Honey: A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Beekeeping: The management and maintenance of colonies of honeybees.Leptospermum: A plant genus of the family MYRTACEAE. The common name of tea tree is also used for MELALEUCA and KUNZEA.Apitherapy: The medical use of honey bee products such as BEE VENOM; HONEY; bee pollen; PROPOLIS; and royal jelly.Colony Collapse: The sudden collapse and disappearance or diminution of a colony of organisms.Varroidae: A family of MITES in the subclass ACARI. It includes the single genus Varroa.Nosema: A genus of parasitic FUNGI in the family Nosematidae. Some species are pathogenic for invertebrates of economic importance while others are being researched for possible roles in controlling pest INSECTS. They are also pathogenic in humans.Acacia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. The gums and tanning agents obtained from Acacia are called GUM ARABIC. The common name of catechu is more often used for Areca catechu (ARECA).Dicistroviridae: A family of invertebrate RNA viruses in the order Picornavirales.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Submarine Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of people in submarines or sealabs.Mustelidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long, slender bodies, long tails, and anal scent glands. They include badgers, weasels, martens, FERRETS; MINKS; wolverines, polecats, and OTTERS.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Hoof and Claw: Highly keratinized processes that are sharp and curved, or flat with pointed margins. They are found especially at the end of the limbs in certain animals.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Parenteral Nutrition, Total: The delivery of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient whose sole source of nutrients is via solutions administered intravenously, subcutaneously, or by some other non-alimentary route. The basic components of TPN solutions are protein hydrolysates or free amino acid mixtures, monosaccharides, and electrolytes. Components are selected for their ability to reverse catabolism, promote anabolism, and build structural proteins.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.Gleditsia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains gleditsiosides (triterpenoid SAPONINS).Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Marsupialia: An infraclass of MAMMALS, also called Metatheria, where the young are born at an early stage of development and continue to develop in a pouch (marsupium). In contrast to Eutheria (placentals), marsupials have an incomplete PLACENTA.Atelinae: A subfamily in the family ATELIDAE, comprising three genera: woolly monkeys (Lagothrix), spider monkeys (Ateles), and woolly spider monkeys (Brachyteles).Trichosurus: A genus of brush-tailed possums found chiefly in Australia and New Zealand. Secretions from their ANAL GLAND function both in defense and demarcating territory.Dictionaries, MedicalVolunteers: Persons who donate their services.Trust: Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Moringa oleifera: A plant species of the family Moringaceae, order Capparales, subclass Dilleniidae. It is a source of niaziminin and hypotensive thiocarbamate glycosides.Vocational Guidance: Systematic efforts to assist individuals in selecting an occupation or suitable employment on the basis of aptitude, education, etc.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Family Leave: The authorized absence from work of a family member to attend the illness or participate in the care of a parent, a sibling, or other family member. For the care of a parent for a child or for pre- or postnatal leave of a parent, PARENTAL LEAVE is available.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Soy Foods: Foods made from SOYBEANS. Health benefits are ascribed to the high levels of DIETARY PROTEINS and ISOFLAVONES.

Update on the status of Africanized honey bees in the western states. (1/259)

The Africanized honey bee (AHB), Apis mellifera scutella--perhaps better known as the "killer bee"--has arrived in the western United States and in southern California, following a nearly 50-year north-ward migration across South and Central America. First detected near Hidalgo, Texas in October 1993, the bees continue to advance 100 to 300 miles per year by colonizing existing hives or forming new hives in the wild. Although the AHB's "killer" reputation has been greatly exaggerated, the presence of AHBs will increase the chances of people being stung.  (+info)

Primary structure and properties of the cathepsin G/chymotrypsin inhibitor from the larval hemolymph of Apis mellifera. (2/259)

