, respectively). A combination of white teff and dark chia wholemeal showed higher baking potential, since the specific bread volumes were comparable to wheat-barley control (230 15 ...
Summary Barley tissue with an acute systemic infection of barley stripe mosaic virus contained a large amount of unencapsidated virus RNA which was stable in extracts made in ribosome isolation buffer. The virus RNA in ribosome preparations sedimented in a broad band at 80S to 100S in sucrose gradients, which is less than the virion sedimentation rate of 180S to 200S. A protein of apparent M r 60000, which sedimented with the virus RNA, was present in ribosome extracts from infected plants but absent from those from uninfected plants. The protein is probably a virus protein because its apparent molecular weight varied slightly with the strain of virus. The structure containing the M r 60000 protein did not sediment in sucrose gradients in a compact zone as would be expected for a particle of uniform size. The M r 60000 protein was present at a concentration equal to or slightly higher (up to 400 µg/g leaf tissue) than the unencapsidated virus RNA (up to 300 µg/g leaf tissue). Sedimentation results
Biomolecules are increasingly attractive templates for the synthesis of functional nanomaterials. Chief among them are the plant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) due to their high aspect ratio, narrow size distribution,
TY - JOUR. T1 - The inheritance of genetic markers in microspore-derived plants of barley Hordeum vulgare L.. AU - Thompson, D. M.. AU - Chalmers, K.. AU - Waugh, R.. AU - Forster, B. P.. AU - Thomas, W. T.B.. AU - Caligari, P. D.S.. AU - Powell, W.. PY - 1991/4/1. Y1 - 1991/4/1. N2 - Biochemical, molecular and morphological markers have been used to monitor the segregation of alleles at major gene loci in microspore-derived lines of four spring barley crosses and their parents. Significant deviations from the expected Mendelian ratios were observed for four of the ten markers studied in the cross. Distorted ratios were associated with loci located on chromosomes 4H and 6H. The differential transmission of alleles was in favour of the responsive parent (Blenheim) used in the anther culture studies. For the α-Amy-1 locus on chromosome 6H, the preferential transmission of Blenheim alleles was most pronounced in the haploid regenerants that were colchicine treated. These results are discussed in ...
Method of biolistic transformation was used for genetic improvement of commercial barley cultivars (Oksamitoviy, Vodogray and Getman). The plasmid pHLFTuBA was used for particle bombardment that consists of the hLF gene under the control of the barley glutelin B-1 promoter and a selectable marker gene, α-tubulin conferring resistance to trifluralin (dinitroanilinr herbicide). Preliminary screening of different trifluralin concentration range from 0,1 to 30 μM was tested for determination of effective selective agent concentration. Two transgenic barley line of genotype Oksamitiviy and transgenic callus line of cultivar Getman were obtained after selection on 10 μM of trifluralin. To confirm the transgenic nature of regenerated plants, the PCR analysis was carried out. The 734bp length fragment of hLF gene was amplified from both regenerated plants.. ...
Crop genetic potential to resist storage pest is very crucial to minimize quantity and quality of grain mass loss during storage. The granary weevil primarily affects barley crop at storage. Due to this reason, an experiment was carried out by using Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with three replications. The work was designed with the objectives to identify resistance potential of barley varieties against weevil (Sitophilus granarius) damage and to identify the quantity and physical quality lo
In this laboratory exercise, learners will discover how many different plant hosts they can find that are infected by the same genus of a powdery mildew fungus, or how many different genera of powdery mildew fungi can be found on the same plant host. This exercise demonstrates the diversity that exists within a fungal order. With a good collection of leaves infected with different powdery mildew fungi (collected by learners or instructor), learners use a written key and/or an illustrated key (or could even make their own key) to identify the powdery mildew fungus to genus. Since powdery mildew fungi reproduce by means of two spore types, asexual spores (conidia) and sexual spores (ascospores), discussions of the types of reproduction in fungi can be facilitated. Note: This lab works best in regions that experience cold weather for part of the year, since this encourages production of cleistothecia (sexual stage). Please scroll down for activity component links. ...
Abstract. Ahil is a new winter malting barley cultivar developed by the method of experimental mutagenesis at the Institute of Agriculture, Karnobat, Bulgaria. Biological and agronomic characteristics of the cultivar were also investigated for several years and at the Executive Agency of Varietal Testing, Field Inspection and Seed Control trails in the period 2012 - 2013. Averaged for 6 locations in Bulgaria grain yield of the new cultivar was significantly higher than the yield of standard cultivars with about 5%. At the Institute of Agriculture grain yield was 17% higher than the average standard for the period of 5 years. The cultivar has high winter hardness, lodging resistance, resistance to powdery mildew and medium resistance to brown rust. Ahil has good malting quality
Powdery mildews are ascomycete pathogens that colonize a wide range of monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant species. They have an obligate biotrophic lifestyle, meaning that they can only reproduce on living plant cells. Some powdery mildews, for example the barley pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, have a very narrow host range and can only colonize a single plant species, while others have a broader host range and can infect multiple plant hosts. To obtain first insights into the molecular basis of the obligate biotrophic lifestyle of powdery mildew fungi we have initiated next generation sequencing-based genome projects of two species that colonize dicotyledonous host plants: Erysiphe pisi, the pea powdery mildew pathogen and Golovinomyces orontii, a powdery mildew species that colonizes the dicotyledonous reference species Arabidopsis thaliana. These efforts complement the genome sequencing of Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, conducted by a consortium of researchers in the U.K. ...
We analyzed the pathogenesis-related generation of H2O2 using the microscopic detection of 3,3-diaminobenzidine polymerization in near-isogenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines carrying different powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp.hordei) resistance genes, and in a line expressing chemically activated resistance after treatment with 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid (DCINA). Hypersensitive cell death inMla12 and Mlg genotypes or after chemical activation by DCINA was associated with H2O2accumulation throughout attacked cells. Formation of cell wall appositions (papillae) mediated in Mlg andmlo5 genotypes and in DCINA-activated plants was paralleled by H2O2 accumulation in effective papillae and in cytosolic vesicles of up to 2 μm in diameter near the papillae. H2O2 was not detected in ineffective papillae of cells that had been successfully penetrated by the fungus. These findings support the hypothesis that H2O2may play a substantial role in plant defense against the powdery mildew fungus. We ...
Virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a technology that has been used primarily to target the virus genome in infected plants. However, if the virus genome carries inserts derived from the host plant, the system could be employed to target the mRNAs corresponding to the host gene. Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV), a disease of various cereals including barley and wheat, has been one of the successfully used viral RNA silencing tools in monocotyledonous plants for the last decade. In this study, we investigated several factors that play a significant role in VIGS. We tested the efficiency of silencing two genes simultaneously using the BSMV-induced gene silencing (IGS) system in detail. We found that two genes could be silenced simultaneously using BSMV-IGS. However, the silencing efficiency was found to be influenced by several factors including stability of the insert, temperature, and the accumulation of small viral RNAs from BSMV. The effect of these factors on VIGS system has been ...
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Our main interest was the identification of barley genes most similar to Arabidopsis FT and hence most likely to be significant as floral pathway integrators. The barley genes that we identified correspond to rice genes in groups 1 and 2 of Figure 2. Group 3 genes may exist in barley, but no ESTs have been found and no clones were identified in our library screens, probably because the nucleotide sequence is too diverged.. Differences in gene number between rice and barley are primarily attributable to differences in the fate of duplicated genes. HvFT1 corresponds to OsFLT2 and -3, which are likely to be a recent duplication. OsFTL9-10 and OsFLT12-13 are pairs resulting from duplications within the rice genome (Paterson et al. 2003; Salse et al. 2004), but for the former we detected only an equivalent of OsFLT10 (HvFT3) and for the latter only the equivalent of OsFLT12 (HvFT4), suggesting that two genes have been lost from barley. HvFT3 and HvFT5 are likely to derive from a more recent ...
