Replication Protein A: A single-stranded DNA-binding protein that is found in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. It is required for DNA REPLICATION; DNA REPAIR; and GENETIC RECOMBINATION.Replication Protein C: A DNA-binding protein that consists of 5 polypeptides and plays an essential role in DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes. It binds DNA PRIMER-template junctions and recruits PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and DNA POLYMERASES to the site of DNA synthesis.Replication Origin: A unique DNA sequence of a replicon at which DNA REPLICATION is initiated and proceeds bidirectionally or unidirectionally. It contains the sites where the first separation of the complementary strands occurs, a primer RNA is synthesized, and the switch from primer RNA to DNA synthesis takes place. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Origin Recognition Complex: The origin recognition complex is a multi-subunit DNA-binding protein that initiates DNA REPLICATION in eukaryotes.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.DNA, Single-Stranded: A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.DNA Helicases: Proteins that catalyze the unwinding of duplex DNA during replication by binding cooperatively to single-stranded regions of DNA or to short regions of duplex DNA that are undergoing transient opening. In addition DNA helicases are DNA-dependent ATPases that harness the free energy of ATP hydrolysis to translocate DNA strands.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.DNA Primase: A single-stranded DNA-dependent RNA polymerase that functions to initiate, or prime, DNA synthesis by synthesizing oligoribonucleotide primers. EC 2.7.7.-.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 3: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL, which provide targeting of the protein complex. In addition, acetylation of this protein may play a role in regulating of DNA replication and cell cycle progression.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Tombusvirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects ANGIOSPERMS. Transmission occurs mechanically and through soil, with one species transmitted via a fungal vector. The type species is Tomato bushy stunt virus.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Tobamovirus: A genus of plant viruses in which the virion is a rigid filament. Transmission is by mechanical inoculation or seed. The type species is TOBACCO MOSAIC VIRUS.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Geminiviridae: A family of plant viruses where the VIRION possesses an unusual morphology consisting of a pair of isometric particles. Transmission occurs via leafhoppers or whitefly. Some viruses cause economically important diseases in cultivated plants. There are four genera: Mastrevirus, Curtovirus, Topocuvirus, and BEGOMOVIRUS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Extracts: Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.DNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein: A ZINC FINGER MOTIF protein that recognizes and interacts with damaged DNA. It is a DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role in NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. Mutations in this protein are associated with the most severe form of XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Exodeoxyribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of DNA. It includes members of the class EC 3.1.11 that produce 5'-phosphomonoesters as cleavage products.DNA Replication Timing: The temporal order in which the DNA of the GENOME is replicated.Rad51 Recombinase: A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.DNA Polymerase I: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.RecQ Helicases: A family of structurally-related DNA helicases that play an essential role in the maintenance of genome integrity. RecQ helicases were originally discovered in E COLI and are highly conserved across both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Genetic mutations that result in loss of RecQ helicase activity gives rise to disorders that are associated with CANCER predisposition and premature aging.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated Proteins: A group of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES which activate critical signaling cascades in double strand breaks, APOPTOSIS, and GENOTOXIC STRESS such as ionizing ultraviolet A light, thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. These proteins play a role in a wide range of signaling mechanisms in cell cycle control.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.DnaB Helicases: A family of DNA helicases that participate in DNA REPLICATION. They assemble into hexameric rings with a central channel and unwind DNA processively in the 5' to 3' direction. DnaB helicases are considered the primary replicative helicases for most prokaryotic organisms.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Hydroxyurea: An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Oligonucleotides: Polymers made up of a few (2-20) nucleotides. In molecular genetics, they refer to a short sequence synthesized to match a region where a mutation is known to occur, and then used as a probe (OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES). (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA Nucleotidyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the template-directed incorporation of ribonucleotides into an RNA chain. EC 2.7.7.-.Templates, Genetic: Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Bromovirus: A genus of tripartite plant viruses in the family BROMOVIRIDAE. Transmission is by beetles. Brome mosaic virus is the type species.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Rad52 DNA Repair and Recombination Protein: A DNA-binding protein that mediates DNA REPAIR of double strand breaks, and HOMOLOGOUS RECOMBINATION.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Yeast, Dried: The dry cells of any suitable strain of SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE or CANDIDA. It can be obtained as a by-product from the brewing of beer or by growing on media not suitable for beer production. Dried yeast serves as a source of protein and VITAMIN B COMPLEX.Flap Endonucleases: Endonucleases that remove 5' DNA sequences from a DNA structure called a DNA flap. The DNA flap structure occurs in double-stranded DNA containing a single-stranded break where the 5' portion of the downstream strand is too long and overlaps the 3' end of the upstream strand. Flap endonucleases cleave the downstream strand of the overlap flap structure precisely after the first base-paired nucleotide, creating a ligatable nick.