The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Glucose in blood.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Abstaining from all food.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The consumption of edible substances.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The area within CELLS.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells. (1/13134)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin.  (+info)

The Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/13134)

The vacuole is the major site of intracellular Ca2+ storage in yeast and functions to maintain cytosolic Ca2+ levels within a narrow physiological range. In this study, we examined how cellular Ca2+ homeostasis is maintained in a vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant. We found that growth of the vps33Delta strain was sensitive to high or low extracellular Ca2+. This strain could not properly regulate cytosolic Ca2+ levels and was able to retain only a small fraction of its total cellular Ca2+ in a nonexchangeable intracellular pool. Surprisingly, the vps33Delta strain contained more total cellular Ca2+ than the wild type strain. Because most cellular Ca2+ is normally found within the vacuole, this suggested that other intracellular compartments compensated for the reduced capacity to store Ca2+ within the vacuole of this strain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the contribution of the Golgi-localized Ca2+ ATPase Pmr1p in the maintenance of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We found that a vps33Delta/pmr1Delta strain was hypersensitive to high extracellular Ca2+. In addition, certain combinations of mutations effecting both vacuolar and Golgi Ca2+ transport resulted in synthetic lethality. These results indicate that the Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis when vacuolar biogenesis is compromised.  (+info)

Utero-ovarian interaction in the regulation of reproductive function. (3/13134)

The physiological regulation of fertile reproductive cycle in mammals depends on interactions between hypothalamus-pituitary, ovarian and uterine stimuli. Over the past 20 years, much has been learned about the interrelation between the affluent and effluent lymph and vascular drainage in and around both ovarian and uterine tissues. An essential feature in the regulation of the fertile cycle is the functional status of the ovary, particularly the corpus luteum. During the time of implantation and the early pregnancy, an active corpus luteum is essential. As human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is important in the maintenance of the corpus luteum, we investigated if it was produced by the cyclic endometrium. Immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization reactions were performed but neither identified the presence of HCG during the proliferative phase. Positive staining and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) mRNA were observed during the secretory phase in the glandular cells of the endometrium. The results were confirmed by Western blotting of secretory phase endometrium extracts and assessment of the functional secretory capacity of primary endometrial cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigations showed a positive result in the secretory phase. We postulate that, based on the very close morphological interrelation between the uterus and the ovary, the beta-HCG of the endometrium is the primary factor for the maintenance of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy.  (+info)

Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (4/13134)

Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.  (+info)

Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults: a four months double blind placebo controlled trial. (5/13134)

OBJECTIVE: Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults. DESIGN: Twenty-four (18 male, 6 female) adult GH deficient patients aged 25-64 years were included and received either GH (n=11) or placebo (n=13) in a double blind parallel design. METHODS: Before and at the end of each 4 month period ECV and PV were assessed directly using 82Br- and 125I-albumin respectively, and blood samples were obtained. RESULTS: During GH treatment ECV increased significantly (before: 20.48+/-0.99 l, 4 months: 23.77+/-1.38 l (P<0.01)), but remained unchanged during placebo administration (before: 16.92+/-1.01 l, 4 months: 17.60+/-1.24 l (P=0.37)). The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.05). GH treatment also increased PV (before: 3.39+/-0.27 l. 4 months: 3.71+/-0.261 (P=0.01)), although an insignificant increase in the placebo treated patients (before: 2.81+/-0.18 l, 4 months: 2.89+/-0.20 l (P=0.37)) resulted in an insignificant treatment effect (P=0.07). Serum insulin-like growth factor-I increased significantly during GH treatment and was not affected by placebo treatment. Plasma renin (mIU/l) increased during GH administration (before: 14.73+/-2.16, 4 months: 26.00+/-6.22 (P=0.03)) and remained unchanged following placebo (before: 20.77+/-5.13, 4 months: 20.69+/-6.67 (P=0.99)) leaving no significant treatment effect (P=0.08). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of GH treatment on body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients involves expansion of ECV and probably also PV. These data substantiate the role of GH as a regulator of fluid homeostasis in adult GH deficiency.  (+info)

Inactivation of the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha affects glucose homeostasis and islet glucagon gene expression in vivo. (6/13134)

Mice homozygous for a null mutation in the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha showed severe postnatal growth retardation followed by death between P2 and P12. Homozygous mutant mice were hypoglycemic despite unchanged expression of HNF3 target genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Whereas insulin and corticosteroid levels were altered as expected, plasma glucagon was reduced markedly in the mutant animals despite the hypoglycemia that should be expected to increase glucagon levels. This correlated with a 70% reduction in pancreatic proglucagon gene expression. We also showed that HNF3alpha could bind to and transactivate the proglucagon gene promoter. These observations invoke a central role for HNF3alpha in the regulatory control of islet genes essential for glucose homeostasis in vivo.  (+info)

Regulation of fatty acid homeostasis in cells: novel role of leptin. (7/13134)

It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. The fact that TG content in nonadipocytes normally remains within a narrow range, while that of adipocytes varies enormously with food intake, is consistent with a system of TG homeostasis in normal nonadipocytes. The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. The fact that the function and viability of nonadipocytes is compromised when their TG content rises above or falls below the normal range suggests that normal homeostasis of their intracellular TG is critical for optimal function and to prevent lipoapoptosis. Thus far, lipotoxic diabetes of fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats is the only proven lipodegenerative disease, but the possibility of lipotoxic disease of skeletal and/or cardiac muscle may require investigation, as does the possible influence of the intracellular TG content on autoimmune and neoplastic processes.  (+info)

Autoinhibition of serotonin cells: an intrinsic regulatory mechanism sensitive to the pattern of usage of the cells. (8/13134)

After periods of high-frequency firing, the normal rhythmically active serotonin (5HT)-containing neurosecretory neurons of the lobster ventral nerve cord display a period of suppressed spike generation and reduced synaptic input that we refer to as "autoinhibition." The duration of this autoinhibition is directly related to the magnitude and duration of the current injection triggering the high-frequency firing. More interesting, however, is that the autoinhibition is inversely related to the initial firing frequency of these cells within their normal range of firing (0.5-3 Hz). This allows more active 5HT neurons to resume firing after shorter durations of inhibition than cells that initially fired at slower rates. Although superfused 5HT inhibits the spontaneous firing of these cells, the persistence of autoinhibition in saline with no added calcium, in cadmium-containing saline, and in lobsters depleted of serotonin suggests that intrinsic membrane properties account for the autoinhibition. A similar autoinhibition is seen in spontaneously active octopamine neurons but is absent from spontaneously active gamma-aminobutyric acid cells. Thus, this might be a characteristic feature of amine-containing neurosecretory neurons. The 5HT cells of vertebrate brain nuclei share similarities in firing frequencies, spike shapes, and inhibition by 5HT with the lobster cells that were the focus of this study. However, the mechanism suggested to underlie autoinhibition in vertebrate neurons is that 5HT released from activated or neighboring cells acts back on inhibitory autoreceptors that are found on the dendrites and cell bodies of these neurons.  (+info)