The influence of the carbohydrate (CHO) composition of cereal cultivars on microbial ecophysiology was studied using an in vitro model of the porcine gastrointestinal tract. Ten hull-less barley cultivars, six barley cultivars with hulls, six oat cultivars, and six oat groats that differed in beta-g …
矽3可以減少白粉病(Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)罹病度達80%》Rémus-Borel等人(2005)在水耕液中添加矽3以光學顯微鏡 電子顯微鏡和高效液相層析儀(High performance Liquid Chromatography, HPLC)分析矽減少小麥(Triticum aestivum)罹患白粉病(Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici)的機制3顯微鏡觀察發現白粉菌吸器(haustoria)瓦解處有酚化合物(phenolic-like material)堆積》由於小麥上並未曾有抗菌素(phytoalexins)之報導3以高效液相層析儀分析有或無添加矽的小麥植株3比較發現矽處理的白粉菌接種植株3至少有三種酚化合物量是比較高3顯示矽能夠在小麥-白粉菌組合上誘導抗病性》Samuels等人(1991)觀察胡瓜水耕液中添加矽3發現接種白粉病菌24小時後3矽除了累積於毛狀體基部外3亦累積於白粉病菌胞子及發芽管附近372 ...
Genetic improvement in phosphorus (P) use efficiency (i.e. the ratio of biomass or yield at nil P to that at a given rate of application) is an important goal to improve P recovery and P efficiency of farming systems. Experiments were conducted at three sites in South Australia between 2009 and 2011 to characterise genetic variation in yield with no applied P and in the response to P fertiliser among a diverse range of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes. In each experiment, 39-54 genotypes were grown at 0 or 30 kg P/ha. Responses to P were measured near the beginning of stem elongation by using normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and by harvesting the grain. Rhizosheath size was also measured on seedlings. Consistent differences in growth and yield at 0 kg P/ha were measured among the genotypes. By contrast, there were large environmental effects on responses to P, but some genotypes showed consistent responses. Measurements of growth, yield and P uptake on a subset of genotypes ...
Abstract: Yield and yield components evaluation of different hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes with objective determination of the best plant density and nitrogen fertilizer rate is necessary for obtaining maximum quality and quantity yield. In the first year, for these propose twenty genotypes were evaluated in aspect of quality and quantity yield. In second experiment, ten best genotypes selected from the first experiment were evaluated for agronomic factors such as plant density and N fertilizer rate application. Both experiments were conducted in Research Farm of Tarbiat Modarres University, College of Agriculture, Tehran, Iran during 2001-2003 growing season. The experimental designs of first and second experiments were Randomized Complete Block and Split-Split-Plot laid out in Randomized Complete Block designs, respectively, with three replications and a total of ten genotypes (as main plot), 2 levels of nitrogen fertilizer (90 and 120 kg nitrogen ha-1 as subplot) and 3 plant ...
In the present study, we utilized TALEN- and CRISPR/Cas9-induced mutations to analyze the promoter of the barley phytase gene HvPAPhy_a. The purpose of the study was dual, validation of the PAPhy_a...
miljea u paknreasnim ostrvcima koji dovodi do apoptoze beta ćelija pankreasa i razvoja DT1. Terapija DT1 podrazumeva doživotno unošenje insulina. Kako ovo sa sobom nosi potencijal kratkoročnih i dugoročnih komplikacija, ulažu se veliki napori u pronalaženje novih, efikasnih terapija u lečenju DT1. Jedan od potencijalnih pristupa u lečenju DT1 je korišćenje biljaka i njihovih ekstrakata koji se od davnina koriste u tradicionalnoj medicini. Napredak istraživanja u ovoj oblasti doveo je do saznanja da različiti biofenoli koji ulaze u sastav biljaka mogu ostvariti povoljna dejstva na patogenezu različitih oboljenja, što stavlja biljke i njihove ekstrakte u fokus naučnih studija. Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum (grčki origano) je biljka bogata fenolskim i estarskim jedinjenjima i koja se u tradicionalnoj medicini koristi kao antiseptik, kao i u lečenju stomačnih i respiratornih jedinjenja. Glavna do sada pokazana dejstva origana su anti-bakterijsko i antioksidantno, a pokazano je i ...
article{9adb9228-327d-4897-80c5-5e3c43e03fe1, abstract = {During biosynthesis of chlorophyll, Mg2+ is inserted into protoporphyrin IX by magnesium chelatase. This enzyme consists of three different subunits of approximate to 40, 70 and 140 kDa. Seven barley mutants deficient in the 40 kDa magnesium chelatase subunit were analysed and it was found that this subunit is essential for the maintenance of the 70 kDa subunit, but not the 140 kDa subunit. The 40 kDa subunit has been shown to belong to the family of proteins called ATPases associated with various cellular activities, known to form ring-shaped oligomeric complexes working as molecular chaperones. Three of the seven barley mutants are semidominant mis-sense mutations leading to changes of conserved amino acid residues in the 40 kDa protein. Using the Rhodobacter capsulatus 40 and 70 kDa magnesium chelatase subunits we have analysed the effect of these mutations. Although having no ATPase activity, the deficient 40 kDa subunit could still ...
Two riparian habitats in southeastern Arizona provide the setting for a study of 127 plants useful to human foragers. A view of plant part availability is based on annual phenological profiles, and on historic and prehistoric records of plant use. Food choice is limited in March and April, but high August through November. Riparian plants also offer numerous non-food resources. Trees and shrubs serve more needs in relation to number of available species than do perennial herbs (including grasses) and annuals. Southwestern ethnographic literature hints that certain native taxa (Panicum, Physalis, Populus, Salix, Typha and Vitis) might receive special care. Inherent qualities of parts, coupled with ethnographic records of preparation and use, provide a basis for speculation on which parts might survive in an ancient record. Most are expected to disintegrate in open sites. Parts sought for different needs can enter a dwelling via diverse routes that produce confusingly similar archaeological ...
If you have any question, please contact us at [email protected] Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (CIMMYT) © Copyright 2015. Carretera México-Veracruz. Km. 45, El Batán, Texcoco, México, C.P. 56237 ...
ABSTRACT: Hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) is a particular grain crop produced in Tibet, China. It has a wealth of dietary fiber, and every 100 g of barley flour contains: 0.32 mg of VB1, 0.21 mg of VB2, 3.6 mg of Vpp, and 0.25 mg of VE. It is also rich in mineral elements, such as calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, zinc, and selenium. These materials play a vital role in promoting human health. Research found that hulless barley contains the highest beta-glucan in barley and wheat crops with an average content of 6.57%. A good variety of hulless barley, No. 25, is even running at 8.6%. Beta-glucan is a polysaccharide that has special physiological functions. It can significantly improve cardiovascular function and also has a good curative effect in the treatment of diabetes. However, beta-glucan has a high viscosity. If hulless barley is used to brew beer, wort separation will be extremely difficult, and the stability of the finished beer will also be affected. Therefore, the ...
Gene re-sequencing and association analysis present new opportunities to study the evolution of adaptive traits in crop plants. Here we apply these tools to an extensive set of barley accessions to identify a component of the molecular basis of the flowering time adaptation, a trait critical to plant survival. Using an association-based study to relate variation in flowering time to sequence-based polymorphisms in the Ppd-H1 gene, we identify a causative polymorphism (SNP48) that accounts for the observed variation in barley flowering time. This polymorphism also shows latitude-dependent geographical distribution, consistent with the expected clinal variation in phenotype with the non-responsive form predominating in the north. Networks, genealogies and phylogenetic trees drawn for the Ppd-H1 haplotypes reveal population structure both in wild barley and in domesticated barley landraces. The spatial distribution of these population groups indicates that phylogeographical analysis of European ...
Acid soil is a prevalent problem over the world. The high concentration of Al in the acid soil is one of the major production limiting factors to many plants. Decades of studies have resulted in a significant progress in revealing the mechanism of Al tolerance in plants. Several key genes have been identified and the Al tolerance was validated to be related with gene sequence variations in some plants. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of most sensitive cereals to aluminum toxicity. This thesis was aimed at revealing the mechanisms of Al tolerance in barley using the marker development, QTL, association mapping and sequencing techniques. The major findings of the thesis are listed below ...
Dr. Detlef Förster. As Germanys association of technology- and patenttransfer agencies TechnologieAllianz e.V. is offering businesses access to the entire range of innovative research results of almost all German universities and numerous non-university research institutions. More than 2000 technology offers of 14 branches are beeing made accessable to businesses in order to assure your advance on the market. At www.technologieallianz.de a free, fast and non-bureaucratic access to all further offers of the German research landscape is offered to our members aiming to sucessfully transfer technologies.. ...