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.Minichromosome Maintenance Proteins: A family of proteins that were originally identified in SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE as being essential for maintaining the structure of minichromosomes00. They form into a protein complex that has helicase activity and is involved in a variety of DNA-related functions including replication elongation, RNA transcription, chromatin remodeling, and genome stability.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.ran GTP-Binding Protein: A monomeric GTP-binding protein involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport of proteins into the nucleus and RNA into the cytoplasm. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Tymovirus: A genus of plant viruses, in the family TYMOVIRIDAE, possessing a narrow host range that includes CRUCIFERAE. Transmission occurs by BEETLES and mechanical inoculation.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Telomere: A terminal section of a chromosome which has a specialized structure and which is involved in chromosomal replication and stability. Its length is believed to be a few hundred base pairs.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.DNA, Circular: Any of the covalently closed DNA molecules found in bacteria, many viruses, mitochondria, plastids, and plasmids. Small, polydisperse circular DNA's have also been observed in a number of eukaryotic organisms and are suggested to have homology with chromosomal DNA and the capacity to be inserted into, and excised from, chromosomal DNA. It is a fragment of DNA formed by a process of looping out and deletion, containing a constant region of the mu heavy chain and the 3'-part of the mu switch region. Circular DNA is a normal product of rearrangement among gene segments encoding the variable regions of immunoglobulin light and heavy chains, as well as the T-cell receptor. (Riger et al., Glossary of Genetics, 5th ed & Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Aphidicolin: An antiviral antibiotic produced by Cephalosporium aphidicola and other fungi. It inhibits the growth of eukaryotic cells and certain animal viruses by selectively inhibiting the cellular replication of DNA polymerase II or the viral-induced DNA polymerases. The drug may be useful for controlling excessive cell proliferation in patients with cancer, psoriasis or other dermatitis with little or no adverse effect upon non-multiplying cells.Nuclear Localization Signals: Short, predominantly basic amino acid sequences identified as nuclear import signals for some proteins. These sequences are believed to interact with specific receptors at the NUCLEAR PORE.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2: A minichromosome maintenance protein that is a key component of the six member MCM protein complex. It contains a NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL which may provide targeting of the protein complex and an extended N-terminus which is rich in SERINE residues.Genomic Instability: An increased tendency of the GENOME to acquire MUTATIONS when various processes involved in maintaining and replicating the genome are dysfunctional.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Geminin: Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA, Fungal: Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Bacteriophage T4: Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Nuclear Envelope: The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Homologous Recombination: An exchange of DNA between matching or similar sequences.PhosphoproteinsProtein Interaction Mapping: Methods for determining interaction between PROTEINS.DNA Breaks, Double-Stranded: Interruptions in the sugar-phosphate backbone of DNA, across both strands adjacently.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.DNA Ligases: Poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide)ligases. Enzymes that catalyze the joining of preformed deoxyribonucleotides in phosphodiester linkage during genetic processes during repair of a single-stranded break in duplex DNA. The class includes both EC 6.5.1.1 (ATP) and EC 6.5.1.2 (NAD).Endonucleases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the internal bonds and thereby the formation of polynucleotides or oligonucleotides from ribo- or deoxyribonucleotide chains. EC 3.1.-.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
... phosphorylation and nuclear localization of the human P1 protein, a homologue of the yeast Mcm 3 replication protein". J. Cell ... "Properties of the nuclear P1 protein, a mammalian homologue of the yeast Mcm3 replication protein". Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (5): ... a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to the yeast Mcm replication proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (23): 5289-93. ... "A human homologue of the yeast replication protein Cdc21. Interactions with other Mcm proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 230 (3): 1096 ...
... a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to the yeast Mcm replication proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (23): 5289-93. ... "A human homologue of the yeast replication protein Cdc21. Interactions with other Mcm proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 230 (3): 1096 ... "Properties of the human nuclear protein p85Mcm. Expression, nuclear localization and interaction with other Mcm proteins". Eur ... The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ...
G1/S-specific cyclin Cln3 is a protein that is encoded by the CLN3 gene. The Cln3 protein is a budding yeast G1 cyclin that ... WHI1 was furthermore found to be a cyclin homologue, and it was shown that simultaneous deletion of WHI1-renamed CLN3-and the ... Cln-CDKs activate SBF by phosphorylating and promoting nuclear export of its inhibitor, Whi5, which associates with promoter- ... Donachie, WD (1968-09-07). "Relationship between cell size and time of initiation of DNA replication". Nature. 219 (5158): 1077 ...
2005). "Automated yeast two-hybrid screening for nuclear receptor-interacting proteins". Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 4 (2): 205-13. ... April 2009). "Replication and extension of genome-wide association study results for obesity in 4923 adults from northern ... a novel mitochondrial carrier homologue, which leads to mitochondrial depolarization". Neoplasia. 4 (6): 510-22. doi:10.1038/sj ... Mitochondrial carrier homolog 2 also known as MTCH2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the MTCH2 gene. Variants of the ...
Fujita M, Ishimi Y, Nakamura H, Kiyono T, Tsurumi T (Mar 2002). "Nuclear organization of DNA replication initiation proteins in ... "Mapping of the human homologue (ORC1L) of the yeast origin recognition complex subunit 1 gene to chromosome band 1p32". ... Fujita M, Ishimi Y, Nakamura H, Kiyono T, Tsurumi T (Mar 2002). "Nuclear organization of DNA replication initiation proteins in ... Studies in yeast demonstrated that ORC binds specifically to origins of replication and serves as a platform for the assembly ...
