The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Glucose in blood.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Forms of hepcidin, a cationic amphipathic peptide synthesized in the liver as a prepropeptide which is first processed into prohepcidin and then into the biologically active hepcidin forms, including in human the 20-, 22-, and 25-amino acid residue peptide forms. Hepcidin acts as a homeostatic regulators of iron metabolism and also possesses antimicrobial activity.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The segregation and degradation of damaged or unwanted cytoplasmic constituents by autophagic vacuoles (cytolysosomes) composed of LYSOSOMES containing cellular components in the process of digestion; it plays an important role in BIOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSIS of amphibians, in the removal of bone by osteoclasts, and in the degradation of normal cell components in nutritional deficiency states.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A type of pancreatic cell representing about 50-80% of the islet cells. Beta cells secrete INSULIN.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A cellular response to environmental insults that cause disruptions in PROTEIN FOLDING and/or accumulation of defectively folded protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. It consists of a group of regulatory cascades that are triggered as a response to altered levels of calcium and/or the redox state of the endoplasmic reticulum. Persistent activation of the unfolded protein response leads to the induction of APOPTOSIS.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Abstaining from all food.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
The consumption of edible substances.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A broad category of receptor-like proteins that may play a role in transcriptional-regulation in the CELL NUCLEUS. Many of these proteins are similar in structure to known NUCLEAR RECEPTORS but appear to lack a functional ligand-binding domain, while in other cases the specific ligands have yet to be identified.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its RNA binding ability and its aconitate hydrolase activity are dependent upon availability of IRON.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Maintenance of TELOMERE length. During DNA REPLICATION, chromosome ends loose some of their telomere sequence (TELOMERE SHORTENING.) Various cellular mechanism are involved in repairing, extending, and recapping the telomere ends.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A multifunctional iron-sulfur protein that is both an iron regulatory protein and cytoplasmic form of aconitate hydratase. It binds to iron regulatory elements found on mRNAs involved in iron metabolism and regulates their translation. Its rate of degradation is increased in the presence of IRON.
A mechanism of communication with a physiological system for homeostasis, adaptation, etc. Physiological feedback is mediated through extensive feedback mechanisms that use physiological cues as feedback loop signals to control other systems.
Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Proteins that regulate cellular and organismal iron homeostasis. They play an important biological role by maintaining iron levels that are adequate for metabolic need, but below the toxicity threshold.
Various physiological or molecular disturbances that impair ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM function. It triggers many responses, including UNFOLDED PROTEIN RESPONSE, which may lead to APOPTOSIS; and AUTOPHAGY.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The area within CELLS.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A cytokine produced by bone marrow stromal cells that promotes the growth of B-LYMPHOCYTE precursors and is co-mitogenic with INTERLEUKIN-2 for mature T-LYMPHOCYTE activation.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Abnormally high BLOOD GLUCOSE level.
Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus thermostable direct hemolysin modulates cytoskeletal organization and calcium homeostasis in intestinal cultured cells. (1/13134)

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a marine bacterium known to be the leading cause of seafood gastroenteritis worldwide. A 46-kDa homodimer protein secreted by this microorganism, the thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), is considered a major virulence factor involved in bacterial pathogenesis since a high percentage of strains of clinical origin are positive for TDH production. TDH is a pore-forming toxin, and its most extensively studied effect is the ability to cause hemolysis of erythrocytes from different mammalian species. Moreover, TDH induces in a variety of cells cytotoxic effects consisting mainly of cell degeneration which often leads to loss of viability. In this work, we examined the cellular changes induced by TDH in monolayers of IEC-6 cells (derived from the rat crypt small intestine), which represent a useful cell model for studying toxins from enteric bacteria. In experimental conditions allowing cell survival, TDH induces a rapid transient increase in intracellular calcium as well as a significant though reversible decreased rate of progression through the cell cycle. The morphological changes seem to be dependent on the organization of the microtubular network, which appears to be the preferential cytoskeletal element involved in the cellular response to the toxin.  (+info)

The Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in the maintenance of Ca2+ homeostasis in the vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (2/13134)

The vacuole is the major site of intracellular Ca2+ storage in yeast and functions to maintain cytosolic Ca2+ levels within a narrow physiological range. In this study, we examined how cellular Ca2+ homeostasis is maintained in a vps33Delta vacuolar biogenesis mutant. We found that growth of the vps33Delta strain was sensitive to high or low extracellular Ca2+. This strain could not properly regulate cytosolic Ca2+ levels and was able to retain only a small fraction of its total cellular Ca2+ in a nonexchangeable intracellular pool. Surprisingly, the vps33Delta strain contained more total cellular Ca2+ than the wild type strain. Because most cellular Ca2+ is normally found within the vacuole, this suggested that other intracellular compartments compensated for the reduced capacity to store Ca2+ within the vacuole of this strain. To test this hypothesis, we examined the contribution of the Golgi-localized Ca2+ ATPase Pmr1p in the maintenance of cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. We found that a vps33Delta/pmr1Delta strain was hypersensitive to high extracellular Ca2+. In addition, certain combinations of mutations effecting both vacuolar and Golgi Ca2+ transport resulted in synthetic lethality. These results indicate that the Golgi apparatus plays a significant role in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis when vacuolar biogenesis is compromised.  (+info)

Utero-ovarian interaction in the regulation of reproductive function. (3/13134)

The physiological regulation of fertile reproductive cycle in mammals depends on interactions between hypothalamus-pituitary, ovarian and uterine stimuli. Over the past 20 years, much has been learned about the interrelation between the affluent and effluent lymph and vascular drainage in and around both ovarian and uterine tissues. An essential feature in the regulation of the fertile cycle is the functional status of the ovary, particularly the corpus luteum. During the time of implantation and the early pregnancy, an active corpus luteum is essential. As human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is important in the maintenance of the corpus luteum, we investigated if it was produced by the cyclic endometrium. Immunohistochemical and in-situ hybridization reactions were performed but neither identified the presence of HCG during the proliferative phase. Positive staining and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (beta-HCG) mRNA were observed during the secretory phase in the glandular cells of the endometrium. The results were confirmed by Western blotting of secretory phase endometrium extracts and assessment of the functional secretory capacity of primary endometrial cultures. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) investigations showed a positive result in the secretory phase. We postulate that, based on the very close morphological interrelation between the uterus and the ovary, the beta-HCG of the endometrium is the primary factor for the maintenance of the corpus luteum and early pregnancy.  (+info)

Osteopenia in the patient with cancer. (4/13134)

Osteopenia is defined as a reduction in bone mass. It is commonly known to occur in elderly people or women who are postmenopausal due to hormonal imbalances. This condition, however, can result because of many other factors, such as poor nutrition, prolonged pharmacological intervention, disease, and decreased mobility. Because patients with cancer experience many of these factors, they are often predisposed to osteopenia. Currently, patients with cancer are living longer and leading more fulfilling lives after treatment. Therefore, it is imperative that therapists who are responsible for these patients understand the risk factors for osteopenia and their relevance to a patient with cancer.  (+info)

Long-term effects of growth hormone (GH) on body fluid distribution in GH deficient adults: a four months double blind placebo controlled trial. (5/13134)

OBJECTIVE: Short-term growth hormone (GH) treatment normalises body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients, but the impact of long-term treatment on body fluid homeostasis has hitherto not been thoroughly examined in placebo controlled trials. To investigate if the water retaining effect of GH persists for a longer time we examined the impact of 4 months GH treatment on extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV) in GH deficient adults. DESIGN: Twenty-four (18 male, 6 female) adult GH deficient patients aged 25-64 years were included and received either GH (n=11) or placebo (n=13) in a double blind parallel design. METHODS: Before and at the end of each 4 month period ECV and PV were assessed directly using 82Br- and 125I-albumin respectively, and blood samples were obtained. RESULTS: During GH treatment ECV increased significantly (before: 20.48+/-0.99 l, 4 months: 23.77+/-1.38 l (P<0.01)), but remained unchanged during placebo administration (before: 16.92+/-1.01 l, 4 months: 17.60+/-1.24 l (P=0.37)). The difference between the groups was significant (P<0.05). GH treatment also increased PV (before: 3.39+/-0.27 l. 4 months: 3.71+/-0.261 (P=0.01)), although an insignificant increase in the placebo treated patients (before: 2.81+/-0.18 l, 4 months: 2.89+/-0.20 l (P=0.37)) resulted in an insignificant treatment effect (P=0.07). Serum insulin-like growth factor-I increased significantly during GH treatment and was not affected by placebo treatment. Plasma renin (mIU/l) increased during GH administration (before: 14.73+/-2.16, 4 months: 26.00+/-6.22 (P=0.03)) and remained unchanged following placebo (before: 20.77+/-5.13, 4 months: 20.69+/-6.67 (P=0.99)) leaving no significant treatment effect (P=0.08). CONCLUSION: The long-term impact of GH treatment on body fluid distribution in adult GH deficient patients involves expansion of ECV and probably also PV. These data substantiate the role of GH as a regulator of fluid homeostasis in adult GH deficiency.  (+info)