ID AY729541; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 310 BP. XX AC AY729541; XX DT 02-MAR-2005 (Rel. 83, Created) DT 22-OCT-2005 (Rel. 85, Last updated, Version 3) XX DE Banana mild mosaic virus clone 102_1 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) DE gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Banana mild mosaic virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Tymovirales; Betaflexiviridae; unassigned Betaflexiviridae. XX RN [1] RP 1-310 RX DOI; 10.1099/vir.0.81197-0. RX PUBMED; 16227242. RA Teycheney P.Y., Laboureau N., Iskra-Caruana M.L., Candresse T.; RT High genetic variability and evidence for plant-to-plant transfer of RT Banana mild mosaic virus; RL J. Gen. Virol. 86(Pt 11):3179-3187(2005). XX RN [2] RP 1-310 RA Teycheney P.-Y., Laboureau N., Iskra-Caruana M.-L., Candresse T.; RT ; RL Submitted (19-AUG-2004) to the INSDC. RL FLHOR, CIRAD, Station de Neufchateau - Sainte-Marie, Capesterre Belle-Eau RL F-97130, Guadeloupe, FWI XX DR MD5; c0f71b3b75d4fa7917436e0c479ff849. XX ...
ID AY729595; SV 1; linear; genomic RNA; STD; VRL; 310 BP. XX AC AY729595; XX DT 02-MAR-2005 (Rel. 83, Created) DT 22-OCT-2005 (Rel. 85, Last updated, Version 3) XX DE Banana mild mosaic virus clone 26_9 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) DE gene, partial cds. XX KW . XX OS Banana mild mosaic virus OC Viruses; ssRNA viruses; ssRNA positive-strand viruses, no DNA stage; OC Tymovirales; Betaflexiviridae; unassigned Betaflexiviridae. XX RN [1] RP 1-310 RX DOI; 10.1099/vir.0.81197-0. RX PUBMED; 16227242. RA Teycheney P.Y., Laboureau N., Iskra-Caruana M.L., Candresse T.; RT High genetic variability and evidence for plant-to-plant transfer of RT Banana mild mosaic virus; RL J. Gen. Virol. 86(Pt 11):3179-3187(2005). XX RN [2] RP 1-310 RA Teycheney P.-Y., Laboureau N., Iskra-Caruana M.-L., Candresse T.; RT ; RL Submitted (19-AUG-2004) to the INSDC. RL FLHOR, CIRAD, Station de Neufchateau - Sainte-Marie, Capesterre Belle-Eau RL F-97130, Guadeloupe, FWI XX DR MD5; 20678c8f94fca0beb3b3b54fff9b634a. XX FH ...
Autori: I. Bratu, M. T. Cotisel, G. Damian, A. Mocanu. Editorial: INOE&INFM, Journal of Optoelectronics and Advanced Materials, 9(3), p.675-677, 2007.. Rezumat:. Structural information of barley aleurone at various temperatures is obtained by analysis of the conformationally-sensitive amide I band using FT-IR spectroscopy. The second derivative spectrum was performed in order to overcome the bands overlapping due to the different C=O stretching vibrations of each type of secondary structure (i.e. alpha-helix, beta-sheet, turns and unordered). The results of quantitative analysis by curve fitting to the inverted second derivative spectra indicate perturbations of both alpha-helix and beta-sheet structures in thermal unfolding process, depending on the temperature values.. Cuvinte cheie: FT IR spectroscopy, Secondary structure, Proteins, Barley aleurone, Deconvolution. ...
The development of Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei on susceptible leaves of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., has been examined under the scanning electron microscope. Specimens were not subjected to pre-treatment and high accelerating voltages were used in the microscope. Studies on conidial germination, appressorial formation, host cell wall penetration and conidiophore formation are presented ...
Leaf diseases may range in severity from small, unimportant spots to large lesions that prematurely destroy large areas of the leaves. The relative severity of leaf infections often varies with weather conditions. Leaf diseases are generally favored by warm and humid conditions - typical of Missouri.. Leaf rust is seen as small, yellow-orange pustules on leaves and sheaths. Heavily infected leaves die prematurely, reducing kernel size and number. Early barley varieties generally escape serious rust attacks.. Powdery mildew is a common disease of barley. The fungus forms white to light gray powdery growth on the leaves, sheaths, stems and glumes. In heavy infections, powdery mildew can cause premature death of leaves, especially lower leaves. No varieties adapted to Missouri have resistance, but in most years the disease is not serious.. Net blotch is a common fungus disease of the leaves. The symptoms include a cross-hatched brown netting appearance. It can be quite serious in seasons of high ...
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of site potential, season and plant part on percent crude protein, percent digestibility of dry matter and yield of cereal residues. Three cereal types, club wheat (Triticum aestivum) tall, bearded wheat (T. aestivum), and barley Hordeum vulgare) were examined. Stress conditions more than actual site potential produced higher crude protein levels. Stress was usually the result of low soil moisture, though an interaction of soil moisture conditions and fertilization were believed to also be important. When fertilizer treatments were held constant for both high and low potential sites, crude protein levels in all three cereals were higher on the low potential sites. Prior to fall rains, crude protein in the leaves of club wheat and barley on the low potential sites ranged as high as 8 and 9 percent. Club and barley leaves on the high potential sites had only 2.2 and 3.4 percent crude protein, respectively. When only the high potential site ...
In plants, disease resistance mediated by the gene-for-gene mechanism involves the recognition of specific effector molecules produced by the pathogen either directly or indirectly by the resistance-gene products. This recognition triggers a series of signals, thereby serving as a molecular switch in regulating defense mechanisms by the plants. To understand the mechanism of action of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1, we investigated the fate of the RPG1 protein in response to infection with the stem rust fungus, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. The investigations revealed that RPG1 disappears to undetectable limits only in the infected tissues in response to avirulent, but not virulent pathotypes. The RPG1 protein disappearance is rapid and appears to be due to specific protein degradation via the proteasome-mediated pathway as indicated by inhibition with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132, but not by other protease inhibitors ...
Membranes in the mitotic apparatus have been investigated ultrastructually in dividing cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare). After osmium tetroxide- potassium ferricyanide or ferrocyanide postfixation (OsFeCN) of material that had been fixed in glutaraldehyde in the presence of Ca(++), the nuclear envolope (NE)-endoplasmic reticulum (ER) complex is selectively stained, permitting observations on the cellular pattern and structural ramifications of this membrane system that have not been previously recognized. Specifically, it is observed that membrane system that have not been previously recognized. Specifically, it is observed that during mitosis the NE-ER forms a continuous membrane system that ensheathes and isolates the mitotic apparatus (MA). Elements of ER progressively accumulate in the region of the spindle pole, becoming most concentrated by early anaphase. Within the MA itself, there are striking spindle- membrane associations; in particular, tubular elements of predominantly smooth NE-ER ...
In recent decades, research in barley has led to improvements in several biochemical and chemical characteristics (e.g. protein, starch, β glucans) associated with malt composition and end product quality (e.g. beer). Although lipids and fatty acids (FA) represent between 1 to 3% of the grain weight (dw), they can play an important role in barley grain and malt derived materials. However, the role of lipids and FA in both barley and malt quality is still not well understood. The aim of this article is to provide an overview on the role of lipids and FA in the chemical and industrial properties of barley grain, malt and wort ...
Previous researches on the absorption of various aqueous solutions by the seeds of Hordeum (barley) have been directed mainly to a study of the phenomena attending the diffusion of the solvent through the semipermeable covering of the seeds. The latter, however, is permeable not only to the water but also to certain classes of solutes in solution, such as the phenols and fatty acids; in fact, the membrane behaves in their presence as a selectively permeable one rather than a semipermeable one. In the present communication we deal more particularly with the extent to which certain of these permeable solutes enter the seeds together with the water, in the hope that the results may throw some light on the physical causes governing the phenomenon of selective permeability. A preliminary investigation having given the somewhat striking result that phenol and aniline solutions enter the seeds in higher concentration than the solutions in which they are immersed, we decided to make a series of ...