A member of the Ascaris inhibitor family exhibiting anti-cathepsin G and anti-chymotrypsin activity was purified from the larval hemolymph of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). Three forms of the inhibitor, designated AMCI 1-3, were isolated using gel filtration and anion-exchange chromatographies followed by reverse-phase HPLC. The amino-acid analyses indicated that AMCI-1 and AMCI-2 have an identical composition whereas AMCI-3 is shorter by two residues (Thr, Arg). All three forms contain as many as 10 cysteine residues and lack tryptophan, tyrosine, and histidine. The sequence of the isoinhibitors showed that the major form (AMCI-1) consisting of 56 amino-acid residues was a single-chain protein of molecular mass 5972 Da, whereas the other two forms were two-chain proteins with a very high residue identity. The AMCI-2 appeared to be derived from AMCI-1, as a result of the Lys24-Thr25 peptide bond splitting, while AMCI-3 was truncated at its N-terminus by the dipeptide Thr25-Arg26. The association constants for the binding of bovine alpha-chymotrypsin to all purified forms of the inhibitor were high and nearly identical, ranging from 4.8 x 10(10) M-1 for AMCI-1 to 2.7 x 10(9) M-1 for AMCI-3. The sensitivity of cathepsin G to inhibition by each inhibitor was different. Only the association constant for the interaction of this enzyme with AMCI-1 was high (2 x 10(8) M-1) whereas those for AMCI-2 and AMCI-3 were significantly lower, and appeared to be 3.7 x 10(7) M-1 and 4.5 x 10(6) M-1, respectively. The reactive site of the inhibitor, as identified by cathepsin G degradation and chemical modification, was found to be at Met30-Gln31. A search in the Protein Sequence Swiss-Prot databank revealed a significant degree of identity (44%) between the primary structure of AMCI and the trypsin isoinhibitor from Ascaris sp (ATI). On the basis of the cysteine residues alignment, the position of the reactive site as well as some sequence homology, the cathepsin G/chymotrypsin inhibitor from larval hemolymph of the honey bee may be considered to be a member of the Ascaris inhibitor family.  (+info)

Antibacterial activity of honey against strains of Staphylococcus aureus from infected wounds. (3/259)

The antibacterial action of honey in infected wounds does not depend wholly on its high osmolarity. We tested the sensitivity of 58 strains of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from infected wounds, to a pasture honey and a manuka honey. There was little variation between the isolates in their sensitivity to honey: minimum inhibitory concentrations were all between 2 and 3% (v/v) for the manuka honey and between 3 and 4% for the pasture honey. Thus, these honeys would prevent growth of S. aureus if diluted by body fluids a further seven-fold to fourteen-fold beyond the point where their osmolarity ceased to be completely inhibitory. The antibacterial action of the pasture honey relied on release of hydrogen peroxide, which in vivo might be reduced by catalase activity in tissues or blood. The action of manuka honey stems partly from a phytochemical component, so this type of honey might be more effective in vivo. Comparative clinical trials with standardized honeys are needed.  (+info)

Effect of honey on multidrug resistant organisms and its synergistic action with three common antibiotics. (4/259)

A total of 15 bacterial strains (7 Pseudomonas & 8 Klebsiella species) isolated from various samples which showed multi-drug resistance were studied to verify in vitro antibacterial action of honey on the principle of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) & its synergism with 3 common antibiotics--Gentamicin, Amikacin & Ceftazidime. The MIC of honey with saline for both organisms was found to be 1:2. The synergistic action was seen in the case of Pseudomonas spp. and not with Klebsiella spp.  (+info)

Pollen spectrum of honey of "urucu" bee (Melipona scutellaris Latreille, 1811). (5/259)

In spite of the importance of the "urucu" bee as honey producer of excellent quality, as well, potential pollinator both in agricultural and natural ecosystems, mainly in North-eastern Brazil, just some information is found in literature about sources that such bees utilize to collect nectar and pollen. The identification of the plants visited by Melipona scutellaris was accomplished with base on the analysis of pollen types found in the honey samples collected every two months, from March 1997 to February 1998, in 15 colonies located in Catu, State of Bahia, Brazil (12 degrees 21'00"S, 38 degrees 22'40"W, 76 m of altitude). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the pollen types were carried out determining the percentage and occurrence classes. Twenty-eight pollen types were found, being considered dominant pollen, the Eucalyptus spp. and Psidium sp. types and secondary pollen, Bauhinia sp., Caesalpinia sp. and Mimosa verrucata types. It was verified dominant pollen of Eucalyptus spp. in honeys produced in November/December 1997 and January/February 1998. The families Caesalpiniaceae (14%), Mimosaceae (25%) and Myrtaceae (56%) were the most represented in the pollen spectrum.  (+info)