Inactivation of the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha affects glucose homeostasis and islet glucagon gene expression in vivo. (6/13134)

Mice homozygous for a null mutation in the winged helix transcription factor HNF3alpha showed severe postnatal growth retardation followed by death between P2 and P12. Homozygous mutant mice were hypoglycemic despite unchanged expression of HNF3 target genes involved in hepatic gluconeogenesis. Whereas insulin and corticosteroid levels were altered as expected, plasma glucagon was reduced markedly in the mutant animals despite the hypoglycemia that should be expected to increase glucagon levels. This correlated with a 70% reduction in pancreatic proglucagon gene expression. We also showed that HNF3alpha could bind to and transactivate the proglucagon gene promoter. These observations invoke a central role for HNF3alpha in the regulatory control of islet genes essential for glucose homeostasis in vivo.  (+info)

Regulation of fatty acid homeostasis in cells: novel role of leptin. (7/13134)

It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. The fact that TG content in nonadipocytes normally remains within a narrow range, while that of adipocytes varies enormously with food intake, is consistent with a system of TG homeostasis in normal nonadipocytes. The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. The fact that the function and viability of nonadipocytes is compromised when their TG content rises above or falls below the normal range suggests that normal homeostasis of their intracellular TG is critical for optimal function and to prevent lipoapoptosis. Thus far, lipotoxic diabetes of fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats is the only proven lipodegenerative disease, but the possibility of lipotoxic disease of skeletal and/or cardiac muscle may require investigation, as does the possible influence of the intracellular TG content on autoimmune and neoplastic processes.  (+info)

Autoinhibition of serotonin cells: an intrinsic regulatory mechanism sensitive to the pattern of usage of the cells. (8/13134)

After periods of high-frequency firing, the normal rhythmically active serotonin (5HT)-containing neurosecretory neurons of the lobster ventral nerve cord display a period of suppressed spike generation and reduced synaptic input that we refer to as "autoinhibition." The duration of this autoinhibition is directly related to the magnitude and duration of the current injection triggering the high-frequency firing. More interesting, however, is that the autoinhibition is inversely related to the initial firing frequency of these cells within their normal range of firing (0.5-3 Hz). This allows more active 5HT neurons to resume firing after shorter durations of inhibition than cells that initially fired at slower rates. Although superfused 5HT inhibits the spontaneous firing of these cells, the persistence of autoinhibition in saline with no added calcium, in cadmium-containing saline, and in lobsters depleted of serotonin suggests that intrinsic membrane properties account for the autoinhibition. A similar autoinhibition is seen in spontaneously active octopamine neurons but is absent from spontaneously active gamma-aminobutyric acid cells. Thus, this might be a characteristic feature of amine-containing neurosecretory neurons. The 5HT cells of vertebrate brain nuclei share similarities in firing frequencies, spike shapes, and inhibition by 5HT with the lobster cells that were the focus of this study. However, the mechanism suggested to underlie autoinhibition in vertebrate neurons is that 5HT released from activated or neighboring cells acts back on inhibitory autoreceptors that are found on the dendrites and cell bodies of these neurons.  (+info)