In the latest Under the Microscope issue, Professor László Csernoch and his research group from the University of Debrecen (Hungary) explain their research into intracellular calcium homeostasis, which may seem like a simple statement. However, this fascinating area of research covers many areas, from arteriosclerosis to space travel.. They also explain how they rely on ratiometric calcium measurements, and the benefits they have experienced from their recent switch to the CoolLED pE-340fura LED Illumination System with their Zeiss Axio Vert microscope.. Read more about intracellular calcium homeostasis. This content was supplied by CoolLED.. ...
The eukaryotic cell depends on multitiered homeostatic systems ensuring maintenance of proteostasis, organellar integrity, function and turnover, and overall cellular viability. At the two opposite ends of the homeostatic system spectrum are heat shock response and autophagy. Here, we tested whether there are interactions between these homeostatic systems, one universally operational in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and the other one (autophagy) is limited to eukaryotes. We found that heat shock response regulates autophagy. The interaction between the two systems was demonstrated by testing the role of HSF-1, the central regulator of heat shock gene expression. Knockdown of HSF-1 increased the LC3 lipidation associated with formation of autophagosomal organelles, whereas depletion of HSF-1 potentiated both starvation- and rapamycin-induced autophagy. HSP70 expression but not expression of its ATPase mutant inhibited starvation or rapamycin-induced autophagy. We also show that exercise ...
Parameters describing dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) have limited reproducibility. 59 In an international, multi-centre study, we evaluated the influence of multiple analytical 60 methods on the reproducibility of DCA. Fourteen participating centers analyzed repeated 61 measurements from 75 healthy subjects, consisting of five minutes of spontaneous 62 fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) signals, based on 63 their usual methods of analysis. DCA- methods were grouped into three broad categories, 64 depending on output types: 1. Transfer function analysis (TFA); 2. Autoregulation index 65 (ARI); and 3. correlation coefficient. Only TFA gain in the low frequency (LF) band showed 66 good reproducibility in approximately half of the estimates of gain, defined as an intraclass 67 correlation coefficient (ICC) of , 0.6. None of the other DCA metrics had good 68 reproducibility. For TFA-like and ARI-like methods, ICCs were lower than values obtained 69 with ...
Recent studies have demonstrated that perturbations of intracellular thiol and calcium homeostasis may be important events in the early development of cell injury by toxic chemicals. Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes in a calcium free medium, severely depleted intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and resulted in the loss of both cytosolic and mitochondrial glutathione (GSH), which preceded cell injury. Elevation of endogeneous a-tocopherol levels, by supplementing the hepatocyte suspension with vitamin E-succinate, inhibited the loss of GSH and reversed cell injury. Increased levels of GSH in the presence of vitamin E-succinate were induced by an apparent a-tocopherol-mediated effect on GSH biosynthesis, indicating a close relationship between these two important cellular antioxidant systems. Perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis in hepatocytes by the administration of A23187, a calcium ionophore, in the presence of different concentrations of extracellular Ca²⁺ , revealed a striking ...
CitationAlvarez-Lacalle, E. [et al.]. A General Equilibrium Model to Study Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis. New Insights on Ventricular Function. A: The Heart by Numbers: Integrating Theory, Computation, and Experiment to Advance Cardiology. The Heart by numbers: integrating theory, computation, and experiment to advance cardiology, Berlin, Germany: September 4-7, 2018: Biophysical Society Thematic Meeting: program & abstracts. 2018, p. 44 ...
Blood vessels exhibit a remarkable ability to adapt throughout life that depends upon genetic programming and well-orchestrated biochemical processes. Findings over the past four decades demonstrate, however, that the mechanical environment experienced by these vessels similarly plays a critical rol …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treg cell-IgA axis in maintenance of host immune homeostasis with microbiota. AU - Feng, Ting. AU - Elson, Charles O.. AU - Cong, Yingzi. PY - 2011/5/1. Y1 - 2011/5/1. N2 - The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.. AB - The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.. KW - IgA. KW - Immune homeostasis. KW - Microbiota. KW - Treg cells. UR - ...
For survival and reproduction, the body has developed an intricately balanced system to efficiently control energy homeostasis at multiple levels. In short, the brain continually monitors the systemic metabolic state and adjusts behavior, as well as humoral and neuronal outputs to peripheral effector organs, to ensure an appropriate energy supply. If the central nervous system (CNS) senses a caloric shortage or surplus, the brain orchestrates responses that alter food intake, nutrient partitioning and physiological functions such as hepatic glucose production, adiposity and thermogenesis. Efficient maintenance of the delicate homeostatic balance of energy, glucose and lipid metabolism largely depends on system-wide synchronicity of metabolic processes that can only be achieved by central regulatory influences and master circuits in the brain. Disruption of such synchronicity, or failure of any of the key components of this system, are common pathophysiological causes of metabolic disorders such ...
The inclination to take care of a stable, remarkably continuous internal natural environment known as homeostasis. The human body maintains homeostasis for several issues also to temperature. For instance, the concentration of varied ions within your blood will have to be saved continual, coupled with pH as well as the concentration of glucose. If these values get as well excessive or low, youll be able to finish up becoming particularly sick.Homeostasis is taken care of at several stages, not simply the extent of your whole body mainly because it is for temperature. For illustration, the stomach maintains a pH which is completely different from that of encompassing organs, and each unique mobile maintains ion concentrations distinctive from these of your surrounding fluid. Maintaining homeostasis at each and every stage thesis statements is essential to keeping the bodys over-all purpose.. Biological devices like those people of the shape are frequently being pushed away from their ...
Calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes results from the integrated function of transsarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways modulated by membrane potential and from intracellular Ca2+ uptake and release caused predominantly by SR function. These processes can be importantly altered in different disease states as well as by pharmacological agents, and the resulting changes in systolic and diastolic [Ca2+]i can cause clinically significant alterations in contraction and relaxation of the heart. It may be anticipated that a rapid increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes will be forthcoming as the powerful new tools of molecular and structural biology are used to investigate the regulation of Ca2+ transport systems. ...
The Open Door Web Site : IB Biology : Homeostasis : Description of the Homeostatic Control of Blood Glucose Levels - insulin and glucagon
Balanced and dynamic interactions among mucus layers, intestinal epithelial cells, and microbiota, are essential for the maintenance of the intestinal mucosal homeostasis. The disruption of this balance leads to a defective mucus barrier with increased permeability that results in intestinal inflammation. The homeodomain transcription factor, Prep1, is expressed in the post-mitotic differentiated intestinal epithelial cells and is essential in embryonic development. The goal of this project is to study the involvement of Prep1 in intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and its functional role in human and experimental IBD.. ...
PINK1 regulation of neuronal and mitochondrial homeostasis PROJECT SUMMARY. Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause familial autosomal recessive parkinsonism. As PINK1 plays a neuroprotective role in a wide range of genetic and toxin-induced Parkinsons disease (PD) models, studying its function in neurons may offer particular insights into potential therapeutic strategies. In the prior project period, we found that endogenous PINK1 exists in mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments. Moreover, these pools of PINK1 played divergent roles in regulating mitochondrial fission-fusion, mitophagy, calcium homeostasis and dendritic morphogenesis. Using primary neurons, differentiated neuronal cell lines and Pink1 knockout and control mice, the current proposal focuses on studying mechanisms by which PINK1 regulates neuron differentiation and the maintenance of extended axo-dendritic arbors. Based on preliminary data, we hypothesize that PINK1 interacts with cytosolic targets to regulate neuron ...
Persistent neuroinflammation and disruptions in brain energy metabolism is commonly seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Because of the lack of success of most TBI interventions and the documented benefits of environmental enrichment (EE) in enhancing brain plasticity, here we focused our study on use of EE in regulating injury-induced neuroinflammation and disruptions in energy metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were used in the study and randomly assigned to receive either: mild TBI (mTBI) using the controlled cortical injury model or sham surgery. Following surgery, rats from each group were further randomized to either: EE housing or standard laboratory housing (CON). After 4 weeks of recovery, cognitive testing was performed using the non-matching-to-sample and delayed non-matching-to-sample tasks. After completion of behavioral testing, levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were measured. In
Aging affects homeostasis negatively as homeostatic regulation deteriorates. Cells that work to restore homeostasis may become less able to send and receive the chemical signals required for homeostasis to take place. Aging cells may not be able to carry out instructions as well as younger cells.