... isoform characteristics of proteins responsible for nuclear and mitochondrial genomic integrity". Current Protein & Peptide ... Elder RT, Zhu X, Priet S, Chen M, Yu M, Navarro JM, Sire J, Zhao Y (July 2003). "A fission yeast homologue of the human uracil- ... "Structural basis for the recognition of DNA repair proteins UNG2, XPA, and RAD52 by replication factor RPA". Cell. 103 (3): 449 ... binding proteins in human cell lysates. Identification of the human CHL12/RFCs2-5 complex as a novel PCNA-binding protein". The ...
Fujita M, Ishimi Y, Nakamura H, Kiyono T, Tsurumi T (March 2002). "Nuclear organization of DNA replication initiation proteins ... "Mouse and human homologues of the yeast origin of replication recognition complex subunit ORC2 and chromosomal localization of ... an origin-specific binding protein that associates with replication proteins, is required for mammalian DNA replication". ... Fujita M, Ishimi Y, Nakamura H, Kiyono T, Tsurumi T (2002). "Nuclear organization of DNA replication initiation proteins in ...
St Onge RP, Udell CM, Casselman R, Davey S (1999). "The human G2 checkpoint control protein hRAD9 is a nuclear phosphoprotein ... Udell CM, Lee SK, Davey S (1998). "HRAD1 and MRAD1 encode mammalian homologues of the fission yeast rad1(+) cell cycle ... Griffith JD, Lindsey-Boltz LA, Sancar A (May 2002). "Structures of the human Rad17-replication factor C and checkpoint Rad 9-1- ... Cell cycle checkpoint protein RAD1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RAD1 gene. This gene encodes a component of a ...
"A human homologue of the yeast replication protein Cdc21. Interactions with other Mcm proteins". Eur J Biochem. 230 (3): 1096- ... a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to the yeast Mcm replication proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (23): 5289-93. ... "Properties of the human nuclear protein p85Mcm. Expression, nuclear localization and interaction with other Mcm proteins". Eur ... DNA replication licensing factor MCM4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MCM4 gene. The protein encoded by this gene ...
... are novel metazoan homologues of yeast TAF(II)47 containing a histone fold and a PHD finger". Mol. Cell. Biol. 21 (15): 5109-21 ... "Identification of human proteins functionally conserved with the yeast putative adaptors ADA2 and GCN5". Mol Cell Biol. 16 (2 ... "Nuclear receptor function requires a TFTC-type histone acetyl transferase complex". Mol. Cell. 9 (3): 553-62. doi:10.1016/S1097 ... "Tat acetyl-acceptor lysines are important for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 replication". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (25): 22215- ...
Histone H3.1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H3C gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are ... 2000). "A human homologue of yeast anti-silencing factor has histone chaperone activity". Genes Cells. 5 (3): 221-33. doi: ... Marzluff WF, Gongidi P, Woods KR, Jin J, Maltais LJ (Oct 2002). "The human and mouse replication-dependent histone genes". ... 2000). "Mitotic phosphorylation of histone H3 is governed by Ipl1/aurora kinase and Glc7/PP1 phosphatase in budding yeast and ...
Histone H4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HIST1H4F gene. Histones are basic nuclear proteins that are ... 2000). "A human homologue of yeast anti-silencing factor has histone chaperone activity". Genes Cells. 5 (3): 221-33. doi: ... Marzluff WF, Gongidi P, Woods KR, Jin J, Maltais LJ (Oct 2002). "The human and mouse replication-dependent histone genes". ... 1987). "Protein-DNA interactions in vivo upstream of a cell cycle-regulated human H4 histone gene". Science. 236 (4806): 1308- ...
Meanwhile, from the beginning, every piece of single stranded DNA is covered by the protein RPA (Replication Protein A). The ... The HDR mechanism can only be used by the cell when there is a homologue piece of DNA present in the nucleus, mostly in G2 and ... In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae homology directed repair is primarily a response to spontaneous or induced damage ... The polymerase is held onto the DNA strand by PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen). PCNA forms typical patterns in the ...
... cytoskeletal scaffold protein Far1, the transcription factor Gcn4, and the replication protein Cdc6. In addition to those ... The human homologue of the cdc4 gene is called FBXW7. The corresponding gene product is the F-box/WD repeat-containing protein ... "Nuclear-specific degradation of Far1 is controlled by the localization of the F-box protein Cdc4". The EMBO Journal. 19 (22): ... In yeast Cdc4, the D domain protomers arrange in a superhelical homodimeric manner. SCF (Cdc4) dimerization hardly affects the ...
This protein shares strong similarity with DNA replication factor C (RFC), and can form a complex with RFCs. This protein binds ... "Replication factor C interacts with the C-terminal side of proliferating cell nuclear antigen". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (3): 1769-76 ... Parker AE, Van de Weyer I, Laus MC, Verhasselt P, Luyten WH (August 1998). "Identification of a human homologue of the ... "The mammalian Rad24 homologous to yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad24 and Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad17 is involved in DNA ...
