Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.
A common parasite of humans in the moist tropics and subtropics. These organisms attach to villi in the small intestine and suck blood causing diarrhea, anorexia, and anemia.
A superfamily of nematode parasitic hookworms consisting of four genera: ANCYLOSTOMA; NECATOR; Bunostomum; and Uncinaria. ANCYLOSTOMA and NECATOR occur in humans and other mammals. Bunostomum is common in ruminants and Uncinaria in wolves, foxes, and dogs.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus ANCYLOSTOMA. Characteristics include anemia, dyspepsia, eosinophilia, and abdominal swelling.
A genus of nematode intestinal parasites that consists of several species. A. duodenale is the common hookworm in humans. A. braziliense, A. ceylonicum, and A. caninum occur primarily in cats and dogs, but all have been known to occur in humans.
Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.
Infection by nematodes of the genus ASCARIS. Ingestion of infective eggs causes diarrhea and pneumonitis. Its distribution is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation and where human feces are used for fertilizer.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
A species of parasitic nematode that is the largest found in the human intestine. Its distribution is worldwide, but it is more prevalent in areas of poor sanitation. Human infection with A. lumbricoides is acquired by swallowing fully embryonated eggs from contaminated soil.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
A benzimidazole that acts by interfering with CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM and inhibiting polymerization of MICROTUBULES.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
A genus of intestinal parasite worms which includes one of the most important hookworms of man, NECATOR AMERICANUS. The only other known species, N. suillus, has been recovered from pigs.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
Infection of the intestinal tract with worms of the genus OESOPHAGOSTOMUM. This condition occurs mainly in animals other than man.
A genus of nematode worms comprising the whipworms.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Substances used in the treatment or control of nematode infestations. They are used also in veterinary practice.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paraguay" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Paraguay is a country located in the central part of South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Bolivia to the north and west, and Brazil to the east and northeast. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!
A genus of nematodes of the superfamily STRONGYLOIDEA, parasitic in the intestines of animals. The adults are usually free in the intestinal lumen; the larvae encyst in the wall.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.

Independent evaluation of the Nigrosin-Eosin modification of the Kato-Katz technique. (1/210)

A new modified quantitative Kato-Katz thick-smear technique for the detection of helminth eggs in faeces preserves hookworm eggs unaltered for a long time, while with the classic Kato-Katz technique, they disappear after approximately 2 h in tropical climates and thus slides must be read within hours after sample collection. For an independent comparison of these two laboratory techniques, faecal smears from 263 school children were examined in two surveys and prevalence, intensity of infection and costs of surveys calculated. There was no statistical difference between the methods in detecting prevalence and stratification of the sample in different classes of intensity. While there was no statistical difference for the arithmetic mean of the epg for T. trichiura and only a small difference for A. lumbricoides (P=0.04), we observed a highly significant difference for hookworm mean intensities of infections (P<0.001). From the public health viewpoint both methods provided similar results, but due to its simplicity and widespread use the classical Kato-Katz technique remains first choice for community investigation of soil-transmitted nematodes. However, the Nigrosin-Eosin approach has several advantages and can be a valuable alternative in certain circumstances.  (+info)

Case studies in international medicine. (2/210)

Family physicians in the United States are increasingly called on to manage the complex clinical problems of newly arrived immigrants and refugees. Case studies and discussions are provided in this article to update physicians on the diagnosis and management of potentially unfamiliar ailments, including strongyloidiasis, hookworm infection, cysticercosis, clonorchiasis and tropical pancreatitis. Albendazole and ivermectin, two important drugs in the treatment of some worm infections, are now available in the United States.  (+info)

Evidence for an association between hookworm infection and cognitive function in Indonesian school children. (3/210)

The association between helminth infection and cognitive and motor function was investigated in school-age children in Java, Indonesia. 432 children from 42 primary schools participated in the study. Children were stratified by age and sex into two age groups, 8-9 years and 11-13 years. Children infected with hookworm performed significantly worse than children without hookworm infection in 6 of the 14 cognitive or motor tests. After controlling for school (as a random effect) plus age, socio-economic status and parental education, sex, stunting (height-for-age < - 2sd), body mass index, haemoglobin concentration and the presence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infections, infection with hookworm explained significantly lower scores on tests of Fluency (P < 0.01), Digit-Span Forwards (P < 0.01), Number Choice (P < 0.01), Picture Search (P < 0.03), Stroop Colour Word (P < 0.02) and Mazes (P < 0.001). In 4 of the 6-tests (Fluency, Number Choice, Picture Search and Mazes), there was a significant interaction between hookworm infection and age (P < 0.03), indicating that the association between hookworm and lower test scores increased with age. No associations were observed between hookworm infection and scores in tests of Digit-Span Backwards, Corsi-Block, Stroop Colour, Stroop Interference, Free Recall, Verbal Analogies, Bead Threading or the Pegboard (P > 0.05). Tests associated with helminths represented various functions of working memory. No significant associations between helminth infection and motor function were observed that could not be explained by chance. The results suggest that hookworm infection can have a significant adverse effect on children's working memory which may have consequences for a child's reasoning ability and reading comprehension. Although the results are only associational, the fact that differences in cognition were observed at baseline imply that preventing infection with helminths in school-age children could be of benefit.  (+info)

A controlled evaluation of two school-based anthelminthic chemotherapy regimens on intensity of intestinal helminth infections. (4/210)

BACKGROUND: School-based deworming programmes have been promoted as a cost-effective strategy for control of nematode infection in developing countries. While numerous efficacy studies have been conducted, there is little information on actual programme effectiveness in areas of intense transmission. METHODS: A randomized trial of a school-based deworming programme was conducted in 12 primary schools on Pemba Island, Zanzibar. Four schools each were randomized to control, twice a year deworming with single dose mebendazole or three times a year deworming. Baseline and 12-month follow-up data on helminth infection using the Kato-Katz technique, demographic information and nutritional status were collected on 3028 children from March 1994 to May 1995. RESULTS: Intensity of infection measured as eggs per gram of faeces (epg) declined significantly for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections in both treatment groups. A. lumbricoides infection intensity declined 63.1% and 96.7% in the twice and three times per year treatment groups compared to the controls. T. trichiura infection intensity declined 40.4% and 75.9% respectively and hookworm intensity declined 35.3% and 57.2% respectively compared to control schools. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that school-based programmes can be a cost-effective approach for controlling the intensity of intestinal helminth infection even in environments where transmission is high.  (+info)

Epidemiology of hookworm infection in Itagua, Paraguay: a cross sectional study. (5/210)

A cross-sectional study in Itagua, Paraguay tested 192 people for the presence, intensity and species of hookworm infection. Fifty-nine percent of these individuals were found to be infected. Intensity of infection was determined on 92% of infected individuals by quantitative egg counts. The high intensity hookworm infections, which cause the greatest morbidity, were clustered between the ages of five and 14 years. No differences were seen between genders. The species of hookworm was determined for parasites reared from 72% of infected individuals. Both Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were identified, although the former species predominated. We conclude that hookworm infection continues to be a public health problem in Paraguay, particularly among children and adolescents who suffer from high intensity infections. A. duodenale continues to persist in the Western Hemisphere and has not been completely displaced by N. americanus.  (+info)

Assessment of combined ivermectin and albendazole for treatment of intestinal helminth and Wuchereria bancrofti infections in Haitian schoolchildren. (6/210)

This randomized, placebo-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and nutritional benefit of combining chemotherapeutic treatment for intestinal helminths (albendazole) and lymphatic filariasis (ivermectin). Children were infected with Ascaris (29.2%), Trichuris (42.2%), and hookworm (6.9%), with 54.7% of children having one or more of these parasites. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria were found in 13.3% of the children. Children were randomly assigned to treatment with placebo, albendazole, ivermectin, or combined therapy. Combination treatment reduced the prevalence of Trichuris infections significantly more than either drug alone. Combination therapy also significantly reduced the prevalence and density of W. bancrofti microfilaremia compared with placebo or ivermectin alone. Only combination therapy resulted in significantly greater gains in height (hookworm-infected children) or weight (Trichuris-infected children) compared with the placebo group. Combined albendazole and ivermectin was a more efficacious treatment for intestinal helminth and W. bancrofti infections in children and resulted in nutritional benefits not found with either drug alone.  (+info)

Development of a highly specific recombinant Toxocara canis second-stage larva excretory-secretory antigen for immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. (7/210)

The specificity of the recombinant Toxocara canis antigen developed for the immunodiagnosis of human toxocariasis was compared with that of the excretory-secretory antigen from T. canis second-stage larvae (TES) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 153 human serum samples from patients infected with 20 different helminths, including 11 cases of toxocariasis, were examined. No false-negative reactions were observed for the toxocariasis cases. When the TES was used at concentrations of 0.5 and 0.125 microg/ml, cross-reactions were observed in 79 (55.6%) and 61 (43.0%) of 142 cases, respectively. In contrast, when the recombinant antigen was tested at a concentration of 0.5 microg/ml, cross-reactions were observed in 19 (13.4%) of 142 cases. At a concentration of 0.125 microg/ml, however, the cross-reaction rate decreased sharply to only 2.1%, corresponding to 3 of 142 cases. The cross-reactions occurred with one case each of gnathostomiasis, paragonimiasis with Paragonimus miyazakii, and spirometriasis, in which high antibody titers were detected. In addition, the recombinant antigen showed negative reactions with serum samples from patients infected with Ascaris and hookworms, which are the most common parasites in the world. These findings are also supported by experiments with animals infected with Ascaris and hookworm. From these results, the recombinant antigen is highly specific for toxocariasis and may provide more reliable diagnostic results than other methods.  (+info)

Palmar pallor as an indicator for anthelminthic treatment among ill children aged 2-4 years--Western Kenya, 1998. (8/210)

Infections with the soil-transmitted intestinal helminths (i.e., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm), estimated to affect approximately 1 billion persons, are among the most common and widespread human infections. Among children aged <5 years, intestinal helminth infections cause malnutrition and anemia, two important causes of mortality. Anthelminthic treatment (deworming) improves nutritional status of school-aged children. The World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) have developed guidelines that include interventions for anemia and malnutrition in the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) for children aged <5 years seen at first-level health-care facilities in developing countries. Under the IMCI guidelines, in geographic areas where hookworm or Trichuris infections are endemic, children aged 2-4 years with palmar pallor are treated with an anthelminthic drug. This report summarizes an investigation of the use of palmar pallor as an indication for anthelminthic treatment among ill children aged 2-4 years seen at first-level health-care facilities in rural western Kenya; the investigation found that palmar pallor was associated with anemia but not with intestinal helminth infection.  (+info)

Hookworm infections are parasitic diseases caused by the ingestion or penetration of hookworm larvae (immature worms) into the human body. The two main species that infect humans are Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale.