Ca2+ is a universal carrier of biological information: it controls cell life from its origin at fertilization to its end in the process of programmed cell death. Ca2+ is a conventional diffusible second messenger released inside cells by the interaction of first messengers with plasma membrane receptors. However, it can also penetrate directly into cells to deliver information without the intermediation of first or second messengers. Even more distinctively, Ca2+ can act as a first messenger, by interacting with a plasma membrane receptor to set in motion intracellular signaling pathways that involve Ca2+ itself. Perhaps the most distinctive property of the Ca2+ signal is its ambivalence: while essential to the correct functioning of cells, Ca2+ becomes an agent that mediates cell distress, or even (toxic) cell death, if its concentration and movements inside cells are not carefully tuned. Ca2+ is controlled by reversible complexation to specific proteins, which could be pure Ca2+ buffers, or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein homeostasis and aging. T2 - Taking care of proteins from the cradle to the grave. AU - Morimoto, Richard I.. AU - Cuervo, Ana M.. PY - 2009/2. Y1 - 2009/2. N2 - All cells count on precise mechanisms that regulate protein homeostasis to maintain a stable and functional proteome. Alterations in these fine-tuned mechanisms underlie the pathogenesis of severe human diseases including, among others, common neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers or Parkinsons disease. A progressive deterioration in the ability of cells to preserve the stability of their proteome occurs with age, even in the absence of disease, and it likely contributes to different aspects of normal aging. A group of experts in different aspects of the biology of aging met recently to discuss the implications of altered protein homeostasis in aging, the current gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for proteome maintenance, and future opportunities for discovery in this area. We ...
The safety and efficacy of the agents and/or uses under investigation have not been established. There is no guarantee that the agents will receive health authority approval or become commercially available in any country for the uses being investigated.. Maintenance of protein homeostasis is a critical function of the cell, and disruptions of this process contribute to the development of numerous diseases, including cancer.1-3 Ubiquitination and degradation of proteins is a key component of protein homeostasis, and proteins involved in this process, including E3 ubiquitin ligases, are increasingly being investigated as therapeutic targets.2,3. Celgene is developing cancer treatments directed at key biological pathways in protein homeostasis.. ...
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The normal cell Cell injury Cell death and necrosis-gangrene The cells are the basic unit of life, they are the smallest units that perform physiological functions. Each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level. Defects in or on the the cell can result in disruption of homeostasis. This can lead to a state of disease.… 0 0 galkin2 galkin22015-09-18 10:29:492015-09-18 10:29:49HRES-1/Rab4-mediated depletion of Drp1 impairs mitochondrial homeostasis and represents a target for treatment in SLE. ...
Cellular homeostasis is the effort of all living cells to maintain their intracellular content when facing physiological change(s) in the extracellular environment. To date, cellular homeostasis is known to be regulated mainly by time-consuming active mechanisms and via multiple signaling pathways within the cells. The aim of this thesis is to show that time-efficient passive (physical) mechanisms also, under the control and regulation of bio-physical factors such as cell morphology and distribution and co-localization of transport proteins in the cell membrane, can regulate cellular homeostasis. This thesis has been developed in an interface between physics and biology and focuses on critical cases in which cells face physiologically unstable environments at their steady state and therefore may need a constituent effort to maintain their homeostasis. The main hypothesis here is that the cell geometry is oriented in such a way that cellular homeostasis is preserved in a given environment. For ...
Tuning neural function as it relates to aging and age-related diseases. A growing consensus suggests that stability and homeostasis in synaptic growth and function may be key in maintaining the health of neural circuits, and as such, disruption in regulatory mechanisms that control synaptic homeostasis may lead to developmental and neurodegenerative nervous system diseases. My research program investigates the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic homeostasis. In particular, we are interested in learning how retrograde signaling cascades participate in this process. My laboratory has been identifying and characterizing genes and mechanisms that participate in this regulation by exploiting the power of Drosophila genetics in combination with imaging and electrophysiology. In particular, my groups success in understanding the basic biology of synaptic function have led us to the identification of the target of rapamycin (TOR) as a critical regulator of synaptic homoeostasis. This finding is ...
Aims To understand the role of cell surface receptors, that recognise bacterial metabolites (free fatty acids) and to examine whether high affinity synthetic agonists can be used to manipulate gut homeostasis. Significance Gut homeostasis depends on the production of certain free fatty acids, binding G-protein coupled receptors on gut epithelium and immune cells. High affinity agonists, 100-1000 fold more potent than natural ligands, will aid in understanding and manipulating gut physiology. This may explain the actions of probiotics and prebiotics, and how diet relates to the microbiome, and to immune processes in the gut. Expected outcome Novel tools to important receptors, to understand processes responsible for gut ...
Looking for Homoeostasis? Find out information about Homoeostasis. homoeostasis the maintenance of metabolic equilibrium within an animal by a tendency to compensate for disrupting changes The relatively constant conditions... Explanation of Homoeostasis
Hope this is the right forum for this question. Just wondering if anyone could clarify what exactly the term energy homeostasis refers to? . And how it is, or isnt, related to glucose homeostasis? Ive got to describe the role of the liver in energy homeostasis - Ive found lots of info on how the liver is involved in glucose homeostasis, i.e. keeping blood sugar levels roughly constant, but im not sure if this is what the questions asking ...
Homoeostasis is maintained through a series of control mechanisms and when is this for whatever reason does not kick in; the body will suffer various illnesses or disease. The homeostatic balance can becomes disrupted when cells malfunction and this can be caused by deficiency (cells not getting all they need) or toxicity (cells being poisoned by things they dont need. When things like this happen there are options to either correct or worsen the problem, usually a lot are based on lifestyle choices and environmental exposure that influences our bodys ability to maintain cellular health ...
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An advantage of homeostatic regulation is that it allows an organism to function effectively in a broad range of environmental conditions. For example, ectotherms tend to become sluggish at low temperatures, whereas a co-located endotherm may be fully active. That thermal stability comes at a price since an automatic regulation system requires additional energy. One reason snakes may eat only once a week is that they use much less energy to maintain homeostasis. Most homeostatic regulation is controlled by the release of hormones into the bloodstream. However other regulatory processes rely on simple diffusion to maintain a balance. Homeostatic regulation extends far beyond the control of temperature. All animals also regulate their blood glucose, as well as the concentration of their blood. Mammals regulate their blood glucose with insulin and glucagon. These hormones are released by the pancreas. If the pancreas is for any reason unable to produce enough of these two hormones diabetes results. ...
An advantage of homeostatic regulation is that it allows an organism to function effectively in a broad range of environmental conditions. For example, ectotherms tend to become sluggish at low temperatures, whereas a co-located endotherm may be fully active. That thermal stability comes at a price since an automatic regulation system requires additional energy. One reason snakes may eat only once a week is that they use much less energy to maintain homeostasis. Most homeostatic regulation is controlled by the release of hormones into the bloodstream. However other regulatory processes rely on simple diffusion to maintain a balance. Homeostatic regulation extends far beyond the control of temperature. All animals also regulate their blood glucose, as well as the concentration of their blood. Mammals regulate their blood glucose with insulin and glucagon. These hormones are released by the pancreas. If the pancreas is for any reason unable to produce enough of these two hormones diabetes results. ...
ebook Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Mammals possess adaptations to stay warm in the winter and cool in the summer -- Ethical, legal, social implications: biologists might consider studying males and females separately -- 2. An individuals foraging can affect the entire population -- Ethical, legal, social implications: negative birth rates in human societies can have positive and negative consequences -- Conclusion -- Glossary -- Index. Restricted to libraries which purchase an unrestricted PDF download via an IP. Organisms maintain homeostasis in a variety of ways. In the first part of this book, mammals are shown to regulate their body temperatures through homeostatic mechanisms. The data from thermoregulation experiments that demonstrated the role of neurons in body temperature homeostasis are examined. The second part of this book discusses how organisms allocate the limited energy that is available to them for survival, growth, or reproduction. Excess energy in ...
BTEC BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 3 TASK 1 HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis can be defined as a point of balance or internal equilibrium that all kind of system both living
Homeostatic mechanisms in mammals function to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range in response to hormones and nutrients. Glucose homeostasis is...
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We explain Homeostasis with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine various homeostatic controls that allow the body to maintain a constant internal environment.|/p|
We explain Homeostasis with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine various homeostatic controls that allow the body to maintain a constant internal environment.|/p|
The cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22), which is a member of the IL-10 family, is produced exclusively by immune cells and activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in nonimmune cells, such as hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and colonic epithelial cells, to drive various processes central to tissue homeostasis and immunosurveillance. Dysregulation of IL-22 signaling causes inflammatory diseases. IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP; encoded by IL22RA2) is a soluble IL-22 receptor, which antagonizes IL-22 activity and has genetic associations with autoimmune diseases. Humans have three IL-22BP isoforms, IL-22BPi1 to IL-22BPi3, which are generated by alternative splicing; mice only have an IL-22BPi2 homolog. We showed that, although IL-22BPi3 had less inhibitory activity than IL-22BPi2, IL-22BPi3 was more abundant in various human tissues under homeostatic conditions. IL-22BPi2 was more effective than IL-22BPi3 at blocking the contribution of IL-22 to cooperative gene induction with ...