In the latest Under the Microscope issue, Professor László Csernoch and his research group from the University of Debrecen (Hungary) explain their research into intracellular calcium homeostasis, which may seem like a simple statement. However, this fascinating area of research covers many areas, from arteriosclerosis to space travel.. They also explain how they rely on ratiometric calcium measurements, and the benefits they have experienced from their recent switch to the CoolLED pE-340fura LED Illumination System with their Zeiss Axio Vert microscope.. Read more about intracellular calcium homeostasis. This content was supplied by CoolLED.. ...
The eukaryotic cell depends on multitiered homeostatic systems ensuring maintenance of proteostasis, organellar integrity, function and turnover, and overall cellular viability. At the two opposite ends of the homeostatic system spectrum are heat shock response and autophagy. Here, we tested whether there are interactions between these homeostatic systems, one universally operational in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, and the other one (autophagy) is limited to eukaryotes. We found that heat shock response regulates autophagy. The interaction between the two systems was demonstrated by testing the role of HSF-1, the central regulator of heat shock gene expression. Knockdown of HSF-1 increased the LC3 lipidation associated with formation of autophagosomal organelles, whereas depletion of HSF-1 potentiated both starvation- and rapamycin-induced autophagy. HSP70 expression but not expression of its ATPase mutant inhibited starvation or rapamycin-induced autophagy. We also show that exercise ...
Parameters describing dynamic cerebral autoregulation (DCA) have limited reproducibility. 59 In an international, multi-centre study, we evaluated the influence of multiple analytical 60 methods on the reproducibility of DCA. Fourteen participating centers analyzed repeated 61 measurements from 75 healthy subjects, consisting of five minutes of spontaneous 62 fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) signals, based on 63 their usual methods of analysis. DCA- methods were grouped into three broad categories, 64 depending on output types: 1. Transfer function analysis (TFA); 2. Autoregulation index 65 (ARI); and 3. correlation coefficient. Only TFA gain in the low frequency (LF) band showed 66 good reproducibility in approximately half of the estimates of gain, defined as an intraclass 67 correlation coefficient (ICC) of , 0.6. None of the other DCA metrics had good 68 reproducibility. For TFA-like and ARI-like methods, ICCs were lower than values obtained 69 with ...
Recent studies have demonstrated that perturbations of intracellular thiol and calcium homeostasis may be important events in the early development of cell injury by toxic chemicals. Incubation of isolated rat hepatocytes in a calcium free medium, severely depleted intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and resulted in the loss of both cytosolic and mitochondrial glutathione (GSH), which preceded cell injury. Elevation of endogeneous a-tocopherol levels, by supplementing the hepatocyte suspension with vitamin E-succinate, inhibited the loss of GSH and reversed cell injury. Increased levels of GSH in the presence of vitamin E-succinate were induced by an apparent a-tocopherol-mediated effect on GSH biosynthesis, indicating a close relationship between these two important cellular antioxidant systems. Perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis in hepatocytes by the administration of A23187, a calcium ionophore, in the presence of different concentrations of extracellular Ca²⁺ , revealed a striking ...
CitationAlvarez-Lacalle, E. [et al.]. A General Equilibrium Model to Study Intracellular Calcium Homeostasis. New Insights on Ventricular Function. A: The Heart by Numbers: Integrating Theory, Computation, and Experiment to Advance Cardiology. The Heart by numbers: integrating theory, computation, and experiment to advance cardiology, Berlin, Germany: September 4-7, 2018: Biophysical Society Thematic Meeting: program & abstracts. 2018, p. 44 ...
Blood vessels exhibit a remarkable ability to adapt throughout life that depends upon genetic programming and well-orchestrated biochemical processes. Findings over the past four decades demonstrate, however, that the mechanical environment experienced by these vessels similarly plays a critical rol …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treg cell-IgA axis in maintenance of host immune homeostasis with microbiota. AU - Feng, Ting. AU - Elson, Charles O.. AU - Cong, Yingzi. PY - 2011/5/1. Y1 - 2011/5/1. N2 - The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.. AB - The intestine is the home to a vast diversity of microbiota and a complex of mucosal immune system. Multiple regulatory mechanisms control host immune responses to microbiota and maintain intestinal immune homeostasis. This mini review will provide evidence indicating a Treg cell-IgA axis and such axis playing a major role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis.. KW - IgA. KW - Immune homeostasis. KW - Microbiota. KW - Treg cells. UR - ...
For survival and reproduction, the body has developed an intricately balanced system to efficiently control energy homeostasis at multiple levels. In short, the brain continually monitors the systemic metabolic state and adjusts behavior, as well as humoral and neuronal outputs to peripheral effector organs, to ensure an appropriate energy supply. If the central nervous system (CNS) senses a caloric shortage or surplus, the brain orchestrates responses that alter food intake, nutrient partitioning and physiological functions such as hepatic glucose production, adiposity and thermogenesis. Efficient maintenance of the delicate homeostatic balance of energy, glucose and lipid metabolism largely depends on system-wide synchronicity of metabolic processes that can only be achieved by central regulatory influences and master circuits in the brain. Disruption of such synchronicity, or failure of any of the key components of this system, are common pathophysiological causes of metabolic disorders such ...
The inclination to take care of a stable, remarkably continuous internal natural environment known as homeostasis. The human body maintains homeostasis for several issues also to temperature. For instance, the concentration of varied ions within your blood will have to be saved continual, coupled with pH as well as the concentration of glucose. If these values get as well excessive or low, youll be able to finish up becoming particularly sick.Homeostasis is taken care of at several stages, not simply the extent of your whole body mainly because it is for temperature. For illustration, the stomach maintains a pH which is completely different from that of encompassing organs, and each unique mobile maintains ion concentrations distinctive from these of your surrounding fluid. Maintaining homeostasis at each and every stage thesis statements is essential to keeping the bodys over-all purpose.. Biological devices like those people of the shape are frequently being pushed away from their ...
Calcium homeostasis in cardiac myocytes results from the integrated function of transsarcolemmal Ca2+ influx and efflux pathways modulated by membrane potential and from intracellular Ca2+ uptake and release caused predominantly by SR function. These processes can be importantly altered in different disease states as well as by pharmacological agents, and the resulting changes in systolic and diastolic [Ca2+]i can cause clinically significant alterations in contraction and relaxation of the heart. It may be anticipated that a rapid increase in our understanding of the pathophysiology of Ca2+ homeostasis in cardiac myocytes will be forthcoming as the powerful new tools of molecular and structural biology are used to investigate the regulation of Ca2+ transport systems. ...
The Open Door Web Site : IB Biology : Homeostasis : Description of the Homeostatic Control of Blood Glucose Levels - insulin and glucagon
Balanced and dynamic interactions among mucus layers, intestinal epithelial cells, and microbiota, are essential for the maintenance of the intestinal mucosal homeostasis. The disruption of this balance leads to a defective mucus barrier with increased permeability that results in intestinal inflammation. The homeodomain transcription factor, Prep1, is expressed in the post-mitotic differentiated intestinal epithelial cells and is essential in embryonic development. The goal of this project is to study the involvement of Prep1 in intestinal epithelial homeostasis, and its functional role in human and experimental IBD.. ...
PINK1 regulation of neuronal and mitochondrial homeostasis PROJECT SUMMARY. Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) cause familial autosomal recessive parkinsonism. As PINK1 plays a neuroprotective role in a wide range of genetic and toxin-induced Parkinsons disease (PD) models, studying its function in neurons may offer particular insights into potential therapeutic strategies. In the prior project period, we found that endogenous PINK1 exists in mitochondrial and cytosolic compartments. Moreover, these pools of PINK1 played divergent roles in regulating mitochondrial fission-fusion, mitophagy, calcium homeostasis and dendritic morphogenesis. Using primary neurons, differentiated neuronal cell lines and Pink1 knockout and control mice, the current proposal focuses on studying mechanisms by which PINK1 regulates neuron differentiation and the maintenance of extended axo-dendritic arbors. Based on preliminary data, we hypothesize that PINK1 interacts with cytosolic targets to regulate neuron ...
Persistent neuroinflammation and disruptions in brain energy metabolism is commonly seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Because of the lack of success of most TBI interventions and the documented benefits of environmental enrichment (EE) in enhancing brain plasticity, here we focused our study on use of EE in regulating injury-induced neuroinflammation and disruptions in energy metabolism in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats were used in the study and randomly assigned to receive either: mild TBI (mTBI) using the controlled cortical injury model or sham surgery. Following surgery, rats from each group were further randomized to either: EE housing or standard laboratory housing (CON). After 4 weeks of recovery, cognitive testing was performed using the non-matching-to-sample and delayed non-matching-to-sample tasks. After completion of behavioral testing, levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were measured. In