The infection typically occurs through skin contact with contaminated soil, often when walking barefoot on dirty ground. The larvae then penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and travel to the lungs where they mature further. They are coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, chronic hookworm infections can lead to serious complications such as protein malnutrition and heart failure. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-parasitic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the adult worms and allow the body to expel them. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene practices, wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, and regular deworming of at-risk populations.

Necator americanus is a species of parasitic hookworm that primarily infects the human intestine. The medical definition of Necator americanus would be:

A nematode (roundworm) of the family Ancylostomatidae, which is one of the most common causes of human hookworm infection worldwide. The adult worms live in the small intestine and feed on blood, causing iron deficiency anemia and protein loss. Infection occurs through contact with contaminated soil, often through bare feet, and results in a skin infection called cutaneous larva migrans (creeping eruption). After penetrating the skin, the larvae migrate to the lungs, ascend the respiratory tract, are swallowed, and then mature into adults in the small intestine.

The life cycle of Necator americanus involves several developmental stages, including eggs, larvae, and adult worms. The eggs are passed in the feces of infected individuals and hatch in warm, moist soil. The larvae then mature and become infective, able to penetrate human skin upon contact.

Preventive measures include wearing shoes in areas with known hookworm infection, avoiding walking barefoot on contaminated soil, improving sanitation and hygiene practices, and treating infected individuals to break the transmission cycle. Treatment of hookworm infection typically involves administration of anthelmintic medications, such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the adult worms in the intestine.

Ancylostomatoidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that includes the genera Ancylostoma and Necator, which are commonly known as hookworms. These parasites are primarily found in the small intestine of their hosts, which can include humans and other animals.

Ancylostomatoidea parasites have a complex life cycle that involves both free-living and parasitic stages. The life cycle begins when the parasite's eggs are passed in the feces of an infected host and hatch into larvae in the soil. The larvae then infect a new host by penetrating the skin, usually through contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the host, the larvae migrate through the body to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed, allowing them to reach the small intestine. Here, they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood, causing anemia and other symptoms of hookworm infection.

Hookworm infections can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, they can lead to anemia, intestinal obstruction, and even death. Prevention measures include wearing shoes in areas with contaminated soil, practicing good hygiene, and treating infected individuals to prevent the spread of the parasite.

Ancylostomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the hookworms, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. These tiny worms infect the human intestines, specifically in the small intestine, where they attach themselves to the intestinal wall and feed on the host's blood.

The infection is typically acquired through skin contact with contaminated soil, particularly in areas where human feces are used as fertilizer or where there is poor sanitation. The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the lungs, where they mature further before being coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine.

Symptoms of ancylostomiasis can range from mild to severe and may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, and fatigue. In severe cases, particularly in children or individuals with weakened immune systems, the infection can lead to protein-energy malnutrition, cognitive impairment, and even death.

Treatment for ancylostomiasis typically involves administration of anthelmintic medications such as albendazole or mebendazole, which kill the parasitic worms. Improved sanitation and hygiene practices can help prevent reinfection and reduce the spread of the disease.

Ancylostoma is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are commonly known as hookworms. These intestinal parasites infect humans and other animals through contact with contaminated soil, often via the skin or mouth. Two species of Ancylostoma that commonly infect humans are Ancylostoma duodenale and Ancylostoma ceylanicum.

Ancylostoma duodenale is found primarily in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Mediterranean, Africa, Asia, and southern Europe. It can cause a disease called ancylostomiasis or hookworm infection, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and impaired growth in children.

Ancylostoma ceylanicum is found mainly in Southeast Asia, southern China, and some parts of Australia. It can also cause ancylostomiasis, with symptoms similar to those caused by Ancylostoma duodenale. However, Ancylostoma ceylanicum infections are often less severe than those caused by Ancylostoma duodenale.

Preventive measures for hookworm infection include wearing shoes in areas where the soil may be contaminated with feces, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet or handling soil, and avoiding ingestion of contaminated soil or water. Treatment for hookworm infection typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to eliminate the parasites from the body.

Necatoriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Necator americanus, also known as the "New World hookworm." This condition is primarily found in areas with warm, moist climates and poor sanitation. The infection typically occurs when the larvae of the parasite penetrate the skin, usually through bare feet that come into contact with contaminated soil.

Once inside the human body, the larvae migrate to the lungs, where they mature and are coughed up and swallowed. They then reside in the small intestine, where they feed on blood and cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and growth retardation in children. Necatoriasis is usually treated with anthelmintic medications like albendazole or mebendazole. Preventive measures include wearing shoes in areas where the parasite is common and improving sanitation to reduce the spread of contaminated soil.

Ascariasis is a medical condition caused by infection with the parasitic roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. This type of worm infection, also known as intestinal ascariasis, occurs when people ingest contaminated soil, food, or water that contains Ascaris eggs. Once inside the body, these eggs hatch into larvae, which then migrate through the tissues and eventually reach the small intestine, where they mature into adult worms.

The adult worms can grow to be several inches long and live in the small intestine, where they feed on partially digested food. Female worms can produce thousands of eggs per day, which are then passed out of the body in feces. If these eggs hatch and infect other people, the cycle of infection continues.

Symptoms of ascariasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection. Mild infections may not cause any symptoms, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In some cases, the worms can cause intestinal blockages or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to potentially serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the adult worms and prevent them from producing more eggs. Preventive measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after using the bathroom and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

'Ascaris lumbricoides' is the medical term for a type of intestinal roundworm that can infect humans. This parasitic worm is one of the largest that can infest humans, and it is particularly prevalent in areas with poor sanitation and hygiene.

The life cycle of Ascaris lumbricoides begins when an infected person passes eggs in their feces. These eggs can then be ingested through contaminated food or water, or by accidentally ingesting soil that contains the eggs. Once inside the body, the larvae hatch from the eggs and migrate through the tissues to the lungs, where they mature further. They are then coughed up and swallowed, entering the digestive system again, where they mature into adult worms.

Adult female Ascaris lumbricoides worms can grow up to 20-35 cm in length, while males are smaller, typically around 15-30 cm. They live in the small intestine and feed on partially digested food. Females can lay tens of thousands of eggs per day, which are passed in the feces and can infect other people if they come into contact with them.

Symptoms of ascariasis (the infection caused by Ascaris lumbricoides) can vary depending on the number of worms present and the severity of the infestation. Mild infections may cause no symptoms at all, while more severe infections can lead to abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. In rare cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or migrate to other parts of the body, leading to serious complications.

Treatment for ascariasis typically involves medication to kill the worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole. Preventing infection requires good hygiene practices, including washing hands thoroughly with soap and water after using the toilet and before eating, and avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water.

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

Mebendazole is a medication used to treat various types of worm infections, such as roundworm, whipworm, hookworm, and threadworm. It belongs to a class of drugs called anthelmintics, which work by preventing the worms from absorbing nutrients, leading to their eventual death and elimination from the body.

Mebendazole is available in various forms, including tablets, chewable tablets, and suspensions. It is usually taken as a single dose or for several days, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that mebendazole is not effective against all types of worm infections, so it should only be used under the guidance and supervision of a healthcare professional. Additionally, while taking mebendazole, it's recommended to maintain good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently and avoiding contaminated food or water, to prevent reinfection.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

"Necator" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to infect humans. The most common species in this genus is "Necator americanus," which is one of the two major hookworms that cause human helminthiasis (a type of intestinal worm infection). Necator americanus, also known as the New World hookworm, primarily infects people through contact with contaminated soil. The larvae penetrate the skin and migrate to the lungs, where they are coughed up and swallowed, eventually reaching the small intestine, where they mature into adults and attach to the intestinal wall to feed on blood. Heavy infections can lead to iron deficiency anemia, protein loss, and impaired growth and cognitive development, particularly in children.

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

Trichuriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) Trichuris trichiura, also known as the whipworm. This infection primarily affects the large intestine (cecum and colon). The main symptoms of trichuriasis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss. In heavy infections, there can be severe complications such as anemia, growth retardation, and rectal prolapse. Trichuriasis is typically transmitted through the ingestion of contaminated soil containing Trichuris trichiura eggs, often through poor hygiene practices or exposure to contaminated food and water.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

Helminths are a type of parasitic worm that can infect humans and animals. They are multi-cellular organisms that belong to the phyla Platyhelminthes (flatworms) or Nematoda (roundworms). Helminths can be further classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminth infections are typically acquired through contact with contaminated soil, food, or water. The symptoms of helminth infections can vary widely depending on the type of worm and the location and extent of the infection. Some common symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and malnutrition.

Helminths have complex life cycles that often involve multiple hosts. They can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and in some cases, may require long-term treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. Preventive measures such as good hygiene practices, proper sanitation, and access to clean water can help reduce the risk of helminth infections.

Oesophagostomiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the nematode (roundworm) species Oesophagostomum. The infection primarily occurs in animals such as pigs, but can also affect humans, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation.

In humans, oesophagostomiasis is usually contracted through the consumption of contaminated vegetables or water containing infective Oesophagostomum eggs. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, penetrate the intestinal wall, and migrate to the large intestine where they mature into adult worms.

The adult worms live in the large intestine, particularly the cecum and ascending colon, and produce eggs that are passed in the feces. Symptoms of oesophagostomiasis can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. In severe cases, the infection can lead to intestinal obstruction or perforation.

Treatment for oesophagostomiasis typically involves the use of anthelmintic medications such as albendazole or mebendazole. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, cooking vegetables thoroughly, and avoiding the consumption of untreated water.