PUBLICATIONS. Bank, U., K. Deiser, D. Finke, G.J. Hämmerling, B. Arnold, and T. Schüler. 2016. Cutting Edge: Innate Lymphoid Cells Suppress Homeostatic T Cell Expansion in Neonatal Mice. J Immunol. 196:3532-3536. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1501643.. Bank, U., K. Deiser, C. Plaza-Sirvent, L. Osbelt, A. Witte, L. Knop, R. Labrenz, R. Jänsch, F. Richter, A. Biswas, A.C. Zenclussen, E. Vivier, C. Romagnani, A.A. Kühl, I.R. Dunay, T. Strowig, I. Schmitz, and T. Schüler. 2020. c-FLIP is crucial for IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46+ ILC development and protection from intestinal inflammation in mice. Nat Commun. 11:1056. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14782-3.. Deiser, K., D. Stoycheva, U. Bank, T. Blankenstein, and T. Schüler. 2016. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells. PLoS One. 11:e0159690. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159690.. Knop, L., K. Deiser, U. Bank, A. Witte, J. Mohr, L. Philipsen, H.J. Fehling, A.J. Müller, U. Kalinke, and T. Schüler. 2020. IL-7 derived ...
Cerebral Autoregulation Real-Time Monitoring. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: describe the roles of major biological molecules in forming living organisms and carrying out life processes; elucidate the roles of cell parts in carrying out various life processes; analyze the manners in which genetic materials determine the genetic characteristics of offspring; apply the various life processes carried out by human organs systems to the over-all goal of maintaining homeostasis; evaluate the impact that various interferences with homeostasis may have on the functioning of the human body and identify the steps that the human body takes to deal with such interference.. ...
The kidney is comprised of a number of epithelial cell types, which carry out various essential roles including metabolite excretion, electrolyte homeostatic maintenance, and drug and toxin transport. Although pharmacokinetic studies often focus on the fate of drugs in the adult situation, there is a critical need to understand the kinetics of pharmacological agents in newborns and infants given that their renal functional capacity is still undergoing maturation (Hook and Bailie, 1979). Using rat and mouse mRNA microarray expression data published previously, we describe the expression of many components of the major drug transport systems during kidney development, through the postnatal period, and on to adulthood. Overall, there seems to be an up-regulation of the SLC and ABC transporters with developmental time. The expression of SLC22 family of transporters also increases with time, but perhaps of particular interest are the clinically relevant transporters, of which 11 transporters are ...
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Author: Yampolsky, Pessah et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019-07-23; Title: Augmentation of myocardial If dysregulates calcium homeostasis and causes adverse cardiac remodeling
At any given time of day, there is a constant cascade of chemical reactions occuring within the human body. These reactions can be caused by numerous stimuli, including foods consumed, thought patterns or physical demands placed on the body. These reactions can be categorised into many different types of reaction, and two of such classifications include homeostatic responses, in which the body maintains balance of all biological parameters, and stress responses, where reactions of the body are in reaction to the introduction of an external stressor.. As with all biological systems, there are a large number of highly intricate mechanisms to detect, correct and balance substance and activity levels throughout the body. These systems are multi-faceted and constantly interact with other systems; in this sense, homeostatic and stress responses do not differ.. However, homeostatic responses deal with maintaining balance around the body, mainly through hormones. These are proteins that act as chemical ...
Homeostatic Control by the Endocrine System. Blood Glucose Regulation. The body requires volumes of glucose in order to make ATP, however the amount of ATP demand will fluctuate according to need and thus the body regulates its release of glucose into the bloodstream as high levels of glucose in the bloodstream can damage cells (creates hypertonicity). ...
The phosphoinositide (PI(3,5)P2)-activated Na+two pore+channel-1, TPC1 of endosomes and lysosomes (Wang et al. 2012). Previously thought, incorectly, according to Wang et al. (2012), to be an NAADP-activated two pore voltage-dependent calcium channel protein. However, Cang et al. (2013), showed that TPC1 and TPC2 (TC# 1.A.1.11.19) together form an ATP-sensitive two-pore Na channel that senses the metabolic state of the cell. The channel complex detects nutrient status, becomes constitutively open upon nutrient removal, and controls the lysosomes membrane potential, pH stability, and amino acid homeostasis. May be regulated by the HCLS-associated X-1 (HAX-1) protein (Lam et al. 2013 ...
Positive feedback and homeostasis are connected because they are essential to human health and also happen together in specific...
When the human body is in a state of homeostasis, all functions and chemicals are balanced and the body functions normally. Maintaining blood glucose levels is among many functions the body controls through homeostatic regulation. When there is a problem balancing levels of insulin, several problems take place.
Series 1: What is acid base homeostasis? An extensive international scientific evidence based literature review, performed Spring 2013 shows that maintaining acid base homeostasis is our first line of defense against diseases of the muscle, spine, bones, kidneys, heart, diabetes, cardiovascular a...
UltraIce - Hemp-Free Homeostasis SupportPatent Pending Water Soluble FormulationUp to 94% AbsorptionQuick, Long Lasting BioavailabilityAnti-Inflammatory Blend Works with UltraCell CBD or AloneContains Curcumin and Other Anti-Inflammatory Ingredients Inflammation is the #1 cause of pain. UltraICE helps reduce the inflammation that can be the root of joint and muscle pain without the side effects experienced with over the counter or prescription drugs. Use alone or in conjunction with CBD as it boosts the effectiveness of CBD. Dosage Directions:UltraICE 2ozFull Spectrum Homeostasis SupportShake before usingTake 2ml daily or as directed by a physician 2oz Bottle - $110.00 For detailed information on this or other Zilis products, click on our company link
Bone homeostasis[edit]. Adenosine receptors play a key role in the homeostasis of bone. The A1 receptor has been shown to ... Bone homeostasis[edit]. The role of A3 receptor is less defined in this field. Studies have shown that it plays a role in the ... Bone homeostasis[edit]. The role of A2A receptor opposes that of A1 in that it inhibits osteoclast differentiation and ... Bone homeostasis[edit]. Similarly to A2A receptor, the A2B receptor promotes osteoblast differentiation.[22] The osteoblast ...
Homeostasis[edit]. The kidney participates in whole-body homeostasis, regulating acid-base balance, electrolyte concentrations ... Main article: Acid-base homeostasis. Two organ systems, the kidneys and lungs, maintain acid-base homeostasis, which is the ... The lungs contribute to acid-base homeostasis by regulating carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. The kidneys have two very ...
Homeostasis is the ability of an open system to regulate its internal environment to maintain stable conditions by means of ... All living organisms, whether unicellular or multicellular, exhibit homeostasis.[37]. To maintain dynamic equilibrium and ... to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. See glossary of biology. ... "What is homeostasis?". Scientific American.. *^ Bryant, DA; Frigaard, NU (November 2006). "Prokaryotic photosynthesis and ...
Normal homeostasis[edit]. There is a hypothalamic-renal feedback system which normally maintains the concentration of the serum ... homeostasis of body fluid osmolality); conditions can cause that feedback system to malfunction (pathophysiology); and the ...
Calcium homeostasis disorders and Metabolic bone disease[edit]. *Parathyroid gland disorders *Primary hyperparathyroidism ...
Homeostasis[edit]. Feedback and feedforward regulation maintains the levels of bioactive GAs in plants.[32][33] Levels of ...
Homeostasis and regulated uptake for metabolic pathways is essential for bacterial survival. GalP is homologous to GLUT-1 found ... Schweizer, H. (2011). Homeostasis. Lecture. 7 March 2011. Transmembrane protein List of proteins. ... effects on homeostasis, expression, and regulation of GalP along with examples of several of its homologues. Galactose Permease ... Coupling galactose/proton import with proton export would maintain pH homeostasis. As protons are charged molecules, their ...
When the pace of succession slows down as the result of ecological homeostasis, the maximum permitted biodiversity is reached. ... Ernest SK (January 2008). "Homeostasis". In Jørgensen SE, Fath BD (eds.). Encyclopedia of Ecology. Oxford: Academic Press. pp. ...
Homeostasis. 36(2-3):76-82, 1995. Jeleazcov, C., Krajinovic, L., Münster, T., Birkholz, T., Fried, R., Schüttler, J., & Fechner ...
The role of cell death is the maintenance of tissue and organ homeostasis , for example, the regular loss of skin cells or a ... 2015). "Homeostasis". Accessed 22 December 2016 2016. "Naphthol AS-TR phosphate". Accessed 29 December 2016. I. Davies and D.C ...
The internal thermoregulation process is one aspect of homeostasis: a state of dynamic stability in an organism's internal ... This cyclical process aids in homeostasis. Homeothermy and poikilothermy refer to how stable an organism's deep-body ... Boundless (20 September 2016). "Homeostasis: Thermoregulation". Boundless. Crevel, R.W.R; Fedyk, J.K; Spurgeon, M.J (July 2002 ... thermoregulation is an important aspect of human homeostasis. Most body heat is generated in the deep organs, especially the ...
See homeostasis). Cellular theory of ageing can be categorized as telomere theory, free radical theory (free-radical theory of ... Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) regenerate the blood system throughout life and maintain homeostasis. DNA strand breaks ...
Rodan GA (1998). "Bone Homeostasis". P Natl a Sci USA. 95 (23): 13361-62. Bibcode:1998PNAS...9513361R. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.23. ...
Gould was initially attracted to I. Michael Lerner's theories of developmental and genetic homeostasis. However this hypothesis ... Lerner, Israel Michael (1954). Genetic Homeostasis. New York: John Wiley. Eldredge, Niles (1971). "The allopatric model and ... Michael Lerner's theories of developmental and genetic homeostasis, and their own empirical research. Eldredge and Gould ...
"Physiological Homeostasis". biology online: answers to your biology questions. 30 January 2020.. ... In biology, this process (in general, biochemical) is often referred to as homeostasis; whereas in mechanics, the more common ... Robert E. Ricklefs; Gary Leon Miller (2000). "§6.1 Homeostasis depends upon negative feedback". Ecology. Macmillan. p. 92. ISBN ...