Aging affects homeostasis negatively as homeostatic regulation deteriorates. Cells that work to restore homeostasis may become less able to send and receive the chemical signals required for homeostasis to take place. Aging cells may not be able to carry out instructions as well as younger cells.
Ca2+ is a universal carrier of biological information: it controls cell life from its origin at fertilization to its end in the process of programmed cell death. Ca2+ is a conventional diffusible second messenger released inside cells by the interaction of first messengers with plasma membrane receptors. However, it can also penetrate directly into cells to deliver information without the intermediation of first or second messengers. Even more distinctively, Ca2+ can act as a first messenger, by interacting with a plasma membrane receptor to set in motion intracellular signaling pathways that involve Ca2+ itself. Perhaps the most distinctive property of the Ca2+ signal is its ambivalence: while essential to the correct functioning of cells, Ca2+ becomes an agent that mediates cell distress, or even (toxic) cell death, if its concentration and movements inside cells are not carefully tuned. Ca2+ is controlled by reversible complexation to specific proteins, which could be pure Ca2+ buffers, or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein homeostasis and aging. T2 - Taking care of proteins from the cradle to the grave. AU - Morimoto, Richard I.. AU - Cuervo, Ana M.. PY - 2009/2. Y1 - 2009/2. N2 - All cells count on precise mechanisms that regulate protein homeostasis to maintain a stable and functional proteome. Alterations in these fine-tuned mechanisms underlie the pathogenesis of severe human diseases including, among others, common neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimers or Parkinsons disease. A progressive deterioration in the ability of cells to preserve the stability of their proteome occurs with age, even in the absence of disease, and it likely contributes to different aspects of normal aging. A group of experts in different aspects of the biology of aging met recently to discuss the implications of altered protein homeostasis in aging, the current gaps in our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for proteome maintenance, and future opportunities for discovery in this area. We ...
The safety and efficacy of the agents and/or uses under investigation have not been established. There is no guarantee that the agents will receive health authority approval or become commercially available in any country for the uses being investigated.. Maintenance of protein homeostasis is a critical function of the cell, and disruptions of this process contribute to the development of numerous diseases, including cancer.1-3 Ubiquitination and degradation of proteins is a key component of protein homeostasis, and proteins involved in this process, including E3 ubiquitin ligases, are increasingly being investigated as therapeutic targets.2,3. Celgene is developing cancer treatments directed at key biological pathways in protein homeostasis.. ...
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The normal cell Cell injury Cell death and necrosis-gangrene The cells are the basic unit of life, they are the smallest units that perform physiological functions. Each cell maintains homeostasis at the cellular level. Defects in or on the the cell can result in disruption of homeostasis. This can lead to a state of disease.… 0 0 galkin2 galkin22015-09-18 10:29:492015-09-18 10:29:49HRES-1/Rab4-mediated depletion of Drp1 impairs mitochondrial homeostasis and represents a target for treatment in SLE. ...
Cellular homeostasis is the effort of all living cells to maintain their intracellular content when facing physiological change(s) in the extracellular environment. To date, cellular homeostasis is known to be regulated mainly by time-consuming active mechanisms and via multiple signaling pathways within the cells. The aim of this thesis is to show that time-efficient passive (physical) mechanisms also, under the control and regulation of bio-physical factors such as cell morphology and distribution and co-localization of transport proteins in the cell membrane, can regulate cellular homeostasis. This thesis has been developed in an interface between physics and biology and focuses on critical cases in which cells face physiologically unstable environments at their steady state and therefore may need a constituent effort to maintain their homeostasis. The main hypothesis here is that the cell geometry is oriented in such a way that cellular homeostasis is preserved in a given environment. For ...
Tuning neural function as it relates to aging and age-related diseases. A growing consensus suggests that stability and homeostasis in synaptic growth and function may be key in maintaining the health of neural circuits, and as such, disruption in regulatory mechanisms that control synaptic homeostasis may lead to developmental and neurodegenerative nervous system diseases. My research program investigates the molecular mechanisms that underlie synaptic homeostasis. In particular, we are interested in learning how retrograde signaling cascades participate in this process. My laboratory has been identifying and characterizing genes and mechanisms that participate in this regulation by exploiting the power of Drosophila genetics in combination with imaging and electrophysiology. In particular, my groups success in understanding the basic biology of synaptic function have led us to the identification of the target of rapamycin (TOR) as a critical regulator of synaptic homoeostasis. This finding is ...
Aims To understand the role of cell surface receptors, that recognise bacterial metabolites (free fatty acids) and to examine whether high affinity synthetic agonists can be used to manipulate gut homeostasis. Significance Gut homeostasis depends on the production of certain free fatty acids, binding G-protein coupled receptors on gut epithelium and immune cells. High affinity agonists, 100-1000 fold more potent than natural ligands, will aid in understanding and manipulating gut physiology. This may explain the actions of probiotics and prebiotics, and how diet relates to the microbiome, and to immune processes in the gut. Expected outcome Novel tools to important receptors, to understand processes responsible for gut ...
Looking for Homoeostasis? Find out information about Homoeostasis. homoeostasis the maintenance of metabolic equilibrium within an animal by a tendency to compensate for disrupting changes The relatively constant conditions... Explanation of Homoeostasis
Hope this is the right forum for this question. Just wondering if anyone could clarify what exactly the term energy homeostasis refers to? . And how it is, or isnt, related to glucose homeostasis? Ive got to describe the role of the liver in energy homeostasis - Ive found lots of info on how the liver is involved in glucose homeostasis, i.e. keeping blood sugar levels roughly constant, but im not sure if this is what the questions asking ...
Homoeostasis is maintained through a series of control mechanisms and when is this for whatever reason does not kick in; the body will suffer various illnesses or disease. The homeostatic balance can becomes disrupted when cells malfunction and this can be caused by deficiency (cells not getting all they need) or toxicity (cells being poisoned by things they dont need. When things like this happen there are options to either correct or worsen the problem, usually a lot are based on lifestyle choices and environmental exposure that influences our bodys ability to maintain cellular health ...
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An advantage of homeostatic regulation is that it allows an organism to function effectively in a broad range of environmental conditions. For example, ectotherms tend to become sluggish at low temperatures, whereas a co-located endotherm may be fully active. That thermal stability comes at a price since an automatic regulation system requires additional energy. One reason snakes may eat only once a week is that they use much less energy to maintain homeostasis. Most homeostatic regulation is controlled by the release of hormones into the bloodstream. However other regulatory processes rely on simple diffusion to maintain a balance. Homeostatic regulation extends far beyond the control of temperature. All animals also regulate their blood glucose, as well as the concentration of their blood. Mammals regulate their blood glucose with insulin and glucagon. These hormones are released by the pancreas. If the pancreas is for any reason unable to produce enough of these two hormones diabetes results. ...
An advantage of homeostatic regulation is that it allows an organism to function effectively in a broad range of environmental conditions. For example, ectotherms tend to become sluggish at low temperatures, whereas a co-located endotherm may be fully active. That thermal stability comes at a price since an automatic regulation system requires additional energy. One reason snakes may eat only once a week is that they use much less energy to maintain homeostasis. Most homeostatic regulation is controlled by the release of hormones into the bloodstream. However other regulatory processes rely on simple diffusion to maintain a balance. Homeostatic regulation extends far beyond the control of temperature. All animals also regulate their blood glucose, as well as the concentration of their blood. Mammals regulate their blood glucose with insulin and glucagon. These hormones are released by the pancreas. If the pancreas is for any reason unable to produce enough of these two hormones diabetes results. ...
ebook Includes bibliographical references and index. 1. Mammals possess adaptations to stay warm in the winter and cool in the summer -- Ethical, legal, social implications: biologists might consider studying males and females separately -- 2. An individuals foraging can affect the entire population -- Ethical, legal, social implications: negative birth rates in human societies can have positive and negative consequences -- Conclusion -- Glossary -- Index. Restricted to libraries which purchase an unrestricted PDF download via an IP. Organisms maintain homeostasis in a variety of ways. In the first part of this book, mammals are shown to regulate their body temperatures through homeostatic mechanisms. The data from thermoregulation experiments that demonstrated the role of neurons in body temperature homeostasis are examined. The second part of this book discusses how organisms allocate the limited energy that is available to them for survival, growth, or reproduction. Excess energy in ...