Seed growth and accumulation of storage products relies on the delivery of sucrose from the maternal to the filial tissues. The transport route is hidden inside the seed and has never been visualized in vivo. Our approach, based on high-field nuclear magnetic resonance and a custom made (13)C/(1) H double resonant coil, allows the non-invasive imaging and monitoring of sucrose allocation within the seed. The new technique visualizes the main stream of sucrose and determines its velocity during the grain filling in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Quantifiable dynamic images are provided, which allow observing movement of (13)C-sucrose at a sub-millimetre level of resolution. The analysis of genetically modified barley grains (Jekyll transgenic lines, seg8 and Risø13 mutants) demonstrated that sucrose release via the nucellar projection towards the endosperm provides an essential mean for the control of seed growth by maternal organism. The sucrose allocation was further determined by structural and ...
Major cereal crops including wheat (T. aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and rice (O. sativa L.) belong to the grass family Poaceae. Comparisons of genetic maps and DNA sequences have suggested that these grass genomes originated from a common ancestor 50-60 million years ago (Bennetzen and Freeling 1993; Kellogg 1998) and have similar gene composition and colinearity (Ahn and Tanksley 1993; Ahn et al. 1993). The number of functional genes in these crop plants is not known. The number of genes in rice estimated from genome sequence analysis ranges from 32,000 to 50,000 (Goff et al. 2002). In hexaploid wheat, the gene number estimates range from 75,000 to 150,000, or ∼10,000-20,000 gene loci per homoeologous group (Sidhu and Gill 2004). Here we report physical mapping of ,2000 loci (10-20% of the total) for wheat homoeologous group 6. We also show the general distribution of genes on the chromosomes.. Deletion mapping revealed significant differences among group 6 ...
The inorganic forms of Al in the soil solution that decrease plant growth in acid soils have not been clearly identified. Therefore, we examined the effects of Al and its complexes with F- and SO42- on the root elongation of barley (Hordeum vulgare) in nutrient solutions containing 3333 μmol Ca L-1 and 6 μmol B L-1 at pH 4.5. The anions were chosen because of their presence in the soil solution at levels sufficient to complex Al. The toxicity of 0 to 100 μmol Al L-1 was studied in the presence of 0 to 10 /μmol F L or 0-3300 μmol SO42 L-1. The elongation of roots of barley seedlings was correlated with Al3+ concentrations but not with total soluble Al or Al complexed with F and SO42-. This could be one of the reasons why measurements of labile Al using complexing agents have not always been successful at distinguishing between Al-toxic and nontoxic soils.
Rhynchosporium secalis can overcome a single resistance gene of barley in a relatively short period of time. Novel genes and quantitative trait locis (QTLs) are therefore vital to control scald in barley. A population of 220 double haploid lines was developed from a cross of Vlamingh and WABAR2147, where Vlamingh showed adult plant resistance (APR) and WABAR2147 showed seedling resistance to a group of isolates. The population was tested for APR to scald under natural infection in two consecutive seasons in addition to a seedling screen with three isolates. One single gene was mapped to chromosome 6H based on the seedling test, and two QTLs (QSc.VlWa.4H and QSc.VlWa.6H) were mapped to chromosomes 4H and 6H based on APR. Epistatic interaction was observed between the two QTLs, and environment/QTL interaction was only observed for QSc.VlWa.6H which co-segregated with the seedling resistance gene and contributed to basal resistance against scald during whole growth stages. QSc.VlWa.4H explained ...
studied using thirteen microsatellite markers and results compared to six European R. secalis populations. The genetic structure of P. teres was examined with four AFLP markers and compared to populations from Finland and Russia. Both studies revealed a significant differentiation between the Icelandic and European populations. The mean Fst value between the Icelandic R. secalis population and five Scandinavian populations was 0.165 and pairwise differentiation between the P. teres populations from Iceland and Finland was 0.640. Of the P. teres populations analyzed the gene diversity was highest in Iceland, with a value of 0.26, compared to 0.17 and 0.04 in the Russian and ...
Allotetraploid combinations of Pseudoroegeneria and Hordeum and are seen in Elmyus (HHStSt),[5] but also shows introgression ... One of the earliest branches in Triticeae, to Pseudoroegeneria, produces the genome StSt and another Hordeum then genome = HH. ... include Hordeum (Barley), Eremian, Psathyrostachys. The broad distribution of cultivars within the Tribe and the properties of ...
In agriculture, shattering is the dispersal of a crop's seeds upon their becoming ripe. From an agricultural perspective this is generally an undesirable process, and in the history of crop domestication several important advances have involved a mutation in a crop plant that reduced shattering - instead of the seeds being dispersed as soon as they were ripe, the mutant plants retained the seeds for longer, which made harvesting much more effective.. A particularly important mutation that was selected very early in the history of agriculture removed the "brittle rachis" problem from wheat.[1] A ripe head ("ear") of wild-type wheat is easily shattered into dispersal units when touched, or blown by the wind, because during ripening a series of abscission layers forms that divides the rachis into short segments, each attached to a single spikelet (which contains 2-3 grains along with chaff).. A different class of shattering mechanisms involves dehiscence of the mature fruit, which releases the ...
During the Great War the Canadian government had completely taken over the grain industry. The government created a series of boards in and around the war, each with progressively more power to control the grain trade. The Board of Grain Commissioners of 1912 was purely for regulation (to supervise grading, etc.), but by 1915 the government had seized control of all wheat exports to help the war effort, and by 1917 futures trading on the Winnipeg Exchange was banned. In 1917, the new Board of Grain Supervisors was given monopoly powers over wheat, and fixed uniform prices across the country. Soon after the Board took over marketing of crops as well. Farmers were worried that after the war prices would crash and various agrarian groups lobbied Ottawa to keep the Board in place. The government relented by creating the Canadian Wheat Board for the 1919 crop only. Farmers got a guaranteed price for that crop, paid immediately, and later a further payment once the Board had sold all harvest and made ...
Hordeum vulgare 125-162 GDD to emergence and 1290-1540 GDD to maturity ...
Hordeum vulgare) 14 [22] Aloe vera 14 The diploid chromosome number is 2n = 14 with four pair of long acrocentric chromosomes ...
Hordeum Vulgare. Orge. 25 cas relevés. [4],[5] Al-Aluminium. xxx. Solidago hispida (Solidago canadensis L). Gerbe-d'or, ...
Byg (Hordeum) er en slægt med 32 arter, som findes i Europa, Mellemøsten, Centralasien, Nord- og Sydamerika. Én art, almindelig ... An ecogeographical study of the genus Hordeum, 2nd ed. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome. ISBN 92-9043-229- ... byg (Hordeum vulgare) har stor økonomisk betydning som foderafgrøde og til fremstilling af malt. Andre arter er besværligt ... "Multiple intercontinental dispersals shaped the distribution area of Hordeum (Poaceae)". New Phytologist. 169 (3): 603-614.. ...
Hordeum vulgare. 14[21]. Ercis. Pisum sativum. 14[21]. Rye. Secale cereale. 14[21]. ...
Blumeria graminis ffsp hordei Strain:DH14, plant pathogen (2010). *Botrytis cinerea (Botryotinia fuckeliana) Strain:B05.10 and ...
Hordeum marinum (sea barley) - Europe, North Africa, southwestern and central Asia. *Hordeum murinum (보리풀) - Canary Islands, ... Hordeum halophilum - Argentina, Chile, Bolivia, Peru. *Hordeum jubatum (foxtail barley) - widespread in USA and Canada; Asiatic ... Hordeum bogdanii - from Turkey and European Russia to Mongolia. *Hordeum brachyantherum - Russia (Kuril, Kamchatka), Alaska, ... Hordeum brachyatherum - Chile. *Hordeum brevisubulatum - European Russia; temperate and subarctic Asia from Turkey and the ...
Barley (Hordeum vulgare). *Lettuce (Lactuca sativa). *Wheat (Triticum aestivum). Short-day plantsEdit. Short-day plants flower ...
Hordeum x Agropyrum hybrids. Hereditas 78:291-294. *^ Keller, W., 1945. An evaluation of kraft and parchment paper bags for the ... Haploidy from Hordeum interspecific crosses. I. Polyhaploids of H. parodii and H. procerum. Theor. Appl. Genet. 49:209 217. ... Production of a polyhaploid plant of Aegilops crassa (6x) pollinated by Hordeum bulbosum. Japan J. Genetics 52:39%401. ... A hybrid between Hordeum chilense and Tritieum aestivum. Cereal Res. Comm. 5: 365-368. ...
Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago. Findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites from the latest Cretaceous (Maastrichtian) aged Lameta Formation of India have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago.[11][12] In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae due to findings from the same deposit suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya.[13]. Wu, You & Li (2018) described grass microfossils extracted from a specimen of the hadrosauroid dinosaur Equijubus normani from the Early Cretaceous (Albian) Zhonggou Formation (China), which were found to belong to primitive lineages within Poaceae, similar in position to the Anomochlooideae. The authors noted that India became separated from Antarctica, and therefore also all other continents, approximately at the beginning of late Aptian, so the presence of grasses in both India and China during the Cretaceous indicates that the ancestor of Indian grasses ...
Haubruge E., Chasseur C., Suetens C., Mathieu F., Begaux F., Malaisse F. (2003). "Mycotoxins in Stored Barley (Hordeum vulgare ...
hordei causes powdery mildew of barley. LegumesEdit. Legumes, such as soybeans, are affected by Microsphaera diffusa.[23] ...
Emërtimi shkencor:Hordeum vulgare Elbi është bimë barishtore një vjeçare, i takon grupit të drithrave. ...
Tipski rod trav je latovka (Poa), odtod tudi poimenovanje družine Poaceae. Ime Poa izvira iz grščine in pomeni zelišče, trava, rastlina. Zastarel izraz za družino je Gramineae. Uporaba starejšega izraza je še vedno dovoljena: Poaceae = Gramineae Jussieu nom. cons. (nomina conservanda) et nom. alt. (nomen alternativum)[1].. Trave so kritosemenke (Magnoliophyta). V nasprotju z golosemenkami (Gymnospermae) je pri njih semenska zasnova v plodnici. Družina trav pripada redu travovci (Poales) in razredu enokaličnice (Liliopsida). Družina vsebuje približno 10.000 vrst, ki so razdeljene v 600 do 700 rodov. Trave so razdeljene v 13 poddružin, ki so po velikosti neenakomerno porazdeljene, potem so razčlenjene še v skupno 64 tribusov. Poddružine lahko glede na filogenetiko združimo v dve glavni skupini: „BEP-klad" in „PACC-klad".. ...
Hordeum pusillum was unknown in Mesoamerica, where there is no evidence of pre-Columbian barley cultivation. Evidence exists ... Bennett also postulates that references to "barley" could refer to Hordeum pusillum, also known as "little barley", a species ...
hordei - mieži;. *Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis - rudzi, mieži;. *Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici - kvieši, mieži. ...
Hordeum vulgare, barley uses the Entner-Duodoroff pathway.[4]. *Phaeodactylum tricornutum diatom model species presents ... there is direct evidence that Hordeum vulgare uses the Entner-Doudoroff pathway.[4] ...
Hordeum vulgare L.. Ječam. Poaceae. Introgresija. Potvrđeno. Hordeum spontaneum K.Koch. Homoploid. - Badr et al., 2000; Dai et ...
... is corns wun frae the annual gress (Hordeum vulgare). Thay are uised for tae feed ainimals an for tae mak beer and ...
ഇഅവയെ രണ്ടിനേയും ഒരു വർഗ്ഗമായാണ് പരിഗണിക്കുന്നത്, Hordeum vulgare. ഇതിനെ രണ്ട് ഉപവർഗ്ഗങ്ങളായി തിരിച്ചിരിക്കുന്നു. ഉപവർഗ്ഗം ...
Ang sebada (Ingles: barley) ay isang uri ng butil o angkak (mga sereales) [1] na nagmumula sa halaman o taunang damong Hordeum ...
The word itself is thought to have linguist roots tied to the word hordeum which in Latin means 'barley'.[41] In the Johns ...
இரு வரிசை வாற்கோதுமை (Hordeum distichum), நால் வரிசை வாற்கோதுமை (Hordeum tetrastichum) மற்றும் அறு வரிசை வாற்கோதுமை (Hordeum ... வாற்கோதுமை (Barley, Hordeum vulgare) புல் வகையைச் சேர்ந்த ஒரு தாவரமாகும். இது உணவாகவும் கால்நடைத் தீவனமாகவும் பயன்படுகிறது. இது ... Wolfgang Friedrich; Rudolf Galensa (2002). "Identification of a new flavanol glucoside from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and ... தற்கால வாற்கோதுமை பெரும்பாலும் Hordeum vulgare சிற்றினமாகும்.. இவற்றுள் இரு வரிசை வாற்கோதுமை மிகப் பழமையானது; காட்டின ...
Husted S, Mikkelsen B, Jensen J, Nielsen N (2004). "Elemental fingerprint analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) using ...
And why far and not triticum, hordeum, or the broader frumentum? Glans at least can be seen as the ancestor in some what of the ...
Hordeum vulgare L.)". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 266 (20): 13329-13335. PMID 2071605. Wagman, G.H.; Cooper, R. (1988- ...
hordeum > *órdi̯u > ordzu > Rom. orz 'barley', before stress Lat. rōgātiōnem > *rogati̯óne > *rogačone > Rom. rugăciune 'prayer ... Latin hordeum 'barley'; and Romanian mei, Aromanian mel'u, Megleno-Romanian and Istro-Romanian mel' < Latin milium 'millet' ( ...
Retrieved from "https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hordeum_jubatum&oldid=147027697" ...
Hordeum murinum (fr); Hordeum murinum (hu); Hordeum murinum (pl); Critesion murinum var. leporinum, Hordeum vaginatum, Hordeum ... Hordeum murinum (es); Egérárpa (hu); Hordeum murinum (ast); Hordeum murinum (ru); Mäuse-Gerste (de); Hordeum murinum (ga); ... leporinum, wall barley, Hare Barley, mouse barley (en); Musa hordeo (eo); Mäusegerste, Hordeum murinum (de); Hordeum murinum ( ... Hordeum murinum (vi); Попино прасе (sr); Hordeum murinum (az); Popino prase (sr-el); margall bord (ca); Hordeum murinum (pt); ...
Argentina Hordeum flexuosum - Uruguay, Argentina Hordeum fuegianum - Tierra del Fuego Hordeum guatemalense - Guatemala Hordeum ... Chile Hordeum × pavisii - France Hordeum procerum - Argentina Hordeum pubiflorum - Argentina, Chile Hordeum pusillum (little ... species of Hordeum in "Wildflowers of Israel": Spntaneous Barley, Bulbous Barley, Wall Barley, Hordeum marinum, Hordeum hystrix ... Central Asia Hordeum californicum - US (CA; OR; NV) Hordeum capense - South Africa, Lesotho Hordeum chilense - Argentina, Chile ...
Hordeum hystrix, Hordeum vulgare. *Crop Wild Relatives Gap Analysis Portal reliable information source on where and what to ... species of Hordeum in "Wildflowers of Israel": Spntaneous Barley, Bulbous Barley, Wall Barley, Hordeum marinum, ... Hordeum és un gènere de plantes de la família de les poàcies, que té prop 30 espècies. És natiu de lhemisferi nord de clima ... An ecogeographical study of the genus Hordeum, 2nd ed.. International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, 1995. ISBN 92- ...
Hordeum chilense is a species of wild barley native to Chile and Argentina. A diploid, it is used or being explored for use in ... 15 bis 2: 796 (1817) "Hordeum chilense Roem. & Schult". Plants of the World Online. Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic ... Rodríguez-Suárez, Cristina; Atienza, Sergio G. (2012). "Hordeum chilense genome, a useful tool to investigate the endosperm ...
click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Hordeum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery ... The Plants Database includes the following 16 species of Hordeum . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles ...
Hordeum. Strains i. › cv. Sundance. › cv. Svalofs Bonus. › cv. Triumph. › cv. Valticky. › cv. Villa. More » › cv. Vogelsanger ...
click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Hordeum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery ... The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Hordeum jubatum . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for ...
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Hordeum jubatum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hordeum_jubatum&oldid=5974805" ...