"Trichuris" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to infect the intestines of various mammals, including humans. The species that commonly infects humans is called "Trichuris trichiura," which is also known as the human whipworm. These worms are named for their long, thin shape that resembles a whip.

The life cycle of Trichuris involves ingestion of eggs containing infective larvae through contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, the larvae hatch and migrate to the large intestine, where they mature into adult worms that live in the caecum and colon. Adult female worms lay thousands of eggs every day, which are passed in the feces and can survive in the environment for years, waiting to infect a new host.

Infections with Trichuris trichiura can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, and weight loss. In severe cases, it can lead to anemia, malnutrition, and impaired growth in children. Treatment for trichuriasis typically involves medication that kills the adult worms, such as albendazole or mebendazole.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, known as an antigen. They are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens, neutralizing or marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Helminths are parasitic worms that can infect humans and animals. They include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminth infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection.

Antibodies to helminths are produced by the immune system in response to an infection with one of these parasitic worms. These antibodies can be detected in the blood and serve as evidence of a current or past infection. They may also play a role in protecting against future infections with the same type of worm.

There are several different classes of antibodies, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Antibodies to helminths are typically of the IgE class, which are associated with allergic reactions and the defense against parasites. IgE antibodies can bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators that help to protect against the worm.

In addition to IgE, other classes of antibodies may also be produced in response to a helminth infection. For example, IgG antibodies may be produced later in the course of the infection and can provide long-term immunity to reinfection. IgA antibodies may also be produced and can help to prevent the attachment and entry of the worm into the body.

Overall, the production of antibodies to helminths is an important part of the immune response to these parasitic worms. However, in some cases, the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with allergic reactions or other immunological disorders.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

Antinematodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by nematodes, which are also known as roundworms. These agents work by either killing the parasitic worms or preventing them from reproducing. Some examples of antinematodal agents include albendazole, ivermectin, and mebendazole. These medications are used to treat a variety of nematode infections, such as ascariasis, hookworm infection, and strongyloidiasis. It is important to note that the use of antinematodal agents should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

Aspartic acid proteases are a type of enzyme that cleaves peptide bonds in proteins. They are called "aspartic" proteases because they contain two aspartic acid residues in their active site, which are essential for their catalytic function. These enzymes work by bringing the two carboxyl groups of the adjacent aspartic acids into close proximity, allowing them to act as a catalyst for the hydrolysis of peptide bonds.

Aspartic acid proteases play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and viral infection. Some examples of aspartic acid proteases include pepsin, cathepsin D, and HIV-1 protease. These enzymes are often targeted by drugs for the treatment of diseases such as cancer, arthritis, and AIDS.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Paraguay" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in the central part of South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Bolivia to the north and west, and Brazil to the east and northeast. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Oesophagostomum is a genus of parasitic roundworms that infect the gastrointestinal tract of various mammals, including primates and pigs. The adult worms are typically found in the large intestine, where they lay their eggs, which are passed in the feces and can contaminate the environment.

In humans, Oesophagostomum infection is also known as "nodular worm" or "whipworm of the large intestine." The larvae hatch from the eggs and penetrate the skin, causing a pruritic rash. They then migrate to the lungs, where they cause coughing and other respiratory symptoms before being swallowed and passing into the gastrointestinal tract.

Symptoms of Oesophagostomum infection in humans can include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss. In severe cases, the worms can cause intestinal obstruction or perforation. Treatment typically involves administration of anthelmintic drugs to kill the parasites.

Anemia is a medical condition characterized by a lower than normal number of red blood cells or lower than normal levels of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is an important protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. Anemia can cause fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and a pale complexion because the body's tissues are not getting enough oxygen.

Anemia can be caused by various factors, including nutritional deficiencies (such as iron, vitamin B12, or folate deficiency), blood loss, chronic diseases (such as kidney disease or rheumatoid arthritis), inherited genetic disorders (such as sickle cell anemia or thalassemia), and certain medications.

There are different types of anemia, classified based on the underlying cause, size and shape of red blood cells, and the level of hemoglobin in the blood. Treatment for anemia depends on the underlying cause and may include dietary changes, supplements, medication, or blood transfusions.

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Nematode infections, also known as roundworm infections, are caused by various species of nematodes or roundworms. These parasitic worms can infect humans and animals, leading to a range of health problems depending on the specific type of nematode and the location of the infection within the body.

Common forms of nematode infections include:

1. Ascariasis: Caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, this infection occurs when people ingest the parasite's eggs through contaminated food or water. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and can cause abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In severe cases, the worms may obstruct the intestines or migrate to other organs, leading to potentially life-threatening complications.
2. Hookworm infections: These are caused by Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. The larvae penetrate the skin, usually through bare feet, and migrate to the small intestine, where they attach to the intestinal wall and feed on blood. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, anemia, and protein loss.
3. Trichuriasis: Also known as whipworm infection, this is caused by Trichuris trichiura. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal prolapse in severe cases.
4. Strongyloidiasis: Caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, this infection occurs when the larvae penetrate the skin, usually through contaminated soil, and migrate to the lungs and then the small intestine. Symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. In immunocompromised individuals, strongyloidiasis can lead to disseminated disease, which is potentially fatal.
5. Toxocariasis: This infection is caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, found in dogs and cats, respectively. Humans become infected through ingestion of contaminated soil or undercooked meat. Symptoms include fever, cough, abdominal pain, and vision loss in severe cases.
6. Enterobiasis: Also known as pinworm infection, this is caused by Enterobius vermicularis. The larvae hatch in the small intestine, mature into adult worms, and reside in the large intestine, causing perianal itching and restlessness, especially at night.

Preventive measures include:

1. Proper hand hygiene: Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet, changing diapers, handling pets or their feces, and before preparing or eating food.
2. Personal hygiene: Keep fingernails short and clean, avoid biting nails, and wear shoes in public areas, especially where soil may be contaminated with human or animal feces.
3. Food safety: Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly, cook meat properly, and avoid consuming raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or fish.
4. Environmental cleanliness: Regularly clean surfaces that come into contact with food, such as countertops, cutting boards, and utensils. Dispose of trash properly and maintain a clean living environment.
5. Pet care: Keep pets healthy and regularly deworm them as recommended by a veterinarian. Pick up pet feces promptly to prevent contamination of the environment.
6. Public health measures: Implement public health interventions, such as regular waste disposal, sewage treatment, and vector control, to reduce the transmission of parasitic infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular infectious disease. It typically contains an agent that resembles the disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and "remember" it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it encounters in the future.

Vaccines can be prophylactic (to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (to fight disease that is already present). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccinations are generally administered through needle injections, but can also be administered by mouth or sprayed into the nose.

The term "vaccine" comes from Edward Jenner's 1796 use of cowpox to create immunity to smallpox. The first successful vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, who showed that milkmaids who had contracted cowpox did not get smallpox. He reasoned that exposure to cowpox protected against smallpox and tested his theory by injecting a boy with pus from a cowpox sore and then exposing him to smallpox, which the boy did not contract. The word "vaccine" is derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 during a conversation with a fellow physician and later in the title of his 1801 Inquiry.

Helminth proteins refer to the proteins that are produced and expressed by helminths, which are parasitic worms that cause diseases in humans and animals. These proteins can be found on the surface or inside the helminths and play various roles in their biology, such as in development, reproduction, and immune evasion. Some helminth proteins have been identified as potential targets for vaccines or drug development, as blocking their function may help to control or eliminate helminth infections. Examples of helminth proteins that have been studied include the antigen Bm86 from the cattle tick Boophilus microplus, and the tetraspanin protein Sm22.6 from the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.

Hematologic pregnancy complications refer to disorders related to the blood and blood-forming tissues that occur during pregnancy. These complications can have serious consequences for both the mother and the fetus if not properly managed. Some common hematologic pregnancy complications include:

1. Anemia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the blood, which can lead to fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Iron-deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia during pregnancy.
2. Thrombocytopenia: A condition characterized by a decrease in the number of platelets (cells that help blood clot) in the blood. Mild thrombocytopenia is relatively common during pregnancy, but severe thrombocytopenia can increase the risk of bleeding during delivery.
3. Gestational thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (GTTP): A rare but serious disorder that can cause blood clots to form in small blood vessels throughout the body, leading to a decrease in the number of platelets and red blood cells. GTTP can cause serious complications such as stroke, kidney failure, and even death if not promptly diagnosed and treated.
4. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): A condition characterized by abnormal clotting and bleeding throughout the body. DIC can be triggered by various conditions such as severe infections, pregnancy complications, or cancer.
5. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets (HELLP) syndrome: A serious complication of pregnancy that can cause damage to the liver and lead to bleeding. HELLP syndrome is often associated with preeclampsia, a condition characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver and kidneys.

It's important for pregnant women to receive regular prenatal care to monitor for these and other potential complications, and to seek prompt medical attention if any concerning symptoms arise.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malaysia" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southeast Asia, consisting of thirteen states and three federal territories. If you have any questions about Malaysia's geography, culture, or people, I would be happy to try to help answer those! However, if you have a question related to medicine or healthcare, please provide more details so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb) is the main oxygen-carrying protein in the red blood cells, which are responsible for delivering oxygen throughout the body. It is a complex molecule made up of four globin proteins and four heme groups. Each heme group contains an iron atom that binds to one molecule of oxygen. Hemoglobin plays a crucial role in the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues, and also helps to carry carbon dioxide back to the lungs for exhalation.

There are several types of hemoglobin present in the human body, including:

* Hemoglobin A (HbA): This is the most common type of hemoglobin, making up about 95-98% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two beta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin A2 (HbA2): This makes up about 1.5-3.5% of total hemoglobin in adults. It consists of two alpha and two delta globin chains.
* Hemoglobin F (HbF): This is the main type of hemoglobin present in fetal life, but it persists at low levels in adults. It consists of two alpha and two gamma globin chains.
* Hemoglobin S (HbS): This is an abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause sickle cell disease when it occurs in the homozygous state (i.e., both copies of the gene are affected). It results from a single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain.
* Hemoglobin C (HbC): This is another abnormal form of hemoglobin that can cause mild to moderate hemolytic anemia when it occurs in the homozygous state. It results from a different single amino acid substitution in the beta globin chain than HbS.