The receptor helps maintain iron homeostasis in the cells by controlling iron concentrations. The gene coding for transferrin ... Moos T (November 2002). "Brain iron homeostasis". Danish Medical Bulletin. 49 (4): 279-301. PMID 12553165. Macedo MF, de Sousa ...
Tanner, G. A. (2012). "Acid-Base Homeostasis". In Rhoades, R. A.; Bell, D. R. (eds.). Medical Physiology: Principles for ...
The choroid plexus is also a major source of transferrin secretion that plays a part in iron homeostasis in the brain. The ... This cellular trafficking has implications both in normal brain homeostasis and in neuroinflammatory processes. During fetal ... Moos, T (November 2002). "Brain iron homeostasis". Danish Medical Bulletin. 49 (4): 279-301. PMID 12553165. Moos, T; Rosengren ...
1978). "Population homeostasis". S Afr Med J. 53 (6): 222-4. PMID 653514. "The rise of novelty in ecosystems". Ecol. Appl. 25 ( ... Entire ecosystems show homeostasis, and thus perpetuate themselves. The slow modifying effect of succession and similar shifts ... "Mechanisms of population homeostasis in Anagasta ecosystems". Hilgardia. 39 (13): 367-404. 1968. doi:10.3733/hilg.v39n13p367. ... homeostasis self-replication self-reference recursion reproduction feedback loop cause and effect von Neumann universal ...
Moos T (November 2002). "Brain iron homeostasis". Danish Medical Bulletin. 49 (4): 279-301. PMID 12553165. Speeckaert MM, ...
In order to preserve homeostasis, organisms have evolved specific protein networks, with proteins and receptors translated in ... ISBN 978-94-007-6087-5. Ganz T (Oct 2013). "Systemic iron homeostasis". Physiological Reviews. 93 (4): 1721-41. doi:10.1152/ ...
This is different from homeostasis, which occurs in response to subtle ebb and flow. Both homeostasis and allostasis are ... Day has argued that the concept of allostasis is no more than a renaming of the original concept of homeostasis. Homeostasis ... Homeostasis is formed from the Greek adjective homoios, meaning "similar," and the noun stasis, meaning "standing;" thus, " ... Selye, H. (1973). "Homeostasis and Heterostasis". Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. 16 (3): 441-445. doi:10.1353/pbm. ...
Body fluid homeostasis I • Body fluid homeostasis II • Body energy homeostasis • Body regulation and defense Year 2 , Semester ...
Banfalvi, Gaspar (2013-10-16). Homeostasis - Tumor - Metastasis. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 145. ISBN 9789400773356 ...
Banfalvi G (2013). Homeostasis - Tumor - Metastasis. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 156. ISBN 9789400773356. Montgomery ...
Radiation and Homeostasis. 1236: 35-37. doi:10.1016/S0531-5131(01)00765-8. Ghiassi-Nejad, M; Beitollahi, MM; Asefi, M; Reza- ...
Homeostasis[sunting , sunting sumber]. Homeostasis kalium menunjukkan pemeliharaan kandungan total kalium tubuh, kadar kalium ... Moore-Ede, M. C. (1986). "Physiology of the circadian timing system: predictive versus reactive homeostasis". Am J Physiol. 250 ... Secara kolektif, tiga yang pertama kadang-kadang disebut "sistem homeostasis kalium eksternal"; dan dua yang pertama disebut " ... "sistem homeostasis kalium reaktif". *Sistem umpan balik negatif reaktif mengacu pada sistem yang menginduksi sekresi kalium ...
Cannon, Walter B. (1929). "Organization for Physiological Homeostasis". Physiological Reviews. 9 (3): 399-421. doi:10.1152/ ...
Metabolism: Anabolic and catabolic processes; cell maintenance and homeostasis; secondary metabolism. Intra-cellular processes ...
Acid-base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the bodys extracellular fluid (ECF).[1] The proper balance ... In humans and many other animals, acid-base homeostasis is maintained by multiple mechanisms involved in three lines of defence ... though this has no effect on pH homeostasis of the extracellular fluids.[5][20] ... "Acid-Base Homeostasis". Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 10 (12): 2232-42. doi:10.2215/CJN.07400715 ...
Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic ... Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic ... Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic ... Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic ...
2013). "Chapter 3 Sodium/Potassium homeostasis, Chapter 5 Calcium homeostasis, Chapter 6 Manganese homeostasis". Metallomics ... "Homeostasis". Unabridged. Random House.. *^ a b c d e f g Tortora, Gerard J.; Anagnostakos, Nicholas P. (1987). ... The word homeostasis (/ˌhoʊmioʊˈsteɪsɪs/[11][12]) uses combining forms of homeo- and -stasis, New Latin from Greek: ὅμοιος ... Main article: Risk homeostasis. An actuary may refer to risk homeostasis, where (for example) people who have anti-lock brakes ...
homeostasis (es); Гомеостаз (kk-kz); Samvægi (is); Homeostasis (ms); Homeostasis (en-gb); Хомеостаза (bg); Homeostaz (tr); ... homeostasis (en); استتباب (ar); Homeosztázis (hu); Homeostasi (eu); Homeostasis (ast); homeòstasi (ca); Homeostasis (cy); ... Homoeostasis (la); 稳态 (zh-hans); समस्थापन (hi); Gomeostaz (kk-tr); Homeostaasi (fi); گومەوستاز (kk-cn); Homeostasis (en-ca); ... Homeostasis (tl); Homeostazie (ro); සමස්ථිතිය (si); Homeostasis (war); Homeostaza (pl); Hoiméastáis (ga); Homeostaza (sh); ...
Oxygen homeostasis.. Semenza GL1,2,3.. Author information. 1. Vascular Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, The Johns ... Metazoan life is dependent upon the utilization of O(2) for essential metabolic processes and oxygen homeostasis is an ... is a transcription factor that is expressed by all metazoan species and functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. ...
Magnesium insulin glucose homeostasis diabetic complications dietary magnesium supplements Download to read the full article ... Legrand C, Okitolonda W, Pottier AM, Lederer J, Henquin JC (1987) Glucose homeostasis in magnesium-deficient rats. Metabolism ... its relation to glucose homeostasis. Eur J Clin Invest 12: 81-85PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Homeostasis, a core tenet of life science, describes how organisms keep their internal environment stable despite constant ... Modern models of homeostasis. The concept of negative feedback dates back to Cannons description of homeostasis in the 1920s, ... Why homeostasis is important. Physiologist Walter Cannon coined the term "homeostasis" in the 1920s, expanding on previous work ... Check out helpful graphics about homeostasis from the Khan Academy.. *Learn how homeostasis impacts human physiology with Crash ...
Signals that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis. Science 1998;280(5368): 1378-1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Signals that regulate food intake and energy homeostasis. Science 1998;280:1378-1383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Woods S.C., Cota D. (2007) Endocannabinoids and Energy Homeostasis. In: Kushner R.F., Bessesen D.H. (eds) Treatment of the ...
Homeostasis means The maintenance of a constant internal environment. Its all about a living creature keeping their inside ... Homeostasis:. Homeostasis is defined as "The maintenance of a constant internal environment". It includes the maintenance of ... Im not sure how this system is stopped, but its nothing to do with homeostasis and Id better get back on topic.. Perhaps the ... Homeostasis means "The maintenance of a constant internal environment". Its all about a living creature keeping their inside ...
... even with changes in external temperature-such as a hot car or cold room-is called homeostasis. ... How Does Homeostasis Work?. Homeostasis works through two primary mechanisms:. *Positive feedback occurs when the body ... Problems With Homeostasis. Although the body is remarkably adept at maintaining homeostasis, some medical and environmental ... What is Homeostasis?. In a given day, peoples bodies change in myriad ways, and many people face vastly different environments ...
Here we show that there is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controlling proteasome homeostasis. Central to this ... Adrien Rousseau and Anne Bertolotti report that an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controls proteasome homeostasis ... an analysis in yeast identifies TORC1 and Mpk1 as central components of a pathway regulating proteasome homeostasis through the ... Expanding the role of proteasome homeostasis in Parkinsons disease: beyond protein breakdown *Mingxia Bi ...
When the human body is in a state of homeostasis, all functions and chemicals are balanced and the body functions normally. ... Homeostasis is an ongoing daily process for the body. The pancreas controls insulin when blood sugar in the body becomes too ... When blood sugar is too low, the pancreas releases glucose to reach a state of homeostasis. When blood sugar is too high, the ... When the body cannot maintain a state of homeostasis, it effects not only an individuals health but how he feels. Diabetes has ...
... This material is part of a brief overview of the topics studied in biology with the ...
Homeostasis including information on parts of speech, usage, register, style, collocation, meaning and grammar. ... Definitions of Homeostasis: , Cambridge Dictionaries , Merriam-Webster , America , Australia , ...
Control a simulated person running on a treadmill. Your challenge is to use clothing, exercise, and sweat to maintain a constant body temperature as air temperature goes up and down. Sweating (perspiration) can be controlled automatically by the Gizmo or, for a challenge, manually by the user. Dont forget to eat and drink!
The word homeostasis is derived from the Greek, homeo or same, and stasis or stable and means remaining stable or remaining ... Homeostasis is the process by which the body attempts to maintain a state of stable physiological balance. ... What is Homeostasis. Homeostasis is the process by which the body attempts to maintain a state of stable physiological balance ... homeostasis of sleep. Homeostasis and Sleep. Not All Physiological Processes Remain Constant Over Time, But Those That ...
Hepatic ANGPTL3 regulates adipose tissue energy homeostasis. Yan Wang, Markey C. McNutt, Serena Banfi, Michael G. Levin, ... Energy homeostasis is maintained by a complex regulatory network that synchronizes fuel metabolism with nutrient availability. ... 2002) SREBPs: Transcriptional mediators of lipid homeostasis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol 67:491-498. ... For measurements of energy homeostasis, mice were acclimated in metabolic cages (LabMaster System; TSE Systems) for 5 d before ...
Targeting protein homeostasis components also affords the opportunity to develop new antiinfectives, either by intervening with ... In the last decade an explosion of discoveries has indicated that imbalances in protein homeostasis are associated with many ... Improved understanding of protein homeostasis has promise of leading to new targets for small molecule modulators, and hence ... the protein homeostasis components of the pathogen, or targeting components of the host network that are hijacked by a pathogen ...
Biology 3201 STSE Drugs and Homeostasis  Submitted To: Mr. King Submitted By: Chelsea Hamen Date Due: October 28th ... Introduction:. Homeostasis Is The Process Of Maintaining. 1003 Words , 5 Pages. Introduction: Homeostasis is the process of ... Homeostasis in the family system is broken where it can resist or maintain secondly homeostasis within the family system is ... Introduction:. Homeostasis Is The Process Of Maintaining. 1003 Words , 5 Pages. *. Family Addiction In The Family. 894 Words , ...