Systematic review of the use of honey as a wound dressing. (6/259)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate topical honey in superficial burns and wounds though a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, reference lists and databases were used to seek randomised controlled trials. Seven randomised trials involved superficial burns, partial thickness burns, moderate to severe burns that included full thickness injury, and infected postoperative wounds. REVIEW METHODS: Studies were randomised trials using honey, published papers, with a comparator. Main outcomes were relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat to prevent an outcome relating to wound healing time or infection rate. RESULTS: One study in infected postoperative wounds compared honey with antiseptics plus systemic antibiotics. The number needed to treat with honey for good wound healing compared with antiseptic was 2.9 (95% confidence interval 1.7 to 9.7). Five studies in patients with partial thickness or superficial burns involved less than 40% of the body surface. Comparators were polyurethane film, amniotic membrane, potato peel and silver sulphadiazine. The number needed to treat for seven days with honey to produce one patient with a healed burn was 2.6 (2.1 to 3.4) compared with any other treatment and 2.7 (2.0 to 4.1) compared with potato and amniotic membrane. For some or all outcomes honey was superior to all these treatments. Time for healing was significantly shorter for honey than all these treatments. The quality of studies was low. CONCLUSION: Confidence in a conclusion that honey is a useful treatment for superficial wounds or burns is low. There is biological plausibility.  (+info)

Phase reversal of vibratory signals in honeycomb may assist dancing honeybees to attract their audience. (7/259)

Forager honeybees dancing on the comb are able to attract dance-followers from distances across the comb that are too remote for tactile or visual signals to play a role. An alternative signal could be the vibrations of the comb at 200-300 Hz generated by dancing bees but which, without amplification, may not be large enough to alert remote dance-followers. We describe here, however, an unexpected property of honeycomb when it is subjected to vibration at around 200 Hz that would represent an effective amplification of the vibratory signals for remote dance-followers. We find that, at a specific distance from the origin of an imposed vibration, the walls across a single comb cell abruptly reverse the phase of their displacement and move in opposite directions to one another. Behavioural measurements show that the distance from which the majority of remote dance-followers are recruited coincides with the location of this phase-reversal phenomenon relative to the signal source. We propose that effective signal amplification by the phase-reversal phenomenon occurs when bees straddle a cell across which the phase reversal is expressed. Such a bee would be subjected to a situation in which the legs were moving towards and away from one another instead of in the same direction. In this manner, remote dance-followers could be alerted to a dancer performing in their vicinity.  (+info)

Influence of honey on the gastrointestinal metabolism and disposition of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetic acid in rabbits. (8/259)

To investigate the effects of honey on the pharmacokinetics of glycyrrhizin and glycyrrhetic acid, administration of glycyrrhizin or glycyrrhetic acid with and without honey was carried out in rabbits in a randomized crossover design. An in vitro study using rabbit fecal flora was employed to elucidate the mechanism of the interaction. HPLC methods were used for the determination of glycyrrhizin, glycyrrhetic acid and 3-dehydroglycyrrhetic acid concentrations in serum and feces. Paired and unpaired Student's t-tests were used for statistical comparisons for in vivo and in vitro studies, respectively. Our study indicated that the area under the curve (AUC0-t) of glycyrrhetic acid was significantly enhanced by 53% when honey was concomitantly given with glycyrrhizin, whereas that of glycyrrhizin was not significantly altered. Nevertheless, lack of effect was observed when honey was concurrently given with glycyrrhetic acid. Fecal study indicated that both the hydrolysis of glycyrrhizin to glycyrrhetic acid and subsequent oxidation of glycyrrhetic acid to 3-dehydroglycyrrhetic acid were significantly affected in the presence of honey to result in more glycyrrhetic acid available for absorption. It could be concluded that honey significantly affected the gastrointestinal metabolism of glycyrrhizin and resulted in the increased glycyrrhetic acid exposure. Therefore, honey might enhance the efficacy and adverse effects of glycyrrhizin.  (+info)