Abnormal forms of hemoglobin, such as HbS and HbC, can lead to various clinical disorders, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and other hemoglobinopathies.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

"Agricultural Workers' Diseases" is a term used to describe a variety of health conditions and illnesses that are associated with agricultural work. These can include both acute and chronic conditions, and can be caused by a range of factors including exposure to chemicals, dusts, allergens, physical injuries, and biological agents such as bacteria and viruses.

Some common examples of Agricultural Workers' Diseases include:

1. Pesticide poisoning: This can occur when agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of pesticides or other chemicals used in farming. Symptoms can range from mild skin irritation to severe neurological damage, depending on the type and amount of chemical exposure.
2. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers can be exposed to a variety of dusts and allergens that can cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and farmer's lung. These conditions are often caused by prolonged exposure to moldy hay, grain dust, or other organic materials.
3. Musculoskeletal injuries: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries due to the physical demands of their job. This can include back pain, repetitive strain injuries, and sprains and strains from lifting heavy objects.
4. Zoonotic diseases: Agricultural workers who come into contact with animals are at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases, which are illnesses that can be transmitted between animals and humans. Examples include Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis.
5. Heat-related illnesses: Agricultural workers who work outside in hot weather are at risk of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Prevention of Agricultural Workers' Diseases involves a combination of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and training to help workers understand the risks associated with their job and how to minimize exposure to hazards.