Hordeum guatemalense Bothmer etal. References[edit]. *Willdenowia. Mitteilungen aus dem Botanischen Garten und Museum Berlin- ... Genus: Hordeum Species: Hordeum guatemalense Name[edit]. ...
sp,P45850,OXO1_HORVU Oxalate oxidase 1 OS=Hordeum vulgare OX=4513 PE=1 SV=1 ... Hordeum vulgare (Barley). ,p>This subsection of the ,a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection"> ...
Hordeum species Hordeum spontaneum Name. Synonyms. Hordeum agriocrithon var. dawoense Åberg. Hordeum agriocrithon var. nudum Q. ... Hordeum agriocrithon Åberg. Hordeum decaisneanum Hook.f.. Hordeum decaisnei Boiss.. Hordeum distichon var. spontaneum (K.Koch) ... Hordeum ischnatherum (Coss.) Schweinf.. Hordeum ithaburense Boiss.. Hordeum ithaburense var. ischnatherum Coss.. Hordeum ... Hordeum spontaneum var. paradoxon A.E.Aberg. Hordeum spontaneum var. proskowetzii Nábelek. Hordeum spontaneum var. spontaneum. ...
MULTILOCUS STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF HORDEUM SPONTANEUM. A. H. D. Brown, M. W. Feldman and E. Nevo ... MULTILOCUS STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF HORDEUM SPONTANEUM. A. H. D. Brown, M. W. Feldman and E. Nevo ... MULTILOCUS STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF HORDEUM SPONTANEUM. A. H. D. Brown, M. W. Feldman and E. Nevo ... MULTILOCUS STRUCTURE OF NATURAL POPULATIONS OF HORDEUM SPONTANEUM Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
... diversity genome genotypes germination germplasm grain Group Hagberg Hereditas Hintum hordei hordein Hordeum spontaneum Hordeum ... Hordeum_vulgare_i.html?id=JOcsswWOIscC&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareDiversity in Barley (,i,Hordeum vulgare,/i,). ... Diversity in Barley (,i,Hordeum vulgare,/i,). R. von Bothmer,T. van Hintum,H. Kn pffer,K. Sato. No preview available - 2003. ... Diversity in Barley (,i,Hordeum vulgare,/i,). Volume 7 of Developments in Plant Genetics and Breeding. ...
... Miroslav Kvíčala. ,1 Eva Lacková. ,2 and Michaela ... Internal Reflectance Modelling of Hordeum vulgare Leaves During Drying,. Journal of Chemistry,. vol. 2013. ,. Article ID ... Primary leaf blades of Spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, cv. Akcent) were used for all measurements. The plants were growing in ...
... hordeum, Hordeum distychum, Hordeum dislichon, Hordeum murinum, Hordeum vulgare var Himalaya 292, Hordeum vulgare ssp ... In a randomized, single-blinded crossover study examining the effect of barley flour (Hordeum vulgare var Himalaya 292) and ...
va (Hordeum). von Wettstein-Knowles P (1993) Barley (Hordeum vulgare) 2N = 14. Genetic maps : locus maps of complex genomes.. ... This marker is a Binlocus in the Hordeum-Bins maps, i.e. a marker mapped in other crosses and located to the Steptoe x Morex ... GrainGenes Marker Report: var1 (Hordeum). [ Printable Version ] [ Submit comment/correction ]. td,th {vertical-align:top; ... http://ace.untamo.net/cgi-bin/ace/tree/default?class=Gene&name=var1+(Hordeum). ...
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Hordeum Poazeaen familiako eta Hordeum generoko belarrak dira. 30 espezie gutxi gora bera dira. Garagarra espezie bat da ( ... Hordeum hystrix, Hordeum vulgare. *Crop Wild Relatives Gap Analysis Portal reliable information source on where and what to ... species of Hordeum in "Wildflowers of Israel": Spntaneous Barley, Bulbous Barley, Wall Barley, Hordeum marinum, ... F. R. Blattner ,year=2004 ,title=Phylogenetic analysis of Hordeum (Poaceae) as inferred by nuclear rDNA ITS sequences ,journal= ...
The FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Sébastien Faure, Janet Higgins, Adrian Turner and David A. ... Five FT-like genes were found in barley (Hordeum vulgare). HvFT1, HvFT2, HvFT3, and HvFT4 were highly homologous to OsFTL2 (the ... The FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Sébastien Faure, Janet Higgins, Adrian Turner and David A. ... The FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare). Sébastien Faure, Janet Higgins, Adrian Turner and David A. ...
Hordeum sativum var. distichon (L.) Hack. Hordeum vulgare convar distichon (L.) Alef. Hordeum vulgare subsp. distichon (L.) ... Hordeum vulgare subsp. distichum (L.) Thell. Hordeum vulgare var. distichon (L.) Hook. f. Zeocriton distichon (L.) P. Beauv. ...
HORDEUM. BARLEY. Mary E. Barkworth. Annual, perennial herb, sometimes from short rhizomes. Stem decumbent to erect, generally ... Retrieve dichotomous key for Hordeum Overlay Consortium of California Herbaria specimen data by county on this map Show other ... Retrieve Jepson Interchange Index to Plant Names entry for Hordeum brachyantherum subsp. californicum ...
Hordeum vulgare, a monocot, is an annual grasslike herb that is not native to California. ...
Hordeum vulgare, a monocot, is an annual grass that is not native to California. ...
Amezrou, R., Gyawali, S., Belqadi, L. et al. Molecular and phenotypic diversity of ICARDA spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) ... Molecular and phenotypic diversity of ICARDA spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) collection. *Reda Amezrou1. , ... Manjunatha T, Bisht IS, Bhat KV, Singh BP (2007) Genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) landraces from ... Shakhatreh Y, Haddad N, Alravavah M, Gando S, Ceccarelli S (2010) Phenotypic diversity in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. ...
Plants summer or winter annuals or perennials; cespitose, sometimes shortly rhizomatous. Culms to 135(150) cm, erect, geniculate, or decumbent; nodes glabrous or pubescent. Sheaths open, pubescent or glabrous; auricles present or absent; ligules hyaline, truncate, erose; blades flat to more or less involute, more or less pubescent on both sides. Inflorescences usually spikelike racemes, sometimes spikes, all customarily called spikes, with 3 spikelets at each node, central spikelets usually sessile, sometimes pedicellate, pedicels to 2 mm, lateral spikelets usually pedicellate, pedicels curved or straight, sometimes all 3 spikelets sessile in cultivated plants; disarticulation usually in the rachises, the spikelets falling in triplets, cultivated forms generally not disarticulating. Spikelets with 1 floret; glumes awnlike, usually exceeding the floret. Lateral spikelets usually sterile or staminate, often bisexual in cultivated forms; florets pedicellate, usually reduced; lemmas awned or ...
2003) in Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) eds von Bothmer R, van Hintum T, Knüpffer H, Sato K (Elsevier, San Diego), pp 9- ... 2003) in Diversity in Barley (Hordeum vulgare) eds von Bothmer R, van Hintum T, Knüpffer H, Sato K (Elsevier, San Diego), pp 29 ... 2003) in Diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare) eds von Bothmer R, van Hintum T, Knüpffer H, Sato K (Elsevier, San Diego), pp ... Genetic evidence for a second domestication of barley (Hordeum vulgare) east of the Fertile Crescent. Peter L. Morrell and ...
Hordeum sativum distichum), a widely cultivated species in South Russia. In this study, H. sativumwas planted outdoors... ... Anatomy Barley (Hordeum sativum distichum) Cellular ultrastructure Copper Toxicity This is a preview of subscription content, ... 2018a). Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles on spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum). Science of the Total Environment, ... Effects of Cu toxicity from contaminated soil were analysed in spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum), a widely cultivated ...
click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Hordeum thumbnails at the Plants Gallery ...