The fission yeast TMEM33 ortholog, Tts1, was reported to localize to the ER and to the NE (nuclear envelope). A TMEM33 ortholog ... replication protein A (RPA1, RPA2, RPA3), transitional endoplasmic reticulum ATPase (VCP), and RNA polymerase III initiation ... "Tts1, the fission yeast homologue of the TMEM33 family, functions in NE remodeling during mitosis". Retrieved 2015-02-22. "NCBI ... Transmembrane protein 33 is a protein that in humans, is encoded by the TMEM33 gene, also known as SHINC3. Another name for the ...
ISBN 0-19-920610-4. Nasmyth K (April 1993). "Control of the yeast cell cycle by the Cdc28 protein kinase". Curr. Opin. Cell ... Lee, Melanie; Nurse, Paul (Jun 1987). "Complementation used to clone a human homologue of the fission yeast cell cycle control ... Kong M, Barnes EA, Ollendorff V, Donoghue DJ (March 2000). "Cyclin F regulates the nuclear localization of cyclin B1 through a ... Dutta A, Stillman B (1992). "cdc2 family kinases phosphorylate a human cell DNA replication factor, RPA, and activate DNA ...
Extensive studies in yeast models have shown that mutations in the exonuclease domain of Polδ and Polε homologues can cause a ... DNA-binding proteins that rapidly reassociate post-replication prevent Polδ from repairing errors produced by Polα in the ... Paul VD, Lill R (June 2015). "Biogenesis of cytosolic and nuclear iron-sulfur proteins and their role in genome stability". ... DNA replication is a highly organized process that involves many enzymes and proteins, including several DNA polymerases. The ...
Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ... Yeast[edit]. Yeast carry one or two copies of each histone gene, which are not clustered but rather scattered throughout ... H3K56 acetylation is also required to stabilise stalled replication forks, preventing dangerous replication fork collapses.[93] ... "The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Set1 complex includes an Ash2 homologue and methylates histone 3 lysine 4". The EMBO Journal. 20 ...
For example, in fission yeast and humans, RecA homologues promote duplex-duplex DNA-strand exchange needed for repair of many ... as well as replication fork stability during unperturbed DNA replication and in response to replication blocks. ATR is ... When 40 particular proteins were evaluated in a muscle of rats, the majority of the proteins showed significant decreases ... PMID 14978042 Brasnjevic I, Hof PR, Steinbusch HW, Schmitz C. (2008) Accumulation of nuclear DNA damage or neuron loss: ...
... is a nuclear kinase belonging to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. ... The corresponding proteins are Wee1-like protein kinase and Wee1-like protein kinase 2 which act on the human Cdk1 homologue ... Boddy MN, Furnari B, Mondesert O, Russell P (May 1998). "Replication checkpoint enforced by kinases Cds1 and Chk1". Science. ... Cdk1 homologue) is phosphorylated by Swe1 (Wee1 homologue) and dephosphorylated by Mih1 (Cdc25 homologue). Nim1/Cdr1 homologue ...
"Yeast two-hybrid screens imply involvement of Fanconi anemia proteins in transcription regulation, cell signaling, oxidative ... its homologue FAZF, and the t(11;17)-generated PLZF-retinoic acid receptor alpha oncoprotein". Blood. 99 (9): 3404-10. doi: ... assigns to ZBTB32 a role in the recognition of DNA damage by the PCNA-containing replication complex (link R-HSA-110314; but ... The physical interaction of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) sliding clamp with the MutLα (PMS2-MLH1) endonuclease ...
The protein is a serine-threonine kinase that is activated by another protein called either Dbf4 in the yeast Saccharomyces ... This tells us that Dbf4 is expressed around the time for replication; right after replication is over, the protein levels drop ... in vitro phosphorylation of MCM subunits by a putative human homologue of Cdc7". EMBO J. 16 (14): 4340-51. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... kinase Cdc7-Dbf4 promotes the interaction of the p150 subunit of chromatin assembly factor 1 with proliferating cell nuclear ...
Nuclear protein Ataxia-Telangiectasia (NPAT), also known as nuclear protein coactivator of histone transcription, is a ... H3K56 acetylation is also required to stabilise stalled replication forks, preventing dangerous replication fork collapses. ... In budding yeast, the candidate gene for activation of histone gene expression is SBF. SBF is a transcription factor that is ... "The Saccharomyces cerevisiae Set1 complex includes an Ash2 homologue and methylates histone 3 lysine 4". The EMBO Journal. 20 ( ...
In humans, replication protein A is the best-understood member of this family and is used in processes where the double helix ... Vispé S, Defais M (October 1997). "Mammalian Rad51 protein: a RecA homologue with pleiotropic functions". Biochimie. 79 (9-10 ... Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus as nuclear DNA, and ... At the time, "yeast nucleic acid" (RNA) was thought to occur only in plants, while "thymus nucleic acid" (DNA) only in animals ...