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Behnke JM, De Clercq D, Sacko M, Gilbert FS, Ouattara DB, Vercruysse J (2000). "The epidemiology of human hookworm infections ... Necator americanus is a species of hookworm (a type of helminth) commonly known as the New World hookworm. Like other hookworms ... The efficacy of single-dose treatments for hookworm infections were: 72% for albendazole, 15% for mebendazole, and 31% for ... Hotez, Peter J; Bethony, Jeff; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Brooker, Simon; Buss, Paulo (2005). "Hookworm: "The Great Infection of ...
A light hookworm infection causes abdominal pain, loss of appetite, and geophagy. Heavy infection causes severe protein ... Hotez, P.J.; Pritchard, D.I. (June 1995). "Hookworm infection". Sci. Am. 272 (6): 68-74. Bibcode:1995SciAm.272f..68H. doi: ... Necator americanus are the two human hookworm species that are normally discussed together as the cause of hookworm infection. ... This hookworm is well known in mines because of the consistency in temperature and humidity that provides an ideal habitat for ...
Since the hookworm infection is very cheap and easy to treat, and since it requires infected feces to come into contact with ... "Hookworm Infection". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. September 11, 2008. Archived from the original on March 1, ... The hookworm parasite, found only in warm, moist climates where human feces contaminated with hookworm larvae has been left in ... The hookworm parasite is relatively mild, has few symptoms, and can pass completely unnoticed when the infestation level is low ...
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Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ (May 2006). "Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ... ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm". Lancet. 367 (9521): 1521-1532. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(06)68653-4. PMID 16679166. S2CID ... "How Johnson & Johnson Is Helping Save Children Around the World from Intestinal Worm Infections". Content Lab U.S. 2017-04-21. ... CWW's mission is to enhance the health and development of children by reducing intestinal worm infections. CWW's work focuses ...
... making the diagnosis of hookworm infection difficult. Signs and symptoms of hookworm infection vary by host and hookworm ... Humans can avoid hookworm infections by avoiding skin-to-soil contact, such as walking barefoot, in areas where hookworms are ... Treatment for hookworm infections depends on the species of hookworm and the species of the infected host. In humans, treatment ... Hookworms are intestinal, blood-feeding, parasitic roundworms that cause types of infection known as helminthiases. Hookworm ...
Quinnell RJ, Bethony J, Pritchard DI (2004). "The immunoepidemiology of human hookworm infection". Parasite Immunology. 26 (11- ... "Parasite Infection May Benefit Multiple Sclerosis Patients". sciencedaily.com. Wållberg M, Harris R (2005). "Co-infection with ... "Inhibition of Autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes by Gastrointestinal Helminth Infection". Infection and Immunity. 75 (1): 397-407. doi: ... This requirement of a T cell can be bypassed in rare instances, such as infection by organisms producing super-antigens, which ...
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"The diversity and impact of hookworm infections in wildlife". Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 6 (3): 177-194. doi:10.1016/j. ... Infection occurs by direct penetration through the skin of the host. Although the two species differ, they are both susceptible ... The hookworms, Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale, hatch as first-stage juveniles within the soil and develop to an ... The most appropriate control measures for hookworms and ascariasis are to concentrate chemotherapy on heavily infected ...
Gyorkos TW, Gilbert NL, Larocque R, Casapía M (April 2011). "Trichuris and hookworm infections associated with anaemia during ... especially at advanced stages Infection by intestinal nematodes feeding on blood, such as hookworms and the whipworm Trichuris ... and especially in sub-Saharan Africa where it is associated with infections including malaria and invasive bacterial infections ... Helicobacter pylori infection. Gluten-related disorders: untreated celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity. Anemia can ...
It is the only zoonotic hookworm species that is able to produce symptomatic infections in humans, with the majority of cases ... Brooker S, Bethony J, Hotez PJ (2004). Human hookworm infection in the 21st century. pp. 197-288. doi:10.1016/S0065-308X(04) ... They reach sexual maturity on and after 2 weeks after infection. Unlike the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma ... Ngui R, Lim YA, Chua KH (2012). "Rapid detection and identification of human hookworm infections through high resolution ...
Brooker S, Bethony J, Hotez PJ (2004). "Human hookworm infection in the 21st century". Advances in Parasitology. 58: 197-288. ... 2009). "Necator americanus infection: a possible cause of altered dendritic cell differentiation and eosinophil profile in ... The therapy has been tested against Hepatitis C, Chronic fatigue syndrome and HHV6 infection. Immune suppression dampens an ... Whipworm ova (Trichuris suis) and Hookworm (Necator americanus) have been tested for immunological diseases and allergies. ...
Hookworm and ascaris infections aggravated malnutrition and anemia, especially in children. Dysentery, both bacillary and ...
Those infected with whipworm often also have hookworm and ascariasis infections. These diseases have a large effect on the ... Trichuriasis, also known as whipworm infection, is an infection by the parasitic worm Trichuris trichiura (whipworm). If ... Infections in children may cause poor intellectual and physical development. Low red blood cell levels may occur due to loss of ... In areas of the world where the infections are common, often entire groups of people will be treated all at once and on a ...
... is a medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infections. This includes ascariasis, hookworm infections, ... enterobiasis (pinworm infection), trichostrongyliasis, and trichinellosis. It is taken by mouth. Side effects include nausea, ...
"Researchers Find Hookworm Infection Linked to Extreme Poverty in Rural Alabama". Equal Justice Initiative. 2017-09-05. ... Together, these permit the spread of intestinal parasitic infections, including hookworm. In 2019, JoAnn Kamuf Ward and Flowers ...
... percutaneous infection). Infection with hookworms often remains asymptomatic in cats. In more severe infestations, they can ... Hookworms are up to 1.5 cm long and are small intestinal parasites. The larvae of these hookworms are either ingested by eating ... Treatment of worm infections is mostly limited to cats kept in human care. Most infections are rather harmless for cats, since ... Nevertheless, infection via transport hosts such as rodents is the most common route of infection in adult cats. The larvae ...
Hookworm infection in the Australian sea lion (Neophoca cinerea). PhD thesis. The University of Sydney. http://hdl.handle.net/ ... Marine life portal Mammals portal Uncinaria sanguinis, a hookworm parasite of the Australian sea lion. Goldsworthy, S.D. (2015 ...
... is the condition of infection by Necator hookworms, such as Necator americanus. This hookworm infection is a type ... Hotez, P. J.; Brooker, S.; Bethony, J. M.; Bottazzi, M. E.; Loukas, A.; Xiao, S. (2004). "Hookworm infection" (PDF). The New ... Nonetheless, wearing shoes in endemic areas helps reduce the prevalence of infection.[citation needed] An infection of N. ... The most common technique used to diagnose a hookworm infection is to take a stool sample, fix it in 10% formalin, concentrate ...
The hookworm infections were first seen in 1845 Florida and 1850 Louisiana. This disease is thought to have been introduced ... The procedure involved injecting the infection into the patient, which resulted in a mild form of the disease. This led to a ... The parasite found the slaves as a reservoir for the infection of the mosquito. The mosquito then transmitted the parasite to ... The method was crude due to a lack of knowledge about infection and disease among medical practitioners. There was little ...
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Gongylonemiasis Hookworm infections, including cutaneous larva migrans caused by hookworms of genus Ancylostoma. A single dose ... It is used for the treatment of a variety of intestinal parasite infections, including ascariasis, pinworm infection, hookworm ... It is also given for infections by T. crassiceps. Though praziquantel is often better at treating tapeworm infections, ... Corticosteroids are sometimes added in cases of eye and CNS infections. Pinworm infection Filariasis; since albendazole's ...
... is a hookworm disease caused by infection with Ancylostoma hookworms. The name is derived from Greek ancylos ... If humans come into contact with larvae of the dog hookworm or the cat hookworm, or of certain other hookworms that do not ... but 25 percent in Ancylostoma infections, requiring re-treatment.[citation needed] Hookworm anaemia was first described by ... Light infections are usually left untreated in areas where reinfection is common. Iron supplements and a diet high in protein ...
Infection was found to be positively correlated with hookworm infection; however, the difficulty in distinguishing these ... This PCR method could potentially elucidate species-specific transmission pathways of hookworm-like infections and improve ... "Impact of repeated mass treatment on human Oesophagostomum and hookworm infections in northern Ghana." Tropical Medicine & ... Infection rates were low in children under 3 years of age, beyond that, rates of infection increased dramatically until 10 ...
Hookworm, and Trichuris Infections on Children's Anemia Burden". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2 (6): e245. doi:10.1371/ ... "Infection with Schistosoma mansoni correlates with altered immune responses to Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm". Acta Tropica ... HIV infection and opportunistic microbial infections and viral-caused malignancies like Kaposi's sarcoma[citation needed] ... herpes simplex virus co-infection exacerbates HIV infection with progression to AIDS,[citation needed] periodontal bacteria may ...
Hookworms have been linked to reduced risk of developing asthma, while Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm infection) was ... 2015). "Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease". Journal of Allergy and ... 2020). "Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease". Journal of Allergy and ... Trichirus suis removes any wider public health issues due to species-specificity and lack of chronic infection. The hookworm ...
... hookworm infection and whipworm infection. These three types of infection are therefore caused by the large roundworm A. ... Hookworm infection of STH is caused by N. americanus and A. duodenale. Mild infections produce diarrhoea and abdominal pain. ... cough and dyspnoea during early stage of infection. Hookworm infections insinuate a skin reaction (dermatitis), increased white ... Ascaris and hookworm eggs become infective as they develop into larvae in soil. Infection occurs when vegetables and fruits, ...
Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Hookworm infections), ascariasis, strongyloidiasis trichinosis, visceral larva migrans, ... Other infections associated with increased eosinophil blood counts include: protozoan infections, i.e. Isospora belli and ... A parasitic infection of nearly any bodily tissue can cause eosinophilia.[citation needed] Diseases that feature eosinophilia ... Several causes are known, with the most common being some form of allergic reaction or parasitic infection. Diagnosis of ...
Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm. Initially, itching and a rash may ... The term "hookworm" is sometimes used to refer to hookworm infection. A hookworm is a type of parasitic worm (helminth). List ... Hookworm infection is most concentrated among the worlds poorest who live on less than $2 a day. While hookworm infection may ... 2007) 43% infection rate of predominantly N. americanus although with some A. duodenale infection Both hookworm infection load ...
Hookworm infection is caused by roundworms. The disease affects the small intestine and lungs. ... Hookworm disease; Ground itch; Ancylostoma duodenale infection; Necator americanus infection; Parasitic infection - hookworm ... Hookworm infection is caused by roundworms. The disease affects the small intestine and lungs. ... Contact your provider for an appointment if symptoms of hookworm infection develop. ...
Hookworm Infections ✖ Remove constraint Subject: Hookworm Infections Story Section From Hookworm to Yellow Fever: Rockefeller ... From Hookworm to Yellow Fever: Rockefeller Foundation, 1919-1927. *The Yellow Fever Laboratory: Rockefeller Foundation, 1928- ... Foundation, 1919-1927 ✖ Remove constraint Story Section: From Hookworm to Yellow Fever: Rockefeller Foundation, 1919-1927 ...
Hookworm Infection - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer Version. ... Symptoms of Hookworm Infection Many people with hookworm infection do not have symptoms. However at the start of a hookworm ... Other hookworm infections Other hookworm species usually cause infections only in cats, dogs, or other animals. However, people ... People acquire the infection... read more and whipworm Whipworm Infection Whipworm infection is an intestinal infection caused ...
Intestinal hookworm infections are commonly asymptomatic. Attachment of the hookworms to the intestinal wall may stimulate ... Chapter 116-Hookworm infections. In: Guerrant RL, Walker DH, Weller PF, eds. Tropical Infectious Diseases. New York: Saunders ... Adult hookworms.. Adult hookworms reside in the small intestine of their hosts. A. duodenale males measure approximately 8-12 ... Hookworms in tissue, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E).. Adult hookworms in tissue, stained with hematoxylin and eosin ( ...
"Zoonotic Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworm Infections, Ecuador" 28, no. 9 (2022). Sears, William J. et al. "Zoonotic Ancylostoma ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum hookworms are recognized agents of human infection in the Asia-Pacific region. We investigated ... Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworms in Dogs, Grenada, West Indies Cite CITE. Title : Ancylostoma ceylanicum Hookworms in Dogs, ... "Bloody Diarrhea Associated with Hookworm Infection in Traveler Returning to France from Myanmar" vol. 21, no. 10, 2015. Export ...
Hookworm infection is acquired through skin exposure to larvae in soil con... ... Human hookworm disease is a common helminth infection that is predominantly caused by the nematode parasites Necator americanus ... Types of hookworm disease. Hookworm infection gives rise to the following 3 clinical entities in humans:. * Classic hookworm ... Although hookworm infection is now relatively rare in the United States, hookworm played an important role in the ...