Consensus map of barley from Xiaoquan Qi, 7/96 Reference: X Qi, P Stam and P Lindhout. 1996. Comparison and integration of four barley genetic maps. Genome 39:379-394. Chromosome 1 Locus Map Position, cM --------- ---------------- MWG2018 0.0 ABA301 2.3 ABG312 2.3 Plc 2.3 ABG704 2.3 RisBPP161A 2.3 ABG65B 3.1 dRpg1 3.1 ABG399B 3.1 ABG1B 3.7 MWG36B 4.6 MWG851A 4.6 ABG77 4.6 MWG555A 6.1 ABG75 6.8 RisIC10a 6.8 iPgd1A 7.8 ABR303 8.5 MWG2074 10.0 CDO420A 11.1 BCD129 11.6 MWG530 12.4 MWG807 12.4 MWG905 12.4 BCD130 13.4 CDO545 13.4 ABG320 13.4 PBI35 14.6 MWG799 14.6 iEst5 16.3 MWG2080 16.3 Glx(Wx) 16.8 Prx1A 18.4 MWG733B 18.4 cMWG703 19.7 His3A 19.7 WG789A 24.1 MWG564 24.1 ABC151A 24.1 WG834 25.4 ABC169A 26.2 CDO475 26.2 MWG89 28.0 cMWG773 29.0 ABC167A 29.6 dSbl 30.9 ABG497b 31.7 cMWG721 31.7 RisBPP161b 31.7 MWG832 31.7 MWG622 31.7 MWG980 31.7 MWG527 31.7 ABG380 31.7 ABG616 33.3 ABC158 37.2 ksuA1A 41.5 ABC154A 43.9 MWG836 46.5 ABG603 52.6 Brz 54.1 CDO36 55.1 CDO348 57.6 ABC465 57.6 ABC255 58.3 CDO771B ...
  • An ecogeographical study of the genus Hordeum , 2nd ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hordeum is a genus of annual and perennial plants in the grass family. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study we report the development of primers to amplify polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeats in the genus Hordeum , which includes cultivated barley ( H. vulgare ssp. (wiley.com)
  • A grain of the family of grasses, genus Hordeum, a food and the source of malt, which is required for producing beer, ale and whiskey. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The genus Hordeum has centers of diversity in central and southwestern Asia, western North America, southern South America, and the Mediterranean [ 7 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • This study contributes to the knowledge of speciation events in the barley genus Hordeum L. Reasons for unequal speciation rates in different monophyletic groups and geographic regions were analysed. (uni-halle.de)
  • Hordeum is a genus of thirty or so species (Blattner, 2009, lists 33) whose native range mostly covers Eurasia and the Americas though various species have been spread by humans pretty much throughout the world, either willingly or unwillingly. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Hordeum is one of the more basally diverging genera in the grass tribe Triticeae, previously discussed here in relation to the genus Elymus . (fieldofscience.com)
  • Unlike many other triticean genera, the concept of Hordeum has remained relatively stable with the exception that some authors have restricted Hordeum to the species H. vulgare and H. bulbosum , placing the other species in a genus Critesion . (fieldofscience.com)
  • Blattner (2009) divided the genus into five sections, four monophyletic ( sensu Ashlock, at least) sections corresponding to the four genome types found in Hordeum (see the Elymus post for an explanation of the concept of genome types) and an explicitly polyphyletic section Nodosa for species derived from hybrids between species of sections Marina and Stenostachys . (fieldofscience.com)
  • The association of alleles among different loci was studied in natural populations of Hordeum spontaneum , the evolutionary progenitor of cultivated barley. (genetics.org)
  • Baek HJ, Beharav A, Nevo E (2003) Ecological-genomic diversity of microsatellites in wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum , populations in Jordan. (springer.com)
  • Abdel-Ghani AH, Parzies HK, Geiger HH (2002) Estimation of outcrossing rate in Hordeum spontaneum and barley landraces from Jordan. (springer.com)
  • To address this problem, we crossed two Hordeum spontaneum lines originating from two habitats that differ in productivity. (springer.com)
  • Brown AHD, Zohary D, Nevo E (1978) Outcrossing rates and heterozygosity in natural populations of Hordeum spontaneum Koch in Israel. (springer.com)
  • Elberse I (2002) Genetic analysis of growth characteristics in Hordeum spontaneum under nutrient limitation. (springer.com)
  • The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Hordeum jubatum . (usda.gov)
  • Hordeum jubatum in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) , U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. (wikimedia.org)
  • Hordeum is most diverse in the Americas - 24 species are found naturally in the New World (including two, H. brachyantherum and H. jubatum , that are also native to northeast Asia) with 15 of those native to South America. (fieldofscience.com)
  • One species, Hordeum vulgare (barley), has become of major commercial importance as a cereal grain, used as fodder crop and for malting in the production of beer and whiskey. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hordeum species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the flame, rustic shoulder-knot and setaceous Hebrew character. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1753. Species Plantarum 1: 84-85 lectotype designated by Bowden, Canadian Journal of Botany 37: 679 (1959) Tropicos, Hordeum L. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 395 大麦属 da mai shu Hordeum Linnaeus, Sp. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1753. Flora of Pakistan Altervista Flora Italiana genere Hordeum includes photos + distribution maps of several species Cabi, E. & M. Doğan. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Plants Database includes the following 16 species of Hordeum . (usda.gov)
  • Hordeum chilense is a species of wild barley native to Chile and Argentina. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effects of Cu toxicity from contaminated soil were analysed in spring barley ( Hordeum sativum distichum), a widely cultivated species in South Russia. (springer.com)
  • For barley, the wide ecological range of the wild species ( Hordeum vulgare subsp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Six plant species were tested including barley ( Hordeum vulgare ), Jerry oats (Avena sativa), rye (Secale cereale), wheat (Triticum aestivum), perennial ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), and ReGreen (wheat x wheatgrass hybrid (Triticum aestivum x Thinopyrum intermedium). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chapin FS, Groves RH, Evans LT (1989) Physiological determinants of growth rate in response to phosphorous supply in wild and cultivated Hordeum species. (springer.com)
  • Their greatest difference is shown in the intercostal zones of the lower epidermis between the group constituted by the cultivated barley and its close wild relatives and the group constituted by the wild species of Hordeum and the taxa of Psathyrostachys and Hordelymus. (brillonline.com)
  • Moreover, the wild species of Hordeum, which belong to the latter group, differ from the taxa of Psathyrostachys and Hordelymus by the number of rows of long-cells in the intercostal zones and the quantity of short-cells. (brillonline.com)
  • It was demonstrated that the wild species of Hordeum must be independent as Critesion, and the circumscription of Hordeum only includes the cultivated barley and its close wild relatives. (brillonline.com)
  • Many quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in different barley populations were discovered for resistance to Puccinia hordei and heterologous rust species. (ajol.info)
  • The most significant of these species from a human perspective is Hordeum vulgare , barley, used in the making of refreshing beverages and the manufacture of eyewear. (fieldofscience.com)
  • Hordeum murinum subsp. (wikimedia.org)
  • UC/JEPS: Jepson Manual treatment for HORDEUM brachyantherum subsp. (berkeley.edu)
  • TNO Repository search for: subject:'Hordeum vulgare subsp. (tudelft.nl)
  • Genetic variation in component traits of heading date in Hordeum vulgare subsp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A failure of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicides to control a population of Hordeum leporinum Link [ H. murinum subsp. (weedscience.org)
  • CIL:39120, Hordeum vulgare subsp. (ucsd.edu)
  • Hordeum vulgare subsp. (ucsd.edu)
  • Kenneth R Miller, Gayle J Miller, Katherine R McIntyre (2011) CIL:39120, Hordeum vulgare subsp. (ucsd.edu)
  • Evaluation of the allelopathic potential of water-soluble compounds of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. (ac.be)
  • L'objectif est l'évaluation de l'activité d'auto- et d'alloinhibition des exsudats racinaires de l'orge ( Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. (ac.be)
  • The objective is the evaluation of the allo- and autoinhibition activity of root exudates of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. (ac.be)
  • Genes for scald resistance from wild barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In this work, we exploit the ph1 mutant to development new wheat germplas m carrying introgressions from Hordeum chilense, a wild barley with high potential for wheat breed ing due to its agronomical traits such as resistance to some diseases or high antioxidant content. (csic.es)
  • The wild barley Hordeum chilense fulfills some requirements for being a useful tool to investigate the endosperm yellow pigment content (YPC) in the Triticeae including its diploid constitution, the availability of genetic resources (addition and deletion stocks and a high density genetic map) and, especially, its high seed YPC not silenced in tritordeums (amphiploids derived from H . chilense and wheat). (biomedcentral.com)
  • ed. 15 bis 2: 796 (1817) "Hordeum chilense Roem. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hordeum chilense has a high potential as a genetic donor to increase the carotenoid content of wheat. (csic.es)