BTEC BIOLOGY ASSIGNMENT 3 TASK 1 HOMEOSTASIS Homeostasis can be defined as a point of balance or internal equilibrium that all kind of system both living
Homeostatic mechanisms in mammals function to maintain blood glucose levels within a narrow range in response to hormones and nutrients. Glucose homeostasis is...
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We explain Homeostasis with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine various homeostatic controls that allow the body to maintain a constant internal environment.|/p|
We explain Homeostasis with video tutorials and quizzes, using our Many Ways(TM) approach from multiple teachers.|p|This lesson will examine various homeostatic controls that allow the body to maintain a constant internal environment.|/p|
The cytokine interleukin-22 (IL-22), which is a member of the IL-10 family, is produced exclusively by immune cells and activates signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in nonimmune cells, such as hepatocytes, keratinocytes, and colonic epithelial cells, to drive various processes central to tissue homeostasis and immunosurveillance. Dysregulation of IL-22 signaling causes inflammatory diseases. IL-22 binding protein (IL-22BP; encoded by IL22RA2) is a soluble IL-22 receptor, which antagonizes IL-22 activity and has genetic associations with autoimmune diseases. Humans have three IL-22BP isoforms, IL-22BPi1 to IL-22BPi3, which are generated by alternative splicing; mice only have an IL-22BPi2 homolog. We showed that, although IL-22BPi3 had less inhibitory activity than IL-22BPi2, IL-22BPi3 was more abundant in various human tissues under homeostatic conditions. IL-22BPi2 was more effective than IL-22BPi3 at blocking the contribution of IL-22 to cooperative gene induction with ...
PUBLICATIONS. Bank, U., K. Deiser, D. Finke, G.J. Hämmerling, B. Arnold, and T. Schüler. 2016. Cutting Edge: Innate Lymphoid Cells Suppress Homeostatic T Cell Expansion in Neonatal Mice. J Immunol. 196:3532-3536. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1501643.. Bank, U., K. Deiser, C. Plaza-Sirvent, L. Osbelt, A. Witte, L. Knop, R. Labrenz, R. Jänsch, F. Richter, A. Biswas, A.C. Zenclussen, E. Vivier, C. Romagnani, A.A. Kühl, I.R. Dunay, T. Strowig, I. Schmitz, and T. Schüler. 2020. c-FLIP is crucial for IL-7/IL-15-dependent NKp46+ ILC development and protection from intestinal inflammation in mice. Nat Commun. 11:1056. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-14782-3.. Deiser, K., D. Stoycheva, U. Bank, T. Blankenstein, and T. Schüler. 2016. Interleukin-7 Modulates Anti-Tumor CD8+ T Cell Responses via Its Action on Host Cells. PLoS One. 11:e0159690. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159690.. Knop, L., K. Deiser, U. Bank, A. Witte, J. Mohr, L. Philipsen, H.J. Fehling, A.J. Müller, U. Kalinke, and T. Schüler. 2020. IL-7 derived ...
Cerebral Autoregulation Real-Time Monitoring. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Upon successful completion of this course, students will be able to: describe the roles of major biological molecules in forming living organisms and carrying out life processes; elucidate the roles of cell parts in carrying out various life processes; analyze the manners in which genetic materials determine the genetic characteristics of offspring; apply the various life processes carried out by human organs systems to the over-all goal of maintaining homeostasis; evaluate the impact that various interferences with homeostasis may have on the functioning of the human body and identify the steps that the human body takes to deal with such interference.. ...
The kidney is comprised of a number of epithelial cell types, which carry out various essential roles including metabolite excretion, electrolyte homeostatic maintenance, and drug and toxin transport. Although pharmacokinetic studies often focus on the fate of drugs in the adult situation, there is a critical need to understand the kinetics of pharmacological agents in newborns and infants given that their renal functional capacity is still undergoing maturation (Hook and Bailie, 1979). Using rat and mouse mRNA microarray expression data published previously, we describe the expression of many components of the major drug transport systems during kidney development, through the postnatal period, and on to adulthood. Overall, there seems to be an up-regulation of the SLC and ABC transporters with developmental time. The expression of SLC22 family of transporters also increases with time, but perhaps of particular interest are the clinically relevant transporters, of which 11 transporters are ...
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Author: Yampolsky, Pessah et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2019-07-23; Title: Augmentation of myocardial If dysregulates calcium homeostasis and causes adverse cardiac remodeling
At any given time of day, there is a constant cascade of chemical reactions occuring within the human body. These reactions can be caused by numerous stimuli, including foods consumed, thought patterns or physical demands placed on the body. These reactions can be categorised into many different types of reaction, and two of such classifications include homeostatic responses, in which the body maintains balance of all biological parameters, and stress responses, where reactions of the body are in reaction to the introduction of an external stressor.. As with all biological systems, there are a large number of highly intricate mechanisms to detect, correct and balance substance and activity levels throughout the body. These systems are multi-faceted and constantly interact with other systems; in this sense, homeostatic and stress responses do not differ.. However, homeostatic responses deal with maintaining balance around the body, mainly through hormones. These are proteins that act as chemical ...
Homeostatic Control by the Endocrine System. Blood Glucose Regulation. The body requires volumes of glucose in order to make ATP, however the amount of ATP demand will fluctuate according to need and thus the body regulates its release of glucose into the bloodstream as high levels of glucose in the bloodstream can damage cells (creates hypertonicity). ...
The phosphoinositide (PI(3,5)P2)-activated Na+two pore+channel-1, TPC1 of endosomes and lysosomes (Wang et al. 2012). Previously thought, incorectly, according to Wang et al. (2012), to be an NAADP-activated two pore voltage-dependent calcium channel protein. However, Cang et al. (2013), showed that TPC1 and TPC2 (TC# 1.A.1.11.19) together form an ATP-sensitive two-pore Na channel that senses the metabolic state of the cell. The channel complex detects nutrient status, becomes constitutively open upon nutrient removal, and controls the lysosomes membrane potential, pH stability, and amino acid homeostasis. May be regulated by the HCLS-associated X-1 (HAX-1) protein (Lam et al. 2013 ...
Positive feedback and homeostasis are connected because they are essential to human health and also happen together in specific...
When the human body is in a state of homeostasis, all functions and chemicals are balanced and the body functions normally. Maintaining blood glucose levels is among many functions the body controls through homeostatic regulation. When there is a problem balancing levels of insulin, several problems take place.
Series 1: What is acid base homeostasis? An extensive international scientific evidence based literature review, performed Spring 2013 shows that maintaining acid base homeostasis is our first line of defense against diseases of the muscle, spine, bones, kidneys, heart, diabetes, cardiovascular a...
UltraIce - Hemp-Free Homeostasis SupportPatent Pending Water Soluble FormulationUp to 94% AbsorptionQuick, Long Lasting BioavailabilityAnti-Inflammatory Blend Works with UltraCell CBD or AloneContains Curcumin and Other Anti-Inflammatory Ingredients Inflammation is the #1 cause of pain. UltraICE helps reduce the inflammation that can be the root of joint and muscle pain without the side effects experienced with over the counter or prescription drugs. Use alone or in conjunction with CBD as it boosts the effectiveness of CBD. Dosage Directions:UltraICE 2ozFull Spectrum Homeostasis SupportShake before usingTake 2ml daily or as directed by a physician 2oz Bottle - $110.00 For detailed information on this or other Zilis products, click on our company link
Thus, to Barcroft homeostasis was not only organized by the brain-homeostasis served the brain. Homeostasis is an almost ... In biology, homeostasis (British also homoeostasis) (/hɒmɪə(ʊ)ˈsteɪsɪs/) is the state of steady internal, physical, and ... "Homeostasis". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. "Homeostasis". Unabridged (Online). n.d. Cannon, W.B. (1932). The ... Homeostasis Archived 15 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine Walter Bradford Cannon, Homeostasis (1932) (CS1 French-language ...
... energy homeostasis' that matches energy intake to expenditure over long periods of time. The energy homeostasis system ... Energy homeostasis is an important aspect of bioenergetics. In the US, biological energy is expressed using the energy unit ... In biology, energy homeostasis, or the homeostatic control of energy balance, is a biological process that involves the ... Accordingly, orexin plays a role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, reward, and perhaps more generally in emotion. ... ...
This is one of the ways mental developmental homeostasis has been researched. One way physical developmental homeostasis was ... Developmental homeostasis determines how a species adapts to live a normal life. Therefore, it has been the focus of many ... Developmental homeostasis is present not only in humans, but in animals as well. The choosing of symmetrical features over ... Developmental homeostasis is a process in which animals develop more or less normally, despite defective genes and deficient ...
... is the homeostatic regulation of the pH of the body's extracellular fluid (ECF). The proper balance ... In humans and many other animals, acid-base homeostasis is maintained by multiple mechanisms involved in three lines of defense ... Hamm, LL; Nakhoul, N; Hering-Smith, KS (7 December 2015). "Acid-Base Homeostasis". Clinical Journal of the American Society of ... though this has no effect on pH homeostasis of the extracellular fluids. Acid-base imbalance occurs when a significant insult ...