The H+-translocating F420H2 Dehydrogenase (F420H2DH) Family (TC# 3.D.9) is a member of the Na+ transporting Mrp superfamily. A single F420H2 dehydrogenase (also referred to as F420H2:quinol oxidoreductase) from the methanogenic archaeon, Methanosarcina mazei Gö1, has been shown to be a redox driven proton pump. The F420H2DH of M. mazei has a molecular size of about 120 kDa and contains Fe-S clusters and FAD. A similar five-subunit enzyme has been isolated from Methanolobus tindarius. The sulfate-reducing Archaeoglobus fulgidus (and several other archaea) also have this enzyme. Reduction of 2-hydroxyphenazine by F420H2DH is accompanied by the translocation of 1 H+ per 2 electrons transferred. The overall vectorial reaction catalyzed by F420H2DH is Reduced donor (2e−) + H+ (in) ⇌ oxidized acceptor (2e−) + H+ (out) Methanomassiliicoccus luminyensis has been isolated from the human gut and requires H2 and methanol or methylamines to produce methane. The organism lacks cytochromes, indicating ...
... , standing for plasmid copy reduced is a helicase that was originally discovered in a screen for chromosomally encoded genes that are affected in plasmid rolling circle replication in the Gram-positive pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Genetic and biochemical studies have shown that the helicase is essential for plasmid rolling-circle replication and repair of DNA damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet radiation. It catalyzes the unwinding of double-stranded plasmid DNA that has been nicked at the replication origin by the replication initiation protein. Genetic and biochemical studies have also shown that the helicase plays an important role in cell-survival by regulating the levels of RecA-mediated recombination in Gram-positive bacteria. The helicase is a monomeric translocase and utilizes ATP to unwind DNA. The preferred substrates are single-stranded DNA containing 3' overhangs. The processivity of ...
The genome of E. coli consists of a single circular DNA molecule of approximately 4.6 x 106 nucleotide pairs. DNA replication typically begins at a single origin of replication. In E. coli, the origin of replication-oriC-consists of three A-T rich 13-mer repeats and four 9-mer repeats. Ten to 20 monomers of the replication initiator protein DnaA bind to the 9-mer repeats, and the DNA coils around this protein complex forming a protein core. This coiling stimulates the AT rich region in the 13-mer sequence to unwind, allowing the helicase loader DnaC to load the replicative helicase DnaB to each of the two unwound DNA strands. The helicase DnaB forms the basis of the primosome, a complex of enzymes to which DNA polymerase III is recruited before replication can occur.[12]. Many bacteria, including E. coli, contain plasmids ...
The replisome is a complex molecular machine that carries out replication of DNA. The replisome first unwinds double stranded DNA into two single strands. For each of the resulting single strands, a new complementary sequence of DNA is synthesized. The net result is formation of two new double stranded DNA sequences that are exact copies of the original double stranded DNA sequence. In terms of structure, the replisome is composed of two replicative polymerase complexes, one of which synthesizes the leading strand, while the other synthesizes the lagging strand. The replisome is composed of a number of proteins including helicase, RFC, PCNA, gyrase/topoisomerase, SSB/RPA, primase, DNA polymerase III, RNAse H, and ligase. For prokaryotes, each dividing nucleoid (region containing genetic material which is not a nucleus) requires two replisomes for bidirectional replication. The two replisomes continue replication at both ...
... is an episomal protein production system that uses genetically modified mammalian cells and specially designed plasmids. QMCF plasmids carry a combination of regulatory sequences from mouse polyomavirus (Py) DNA replication origin which in combination with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA-1 protein binding site as nuclear retention elements ensure stable propagation of plasmids in mammalian cells. In addition the vetors carry the selection marker operational for selection of plasmid carrying bacteria and QMCF cells, bacterial ColE1 origin of replication, and cassette for expression of protein of interest. QMCF cell lines express Large-T antigen and EBNA-1 proteins which bind the viral sequences on the QMCF plasmid and hence support plasmid replication and maintenance in the cells. QMCF Technology has ...
An autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) contains the origin of replication in the yeast genome. It contains four regions (A, B1, B2, and B3), named in order of their effect on plasmid stability. The A-Domain is highly conserved, any mutation abolishes origin function. Mutations on B1, B2, and B3 will diminish, but not prevent functioning of the origin. Element A is highly conserved, consisting of the consensus sequence: 5'- T/A T T T A Y R T T T T/A -3' (where Y is either pyrimidine and R is either purine). When this element is mutated, the ARS loses all activity. As seen above the ARS are considerably A-T rich which makes it easy for replicative proteins to disrupt the H-bonding in that area. ORC protein complex (Origin Recognition Complex) is bound at the ARS throughout the cell cycle, allowing replicative proteins access to the ARS. Mutational analysis for the ...
In a polar coordinate system, the origin may also be called the pole. It does not itself have well-defined polar coordinates, because the polar coordinates of a point include the angle made by the positive x-axis and the ray from the origin to the point, and this ray is not well-defined for the origin itself.[3] In Euclidean geometry, the origin may be chosen freely as any convenient point of reference.[4] The origin of the complex plane can be referred as the point where real axis and imaginary axis intersect each other. In other words, it is the complex number zero.[5] ...
The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a highly conserved six subunit protein complex essential for the initiation of the DNA replication in eukaryotic cells. Studies in yeast demonstrated that ORC binds specifically to origins of replication and serves as a platform for the assembly of additional initiation factors such as Cdc6 and Mcm proteins. The protein encoded by this gene is a subunit of the ORC complex. It has been shown to form a core complex with ORC2L, -3L, and 4L. Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been described.[7] ...