  • Hordeum chilense is one of the wild relatives with a high potential for cereal breeding, due to its high crossability (both interspecies and intergenera) and polymorphism for adaptation traits. (ebscohost.com)
  • Hordeum pusillum is a small annual grass with a rachis that falls apart when mature. (wnmu.edu)
  • Hordeum pusillum is found in disturbed ground in town. (wnmu.edu)
  • Hordeum pusillum Nutt. (usf.edu)
  • BASIONYM: Hordeum pusillum Nuttall 1818. (usf.edu)
  • Hordeum distichon L. (tropicos.org)
  • Hordeum (3) See also: Science: Agriculture: Field Crops: Cereals: Barley (4) Hordeum distichon - A short description and medicinal uses of the pearl barley. (floralibrary.com)
  • Description:NAME: Squirrel Tail Barley GrassOTHER COMMON NAMES: Foxtail BarleySCIENTIFIC NAME: Hordeum jubatumCOLOR: Purple, then silvery whitePLANT SEEDS: Outdoors after frost / Indoors weeks before last frostBLOOM TIME: SpringHARDINESS ZONE: 3 - 8PLANT HEIGHT: 12 - 18"PLANT SPACING: 12 - 24"LIGHT REQUIREMENTS: SunSOIL & WATER PREFERENCES: DryQUANTITY: 200 SeedsOTHER: You can tell from the pictures how this plant got its name! (artfire.com)
  • Could you address the dog injury question regarding Hordeum marinum and our local foxtail? (minnesotawildflowers.info)
  • Brantestam AK, von Bothmer R, Dayteg C, Rashal I, Tuvesson S, Weibull J (2006) Genetic diversity changes and relationships in spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm of Nordic and Baltic areas as shown by SSR markers. (springer.com)
  • Genetic analysis of the components of winterhardiness in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei, is an important disease of barley in many parts of the world. (apsnet.org)
  • High Resolution Mapping of RphMBR1012 Conferring Resistance to Puccinia hordei in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (frontiersin.org)
  • Leaf rust of barley is a serious disease caused by the biotrophic fungus Puccinia hordei Otth. (frontiersin.org)
  • They were infected with one homologous ( P. hordei isolate 1.2.1) and three heterologous ( Puccinia triticina isolate 'Flamingo', P. hordei -murini and P. hordei -secalini) leaf rusts in three replications at seedling stage to evaluate whether relatively large-effect QTLs show specificity in their reaction to homologous and heterologous rust isolates. (ajol.info)
  • Five FT -like genes were found in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ). (genetics.org)
  • From a preliminary evaluation test, 13 accessions from diverse geographic locations possessed resistance to P. hordei isolate VA90-34, which has virulence for genes Rph 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, and 11. (apsnet.org)
  • Prioritization of Candidate Genes in QTL Regions for Physiological and Biochemical Traits Underlying Drought Response in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (frontiersin.org)
  • Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. (plos.org)
  • Mapping and identifying genes for drought tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (secheresse.info)
  • Candidate genes for resistance and susceptibility to the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mapping genes for net form of net blotch and stripe rust in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (edu.au)
  • Actually it is correct and the English name in the USA is often quoted as Mouse Barley the Latin name of which would indeed be Hordeum murinum . (ukwildflowers.com)
  • Evaluation of susceptibility to loose smut (Ustilago nuda) and covered smut (Ustilago hordei) for developing a strategy to regulate seed transmitted diseases in winter barley seed production under organic farming. (orgprints.org)
  • Chaabane R, El-Felah M, Salah HB, Abdelly C, Ramla D, Nada A, Saker M (2009) Molecular characterization of Tunisian barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes using microsatellites (SSRs) markers. (springer.com)
  • Expression of resistance to Blumeria graminis in barley genotypes ( Hordeum vulgare L.) under field and controlled conditions. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence as a possible tool for salinity tolerance screening in barley ( Hordeum vulgare , L. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Póster presentado en Plant and Animal Genome XXI, celebrada en San Diego del 12 al 16 de enero de 2013. (csic.es)
  • Inheritance of plant height in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Emed. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Characterization of gibberellin receptor mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Molecular Plant, 1 (2), 285-294. (edu.au)
  • Distribution of15N in the soil-plant system during a four-year field lysimeter study with barley (Hordeum distichum L.) and perennial meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds. (diva-portal.org)
  • hordei) causes increased dark respiration, par tof which is associated with active host responses to infection, and a consequence of which is reduced plant growth. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a plant widely distributed and cultivated as cereal grain. (scirp.org)
  • Plant regeneration from embryogenic cell suspensions derived from anther cultures of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Heavy metal induced changes in peroxidase activity in leaves, roots and cell suspension cultures of Hordeum vulgare L", Plant peroxidases, biochemistry and physiology , C. Obinger, et al. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Isolates of P. hordei with virulence for Rph 7 appeared in this region in the early 1990s rendering barley cultivars with this gene vulnerable to leaf rust infection. (apsnet.org)
  • Eight different 2-row barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars were grown in controlled environment chambers at five different temperatures until maturity. (nofima.no)
  • Babakov, A. 2004-10-13 00:00:00 Regulatory changes in the activity of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase in salt-stressed roots were investigated using seven-day-old seedlings of two cultivars of barley (Hordeum disticum L.) with different salt tolerances: Moskovskii-121 (salt-tolerant) and Elf (salt-sensitive). (deepdyve.com)
  • Yücel M., Öktem H.A. Changes in Total Protein Profiles of Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) Cultivars in Response to Toxic Boron Concentration. (floralibrary.com)
  • Moore or Larker to characterize gene number and gene action for resistance to P. hordei . (apsnet.org)
  • All accessions for which the gene Rph 3 was postulated to govern leaf rust resistance, except for Deir Alla 105, likely possess an allele different than Rph 3.c found in Estate based on the differential reaction to isolates of P. hordei . (apsnet.org)
  • Unraveling possible association between quantitative trait loci (QTL) for partial resistance and nonhost resistance in food barley ( Hordeum vulgaris L. (ajol.info)
  • The timing of reproductive development determines spike architecture and thus yield in temperate grasses such as barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Reproductive development in barley is controlled by the photoperiod response gene Ppd-H1 which accelerates flowering time under long-day (LD) conditions. (uni-koeln.de)
  • Impact of the 7-bp deletion in HvGA20ox2 gene on agronomic important traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Allelic variation analysis and development of gene-specific molecular markers confering acid soil tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (edu.au)
  • Il s'est avéré que tous les traits des racines analysés ont été très sensibles en présence de l'orge. (ac.be)
  • Seedlings of F 1 , F 2 , and BC 1 F 1 populations were evaluated in the greenhouse for their reaction to P. hordei isolate VA90-34. (apsnet.org)
  • The leaf epidermises of 15 taxa of Hordeum, Psathyrostachys, and Hordelymus were examined under the light microscope. (brillonline.com)
  • Cuticular permeance in relation to wax and cutin development along the growing barley ( Hordeum vulgare ) leaf. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Hordeum vulgare , a monocot, is an annual grass that is not native to California. (calflora.org)
  • Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal grass mainly used as animal fodder and raw material for the malting industry. (k-state.edu)
  • grass Elymus tricoides, beardless wild rye Festuca arundinacea*, tall fescue Gastridium ventricosum*, nit grass Hordeum sp. (floralibrary.com)
  • Hordeum hexastichum L., orth. (usda.gov)
  • We were interested in the possible involvement of 14-3-3 proteins in the embryogenic process of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley microspore-derived embryo development was used as a model system. (tudelft.nl)
  • High magnification freeze-fracture image of a chloroplast from barley (Hordeum vulgare) illustrating the characteristic size and distribution of particles on the EFs and PFs faces of cleaved thylakoid membranes. (ucsd.edu)
  • High magnification freeze-fracture image of a chloroplast from barley (Hordeum vulgare)showing the occasional repeating array of tetrameric particles. (ucsd.edu)
  • Characterization of gibberellin receptor mutants of barley (Hordeum vu" by Peter M. Chandler, Carol A. Harding et al. (edu.au)
  • Characterization of gibberellin receptor mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (edu.au)
  • Establishment and characterization of embryogenic cell suspension cultures from immature and mature embryos of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. (semanticscholar.org)