This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hookworm and intestinal parasitic infections on Yo Island, a small island in ... were positive for hookworm species Necator americanus. One volunteer was coinfected with hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis ... The mHMFPC appeared better at detecting hookworm but numbers were small. Combined techniques are suitable for field use. ... using local plastic bag containers instead of test tubes for hookworm detection. Two hundred forty-seven volunteers (females = ...
Hookworm Infection. ...the condition "...Patients also can suffer from protein deficiency which manifests as dry hair, skin and ... Clostridium Difficile Infection. ...the condition "...Bad bacteria release toxins, which lead to a variety of symptoms, ... There is no pain or redness (unlike swelling caused by injury or infection), only a feeling of tightness if the swelling is ... In severe cases, however, the infection can have devastating effects, including the following ... Swelling of the brain ( ...
Hookworm) infection. A total of 24(12%) were infected. The rate of infection was high in AOCAY Staff primary schools than Root ... OJNPPbr20040801, Hookworm, Ancylostomiasis, Infection, Parasite, Host, Diagnosis Abstract. The study was conducted in Yandev ... INCIDENCE OF HOOKWORM (ANCYLOSTOMA DUODENALE) INFECTION BETWEEN TWO PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN YANDEL COMMUNITY OJN Preprints , ... Ukoro, F. O., Azenge, P. M. and Idogah, E. E. (2020). Incidence of hookworm (ancylostoma duodenale) infection between two ...
Arrested development in human hookworm infections: An adaptation to a seasonally unfavorable external environment. Science. ... Arrested development in human hookworm infections : An adaptation to a seasonally unfavorable external environment. In: Science ... Dive into the research topics of Arrested development in human hookworm infections: An adaptation to a seasonally unfavorable ... Arrested development in human hookworm infections: An adaptation to a seasonally unfavorable external environment. / Schad, G. ...
Results: The prevalence of hookworm was 22.3% [21%-24%]. Hookworm infection was associated with gender (AOR 1.31, 95% CI [1.03- ... Hookworm infection significantly decreases the school performance of children.. Conclusion: High prevalence of hookworm ... Epidemiology of Hookworm Infection in the School-age Children: A Comparative Cross-sectional Study Dept. of Epidemiology and ... Prevalence of Hookworm infection and hemoglobin status among rural elementary school children in Southern Ethiopia. Ethiop J ...
Whipworms are common soil-transmitted helminths that cause debilitating chronic infections in man. These nematodes are only ... Their transcriptome analyses and examination of T. muris infection in mice provide insights into host response to infection and ... functional data elucidate key aspects of the molecular host-parasite interactions that define chronic whipworm infection. ... Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367, 1521-1532 (2006). ...
... with hookworm, and 5.9% with Trichuris trichiura; co-infection was present in 46.7%. Low birthweight (LBW) (weight , 2,500 ... A group of 696 pregnant women from the Kwale district in Kenya were recruited and tested for malaria and helminth infection at ... The high prevalence of maternal infection coupled with a higher than expected percentage of LBW highlight a need for further ... Results of studies on the associations of maternal helminth infection and malaria-helminth co-infection on birth outcomes have ...
Most children with hookworm infections have no signs or symptoms. However, especially when the infection is long term, it can ... parasitic worms that can cause infections in the small intestines. The major species of hookworms associated with infections in ... Proper treatment of hookworm infections results in a high recovery rate. How Is the Diagnosis Made?. Reinfection is common. ... Hookworm diseases are most common in tropical and subtropical climates. These infections develop after a person has contact ...
A compound previously used in veterinary medicine could greatly improve the treatment of parasitic worm infections in humans. ... Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species of parasitic worms, including whipworms, hookworms and ... Emodepside for Trichuris trichiura and Hookworm Infection. The New England Journal of Medicine (2023), doi: 10.1056/ ... Worm infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths like roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides) pose an enormous health burden. ( ...
... but TFT and MM methods were not affected by the infection intensity. ,i,Conclusion,/i,. Hookworm is still a public health ... Inappropriate diagnosis could intimidate the prevention and control of hookworm infection. Thus, this study was aimed at ... The overall prevalence of hookworm was 63.24%. The test tube flotation technique (TFT) was found to be the highest both in ... The sensitivity of DWMM, KK, and FEC showed a kind of linear function with the intensity of infection, ...
Hookworm Disease. Hookworm infections in humans are usually caused by Ancylostoma duodenale or Necatur americanus, which ... About 60,000 persons die of the infection annually, but many infections do not cause symptoms. Hookworm is transmitted when ... Hookworm infection and anemia. Geneva: World Health Organization, 1991. *WHO. Epidemiology of leprosy in relation to control: ... This infection is not eradicable because of the nonhuman reservoir, the many asymptomatic infections of humans, and the fact ...
Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection, with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 25% (0.8-1. ... Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet. 2006 May 6. 367(9521):1521-32. [QxMD ... No immunity develops with past infections or treatment and other parasitic infections may coexist. A. suum infection is common ... However, a molecular genetic study from China casts doubt that infections in pigs are the cause of most human infection. [10] ...
However, hookworm is a serious infection. Safe mainstream usage is not possible as doctors are still grappling with whether ... So he swallowed a hookworm. After two years of living with the parasite, he published the results. ...
In the small trial run over a year, 12 participants were each experimentally infected with 20 Necator americanus (hookworm) ... Groundbreaking results were achieved in a clinical trial using hookworms to reduce the symptoms of celiac disease. The results ... Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease. Journal of Allergy and Clinical ... Hookworm infestation can be devastating in poorer tropical countries, where Professor Loukas and Dr Giacomin are working on a ...
Ancylostomiasis - Hookworm Disease One of the most common roundworm infections is hookworm. Like ascarids, hookworms are picked ... If humans come into contact with larvae of the dog hookworm or the cat hookworm, or of certain other hookworms that do not ... Many Strongyloides infections are mild and go unnoticed. Moderate infections may cause a burning pain in the abdomen. Nausea ... Infection results from eating eggs via hands, food, or drink. Severe infections in young children can result in serious disease ...
Categories: Hookworm Infections Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
Education and information about hookworm signs and symptoms. ... High-intensity hookworm infections occur among both school-age ... High-intensity infections with these worms are less common among adults. The most serious effects of hookworm infection are the ... Highly magnified histologic section showing hookworm (Ancylostoma sp) attached to the intestine. ...
Acevedo-Whitehouse, K.; Petetti, L.; Duignan, P.; Castinel, A. Hookworm infection, anaemia and genetic variability of the New ...
Infecting celiac disease patients with hookworms could help increase their gluten tolerance. ... Experimental hookworm infection and gluten microchallenge promote tolerance in celiac disease. The Journal of Allergy and ... Hookworms May Reduce Celiac Disease Patients Gluten Intolerance Symptoms. Sep 26, 2014 03:00 PM. By Justin Caba ... "We and others have had promising results in earlier trials, but this is clear proof-of-principle of the benefits of hookworm in ...
Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet, 2006, 367:1521-1532. ... lumbricoides infection. The most commonly known serious and lethal complication of A. lumbricoides infection is intestinal ... the most important risk factor for infection [2], is common [3]. A. lumbricoides infection occurs in all age groups but more ... A. lumbricoides infection was suspected as the patients mother gave a history of expulsion of one very big worm from the ear ...
AFSC/NMML/CCEP: Hookworm Intensity of Infection in California sea lion and Northern Fur Seal Pups in California, 1996 through ... Infection intensity in California sea lion gut and peritoneal cavity 2003 * Infection intensity in northern fur seal pup gut ...
  • This infection is due to larvae from the A. braziliense hookworm. (wikipedia.org)
  • People can become infected when walking barefoot because hookworm larvae live in the soil and can penetrate the skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • After 5 to 10 days of development, larvae are able to cause infection and can penetrate the skin. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Larvae of Ancylostoma duodenale can also cause infection when people consume food that contains the larvae. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These larvae are capable of re-activating and establishing patent, intestinal infections. (cdc.gov)
  • A. caninum- associated eosinophilic enteritis is believed to result following oral ingestion of larvae, not percutaneous infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Hookworm species have a worldwide distribution, mostly in areas with moist, warm climates where larvae can survive in the environment. (cdc.gov)
  • Other clinical manifestations of hookworm infection include an urticarial dermal reaction ("ground itch") associated with filariform (L3) larvae penetration, and respiratory involvement including eosinophilic pneumonia may be observed may occur during larval pulmonary migration A second urticarial rash may subsequently develop during pulmonary migration. (cdc.gov)
  • Hookworm infection is acquired through skin exposure to larvae in soil contaminated by human feces. (medscape.com)
  • HMFPC also has the advantage of being able to detect third stage larvae of hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis from culture and at this stage the species of hookworm can be identified [ 17 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In soil, hookworm eggs hatch and form larvae, which then burrow through the skin of a person's foot and crawl into the blood. (healthychildren.org)
  • Hookworm is a blood-feeding intestinal worm, and the mature larvae ingest the blood, rupture the erythrocytes, and degrade the hemoglobin by attaching to the gut wall, which results in iron deficiency anemia. (hindawi.com)
  • Infection occurs through oral ingestion of food or water contaminated by soil that contains embryonated eggs from human or pig feces that hatch in the small intestine within 4 days or direct ingestion of infected uncooked pig or chicken liver containing larvae. (medscape.com)
  • In the small trial run over a year, 12 participants were each experimentally infected with 20 Necator americanus (hookworm) larvae. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Hookworm larvae are notorious for burrowing into the soles of people's feet, as the New York Post mentioned. (hillspet.com)
  • Robertson L, Crompton D, Sanjur D, Nesheim M. Haemoglobin concentrations and concomitant infections of hookworm and Trichuris trichiura in Panamanian primary school children. (ac.ir)
  • Hookworm is one of the big three soil-transmitted helminths ( Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , and hookworm). (hindawi.com)
  • Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, collectively referred to as soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), are the most common intestinal parasites [ 7 ]. (ispub.com)
  • [ 4 ] Significant reductions in the prevalence of ascariasis, trichuris, hookworm infection, and strongyloidiasis have also been reported after starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), suggesting that HAART improves immunologic protection and control of helminth infection. (medscape.com)
  • 3 Unlike infections with other STH ( Ascaris lumbricoides , Trichuris trichiura , hookworm, and S. fuelleborni ), S. stercoralis can result in chronic, lifelong infection without adequate treatment owing to its autoinfection cycle. (cdc.gov)
  • Two common hookworm infections in humans are ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis, caused by the species Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hookworms ( Necator americanus and Ancylostoma spp. (medlineplus.gov)
  • H (a pruritic papular hypersensitivity response caused by the uman infections with Necator americanus and An- entry of helminths into the skin), epigastric pain, diarrhea, cylostoma duodenale hookworms continue to be and anemia in humans ( 11 - 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Albonico M, Stoltzfus R, Savioli L, Tielsch J, Chwaya H. Epidemiological evidence for a differential effect of hookworm species, ancylostoma duodenale or necator americanus, on iron status of children. (ac.ir)
  • The major species of hookworms associated with infections in humans are Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus. (healthychildren.org)
  • Hookworm eggs are deposited in the stools of infected people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 90% of dogs also of persons positive for hookworm eggs were infected with harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. (cdc.gov)
  • Doctors diagnose the infection by identifying hookworm eggs in a stool sample. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Hookworm eggs are passed in stool and hatch in the soil after 1 to 2 days if they are deposited in a warm, moist place on loose soil. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The life cycle of hookworms begins with the passing of hookworm eggs in human feces and their deposition into the soil. (medscape.com)
  • Adult hookworms live in the bowel and lay eggs that pass out of the child with the stool. (healthychildren.org)
  • A stool sample from your child will be tested in the laboratory to look for evidence of hookworm eggs. (healthychildren.org)
  • Exposure to infective eggs may occur when the person harboring the infection scratches the contaminated area (the area around the anus where the female worm deposits her eggs) and then transfers the eggs to the fingertips and from there to the mouth. (medhelp.org)
  • Diagnosis of pinworm infection is made by detecting characteristic eggs. (medhelp.org)
  • Hookworm is spread when an infected individual defecates outside, leaving behind stool that's contaminated with hookworm eggs. (wuwm.com)