Homeostasis and regulated uptake for metabolic pathways is essential for bacterial survival. GalP is homologous to GLUT-1 found ... Schweizer, H. (2011). Homeostasis. Lecture. 7 March 2011. Transmembrane protein List of proteins (Integral membrane proteins, ... effects on homeostasis, expression, and regulation of GalP along with examples of several of its homologues. Galactose Permease ... Coupling galactose/proton import with proton export would maintain pH homeostasis. As protons are charged molecules, their ...
When the pace of succession slows down as the result of ecological homeostasis, the maximum permitted biodiversity is reached. ... Ernest SK (January 2008). "Homeostasis". In Jørgensen SE, Fath BD (eds.). Encyclopedia of Ecology. Oxford: Academic Press. pp. ...
Homeostasis. 36(2-3):76-82, 1995. Jeleazcov, C., Krajinovic, L., Münster, T., Birkholz, T., Fried, R., Schüttler, J., & Fechner ...
The role of cell death is the maintenance of tissue and organ homeostasis , for example, the regular loss of skin cells or a ... 2015). "Homeostasis". Accessed 22 December 2016 2016. "Naphthol AS-TR phosphate". Accessed 29 December 2016. I. Davies and D.C ...
The internal thermoregulation process is one aspect of homeostasis: a state of dynamic stability in an organism's internal ... This cyclical process aids in homeostasis. Homeothermy and poikilothermy refer to how stable an organism's deep-body ... Boundless (20 September 2016). "Homeostasis: Thermoregulation". Boundless. Archived from the original on 4 April 2017. ... thermoregulation is an important aspect of human homeostasis. Most body heat is generated in the deep organs, especially the ...
"Homeostasis Synchronization". Ghost Hound. January 24, 2008. WOWOW. "seiyuDB作業記録" (in Japanese). February 2, 2008. Archived ...
See homeostasis). Cellular theory of ageing can be categorized as telomere theory, free radical theory (free-radical theory of ... Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) regenerate the blood system throughout life and maintain homeostasis. DNA strand breaks ...
Rodan GA (1998). "Bone Homeostasis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 95 (23): 13361-62. Bibcode:1998PNAS... ...
Lerner, I.M. (1954). Genetic Homeostasis. New York, NY: John Wiley. Eldredge, Niles (1971). "The allopatric model and phylogeny ... Gould was initially attracted to I. Michael Lerner's theories of developmental and genetic homeostasis. However this hypothesis ... Lerner's theories of developmental and genetic homeostasis, and their own empirical research. Eldredge and Gould proposed that ...
"Physiological Homeostasis". biology online: answers to your biology questions. 30 January 2020. (CS1: long ... In biology, this process (in general, biochemical) is often referred to as homeostasis; whereas in mechanics, the more common ... Robert E. Ricklefs; Gary Leon Miller (2000). "§6.1 Homeostasis depends upon negative feedback". Ecology. Macmillan. p. 92. ISBN ...
The receptor helps maintain iron homeostasis in the cells by controlling iron concentrations. The gene coding for transferrin ... Moos T (November 2002). "Brain iron homeostasis". Danish Medical Bulletin. 49 (4): 279-301. PMID 12553165. Macedo MF, de Sousa ...
Tanner, G. A. (2012). "Acid-Base Homeostasis". In Rhoades, R. A.; Bell, D. R. (eds.). Medical Physiology: Principles for ...
Brain Water Homeostasis. 129 (4): 969-979. doi:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2004.06.035. ISSN 0306-4522. PMID 15561412. S2CID ... cerebral homeostasis, and edema, as well as surgical techniques for cerebral revascularization and intra-operative imaging. ...
The choroid plexus is also a major source of transferrin secretion that plays a part in iron homeostasis in the brain. The ... This cellular trafficking has implications both in normal brain homeostasis and in neuroinflammatory processes. During fetal ... Moos, T (November 2002). "Brain iron homeostasis". Danish Medical Bulletin. 49 (4): 279-301. PMID 12553165. Moos, T; Rosengren ...
1978). "Population homeostasis". S Afr Med J. 53 (6): 222-4. PMID 653514. Radeloff, V. C.; Williams, J. W.; Bateman, B. L.; ... Entire ecosystems show homeostasis, and thus perpetuate themselves. The slow modifying effect of succession and similar shifts ... self-stabilization, homeostasis self-replication self-reference recursion reproduction feedback loop cause and effect von ... Flanders, S. E. (1968). "Mechanisms of population homeostasis in Anagasta ecosystems". Hilgardia. 39 (13): 367-404. doi:10.3733 ...
Homeostasis is the stability of an animal's internal environment, which is maintained by negative feedback loops. The body size ... Rodolfo, Kelvin (January 2000). "What is homeostasis?". Scientific American. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. Hillis, ... "A physiologist's view of homeostasis". Advances in Physiology Education. 39 (4): 259-266. doi:10.1152/advan.00107.2015. ISSN ...
Moos T (November 2002). "Brain iron homeostasis". Danish Medical Bulletin. 49 (4): 279-301. PMID 12553165. Speeckaert MM, ...
In order to preserve homeostasis, organisms have evolved specific protein networks, with proteins and receptors translated in ... ISBN 978-94-007-6087-5. Ganz T (Oct 2013). "Systemic iron homeostasis". Physiological Reviews. 93 (4): 1721-41. doi:10.1152/ ...
This is different from homeostasis, which occurs in response to subtle ebb and flow. Both homeostasis and allostasis are ... as homeostasis suggests. This places homeostasis as a function within allostasis; however, some argue it is a larger paradigm ... Day has argued that the concept of allostasis is no more than a renaming of the original concept of homeostasis. Homeostasis ... Homeostasis is formed from the Greek adjective homoios, meaning "similar," and the noun stasis, meaning "standing;" thus, " ...
Body fluid homeostasis I • Body fluid homeostasis II • Body energy homeostasis • Body regulation and defense Year 2 , Semester ...
Banfalvi, Gaspar (2013-10-16). Homeostasis - Tumor - Metastasis. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 145. ISBN 9789400773356 ...
Radiation and Homeostasis. 1236: 35-37. doi:10.1016/S0531-5131(01)00765-8. Ghiassi-Nejad, M; Beitollahi, MM; Asefi, M; Reza- ...
Banfalvi G (2013). Homeostasis - Tumor - Metastasis. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 156. ISBN 9789400773356. Montgomery ...
Cannon, Walter B. (1929). "Organization for Physiological Homeostasis". Physiological Reviews. 9 (3): 399-421. doi:10.1152/ ...
Metabolism: Anabolic and catabolic processes; cell maintenance and homeostasis; secondary metabolism. Intra-cellular processes ...
"Lymphocyte Homing and Homeostasis". Science. 272 (5258): 60-67. doi:10.1126/science.272.5258.60. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 8600538. ...
Purchase Protein Homeostasis Diseases - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128191323, 9780128191330 ... 2. Protein homeostasis and disease II. Protein folding and homeostasis at the organismal and proteomic scales. 3. ... Protein Homeostasis Diseases. Black Friday Event. :. save up to 30% on print and eBooks with free shipping. No promo code ... Protein homeostasis and regulation of intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors 13. Structure-guided discovery ...
Homeostasis Homeostasis is the way that a system functions to control and maintain the bodys physiological systems. This ... Homeostasis Lab. An important characteristic to survive for all organism is being able to maintain homeostasis. Homeostasis is ... Homeostasis. Homeostasis Homeostasis is the way that a system functions to control and maintain the bodys physiological ... D1 Human Homeostasis. Human homeostasis refers to the bodys ability to regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability ...
World Health Organization. Office of Research Policy and Strategy Coordination; WHO Meeting on Stress and Adaptation : from Selyes Concept to Application of Modern Formulations (‎1998: Montreal, Canada)‎ (‎World Health OrganizationWorld Health Organization, 1998)‎ ...
New research suggests that gut hormones can be used to specifically regulate energy homeostasis in humans, and offer a target ... In recent years our understanding of how neural and hormonal brain-gut signalling regulates energy homeostasis has advanced ... New research suggests that gut hormones can be used to specifically regulate energy homeostasis in humans, and offer a target ... In recent years our understanding of how neural and hormonal brain-gut signalling regulates energy homeostasis has advanced ...
Sebaceous immunobiology - skin homeostasis, pathophysiology, coordination of innate immunity and inflammatory response and ... Interestingly, professional inflammatory cells contribute to sebocyte differentiation and homeostasis, whereas the regulation ...
... Magnes Res. 2009 Dec;22(4):235-46. doi: 10.1684/mrh.2009.0187. ...
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The bacterium that causes this severe pneumonia has a biphasic life cycle that depends on regulation of protein homeostasis. ...
If so, would you donate so it can continue? Help provide a platform for me and other scientists to keep telling the truth about Darwin and intelligent design in 2023. We rely completely on readers like you to make our articles possible. Can I count on your support?. Günter Bechly, PhD ...
Open access peer-reviewed chapter
Size-dependent Homeostasis. The single character size-dependent homeostasis hypothesis suggests that individuals in a ... FA is determined by a whole-organism developmental homeostasis, (ii) this homeostasis is correlated with the individuals ... Whole-organism homeostasis is known to be a result of certain external factors, such as extreme temperatures, which results in ... Whole-organism homeostasis is expected to respond similarly in the case of stabilizing selection, but to result in an opposite ...
We describe a homeostasis system with a discrete map that is revealed by stroboscopic ... 3. Homeostasis Process Expressed by Linear Maps. In this part we introduce the general description of Homeostasis maps. This ... We introduced simple maps that describe homeostasis processes. Finding fundamental equations that describe the homeostasis ... Homeostasis Processes Expressed as Flashes in a Poincaré Sections () Yehuda Roth Oranim Academic College, Oranim Campus, K. ...
Hepatic transcriptomic signatures of statin treatment are associated with impaired glucose homeostasis in severely obese ...
Homeostasis[edit , edit source]. Is a very important part of everyones and everythings lives. Defined as dynamic constancy of ... General Biology/Tissues and Systems/Homeostasis. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Retrieved from "" ...