  • Crystals need a seed to attach to, so if most of the pollen and other tiny particles in the honey are filtered out there are fewer available seeds for crystallization to develop from. (beesource.com)
  • All Wild Ferns skincare contains premium certified New Zealand Manuka Honey with an over 80 percent Manuka pollen analysis which defines its pureness and authenticity. (kiwidrug.com)
  • The not raw honey is heated above 100 degrees to get it out of the hives therefore killling the natural pollen, which is to be the natural medicinal element. (foodstorageorganizer.com)
  • This honey is 1/3 the price, and great for baking because you heat it anyway and kill the pollen! (foodstorageorganizer.com)
  • Currently, the antioxidant capacity of honey is thought to be the result of several compounds acting together, including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, and enzymes. (dabzee.com.sg)
  • Nutriherbs honey, ginger and garlic vinegar is the mixture of organic ingredients, which go through the natural fermentation process. (nutriherbs.in)
  • Natural Honey Ginger Garlic Cider Vinegar contains organic Honey, ginger and garlic juice. (nutriherbs.in)
  • Needless to say, it's natural and organic, but why can't babies have honey? (shestartedit.co)
  • For centuries, cultures all around the world have used honey to guard health and cure illness, as well as a sweetener. (dabzee.com.sg)
  • Back in the sixteenth century, before sugar became available, honey was known to be the principal sweetener. (shestartedit.co)
  • Liquid honey is about 1 to 1½ times sweeter tasting than sugar, yet it has a lower calorie content. (dabzee.com.sg)
  • In summary, numerous reports suggest that consuming honey on a regular basis, or at least substituting honey for sugar, can greatly increase the body's antioxidant level and help protect against free radicals. (dabzee.com.sg)
  • In the article Honey can serve as an effective carbohydrate replacement during exercise, researchers found that honey was just as effective as a sugar mixture in increasing endurance for nine male endurance athletes. (dabzee.com.sg)
  • Honey is a natural sugar. (shestartedit.co)
  • Honey is considered as natural sugar. (shestartedit.co)
  • There are also characteristics of honey that make it act as an antioxidant. (dabzee.com.sg)
  • In the article "Chronic honey consumption increases plasma antioxidant concentration, " Dr. Gross found that regular consumption of several tablespoons of honey over a 29-day period increased antioxidant levels in healthy adult subjects. (dabzee.com.sg)
  • Herbal ingredients and natural nutrients are often capable of supporting different functions within the body, and current research is showing that a certain kind of honey may be useful in fighting drug-resistant germs. (preventdisease.com)
  • Honey, ginger, and garlic have tremendous effects on overall health but when these three powerful ingredients go into fermentation process their properties get increased due to the presence of active enzymes and minerals. (nutriherbs.in)
  • Honey has been used for thousands of years, but its medicinal popularity fell when antibiotics became the go-to treatment. (preventdisease.com)
  • This indicates that existing antibiotics may be more effective against drug-resistant infections if used in combination with Manuka honey,' says Cooper, who hopes to use her research in clinical trials and test other kinds of honey. (preventdisease.com)
  • It's so exciting to see research from around the world validating the use of integrative medicine -- combining natural health solutions, such as honey, with traditional treatment, such as antibiotics. (preventdisease.com)
  • The secret of honey is in the mix of sugars, vitamins, essential amino acids, enzymes, mineral salts, growth stimulating factors and essential oils that act as antibiotics and have interesting therapeutic effects. (clinmedjournals.org)
  • Commercial pasteurization usually flash heats the honey to somewhere around the 160F mark but also quite quickly cools it back down so the time/temperature factor is less harmful to color and flavor than slowly heating to that temperature then slowly allowing it to return. (beesource.com)
  • The minerals present in the honey are enough to make the tooth so strong that even the plague can not weaken it. (honeybeestings.com)
  • Honey is popular because it is known to be a great source of nutrients, vitamins, and minerals. (shestartedit.co)
  • Manuka Honey is a popular, nutritious and natural honey. (shopnewzealand.co.nz)
  • For the non-athlete, the quick, nutrient-rich boost that honey provides is a healthy alternative to caffeine or sugary candy bars that anyone can feel good about (see this recipe for a great-tasting and nutritious energy bar recipe featuring honey). (dabzee.com.sg)
  • hi, In response to the question on storage life, processed (not raw) honey has a very extended shelf life because of its processing, however that processing destroys all that is nutritious in honey. (foodstorageorganizer.com)
  • After finding out why, which I am going to share with you in a while, I was convinced not to give honey (no matter how I find it very healthy and nutritious) to my kid until he is one year old and above. (shestartedit.co)
  • Bee's honey could be considered as one of the finest products of nature that has a wide range of beneficial uses. (nih.gov)
  • They too become beneficial to us, humans, because the honey that they produce can also be consumed and used by people. (shestartedit.co)
  • A dose-response relationship was observed between the concentrations of Manuka honey and zones of inhibition formed by the C . difficile strains, in which increasing concentrations of Manuka honey resulted in increasing size of zone of inhibition formed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this survey is to emphasize the importance of bee's honey and its multitude of medicinal, cosmetic and general values. (nih.gov)