Selleks, et rakk saaks jaguneda, peab ta kõigepealt enda DNAd replitseerima.[4] Seda protsessi alustatakse kindlatelt DNA lõikudelt, mida nimetatakse originideks. Originid sisaldavad DNA järjestusi, mille tunnevad ära replikatsiooni algatavad valgud (näiteks dnaA soolekepikesel ning ORC (Origin Recognition Complex) pärmis). Need valgud seondavad omakorda erinevaid valke (nt helikaasi), et eraldada kahte DNA ahelat ning moodustada replikatsioonikahvleid. Initsiaatorvalkude algatusel keeratakse DNA ahelad lahti ning moodustub n-ö replikatsiooni-mull (DNAd sünteesitakse bidirektsionaalselt ehk mõlemas suunas). Originid on tavaliselt A-T rikkad (sisaldavad palju adeniini-tümiini aluspaare) ja aitavad sellega lahtikeerdumisele kaasa, sest A-T aluspaaridel on kaks vesiniksidet(mitte kolm, nagu C-G paaridel). Seega on A-T sidemeid lihtsam lõhkuda, sest väikesema arvu vesiniksidemete lõhkumise jaoks kulub vähem energiat.[5] Pärast DNA ahelate eraldamist luuakse algahelatele RNA praimerid. ...
The R307 is a Regional Route in South Africa that connects the R27 north of Melkbosstrand with the R45 south-west of Moorreesburg. From its southern origin at the R27, it heads north-east to Atlantis. Here it meets a north-north-west / south-south-east road at a t-junction. The south-south-east section is signed as the R304, but the north-north-westerly route continues as the R307. This road passes through Mamre and then receives the R315 from the east. The two roads are co-signed and continue to Darling. Leaving the R315 again diverges, heading west, whereas the R307 now heads north-east. It ends at the R45. ...
Комплекс препознавања места почетка, подјединица 6 је протеин који је код људи кодиран ORC6 геном. Овај ген је подјединица ORC комплекса. Показано је да су ORC6 и ORC1 лабаво повезани са сржним комплеском који саржи ORC2. Студије генског блокирања дејством мале интерферирајуће РНК су показале да овај протеин има есенцијалну улогу у координацији хромозомске репликације сегрегације[1][2]. ...
Комплекс препознавања места почетка 4 је протеин који је код људи кодиран ОРЦ4 (ORC4L) геном[1][2][3]. Комплекс препознавања места почетка (ORC) је високо конзервисани протеински комплекс са шест подјединица који је есенцијалан за иницијацију репликације ДНК код еукариотских ћелија. Истраживања на квасцу су показала да се ОРЦ специфично везује за место почетка репликације и да служи као платформа за конструкцију пререпликационог комплекса, који садржи додатне иницијациона факторе као што су Cdc6 и mcm протеини. Протеин кодиран овим геном је подјединица ...
Комплекс препознавања места почетка 5 је протеин који је код људи кодиран ORC5 геном[1][2][3]. Комплекс препознавања места почетка (ORC) је високо конзервисани протеински комплекс са шест подјединица који је есенцијалан за иницијацију репликације ДНК код еукариотских ћелија. Истраживања на квасцу су показала да се ОРЦ специфично везује за место почетка репликације и да служи као платформа за конструкцију пререпликационог комплекса, који садржи додатне иницијациона факторе као што су Cdc6 и mcm протеини. Протеин кодиран овим геном је подјединица ...
1996) Fission yeast Nda1 and Nda4, MCM homologs required for DNA replication, are constitutive nuclear proteins. J. Cell Sci. ... 1999) The fission yeast homologue of Orc4 binds to replication origin DNA via multiple AT-hooks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: ... and is required for replication of the fission yeast genome (58). Six fission yeast Mcm proteins, including SpMcm6p and SpMcm2p ... Association of Fission Yeast Orp1 and Mcm6 Proteins with Chromosomal Replication Origins. Yuya Ogawa, Tatsuro Takahashi, Hisao ...
... before the nuclear membrane forms (10, 29, 33). XORC2 is the Xenopus homologue of the yeast protein, ORC2 (9). In yeast, this ... nuclear DNA replication is restored (17). These results suggest that nuclear lamins play a role in DNA replication, although it ... 1995) Identification of the yeast MCM3-related protein as a component of XenopusDNA replication licensing factor. Cell 81:601- ... The nuclear lamin proteins form a fibrous structure, termed the nuclear lamina, which is concentrated at the nucleoplasmic face ...
... phosphorylation and nuclear localization of the human P1 protein, a homologue of the yeast Mcm 3 replication protein". J. Cell ... "Properties of the nuclear P1 protein, a mammalian homologue of the yeast Mcm3 replication protein". Nucleic Acids Res. 20 (5): ... a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to the yeast Mcm replication proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (23): 5289-93. ... "A human homologue of the yeast replication protein Cdc21. Interactions with other Mcm proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 230 (3): 1096 ...
Properties of the nuclear P1 protein, a mammalian homologue of the yeast Mcm 3 replication protein. Nucleic Acids Res., 20: ... The MCM proteins, first discovered in yeast, are a family of closely related proteins with striking sequence homology. Similar ... using antibodies against nuclear proteins involved in regulating DNA replication as novel markers of cellular proliferation. ... permitting DNA replication and then dissociates irreversibly limiting replication to once per cell cycle (5) . The proteins ...