The role of orphan nuclear receptors in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 2000. 16:459-481. ... cDNA cloning of cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, a mediator of cholesterol homeostasis in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999. 96 ... Lund, EG, Björkhem, I. Role of oxysterols in the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis: a critical evaluation. Acc Chem Res ... Do oxysterols control cholesterol homeostasis?. Ingemar Björkhem Division of Clinical Chemistry, Karolinska Institutet, ...
... thereby regulating homeostasis and preventing inflammation in barrier tissues. ... RIPK1 maintains epithelial homeostasis by inhibiting apoptosis and necroptosis. *Marius Dannappel1. n5*, Katerina Vlantis1. n5* ... FADD and RIPK3 deficiency restores intestinal homeostasis in RIPK1IEC-KO mice and IEC necroptosis in FADDIEC-KO mice occurs in ... RIPK1 ensures intestinal homeostasis by protecting the epithelium against apoptosis *Nozomi Takahashi ...
Maintaining iron homeostasis involves regulating absorption of dietary iron, its transport, and its storage. However, the ...
Homeostasis is a natural process in our body that regulates our internal environment to keep our body systems functioning well ... What is Homeostasis. Homeostasis is a natural process in our body that regulates our internal environment to keep our body ... Homeostasis is a regulatory system similar to a home thermostat.. *Homeostasis is the natural regulatory method to control your ... Problems with Homeostasis. Homeostasis is a regulatory system similar to a home thermostat. When your home temperature cools, ...
Cholesterol is an essential biological molecule that performs many functions within the body. It is a structural component of all cell membranes and is also a precursor to steroid hormones, vitamin D, and bile acids that aid in digestion. Within membranes the cholesterol to polar lipid ratios affect stability, permeability, and protein mobility. The hormones produced from cholesterol include androgens, estrogens, and the gluco- and mineralocorticoids.. Cholesterol levels in the body are achieved via two sources. Adults with healthy diets will biosynthesize the majority of their cholesterol in the liver and other body tissues and obtain the remainder from the dietary intake of foods high in saturated fatty acids. Free cholesterol is not found in blood; rather it is esterified to fatty acids and packaged in lipoprotein particles. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are produced by the liver and consist of an outer core composed of apolipoproteins; apo-B100, apo-CI, apo-CII, apo-CIII, and apoE ...
Homeostasis. Although our bodies are very robust and we can live in a range of environments, our brain requires very specific ... Homeostasis is the active process by which our nervous system regulates internal conditions, such as blood pressure and ... other places in the nervous system contribute to homeostasis.. Not just through pumping out hormones, but also through ... why homeostasis is thought to make sense and in large part it does. ...
Buffering of deoxyribonucleotide pool homeostasis by threonine metabolism Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... The requirement reported here of mitochondrial-to-nucleus retrograde signaling for dNTP pool homoeostasis in yeast may be of ... Biosynthesis and Extracellular Uptake of Threonine Contribute to dNTP Pool Homeostasis.. To test the effect of threonine ... Effect of threonine metabolism on dNTP pool homeostasis. (a) Intracellular dNTP pool concentrations are depicted 90 (black) and ...
A. How does this help her maintain homeostasis?. B. What do you do instead of panting? Why do humans and dogs show different ... A. F. Homeostasis does not imply an unchanging situation, but rather one in which changes are kept within narrow limits.. ... A. In an organism that maintains homeostasis, blood glucose levels stay constant.. ...
This chapter reviews alterations in volume and sodium homeostasis and osmoregulation during human pregnancy. Pregnant women ... Volume homeostasis and osmoregulation in human pregnancy Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989 Aug;3(2):451-72. doi: 10.1016/ ... This chapter reviews alterations in volume and sodium homeostasis and osmoregulation during human pregnancy. Pregnant women ...
... Marcus Fernandes de Oliveira. ,1 Nívea Dias Amoêdo. ,1 and Franklin David Rumjanek ... its role as regulators of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, or as essential elements in the processes of cell proliferation and ... play key roles in cellular redox homeostasis [3] that may have a role in tumorigenesis. ... calcium homeostasis [13], ROS generation [14] and heat production [15]. ...
... Sci Rep. 2015 Jan 28;5:8088. doi: 10.1038/srep08088. ... The defects associated with the altered Ca(2+) homeostasis appear consistently overlapping those related to the unbalanced ... signaling and its key function in the control of intracellular functions we were interested to study calcium homeostasis in FA ... oxidative metabolism in FA cells underlining a contiguity between oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis. ...
  • Sudha S. Shankar, M.D., from Merck & Co. Inc. in Kenilworth, N.J., and colleagues examined the effects of OXM on glucose homeostasis. (
  • Hypothalamus and brain stem play important roles in Glucose Homeostasis. (
  • Nucleus of solitary tract, area postrema, dorsomedial nucleus of vagus and basolateral medulla are also related to glucose homeostasis. (
  • Neuron astrocyte establishes via autonomic system connections with liver, pancreas, adrenal gland and maintains glucose homeostasis. (
  • Central nervous system regulates fat metabolism, food intake, body weight and glucose homeostasis. (
  • Several hormones and physiological factors are involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. (
  • To evaluate different aspects of glucose homeostasis and the effect of interventions, such as pharmacological treatment, glucose tolerance tests can be performed. (
  • Mechanism-based pharmacometric models is a valuable tool in drug development, which can be applied to increase the knowledge about complex systems such as glucose homeostasis, quantify the effects of drugs, generate more information from clinical trials and contribute to more efficient study design. (
  • The model is capable of describing the most important aspects of glucose homeostasis during glucose tolerance test in healthy individuals and patients with type 2 diabetes, over a wide range of oral and intravenous glucose doses. (
  • In this study, we investigated the role of estrogen in control of glucose homeostasis, which has profound impact on our understanding of obesity and diabetes as well as potential dietary interventions,' said Dr. Shaodong Guo, primary study investigator and Texas A&M AgriLife Research scientist in the department of nutrition and food science in College Station. (
  • In general, glucose homeostasis is maintained by glucose uptake in muscle and adipose tissue in addition to glucose production in the liver,' he explained. (
  • But this advantage disappears after menopause with disrupted glucose homeostasis, in part owing to a reduction in circulating estrogen. (
  • In their study, Guo and other researchers investigated the action of estrogen on glucose homeostasis in male and ovariectomized female control and liver-specific Foxo1 knockout mice. (
  • This reveals an important mechanism for estrogen in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. (
  • Guo said study results support the hypothesis that improvement of glucose homeostasis by estrogen is regulated by hepatic Foxo1-mediated gluconeogenesis rather than by promoting muscle glucose uptake. (
  • Because plasma glucose homeostasis requires glucogenesis and ketogenesis to maintain normal rates of fuel use, 13 NH most commonly occurs in infants with impaired glucogenesis and/or ketogenesis, 14 , 15 which may occur with excessive insulin production, altered counterregulatory hormone production, an inadequate substrate supply, 14 , - , 16 or a disorder of fatty acid oxidation. (
  • The "glucose homeostasis" model is described by insulin sensitivity ( S I ), glucose disposition ( S G ), acute insulin response to glucose (AIR G ), and disposition index (DI). (
  • Relatively little is known about the genetic basis of glucose homeostasis phenotypes or their relationship to risk of diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. (
  • A genome scan for glucose homeostasis phenotypes in nondiabetic subjects has been carried out in African-American ( n = 21) and Hispanic ( n = 45) extended families as part of the IRAS Family Study. (
  • Several studies have noted the influence of genetic factors on quantitative traits of glucose homeostasis. (
  • Moderate estimates of genetic contribution (heritability) to measures of glucose homeostasis have been reported, despite different study designs, ranging from pedigrees "loaded" with multiple cases of type 2 diabetes ( 9 - 11 ), sibships with polycystic ovary syndrome ( 12 ), nuclear families ascertained on the basis of a hypertensive index case ( 13 ), nuclear families involved in an exercise-training program ( 14 ), and Pima Indian pedigrees ( 15 , 16 ). (
  • Homeostasis is the tendency of animals, including humans, to maintain relatively consistent internal environments by controlling temperature, metabolism, blood sugar, and other important states. (
  • The results provide genetic, biochemical, and phenotypic evidence that growth homeostasis is maintained by a molecular circuit that regulates threonine metabolism to buffer depletion of dNTP pools. (
  • The defects associated with the altered Ca(2+) homeostasis appear consistently overlapping those related to the unbalanced oxidative metabolism in FA cells underlining a contiguity between oxidative stress and calcium homeostasis. (
  • Telomere homeostasis is tightly linked to cellular metabolism, and in particular with mitochondrial physiology, which is also diminished during cellular senescence and normative physiological ageing. (
  • High-fat diets contribute to irregularities in the hypothalamus region of the brain, which regulates body weight homeostasis and metabolism. (
  • Retrieved on September 18, 2019 from (
  • In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the coordinated homeostatic regulation of food intake (energy inflow) and energy expenditure (energy outflow). (
  • The human brain, particularly the hypothalamus, plays a central role in regulating energy homeostasis and generating the sense of hunger by integrating a number of biochemical signals that transmit information about energy balance. (
  • Energy homeostasis is an important aspect of bioenergetics. (
  • Metazoan life is dependent upon the utilization of O(2) for essential metabolic processes and oxygen homeostasis is an organizing principle for understanding metazoan evolution, ontology, physiology, and pathology. (
  • Hailed as a core tenet of physiology, Cannon's basic definition of homeostasis remains in use today. (
  • Connecting Concepts: Animal Physiology/Homeostasis 3: Does Ben Have Diabetes? (
  • Material Detail: Connecting Concepts: Animal Physiology/Homeostasis 3: Does Ben Have Diabetes? (
  • Homeostasis refers to regulatory mechanisms that maintain the constancy of the physiology of organisms. (