Living organisms are characterized by a drive for homeostasis, or consistency. For example, most of us prefer consistency in ...
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These strategies seek to maintain homeostasis and limit pathology when the animal undergoes stresses such as viral infection ...
... play a critical role in tissue growth and homeostasis. During organ development and tissue injury repair, compressive and ... play a critical role in tissue growth and homeostasis. During organ development and tissue injury repair, compressive and ... Mechanoregulation of YAP and TAZ in Cellular Homeostasis and Disease Progression. Xiaomin Cai1, Kuei-Chun Wang2* and Zhipeng ... 2005). Tensional homeostasis and the malignant phenotype. Cancer Cell 8, 241-254. doi: 10.1016/j.ccr.2005.08.010 ...
Endocannabinoids Prevent Inflammation, Maintain Intestinal Homeostasis. Alexander Maue, PhD. Thursday, September 6, 2018 ... Intestinal P-glycoprotein exports endocannabinoids to prevent inflammation and maintain homeostasis. J Clin Invest. 2018. Aug ... which counter the effects of the HxA3/MRP-mediated neutrophil migration and have a role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. ... multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein have anti-inflammatory effects that aid in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. ...
The main concept of homeostasis is to maintain a constant environment inside the body. It does this by controlling certain ... Explain the Concept of Homeostasis (P5) The main concept of homeostasis is to maintain a constant environment inside the body. ... To work effectively homeostasis has an effective receptor that detects this. If the levels are too high the receptors would ... Homeostasis constantly maintains the environment of four main systems throughout the body, these systems are: *Heart Rate ...
Homeostasis in the Human BodyThis exercise was designed to show how the human body strives for Homeost... ... Read this full essay on Homeostasis In The Human Body. ... Homeostasis In The Human Body Essay. 1288 words - 6 pages ... Homeostasis in the Human BodyThis exercise was designed to show how the human body strives for Homeostasis. Homeostasis can be ... How Does Our Body Maintain Homeostasis When Exposed To Germs?. 1086 words - 5 pages HOW DOES OUR BODY MAINTAIN HOMEOSTASIS WHEN ...
Students learn about homeostasis and create models by constructing simple feedback systems using Arduino boards, temperature ... We call this balance, "homeostasis" (Wikipedia, 2016). To stay healthy, it is critical that we maintain homeostasis. This is ... Visit [] to print or download. Pre-Req Knowledge A basic ... Relate the microcontroller experiment to homeostasis.. Educational Standards Each TeachEngineering lesson or activity is ...
Tarokh, L; Achermann, P (2013). Sleep Homeostasis. In: Kushida, Clete. Encyclopedia of Sleep. Waltham: Elsevier, 413-417. ...
The Toxic Effects of Ppz1 Overexpression Involve Nha1-Mediated Deregulation of K+ and H+ Homeostasis by Marcel Albacar ... "The Toxic Effects of Ppz1 Overexpression Involve Nha1-Mediated Deregulation of K+ and H+ Homeostasis" Journal of Fungi 7, no. ... "The Toxic Effects of Ppz1 Overexpression Involve Nha1-Mediated Deregulation of K+ and H+ Homeostasis" Journal of Fungi 7, no. ... Ppz1 plays a key role in monovalent cation homeostasis, and it was demonstrated long ago that the deletion of PPZ1 results in ...
Our data identify DC-derived CCL17 as a central regulator of Treg homeostasis, implicate DCs and their effector functions in ... CCL17-expressing dendritic cells drive atherosclerosis by restraining regulatory T cell homeostasis in mice. ... CCL17-expressing dendritic cells drive atherosclerosis by restraining regulatory T cell homeostasis in mice. ...
Project Title: Vitamin D and Calcium Homeostasis in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes. Abstract: DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant ... Grant Abstract: Vitamin D and Calcium Homeostasis in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes. ...
A link between pH homeostasis and colistin resistance in bacteria. By Pradip R. Panta ... Home / KnowledgeBase Articles / A link between pH homeostasis and colistin resistance in bacteria ... suggesting a link between cytoplasmic pH homeostasis and colistin resistance across species. We found that lowering the level ... thailandensis by maintaining cytoplasmic pH homeostasis. We found that alkaline pH or presence of sodium bicarbonate displays a ...
... yet critical parameters enabling long term homeostasis be... ... yet critical parameters enabling long term homeostasis between ... These findings highlight the significance of ROS in establishment of homeostasis in intestinal models incorporating microbes ... and emphasize that additional factors contribute to in vitro homeostasis of microbial-mammalian co-cultures, such as signaling ... but also highlight the significance of additional factors that impact homeostasis in mammalian cell-bacteria systems. ...
Professional secretory cells rely on adaptive mechanisms to maintain ER homeostasis including the Unfolded Protein Response ( ...
  • In addition, insulin is the most important factor in the regulation of plasma glucose homeostasis, as it counteracts glucagon and other catabolic hormones-epinephrine, glucocorticoid, and growth hormone. (
  • That forced me to rethink my original understanding of how glucose homeostasis is achieved. (
  • By targeting a number of growth regulatory molecules, transcription factors and cytoskeletal proteins, miRNAs are involved in establishing an optimal balance of gene expression in the keratinocytes required for the HF and skin homeostasis. (
  • Owing to technical limitations, a large-scale high-throughput systematic functional screen for genes involved in skin homeostasis was not feasible until recently. (
  • Such a screen would facilitate the identification of novel genes that are involved in skin homeostasis, cancer, aging, infection, wound repair and sensation. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Water electrolyte homeostasis in acute bronchiolitis. (
  • Poddar U, Singhi S, Ganguli NK, Sialy R. Water electrolyte homeostasis in acute bronchiolitis. (
  • Aldosterone is the principal mineralocorticoid in humans and a critical regulator of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. (
  • Due to their sessile nature, plants require a tight regulation of energy homeostasis in order to survive and reproduce in changing environmental conditions. (
  • Homeostasis is a medical state in which organisms are maintained by biochemical and physiology which are two different pathways.Cells depend on the body environment to live and function. (
  • Overview of human physiology emphasizing systems that sustain homeostasis and motion with a focus on biological foundations for a healthy lifestyle. (
  • Thyroid hormones are essential for metabolism, energy homeostasis and reproduction. (
  • Protein Homeostasis Diseases: Mechanisms and Novel Therapies offers an interdisciplinary examination of the fundamental aspects, biochemistry and molecular biology of protein homeostasis disease, including the use of natural and pharmacological small molecules to treat common and rare protein homeostasis disorders. (
  • Contributions from international experts discuss the biochemical and genetic components of protein homeostasis disorders, the mechanisms by which genetic variants may cause loss-of-function and gain-of-toxic-function, and how natural ligands can restore protein function and homeostasis in genetic diseases. (
  • Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. (
  • Professional secretory cells rely on adaptive mechanisms to maintain ER homeostasis including the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) and elimination of misfolded and improperly modified proteins via the Endoplasmic Reticulum Associated Degradation (ERAD). (
  • In this talk, I will show how mechanistic computational models are elucidating how the transcriptome, proteome, and genome evolve specific mechanisms to better regulate growth and homeostasis. (
  • These natural control mechanisms are called homeostasis and there are homeostatic mechanisms for controlling the level of all aspects of the chemical composition of our bodies. (
  • New research suggests that gut hormones can be used to specifically regulate energy homeostasis in humans, and offer a target for anti-obesity drugs. (
  • We tested the postulate that α-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this antiprotease in humans are associated with a systemic disruption in iron homeostasis. (
  • John H. Langdon identifies the significance of those traits that make humans distinct from other vertebrates, exploring adaptations to the musculoskeletal, nervous, and reproductive systems and to systems of homeostasis. (
  • This led the investigators to hypothesize that P-glycoprotein may efflux compounds which counter the effects of the HxA 3 /MRP-mediated neutrophil migration and have a role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. (
  • Thus, endocannabinoids secreted through the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein have anti-inflammatory effects that aid in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. (
  • Effects of oxidation-based tea processing on the characteristics of the derived polysaccharide conjugates and their regulation of intestinal homeostasis in DSS-induced colitis mice. (
  • Furthermore, all three TPS conjugates improved intestinal homeostasis by reducing TJ protein loss and inflammation and alleviated DSS-induced colitis symptoms in mice . (
  • Introduction Homeostasis can be defined as the balance maintained by the body through negative-feedback to regulate internal conditions within a normal range promoting sustained good health (Seeley, 2006). (
  • In recent years our understanding of how neural and hormonal brain-gut signalling regulates energy homeostasis has advanced considerably. (
  • De novo synthesis and salvage pathway coordinately regulates polyamine homeostasis and determines T cell proliferation and function. (
  • Intestinal P-glycoprotein exports endocannabinoids to prevent inflammation and maintain homeostasis. (
  • In order to maintain a state of health, complex immunoregulatory networks have evolved at mucosal sites to promote immunity, limit inflammation and maintain tissue homeostasis. (
  • Collectively, studies presented in this thesis identify novel regulatory and functional aspects of IL-22 and ILCs, and demonstrate a critical role for this pathway in the immunoregulation of tissue homeostasis at mucosal sites. (