  • Infections with Toxocara cati are most likely to be acquired by ingestion of eggs passed in the feces of infected animals and by eating prey such as mice that carry the parasites. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • However, around the time when they give birth, immunity to infection may be suppressed and significant numbers of eggs may be present in feces. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Infection is diagnosed by microscopic detection of eggs in feces. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Oftentimes, hookworm eggs are passed in the feces of infected dogs. (hillspet.com)
  • When an infected dog defecates outside, hookworm eggs are left behind on the soil. (hillspet.com)
  • Diagnosing hookworms in dogs is usually straightforward, involving taking a stool sample and examining a microscopic slide for the presence of hookworm eggs. (hillspet.com)
  • Ascariasis is the most common helminthic infection, with an estimated worldwide prevalence of 804 million cases in 2013. (medscape.com)
  • NT005 trade name] can also be used, alone or in combination with other medicines, for the control of soil- transmitted helminthiasis (ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm infections) through mass drug administration programmes. (who.int)
  • For the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and the control of soil-transmitted helminthiasis (ascariasis, trichuriasis, or hookworm disease), [NT005 trade name] is taken once or twice a year as needed (see WHO guidelines). (who.int)
  • Although ascariasis cases are usually asymptomatic, infection leads to malnutrition in children and causes about 3000-60 000 deaths every year, usually as a result of intestinal obstruction [5-7]. (who.int)
  • The DDDs are based on the treatment of different nematode infections e.g. ascariasis (roundworm) and hookworm infections. (whocc.no)
  • Ancylostoma ceylanicum , a hookworm of canids the basis of parasitologic surveys of fecal samples, hook- and felids in Asia, is becoming the second most common worms are estimated to infect 576-740 million persons hookworm infecting humans. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent molecular-based epidemio- hookworm infections in humans and dogs in a rural Cam- logic surveys have shown Ancylostoma ceylanicum to be bodian village. (cdc.gov)
  • of those, 52% harbored A. ceylanicum hookworms. (cdc.gov)
  • 19-73 million A. ceylanicum hookworm-infected persons anicum hookworms into 2 groups, 1 containing isolates from in regions where this zoonotic helminth is known to be humans only and the other a mix of isolates from humans endemic ( 7 ). (cdc.gov)
  • We hypothesize that preventative chemo- hookworm transmission to humans, and the prevalence of therapy in the absence of concurrent hygiene and animal A. ceylanicum hookworms in these animals ranges from health programs may be a factor leading to emergence of A. 24% to 92% in the Asia-Pacific region ( 6 , 8 - 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • thus, we advocate for a One Health anthroponotic helminths, A. ceylanicum hookworms have approach to control this zoonosis. (cdc.gov)
  • Finally, Ancylostoma ceylanicum , a hookworm of dogs, cats, and hamsters present in parts of Asia and some South Pacific islands, can complete its life cycle in humans and on occasion causes hookworm disease. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Classically, A. duodenale and N. americanus were considered the two primary intestinal hookworm species worldwide, but newer studies show that a parasite infecting animals, A. ceylanicum , is also an important emerging parasite infecting humans in some regions. (cdc.gov)
  • A. ceylanicum and A. caninum infections may also be acquired by oral ingestion. (cdc.gov)
  • Hookworm infections in humans include ancylostomiasis and necatoriasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the Analysis the Result shows that out of 100 samples collected from Root Primary Schools 6(6%) were positive and AOCAY staff schools 18(18%) were also positive on the incidence of Ancylostomiasis (Hookworm) infection. (org.ng)
  • They are one of three major groups of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), the others being Ascaris and hookworms, that impede the socioeconomic development of entire populations. (nature.com)
  • Worm infections caused by soil-transmitted helminths like roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides) pose an enormous health burden. (unibas.ch)
  • Ascaris infections are common throughout the world in both temperate and tropical areas. (medhelp.org)
  • High-intensity hookworm infections occur among both school-age children and adults, unlike the soil-transmitted helminths Ascaris and whipworm. (cdc.gov)
  • Another group of hookworms infecting animals can penetrate the human skin causing cutaneous larva migrans ( A. braziliense , A. caninum , Uncinaria stenocephala ). (cdc.gov)
  • A. caninum is the common dog hookworm. (cdc.gov)
  • and for treatment of existing larval and adult hookworm ( Ancylostoma caninum and Uncinaria stenocephala ) infections. (fda.gov)
  • There are several species of hookworms in dogs, including Ancylostoma caninum , Uncinaria stenocephala and Ancylostoma braziliense, to name the more common species found in the intestines of our beloved pups. (hillspet.com)
  • The main differential diagnosis for hemorrhagic enteritis in a puppy is hookworm ( Ancylostoma caninum ) infection. (vin.com)
  • Intestinal hookworm infections are commonly asymptomatic. (cdc.gov)
  • Usually A lumbricoides or A suum infection is asymptomatic. (medscape.com)
  • Some physicians believe that no treatment is necessary for pinworm infections that are asymptomatic, since children usually outgrow the infection as they grow older. (medhelp.org)
  • Similarly, infection with S. haematobium does not always result in clinical disease, and many infections are asymptomatic, S. haematobium infection however could cause haematuria, dysuria, nutritional deficiencies, lesion of the bladder, kidney failure, and an elevated risk of bladder cancer [ 18 ]. (ispub.com)
  • Hookworm infection is caused by roundworms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Worldwide, between 576 and 740 million people are infected with hookworms, which are intestinal roundworms. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Soil-transmitted helminth infections are caused by different species of parasitic worms, including whipworms, hookworms and roundworms. (unibas.ch)
  • In addition, high efficacy was also observed against roundworms and hookworms. (unibas.ch)
  • It treats adult intestinal roundworms and intestinal hookworms and controls flea infestations. (adlandpro.com)
  • It is also effective against roundworms, hookworms, and heartworms. (adlandpro.com)
  • It prevents infection from heartworm disease, hookworms, and roundworms. (adlandpro.com)
  • It also controls three dangerous intestinal worms (i.e., adult roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms). (petcarerx.com)
  • Ivermectin (Stromectol) is used for treatment for other parasitic infections including Hookworms (Ancylostoma braziliense), Large roundworms (Ascar. (mountainside-medical.com)
  • The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence, Prelabeled stool containers were distributed to the 218 associated risk factors, and infection dynamics of hook- study participants for collection of feces on the second worm species infection in humans and dogs living in a rural morning of the study. (cdc.gov)
  • Other hookworm species usually cause infections only in cats, dogs, or other animals. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fekadu D, Petros B, Kebede A. Hookworm species distribution among school children in Asendabo Town, Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. (ac.ir)
  • Human infection with Strongyloides stercoralis and other related Strongyloides species. (cdc.gov)
  • Hookworm infection is an infection by a type of intestinal parasite known as a hookworm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overview of Parasitic Infections A parasite is an organism that lives on or inside another organism (the host) and benefits (for example, by getting nutrients) from the host at the host's expense. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Together, these genomes and associated functional data elucidate key aspects of the molecular host-parasite interactions that define chronic whipworm infection. (nature.com)
  • Misdiagnosis of hookworm is unfortunate because a misdiagnosed patient may be given a treatment that is ineffective against the parasite, and therefore, it would not alleviate the patient's suffering or stop the progressive wasting of health [ 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Direct stool microscopy is solely used in all health care service providers in Ethiopia for intestinal parasite detection including hookworm infection. (hindawi.com)
  • Many dog parents are shocked when their veterinarian finds hookworms during routine fecal exams, but this isn't uncommon as many dogs infected with the parasite don't exhibit clinical signs. (hillspet.com)
  • It's also possible for a dog to spread hookworms to you by licking or kissing you on the mouth when they have the parasite in their mouth. (hillspet.com)
  • As president of the , he and his team are developing the first vaccines for hookworm, an intestinal parasite that affects 700 million people worldwide, as well as schistosomiasis. (kcur.org)
  • In this article, we will go through the most common leopard gecko parasite, we will look at ways to identify parasitic infections, as well as the prevention and treatment of these parasites. (snaketracks.com)
  • This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of hookworm and intestinal parasitic infections on Yo Island, a small island in Songkhla Province of southern Thailand. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Descriptive statistics were used to identify the prevalence of hookworm and binary logistic regression was used to identify the determining factors for hookworm. (ac.ir)
  • High prevalence of hookworm infection was observed. (ac.ir)
  • Nematode infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Brooker S. Estimating the global distribution and disease burden of intestinal nematode infections. (ac.ir)
  • Doses for the treatment of nematode infections are shown in the following table. (who.int)
  • This group comprises drugs mainly used for nematode infections. (whocc.no)
  • Whipworms are common soil-transmitted helminths that cause debilitating chronic infections in man. (nature.com)
  • Iron deficiency anemia caused by blood loss at the site of intestinal attachment of adult worms may occur especially in heavy infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The adult hookworms attach to the small intestine where they feed on blood and can cause iron-deficient anemia in individuals of all ages [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most serious effects of hookworm infection are the development of anemia and protein deficiency caused by blood loss at the site of the intestinal attachment of the adult worms. (cdc.gov)
  • Adult hookworms, from a dog. (wuwm.com)
  • Adult cats generally have some resistance to infection. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • With a hook-shaped mouth giving them their name, hookworms are highly contagious intestinal blood-sucking worms that adult dogs and puppies frequently get. (hillspet.com)
  • Lucky for us, the adult form of the hookworm doesn't infect humans and will die within a few weeks when inside of us. (hillspet.com)
  • The incubation period can vary between a few weeks to many months, and is largely dependent on the number of hookworm parasites an individual is infected with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) [https://www.cdc.gov/parasites/hookworm/biology.html]. (medscape.com)
  • A cross-sectional study was conducted among volunteers aged 15 and above to give one stool sample that was screened by wet mount for intestinal parasites and the modified Harada-Mori culture (mHMFPC) which is adapted from HMFPC, using local plastic bag containers instead of test tubes for hookworm detection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we conducted a prevalence survey of hookworm and other intestinal parasites using the mHMFPC method and wet smear to inform the parasitic disease control program. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One cause of intestinal obstruction by parasites is A. lumbricoides infection. (who.int)
  • Intestinal parasitic infections caused by protozoans and helminths are globally endemic and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease [ 5 6 ], in fact about one third of the world, more than two billion people, are infected with intestinal parasites [ 6 ]. (ispub.com)
  • School age children in developing countries are the most severely affected by polyparasitism with intestinal parasites and schistosomiasis and continue to bear the greatest health burden due to the infections [ 4 14 ]. (ispub.com)
  • This study aimed at determining the prevalence of intestinal parasites infections and associated factors among children in a rural primary school, Northwest Ethiopia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Some of these infections can be transmitted to humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • On cance and infection dynamics of this zoonotic hookworm in humans, dogs, and cats. (cdc.gov)
  • A compound previously used in veterinary medicine could greatly improve the treatment of parasitic worm infections in humans. (unibas.ch)
  • Strongyloidiasis in humans is mainly caused by Strongyloides stercoralis ( S. stercoralis), which is endemic to parts of the United States (U.S.). 1,2 Human infection with S. fuelleborni is rarer and has been reported from sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia, and S. fuelleborni subsp. (cdc.gov)
  • Echinococcus granulosus is the most frequent form of echinococcal infection in humans. (bvsalud.org)
  • Which furry (and not furry) friends are most likely to transmit infection to humans? (cdc.gov)
  • No symptoms or signs are specific for hookworm infection, but they give rise to a combination of intestinal inflammation and progressive iron-deficiency anemia and protein deficiency. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contact your provider for an appointment if symptoms of hookworm infection develop. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The frequent absence of symptoms notwithstanding, hookworm disease substantially contributes to the incidence of anemia and malnutrition in developing nations. (medscape.com)
  • Most children with hookworm infections have no signs or symptoms. (healthychildren.org)
  • Infected people can experience symptoms like stomach pain, diarrhea and anemia, while heavy infections can lead to malnutrition, impaired growth and physical development. (unibas.ch)
  • Groundbreaking results were achieved in a clinical trial using hookworms to reduce the symptoms of celiac disease. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Although an individual may have no symptoms over a long period, there may be repeated episodes of infection. (medhelp.org)
  • Folklore is filled with fantastic descriptions of symptoms and abnormal behavior attributed to pinworm infection. (medhelp.org)