  • Both men engaged in physiology, Bernard defining a milieu interieur and Cannon, coining the term homeostasis . (
  • Homeostasis is brought about by a natural resistance to change in the optimal conditions, [2] and equilibrium is maintained by many regulatory mechanisms. (
  • Examples of mechanisms that maintain homeostasis include sweating and increasing the heart rate to pump blood to the organs and muscles during exercise. (
  • We reviewed mechanisms that determine reactive oxygen species (redox) homeostasis, redox information signaling and metabolic/regulatory function of autocrine insulin signaling in pancreatic β cells, and consequences of oxidative stress and dysregulation of redox/information signaling for their dysfunction. (
  • But even in these instances, diseases often result from an upset in regulatory mechanisms of the body that disrupt homeostasis. (
  • Homeostasis controls most of our body mechanisms such as heart rate, temperature, and glucose levels through the nervous and endocrine systems to correct altering ranges. (
  • Homeostasis is the natural regulatory method to control your body's mechanisms, therefore using any medications, whether natural or synthetic, will always affect the body's natural ability to use its own resources. (
  • These variations were not observed in cord blood leukocytes, which imply different telomere homeostasis mechanisms in fetal cord blood. (
  • found that acute and reversible inactivation of serotonergic neurons in brainstem raphe nuclei resulted in the depression of two systemic regulatory mechanisms that are pivotal for maintaining homeostasis of body functions in mammals-chemosensitivity and thermoregulation. (
  • For example, a patient receiving an organ transplant or blood transfusion might experience a reaction that could lead to homeostasis failure because the immune system presents many ways in which mechanisms designed to protect the human body can fail. (
  • This book aims to provide the reader with an up-to-date view of the self-regulatory mechanisms that are activated to achieve homeostasis, the pathways that are altered during the disease process, and how medicine can intervene to restore balance in critical patients. (
  • Cellular and physiologic mechanisms maintaining pulmonary homeostasis during lung injury remain poorly understood. (
  • Homeostasis can be influenced by either internal or existing conditions (instrinsic factors ) or external or environmental conditions ( extrinsic factors ) and is maintained by many different mechanisms. (
  • Positive and negative feedback are more complicated mechanisms that enable these three basic components to maintain homeostasis for more complex physiological processes. (
  • This [study] has shown the importance of epigenetic mechanisms for intestinal health and immune homeostasis more generally," Jeffrey adds. (
  • Multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments and regulation mechanisms make homeostasis possible. (
  • Research in the Kretz lab focuses on understanding the roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in regulation of mature tissue homeostasis , using human organotypic epidermis as a model system. (
  • Humans rely on homeostasis to keep their core temperature hovering around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit, so that their bodies can maintain proper function. (
  • The prefix "homeo" stresses that homeostasis doesn't work like a thermostat or cruise control in a car, fixed at one precise temperature or speed. (
  • Perhaps the most commonly understood of the two main types of homeostasis is the regulation of temperature, so I will begin with that. (
  • Homeostasis is the active process by which our nervous system regulates internal conditions, such as blood pressure and temperature. (
  • Sweating maintains homeostasis by helping the human body cool down when it is warmer than its normal healthy temperature. (
  • The circulatory system includes the heart, blood vessels and blood, and is vital for fighting diseases and maintaining homeostasis (proper temperature and pH balance). (
  • The ability to maintain a steady body temperature is an example of homeostasis. (
  • Inducible neuron inhibition reveals essential roles for serotonergic neurons in respiratory and body temperature homeostasis. (
  • A temperature due to fever is a type of homeostasis failure. (
  • Within the realm of homeostasis, temperature control is a good example that uses negative feedback. (
  • After energy is created, exercise continues to affect homeostasis by increasing your body temperature. (
  • Two important aspects of homeostasis are balancing the blood sugar levels and maintaining the body temperature. (
  • However, the utilization of oxygen by cells, albeit the advantages of oxidative phosphorylation, is not without consequence, since partially reduced oxygen intermediates, the so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in cellular redox homeostasis [ 3 ] that may have a role in tumorigenesis. (
  • Hence, the homeostasis of porphyrin biosynthesis in plants is even more important during suboptimal environmental conditions, when the redox balance in the cell can result in signaling, damage, or death. (
  • One of the epigenetic regulators, SP140, which is mutated in a number autoimmune disorders, including Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis, is also essential to macrophage function and intestinal homeostasis in both humans and mice, scientists reported today (March 3) in Science Immunology . (
  • A. In an organism that maintains homeostasis, blood glucose levels stay constant. (
  • Homeostasis is to maintain and restore certain steady states or conditions of the organism. (
  • Any organism in relatively good health, though, is generally defined as being able to maintain excellent cell homeostasis. (
  • Homeostasis can be defined as a property of an organism or system that helps it maintain its parameters within a normal range of values. (
  • Homeostasis is a word that is used to describe the survival of organisms in an ecosystem and to describe the survival of cells inside of an organism. (
  • Homeostasis is the property of either an open system or a closed system, especially a living organism , that regulates its internal environment so as to maintain a stable, constant condition. (
  • The health of an organism is influenced by external and internal changes that may lead to the loss of homeostasis. (
  • Part three of three excellent interactive exercises that investigate the concept of homeostasis. (
  • Alexander Borbély , a Swiss pharmacologist and sleep researcher who began his research by studying sleep regulation in laboratory rats under diverse controlled conditions (Borbély & Neuhaus, 1979) applied the concept of homeostasis to sleep regulation. (
  • Guo said estrogen deficiency or impaired estrogen signaling is associated with insulin resistance and faulty regulation of metabolic homeostasis, which contributes to the development of Type 2 diabetes and obesity in both human and animal models. (
  • Conclusions- These data confirm that platelet hyperfunction is present in IDDM patients who have unsatisfactory metabolic control, and give evidence that such an activation involves Ca homeostasis. (
  • Do oxysterols control cholesterol homeostasis? (
  • Here I consider the role of oxysterols as intermediates in different catabolic pathways, and I weigh the evidence for and against the "oxysterol hypothesis" of cholesterol homeostasis. (
  • Homeostasis is a natural process in our body that regulates our internal environment to keep our body systems functioning well. (
  • Due to the importance of the intracellular calcium signaling and its key function in the control of intracellular functions we were interested to study calcium homeostasis in FA. (
  • Intracellular calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes. (
  • Calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes results from the integrated function of transsarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways modulated by membrane potential and from intracellular Ca2+ uptake and release caused predominantly by SR function. (
  • The liver, the kidneys, and the brain (hypothalamus, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system) help maintain homeostasis. (
  • The kidneys maintain homeostasis in the body by regulating the amount of salt and water excreted. (
  • The kidneys contribute to homeostasis in five important ways: regulation of blood water levels, re-absorption of substances into the blood, maintenance of salt and ion levels in the blood, regulation of blood pH, and excretion of urea and other wastes. (
  • You release heat energy every time you move about, the amount of water you take into and lose from your body varies all the time and your cells are constantly producing poisonous waste (see Homeostasis - the kidneys and water balance . (
  • These data suggest that the wake-dependent accumulation of sleep need is causally related to cellular changes dependent on NA release, such as the induction of LTP-related genes, and support the hypothesis that sleep SWA homeostasis may be related to synaptic potentiation during wakefulness. (
  • The basic postulate of the homeostasis hypothesis is that accident or injury rates remain relatively constant regardless of interventions intended to make a system safer. (
  • Presumably Wilde believes a constant per capita rate supports the homeostasis hypothesis. (
  • This state of energy creation and use has multiple effects on your body's homeostasis including increased heart rate, breathing and sweat rate. (
  • New Klick Health research published in Nature Digital Medicine says physicians could get a more comprehensive view of their patients' health - and even help predict chronic disease early by assessing the interdependence of their health indicators and the body's homeostasis system that controls them. (
  • Telomere homeostasis in placentas. (
  • however, very little is known about telomere homeostasis in the placenta. (
  • The pervasive role of magnesium in telomere homeostasis is also highlighted. (
  • Homeostasis is the ability to maintain a relatively stable internal state that persists despite changes in the world outside. (
  • When the body cannot maintain a state of homeostasis, it effects not only an individual's health but how he feels. (
  • Homeostasis is the process by which the body attempts to maintain a state of stable physiological balance. (
  • The body needs to maintain homeostasis in order to stay alive. (
  • Physical health depends on properly functioning homeostatic mechanism-that is, regulatory controls in the body that help maintain homeostasis. (
  • Protein Homeostasis comprises all the cellular networks that maintain the proper structure and assembly of the cellular proteome, and it is essential to normal cell function. (
  • the family system is that addiction problems are the results of negative behaviors, dysfunctions or pathology namely the female spouse as the blame"(Copello, Templeton, Orford, & Velleman, 2010, pg.100).Homeostasis in the family system is broken where it can resist or maintain secondly homeostasis within the family system is changed and unbalanced but there are numbers to debility yet there are patterns that develop enabling the addict. (
  • A. How does this help her maintain homeostasis? (
  • How Does Sweating Maintain Homeostasis? (