  • Homeostasis Homeostasis is the way that a system functions to control and maintain the body's physiological systems. (
  • By definition, homeostasis is the process that maintains the stability of the human body's internal environment in response to changes in external conditions (Karen M. 2015). (
  • This exercise will also show the location of some of the stimulus receptors in the body.My hypothesis for this exercise is that by manipulating stimulus, we will be able to observe the body's reaction to maintain Homeostasis.The procedure used for reflexes was as follows:I had my assistant stand in front of a window. (
  • Homeostasis can be defined as maintaining the internal environment within certain physiological limits. (
  • Cigarette smoking: example of behavioral regulation of physiological homeostasis? (
  • Applied chapters provide guidance on employing high throughput sequencing and screening methodologies to develop pharmacological chaperones and repurpose approved drugs to treat protein homeostasis disorders. (
  • Sodium cyanate alters glutathione homeostasis in rodent brain: relationship to neurodegenerative diseases in protein-deficient malnourished populations in Africa. (
  • Leucine zipper -EF- hand containing transmembrane protein 1 (LETM1) encodes an inner mitochondrial membrane protein with an osmoregulatory function controlling mitochondrial volume and ion homeostasis . (
  • This loss in protein homeostasis is associated with several age-related diseases. (
  • Protein, carbohydrates and healthy fats are needed to return the body to homeostasis. (
  • Deficiency of α-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis. (
  • There is evidence that proteases and antiproteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. (
  • A1AT deficiency is associated with evidence of a disruption in iron homeostasis with plasma ferritin and nonheme iron concentrations being elevated among those with the ZZ genotype. (
  • A schematic diagram of calcium homeostasis can be seen below. (
  • Schematic diagram of calcium homeostasis. (
  • Thus, in vitro models that enable highly controlled studies of these interactions are of value, yet critical parameters enabling long term homeostasis between bacteria and mammalian cultures have not been established. (
  • This study investigates the effect of sodium cyanate on glutathione (GSH) homeostasis in rodent brain and liver in vitro and in vivo. (
  • The liver (autonomic nervous system), kidneys (endocrine system), and brain (hypothalamus system), help maintain homeostasis. (
  • Bi-allelic LETM1 variants perturb mitochondrial ion homeostasis leading to a clinical spectrum with predominant nervous system involvement. (
  • The results of this study suggest that cyanate neurotoxicity, and perhaps cassava-associated neurodegenerative diseases, are mediated in part by disruption of glutathione homeostasis in neural tissue. (
  • Define homeostasis, give three examples , and explain the principle of negative feedback and how this maintains health. (
  • The blood-brain barrier (BBB) maintains homeostasis within the brain microenvironment. (
  • Calcium homeostasis is a complex process involving the following 4 key components: serum calcium, serum phosphate, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-3, and parathyroid hormone (PTH). (
  • Vitamin D is essential for active intestinal calcium absorption and plays a central role in maintaining calcium homeostasis and skeletal integrity. (
  • Serum PTH concentration is a very sensitive indicator of calcium homeostasis and vitamin D deficiency. (
  • We found that alkaline pH or presence of sodium bicarbonate displays a synergistic effect with colistin against not only extremely colistin resistant species like B. thailandensis and Serratia marcescens, but also a majority of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria tested, suggesting a link between cytoplasmic pH homeostasis and colistin resistance across species. (
  • These results indicate that monitoring and mitigating ROS concentrations can enable longer term bacteria-intestinal epithelial cultures, but also highlight the significance of additional factors that impact homeostasis in mammalian cell-bacteria systems. (
  • In addition to pathogenic bacteria, loss of containment and peripheral dissemination of beneficial commensal bacteria results in dysregulated systemic immune cell homeostasis, and is a hallmark of numerous chronic human diseases. (
  • Airway epithelial cells as guardians of immune homeostasis? (
  • Although increased circulating level of BAFF has been linked to the loss of B cell tolerance in systemic autoimmunity, the potential role for BAFF in TFH cell homeostasis is not known. (
  • Recent developments in systems biology now provide a whole cell view into how changes in the "omes" influence cell growth and homeostasis. (
  • While much is known about cell signaling and functional consequences in response to biochemical cues, such as nutrients, growth factors, and hormones, the impacts of biophysical modulations on tissue growth and homeostasis in health and diseases are understudied. (
  • The free radical nitric oxide (‏NO)‏ has emerged in recent years as a fundamental signalling molecule for the maintenance of homeostasis, as well as a potent cytotoxic effector involved in the pathogenesis of a wide range of human diseases. (
  • An important characteristic to survive for all organism is being able to maintain homeostasis. (
  • These strategies seek to maintain homeostasis and limit pathology when the animal undergoes stresses such as viral infection without necessarily limiting pathogen replication. (
  • The main concept of homeostasis is to maintain a constant environment inside the body. (
  • Thus, in human fibrosis, altered collagen architecture is a key determinant of abnormal ECM structure-function, and inhibition of pyridinoline cross-linking can maintain mechano-homeostasis to limit the self-sustaining effects of ECM on progressive fibrosis. (
  • Homeostasis is a process that corresponds with biological measurements that are conducted over the internal and external body environments. (
  • To conclude, students write summary paragraphs relating their models to biological homeostasis. (
  • Restoration of homeostasis is a universal phenomenon of which there are a multitude of examples in the natural and biological worlds. (
  • Figure 1: The pathways by which gut hormones regulate energy homeostasis. (
  • Because Homeostasis processes are activated by the brain, we propose that the time between these measurement events will be at that scale. (
  • Simvastatin and lovastatin, both lipophilic, have been found to be associated with depression, raising the possibility that lipophilic statins may pass through the BBB, affecting brain cholesterol synthesis and synaptic homeostasis. (
  • Professor Heisler investigates brain circuits regulating energy homeostasis in an effort to identify new targets amenable to obesity and type 2 diabetes medications. (
  • The main controlling factors in magnesium homeostasis appear to be gastrointestinal absorption and renal excretion. (
  • Our data identify DC-derived CCL17 as a central regulator of Treg homeostasis, implicate DCs and their effector functions in atherogenesis, and suggest that CCL17 might be a target for vascular therapy. (
  • Essentially, the hypothalamus keeps your body in a state of homeostasis. (
  • Genetics of ion homeostasis in Ménière's Disease. (
  • Negative feedback is how homeostasis keeps these systems throughout our body in balance. (
  • Homeostasis is maintained by the coordinated activities of many organs and systems of the body. (
  • Students learn about homeostasis and create models by constructing simple feedback systems using Arduino boards, temperature sensors, LEDs and Arduino code. (
  • In this thesis, we investigated specific transcriptional and translational regulatory systems in plant energy homeostasis using different bioinformatic approaches. (
  • The Week 1 module addresses endogenous Insulin and how it works in the context of homeostasis. (
  • Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to gear towards a stable equilibrium of its internal environment, balancing bodily functions. (
  • Homeostasis of sulfate and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate in rats with deficient dietary intake of sulfur. (
  • homeostasis keeps the body environment under control and keeps the conditions right for cells to live and function. (
  • homeostasis is a very important part of your body it plays a big roll. (
  • Since homeostasis is so important, its relationship with exercise was tested to see how the body reacted after the Harvard Step Test. (
  • Exercising initiates a process that propels the body out of its normal parameters, therefore triggering negative-feedback loops aimed at bringing the internal balance back into homeostasis. (
  • Some examples of homeostasis is regulation of blood pH, body temperature, and concentration of sugar. (
  • Homeostasis in the Human BodyThis exercise was designed to show how the human body strives for Homeostasis. (
  • When your body has either too much or too little of the necessary fluids' homeostasis will kick in and help either supply your body with more fluids or help get rid of them. (
  • These results identify a new BCMA-BAFF axis in controlling TFH cell homeostasis and suggest that the balance between BCMA and BR3 signaling in TFH cells serves as an additional checkpoint of immune tolerance. (
  • mTOR plays a key role in cell growth and homeostasis and may be abnormally regulated in tumors. (
  • to evaluate the utility of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-±, IL1-², and IL- 6) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-1Ra) for the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, and to verify if the homeostasis of these mediators might determine the clinical outcome. (
  • Interestingly, professional inflammatory cells contribute to sebocyte differentiation and homeostasis, whereas the regulation of sebaceous gland function by immune cells is antigen-independent. (
  • Biophysical cues, such as mechanical properties, play a critical role in tissue growth and homeostasis. (
  • Here, we report that ∆dbcA displays alkaline pH/bicarbonate sensitivity and propose a role of DbcA in extreme colistin resistance of B. thailandensis by maintaining cytoplasmic pH homeostasis. (
  • however, pathologic changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) that initiate mechano-homeostasis dysregulation are not defined in human disease. (