  • When medicine is given, all members of the household should take it, regardless of whether they show symptoms of infection. (medhelp.org)
  • I've read that symptoms from hookworm can include diarrhea, weight loss, fatigue and abdominal pain. (wuwm.com)
  • Generally, GI symptoms are first recognized within 24h to 48h of infection and blood is frequently absent in the early stages of diarrhea. (vin.com)
  • Signs of advanced severe infection are those of anemia and protein deficiency, including emaciation, cardiac failure, and abdominal distension with ascites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hookworm infection is a roundworm infection of the intestines that can cause an itchy rash, respiratory and gastrointestinal problems, and eventually iron deficiency anemia due to ongoing loss of blood. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Severe, chronic infections can cause loss of blood and anemia that is sometimes severe enough to cause fatigue and occasionally heart failure and widespread swelling. (msdmanuals.com)
  • However, especially when the infection is long term, it can cause iron deficiency and anemia (low red blood cells) because of bleeding from the bowel wall where the worm is attached. (healthychildren.org)
  • With poor sanitation, repeated infections result in blood loss that can cause severe anemia. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Hookworm disease is the leading cause of anemia and protein deficits in developing nations, affecting an estimated 740 million people, mainly in the tropics of Africa (especially in sub-Saharan Africa), India and the Indian subcontinent, South America and Southeast Asia. (wuwm.com)
  • Over time, [the blood-feeding hookworms in your intestines] lead to a loss of iron, which leads to anemia. (wuwm.com)
  • Pale gums are a result of anemia that can develop as the hookworms ingest blood in the intestines. (hillspet.com)
  • In heavy infections, anemia and weight loss. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Initially, itching and a rash may occur at the site of infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heavy infections can occur in both children and adults, but are less common in adults. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, we investigated the globally, and over half of the infections occur in Asia and prevalence and infection dynamics of and risk factors for the Pacific regions ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, infection by A. duodenale may probably also occur by the oral and the transmammary route. (cdc.gov)
  • Several weeks after exposure to this hookworm, a loss of appetite and weight loss may occur. (healthychildren.org)
  • Occult blood in the stool may also be seen in heavy infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Direct wet mount of stool has a low sensitivity for detecting light helminthic infections [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pearson M, Pickering D, Tribolet L, Cooper L, Mulvenna J, Oliveira L. Neutralizing Antibodies to the Hookworm Hemoglobinase Na-APR-1: Implications for a Multivalent Vaccine against Hookworm Infection and Schistosomiasis. (ac.ir)
  • Hotez P, Bethony J, Diemert D, Pearson M, Loukas A. Developing vaccines to combat hookworm infection and intestinal schistosomiasis. (ac.ir)
  • Using standard parasitological techniques, intestinal parasitic infections and urinary schistosomiasis were assessed among school age children in Edda a semi-urban area of south-eastern Nigeria. (ispub.com)
  • Intestinal parasitic infections and urinary schistosomiasis have been described as diseases of poverty and underdevelopment because they have been linked to lack of sanitation, lack of access to safe water and improper hygiene [ 12 ]. (ispub.com)
  • In Nigeria intestinal parasitic infections and urinary schistosomiasis continue to constitute a major pubic health and developmental challenge especially among school age children. (ispub.com)
  • Hookworm diseases are most common in tropical and subtropical climates. (healthychildren.org)
  • As with other parasitic diseases, roundworm infections are more common in warm climates than in cooler, temperate areas of the world. (medhelp.org)
  • Certain diseases, including hookworms, are considered " zoonotic " because they can spread from animals to people. (hillspet.com)
  • According to a World Bank report, morbidity due to helminth infections accounts for an estimated 20% of the disability-adjusted life years lost due to infectious diseases in children less than 14 years old [ 15 ]. (ispub.com)
  • Some diseases have Bono or Angelina Jolie as their champions, but hookworm has only Peter Hotez. (kcur.org)
  • But ask people in the world of global health about his work to end diseases caused by hookworm and other parasitic worms and they'll agree with his self-assessment. (kcur.org)
  • These include Ebola, several parasitic diseases such as hookworm, strongyloides and scabies and some bacterial and fungal infections. (gresham.ac.uk)
  • One volunteer was coinfected with hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis and another with Endolimax nana and Blastocystis hominis . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Inappropriate diagnosis could intimidate the prevention and control of hookworm infection. (hindawi.com)
  • The prevention and control of hookworm infection involve many approaches like sanitary disposal of feces, early diagnosis, and chemotherapy and health education [ 7 - 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, the best solution to the problem rests in prevention of these infections rather than in their cure. (medhelp.org)
  • Hookworm infection and anaemia : approaches to prevention and control. (who.int)
  • Hookworm infection and anaemia : approaches to prevention and control / Z. S. Pawlowski, G. A. Schad, G. J. Stott. (who.int)
  • Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating the performance of hookworm diagnosis methods. (hindawi.com)
  • Hookworm infection is a soil-transmitted helminthiasis and classified as a neglected tropical disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hookworm disease is common in the moist tropics and subtropics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In developing nations, the disease leads to the death of many children by increasing their risk for infections that their bodies would normally fight off. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The important factor in getting the disease is walking barefoot on ground where there are feces of people who are infected with hookworm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hookworm is a neglected tropical disease (NTDs) that has a global distribution [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the existence of control programs, the hookworm disease burden remains high. (hindawi.com)
  • We and others have had promising results in earlier trials but this is clear proof-of-principle of the benefits of hookworm in treating inflammatory disease," Professor Loukas said. (sciencedaily.com)
  • To learn more about hookworm, we chatted with Dr. David Diemert , an infectious disease expert at George Washington University. (wuwm.com)
  • Hookworm is considered a neglected tropical disease. (wuwm.com)
  • Nexgard Plus for Medium Dogs 17.1-33LBS [Yellow] prevents heartworm disease and controls hookworm and roundworm infections. (adlandpro.com)
  • Studies have shown that coinfection with helminths in patients with HIV infection can increase cellular susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, which heightens susceptibility to HIV transmission, and down-regulating control of HIV-1 replication, which can augment viral replication and accelerate disease progression. (medscape.com)
  • [ 6 ] Having a better understanding of the interactions between helminths and HIV could influence HIV-1 acquisition, disease progression, interaction with helminth vaccination, and eradication of helminth infection. (medscape.com)
  • The infection is most common in tropical areas where sanitation is poor. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Historically, hookworm infection has disproportionately affected the poorest among the least-developed nations, largely as a consequence of inadequate access to clean water, sanitation, and health education. (medscape.com)
  • It is endemic in the Middle East and South America especially in under-developed countries where poor sanitation, the most important risk factor for infection [2], is common [3]. (who.int)
  • When you don't have proper sanitation or disposal of human waste, it's difficult to break the transmission of hookworm. (wuwm.com)
  • These infections develop after a person has contact with soil contaminated with human feces. (healthychildren.org)
  • Victoria, Australia (R.J. Traub) fully used to establish intraspecies genetic differences of DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2006.131770 many strongylid nematodes, including hookworms ( 18 - 21 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The anthelmintics are subdivided according to the main type of worms (i.e. trematodes, nematodes and cestodes) causing the infections. (whocc.no)
  • It's the larval form of the hookworm that's able to penetrate the skin of its unsuspecting host. (hillspet.com)
  • Ranjit N, Zhan B, Hamilton B, Stenzel D, Lowther J, Pearson M. Proteolytic Degradation of Hemoglobin in the Intestine of the Human Hookworm. (ac.ir)
  • Highly magnified histologic section showing hookworm ( Ancylostoma sp) attached to the intestine. (cdc.gov)
  • Functional and structural changes in the small intestine in children with hookworm infection. (bmj.com)
  • [ 1 ] These areas of heavy helminth burden have significant geographic overlap with a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection. (medscape.com)
  • The hookworm thrives in warm soil where temperatures are over 18 °C (64 °F). They exist primarily in sandy or loamy soil and cannot live in clay or muck. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim is to control infections with parasitic worms that are transmitted through the soil, so-called helminths. (unibas.ch)
  • Soil-transmitted helminth infections cause a great and frequently silent burden of morbidity and mortality on poor populations in developing countries that accounts for approximately 85% of the NTD burden [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Hookworm remains endemic on islands of the Caribbean and in Central and South America. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In the United States, it is the most common of all parasitic roundworm infections, affecting up to 32 percent of the country's children. (medhelp.org)
  • Several drugs are effective for treatment of roundworm infections in cats. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Certain preventive programs for heartworm infection also control intestinal roundworm infections. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • [ 4 , 7 ] Conversely, CD4 T-cell destruction from HIV-1 infection could also be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to or reduced clearance of helminth infection. (medscape.com)
  • High-intensity infections with these worms are less common among adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Failure to thrive is common among puppies with hookworms. (hillspet.com)
  • Worm infections are the most common afflictions of the world's poor in places like Asia and Africa. (kcur.org)
  • Hookworm infections are much less common. (snaketracks.com)
  • Helminth infections are common in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. (medscape.com)
  • Compared with patients who do not have HIV infection, reinfection has also been shown to be more common after antihelminth treatment in HIV-infected persons with low CD4 counts. (medscape.com)
  • CDC offers information for healthcare providers about many of the common zoonotic infections that may affect patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Worldwide, hookworms infect an estimated 576-740 million people. (medscape.com)
  • A. lumbricoides infection occurs in all age groups but more commonly in preschool children [4]. (who.int)
  • The most commonly known serious and lethal complication of A. lumbricoides infection is intestinal obstruction, caused by an aggregated mass of A. lumbricoides worms, which may develop acutely or subacutely [9]. (who.int)
  • BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitoses are among the most commonly encountered infections among school children in poor regions of the world. (bvsalud.org)
  • Attachment of the hookworms to the intestinal wall may stimulate abdominal pain, nausea, and anorexia. (cdc.gov)
  • Human behaviours and engineering should be seen as much a part of our defences against respiratory infections as drugs and vaccines. (gresham.ac.uk)
  • Does it hurt when the hookworms burrow into you? (wuwm.com)
  • Sometimes, you may notice your dog itching, or you might see a rash on their paws because hookworms cause discomfort when they burrow into the skin. (hillspet.com)
  • Hookworm infestation can be devastating in poorer tropical countries, where Professor Loukas and Dr Giacomin are working on a vaccine to help the 740 million who are infected. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Kronenberg points out that the epithelial cell-ADM-ILC2 connection protected mice from hookworm infections, which damage the lungs and gut. (eurekalert.org)
  • A dog can get hookworms via ingestion as well. (hillspet.com)
  • Hookworms are small (less than 0.5 inches long) parasitic worms that can cause infections in the small intestines. (healthychildren.org)
  • The most damaging effects of hookworm infections include impaired physical, intellectual, and cognitive development of children, increased mortality in pregnant women and their infants, and reduced work capacity of adolescents and adults [ 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • For dogs with severe hookworm infestations, additional treatments may be needed. (hillspet.com)
  • Hookworm] can result in loss of pregnancy or other poor outcomes like underdeveloped babies. (wuwm.com)
  • The overall theme of the DDC is "Molecular mechanisms and outcomes of injury, infection, or metabolic dysfunction of the digestive system. (bcm.edu)
  • Because pinworm infection is spread mainly by children, this infection is most prevalent in family groups, day care centers, schools, and camps. (medhelp.org)
  • and routine hand washing, particularly after using the bathroom, will help prevent pinworm infection or reinfection. (medhelp.org)
  • Leos are generally active in nature so if your leo sleeps a lot and moves slowly, it may be suffering from a pinworm infection. (snaketracks.com)
  • Healthcare providers should also always consider the potential for a zoonotic infection when seeing sick patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Globally more than 740 million peoples are infected with hookworm. (ac.ir)
  • 1.2 billion infections globally [1]. (who.int)
  • It is estimated that globally A. lumbricoides infects 1.221 billion people, T. trichiura 795 million, and hookworms 740 million [ 8 ]. (ispub.com)
  • Introduction Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) are the most frequent adverse event compromising patient safety globally. (bmj.com)