  • Why is it crucial for the bodily systems to maintain homeostasis? (
  • Homeostasis is the phenomenon which is achieved in the human body to maintain a stable and constant internal environment. (
  • Physiological interactions between the nervous system and endocrine system maintain homeostasis and health. (
  • How Does the Respiratory System Help Maintain Homeostasis? (
  • The respiratory system helps maintain homeostasis by regulating the intake of air into the body and by removing carbon dioxide from the blood, which in tur. (
  • The primary function of the excretory system is to rid the body of waste to maintain homeostasis. (
  • Ideal cell homeostasis would require the cell to continue to maintain harmony within itself, despite constant changes in its environment. (
  • Animals may also seek out nutrient-rich items in a similar fashion, looking instinctively for things that they need to maintain cell homeostasis. (
  • For instance, a plant attempting to maintain cell homeostasis in its stem and root system may pull energy out of the leaves. (
  • The body is trying to maintain cell homeostasis by fighting off the virus attempting to replicate inside the cells. (
  • A person sneezing may be an example of the body trying to maintain cell homeostasis by fighting off a virus or irritant. (
  • Disease states are the primary cause of homeostasis failure, an inability to maintain physiological balance within the internal environment of the body. (
  • Sudden failure of kidney function may cause serious issues due to homeostasis failure, as these important organs help the blood to remove harmful toxins and maintain efficient fluid and electrolyte levels. (
  • February 7, 2014 People try to maintain their homeostasis for a longer life and fewer visits to the doctor. (
  • The integrating center or control center receives information from the sensors and initiates the response to maintain homeostasis. (
  • An effector is any organ or tissue that receives information from the integrating center and acts to bring about the changes needed to maintain homeostasis. (
  • Exercise increases the use of energy by your muscles, which activates a series of reactions to create new energy to keep exercising and maintain homeostasis. (
  • Once oxygen is deposited into the bloodstream by the lungs, the body must also increase your heart rate to deliver oxygen to the cells to once again maintain homeostasis. (
  • To maintain homeostasis, your body activates the sweating process, which helps remove the heat from your body and release it into the surrounding environment. (
  • The skeletal system helps maintain homeostasis by producing new red blood cells as the old one dies off. (
  • One reason snakes may eat only once a week is that they use much less energy to maintain homeostasis. (
  • Acid-base homeostasis is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF). (
  • The word homeostasis is derived from the Greek, homeo or "same", and stasis or "stable" and means remaining stable or remaining the same. (
  • Homeostasis is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant. (
  • The maintenance of stable conditions for the cells against the variations of the external environment is an essential function of the body and is called homeostasis. (
  • In other diseases, temporary upsets in homeostasis may make us more susceptible to infectious agents. (
  • In the last decade an explosion of discoveries has indicated that imbalances in protein homeostasis are associated with many diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, as well as many forms of cancer, diabetes, cystic fibrosis, lysosomal storage diseases, and more. (
  • Improved understanding of protein homeostasis has promise of leading to new targets for small molecule modulators, and hence new therapeutic strategies against many of these diseases. (
  • Written and edited by experts in the field, this collection from Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology covers the entire spectrum of protein homeostasis in healthy cells and the diseases that result when control of protein production, protein folding, and protein degradation goes awry. (
  • Including discussions of specific disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and prion diseases, this book is an essential reference for not only molecular and cellular biologists but also medical scientists wishing to understand the pathological consequences of and potential therapies for protein homeostasis deficiencies in common human diseases. (
  • It is key to life, and failures in homeostasis can lead to diseases like hypertension and diabetes. (
  • Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis and alterations in glutathione-dependent enzyme activities are increasingly implicated in the induction and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich's ataxia. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Dysregulation of glutathione homeostasis in neurodegenerative diseases. (
  • Immune homeostasis disequilibrium is linked with the development of certain diseases that are highly prevalent in aged patients, such as cancer. (
  • Homeostasis is the balance or equilibrium. (
  • Homeostasis imbalance results when the body's internal environment is unable to remain in equilibrium in the face of internal, external and environmental i. (
  • Maintaining iron homeostasis involves regulating absorption of dietary iron, its transport, and its storage. (
  • The microbiota in adaptive immune homeostasis and disease. (
  • Since PPARgamma expression and activity changes with age, this indicates that PPARgamma may be correlated with immune homeostasis. (
  • However, the effect of PPARgamma on immune homeostasis remains poorly understood and controversial. (
  • This Research Topic aims to decipher the role of PPARgamma in immune homeostasis with a focus on hematopoietic homeostasis, immune micro-environments, carcinogenesis and inflammation. (
  • When the human body is in a state of homeostasis, all functions and chemicals are balanced and the body functions normally. (
  • In short, a state of homeostasis is never achieved. (
  • When blood sugar is too low, the pancreas releases glucose to reach a state of homeostasis. (
  • When blood sugar is too high, the liver synthesises it and stores it to reach a state of homeostasis. (
  • Nurse Healer is defined as a nurse who assist the patients to stay in a state of homeostasis i.e. human body in a state of physical and psychological balance. (
  • As we shine more light on the possible over-use of pharmaceuticals, getting and keeping your body in a state of homeostasis is critical to optimal health. (
  • It's part of endocrinology, it's not really the crux of Neurobiology and so what we're gonna look at today is how the hypothalamus and other places in the nervous system contribute to homeostasis. (
  • other places in the nervous system contribute to homeostasis. (
  • (
  • Homeostasis & Diabetes" last modified May 13, 2017. (
  • Conclusions Uncontrolled diabetes during pregnancy disrupts telomere-telomerase homeostasis in the trophoblasts. (
  • The thyroid hormone, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), has long been considered to play a primordial role in the skeletal homeostasis. (
  • This chapter reviews alterations in volume and sodium homeostasis and osmoregulation during human pregnancy. (
  • Oxygen homeostasis. (
  • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that is expressed by all metazoan species and functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. (
  • This creates and oxygen debt, homeostasis is used to balance this debt and therefore remove lactic acid from the body because it is toxic, thus breathing rate is also increased. (
  • Expression of Stat-3 in respiratory epithelial cells is not required for lung formation, but plays a critical role in maintenance of surfactant homeostasis and lung function during oxygen injury. (
  • Targeting protein homeostasis components also affords the opportunity to develop new antiinfectives, either by intervening with the protein homeostasis components of the pathogen, or targeting components of the host network that are hijacked by a pathogen. (
  • In biology, homeostasis is the state of steady internal, physical, and chemical conditions maintained by living systems. (
  • Biology 3201 STSE Drugs and Homeostasis  Submitted To: Mr. King Submitted By: Chelsea Hamen Date Due: October 28th Understanding Concepts: 1. (
  • It may be anticipated that a rapid increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes will be forthcoming as the powerful new tools of molecular and structural biology are used to investigate the regulation of Ca2+ transport systems. (
  • What Is Cell Homeostasis? (
  • Cell homeostasis is the tendency of a cell to continue to function properly and efficiently by interacting with both inner and outer stimuli. (
  • A very large part of cell homeostasis involves maintaining a healthy environment inside the cell. (
  • Risk homeostasis proponents start with the plausible notion that individuals' perceptions of risk can influence behavior, but then the proponents implausibly extend this notion to develop a theory of universal behavior. (
  • Only abstract theoreticians could believe people actually behave this way, and one wonders whether some advocates of risk homeostasis have even thought about their own behavior when they get a new "safer" car. (
  • The concept of the regulation of the internal environment was described by French physiologist Claude Bernard in 1865, and the word homeostasis was coined by Walter Bradford Cannon in 1926. (
  • Therefore, RIPK1 is a master regulator of epithelial cell survival, homeostasis and inflammation in the intestine and the skin. (
  • Here we show that kinase-independent scaffolding RIPK1 functions regulate homeostasis and prevent inflammation in barrier tissues by inhibiting epithelial cell apoptosis and necroptosis. (
  • In addition, insulin sensitivity ( S I ) has been shown to have a greater contribution by genetic factors than other surrogate measures (such as fasting insulin or homeostasis model assessment [HOMA]) ( 8 ). (
  • Ruslan Medzhitov provides an overview of the field of inflammation, outlines its role in pathology and homeostasis, and explains how inflammation is generated. (
  • And in fact, the hypothalamus is gonna use all of the outputs of the central nervous system in order to accomplish homeostasis. (
  • Mathematical model reveals role of nucleotide signaling in airway surface liquid homeostasis and its dysregulation in cystic fibrosis. (
  • How Does Homeostasis Control Respiratory Rate? (
  • Homeostasis controls respiratory rate through the area of the brain known as the medulla, according to Florida International University. (
  • Here we show that there is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway controlling proteasome homeostasis. (
  • This pathway is active at intermediate levelsduring unperturbed growth and functions in cell envelope homeostasis, monitoring envelope assembly andadjusting flux through the PG biogenesis pathway. (
  • AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) via a retrograde signaling process in which these compounds are synthesized by and released from postsynaptic neurons, and travel back to the presynaptic terminal to bind to the CB1 receptor for modulation of neurotransmitter release to obtain homeostasis. (