... a new class of nuclear mammalian proteins related to the yeast Mcm replication proteins". Nucleic Acids Res. 21 (23): 5289-93. ... "A human homologue of the yeast replication protein Cdc21. Interactions with other Mcm proteins". Eur. J. Biochem. 230 (3): 1096 ... "Properties of the human nuclear protein p85Mcm. Expression, nuclear localization and interaction with other Mcm proteins". Eur ... The hexameric protein complex formed by the MCM proteins is a key component of the pre-replication complex (pre-RC) and may be ...
Properties of the nuclear P1 protein, a mammalian homologue of the yeast Mcm3 replication protein. Nucleic Acids Res 20:1069- ... Chaudhary N, McMahon C, Blobel G (1991) Primary structure of a human arginine-rich nuclear protein that colocalizes with ... Rabilloud T (2003) Membrane proteins ride shotgun. Nat Biotechnol. 21:508-510PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Isomura M, Okui K, Fujiwara T, Shin S, Nakamura Y (1996) Isolation and mapping of RAB2L, a human cDNA that encodes a protein ...
Notably, the budding yeast homologue of ATR (Mec1), prevents breaks resulting from fork collapse in replication slow zones (50) ... Claspin, a novel protein required for the activation of Chk1 during a DNA replication checkpoint response in Xenopus egg ... A, Immunofluorescence analysis revealed accumulation of γH2AX in nuclear foci (red) in HDFs treated with olomoucine or U2OS ... mutations in functional homologues of Chk1 enhance activation of Chk2 homologues in the setting of replication blocks (31, 32) ...
... hsk1 for a putative homologue of CDC7 (seven) kinase 1] of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc7 kinase. The cloned cDNA for hsk1+ ... oligonucleotide-directed polymerase chain reaction was conducted to clone a possible Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue [ ... Our results suggest that hsk1+ is a strong candidate for the functional fission yeast homologue of budding yeast CDC7 and that ... The morphology of these mutant spores after germination indicates abnormal nuclear division in some population of germinating ...
Site-specific loading of an MCM protein complex in a DNA replication initiation zone upstream of the c-MYC gene in the HeLa ... Mapping of the human homologue (ORC1L) of the yeast origin recognition complex subunit 1 gene to chromosome band 1p32. Eki, T ... Association of human origin recognition complex 1 with chromatin DNA and nuclease-resistant nuclear structures. Tatsumi, Y., ... The BAH domain facilitates the ability of human Orc1 protein to activate replication origins in vivo. Noguchi, K., Vassilev, A ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... is a non-histone acidic nuclear protein [PMID: 2884104] that plays a key role in the control of eukaryotic DNA replication [ ... Bakers yeast), POL30, is associated with polymerase III, the yeast analog of polymerase delta. ...
1991) Yeast cell cycle protein CDC48p shows full-length homology to the mammalian protein VCP and is a member of a protein ... 2000) C. elegans nuclear envelope proteins emerin, MAN1, lamin, and nucleoporins reveal unique timing of nuclear envelope ... 1C and Table S1). This phenotype was not caused by depletion of the p47 homologue UBXN-1, an alternative cofactor of CDC-48/p97 ... 1994) Mitotic checkpoint genes in budding yeast and the dependence of mitosis on DNA replication and repair. Genes Dev 8:652- ...
Amino acid sequences of Sar1p, Sec31p and Pmm1p with their budding yeast and mammalian homologues. (A) Protein sequence ... proteins act as dominant negative mutants in Xenopus egg extracts and reveal the function for the lamina in DNA replication. J ... To test whether the structurally abnormal nuclear envelopes affect nuclear function, nuclear protein import and export in sar1- ... In fission yeast, overexpression of HMG1, the gene that encodes the budding yeast ER resident protein HMG-CoA reductase, causes ...
One of our interests is on the study of a group of proteins called SIRTs, the mammalian homologues of the yeast Sir2. Sir2 is a ... Cellular processes that unwind the double helix- such as transcription, replication and DNA repair-have to overcome this ... Our lab is interested in understanding the influence of chromatin on nuclear processes (gene transcription, DNA recombination ... The yeast protein Sir2 enables yeast cells to survive under conditions of nutrient stress and functions as a modulator of ...
Although in vitro data suggest that Xenopus RECQ proteins play a direct role in DNA replication (Liao et al., 2000), yeast and ... Yeast RECQ homologues have been proposed to act as sensors of damage encountered during DNA synthesis (Frei and Gasser, 2000a,b ... NFBD1, a novel nuclear protein with signature motifs of FHA and BRCT, and an internal 41-amino acid repeat sequence, is an ... We prepared protein lysates in 5% SDS, separated 30 μg protein using 4-15% SDS-PAGE, transferred the proteins to a nylon ...
Dual functions of CDC6: a yeast protein required for DNA replication also inhibits nuclear division.. A Bueno, P Russell ... A developmentally regulated rab11 homologue in Trypanosoma brucei is involved in recycling processes. TR Jeffries, GW Morgan, ... A fission yeast B-type cyclin functioning early in the cell cycle. A Bueno, H Richardson, SI Reed, P Russell ... Flp1, a fission yeast orthologue of the S. cerevisiae CDC14 gene, is not required for cyclin degradation or rum1p stabilisation ...
The ATM homologue MEC1 is required for phosphorylation of replication protein A in yeast. Brush, G.S., Morrow, D.M., Hieter, P ... The ataxia-telangiectasia gene product, a constitutively expressed nuclear protein that is not up-regulated following genome ... hMre11 and hRad50 nuclear foci are induced during the normal cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. Maser, R.S., Monsen ... A splicing mutation affecting expression of ataxia-telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein (ATR) results in Seckel syndrome. ...
HP1-like proteins interact with many nuclear proteins, including the lamin B receptor (an integral protein of the nuclear ... Analysis of ATRX in a yeast two-hybrid screen has shown that it interacts with a murine homologue (mHP1α) of the Drosophila ... and pattern of replication timing (12-14). If ATRX influences gene expression via an interaction with chromatin, this could ... These extractions solubilize most nuclear proteins, and the insoluble high-salt pellet contains proteins associated with ...
We present the amino acid sequence of the human homologue of the yeast replication protein Cdc21, a member of the Mcm family of ... nuclear proteins. Significance of neuronal cytochrome P450 activity in opioid-mediated stress-induced analgesia. If the ... C-reactive protein and high blood pressure in combination have additional predictive value for cardiovascular outcomes, as they ... Small amounts (10-50 micrograms) of the labeled proteins could be loaded onto gels and seen with the unaided eye so that the ...
The UL31 gene products of HSV-1 and HSV-2 have been identified as nuclear proteins (10, 60), and the UL31 protein of HSV-1 has ... 1B and D) were used for protein expression in E. coli, yeast, and RK13 cells, respectively, pcDNA-UL31 was utilized for in ... Green fluorescent protein expressed by recombinant pseudorabies virus as an in vivo marker for viral replication. J. Virol. ... Like its homologue, the predicted UL31 protein of PrV is moderately basic, and exhibits a highly hydrophilic N-terminal part ...
Homologues of the synaptobrevin/VAMP family of synaptic vesicle proteins function in the late secretory pathway in S. ... a single round of DNA replication followed by two meiotic divisions occurs within a single, intact nuclear envelope. During the ... Homologues of the synaptobrevin/VAMP family of synaptic vesicle proteins function in the late secretory pathway in S. ... Yeast syntaxins Sso1p and Sso2p belong to a family of related membrane proteins that function in vesicular transport ...
Graeser R, Wernli B, Franklin RM, Kappes B. Plasmodium falciparum protein kinase 5 and the malarial nuclear division cycles. ... ORC binds DNA and facilitates the initiation of replication. It recognises a conserved consensus sequence in the yeast ... The ORC-associated protein Cdc6 also lacks a clear homologue in P. falciparum but a candidate has been proposed in P. berghei [ ... Indeed, like many Plasmodium proteins, some conserved replication proteins also have distinct N-terminal extensions or inserted ...
In addition, in the presence of DNA damage, the Ub-proteasome system regulates proteins involved in sensing, repairing, and/or ... by targeting misfolded and damaged proteins for degradation. ... non-essential haploid deletion mutants of the fission yeast ... emerged from the comparison between the present screening and gene expression profile data previously obtained in fission yeast ... Characterization of a fission yeast SUMO-1 homologue, Pmt3p, required for multiple nuclear events, including the control of ...
... cuniculi proteins were the same sizes as their yeast homologues, the E. cuniculi genome would be only about 0.25 Mbp bigger. ... The first indications of this fact came from the discovery of genes for mitochondrion-derived proteins in the nuclear genomes ... Not surprisingly, pathways related to many basic cellular processes, such as DNA replication, transcription, and protein ... of the predicted proteins themselves are 15% smaller on average than their homologues in yeast (28). Katinka and coworkers (28 ...
Yamashita A, Watanabe Y, Nukina N, Yamamoto M. RNA-assisted nuclear transport of the meiotic regulator Mei2p in fission yeast. ... The Arabidopsis Mei2 homologue AML1 binds AtRaptor1B, the plant homologue of a major regulator of eukaryotic cell growth. BMC ... PlasMei2 proteins across all Plasmodium species are classified as putative RNA binding proteins because they have a highly ... Defective nuclear replication events would then result in downstream effects, such as defects in organelle replication, ...
Nuclear exclusion of wild-type Cdc25 was observed upon overproduction of Rad 24, one of the two fission yeast 14-3-3 proteins, ... 1998) A human homologue of the checkpoint kinase Cds1 directly inhibits Cdc25 phosphatase. Curr. Biol. 9:1-10. ... DNA Damage and Replication Checkpoints in Fission Yeast Require Nuclear Exclusion of the Cdc25 Phosphatase via 14-3-3 Binding. ... DNA Damage and Replication Checkpoints in Fission Yeast Require Nuclear Exclusion of the Cdc25 Phosphatase via 14-3-3 Binding ...
  • In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae , certain chromosome fragments shorter than 200 bp have been shown to replicate autonomously (autonomously replicating sequences [ARSs]) ( 28 , 56 ). (asm.org)
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