Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
A subclass of LIM domain proteins that include an additional centrally-located homeodomain region that binds AT-rich sites on DNA. Many LIM-homeodomain proteins play a role as transcriptional regulators that direct cell fate.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
A homeodomain protein that interacts with TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN. It represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of target GENES and plays a critical role in ODONTOGENESIS.
A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A family of VERTEBRATE homeodomain proteins that share homology with orthodenticle protein, Drosophila. They regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and play an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the BRAIN.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that plays an essential role as a global regulator of yeast cell cycle control. It contains a 56 amino acid MADS-box domain within the N-terminal of the protein and is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of a bipartite DNA-binding domain known as the POU domain. The POU domain contains two subdomains, a POU-specific domain and a POU-homeodomain. The POU domain was originally identified as a region of approximately 150 amino acids shared between the Pit-1, Oct-1, Oct-2, and Unc-86 transcription factors.
Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. It is a nuclear protein that is a transcriptional coactivator for a number of transcription factors including VP16 PROTEIN; GA-BINDING PROTEIN; EARLY GROWTH RESPONSE PROTEIN 2; and E2F4 TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR. It also interacts with and stabilizes HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS PROTEIN VMW65 and helps regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES in HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A POU domain factor that regulates expression of GROWTH HORMONE; PROLACTIN; and THYROTROPIN-BETA in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Proteins obtained from the ZEBRAFISH. Many of the proteins in this species have been the subject of studies involving basic embryological development (EMBRYOLOGY).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A onecut transcription factor that regulates expression of GENES involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the PANCREAS and LIVER.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A hepatocyte nuclear factor that is closely related to HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA but is only weakly expressed in the LIVER. Mutations in hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta are associated with renal CYSTS and MATURITY-ONSET DIABETES MELLITUS type 5.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A transcription factor that regulates the expression of a large set of hepatic proteins including SERUM ALBUMIN; beta-fibrinogen; and ALPHA 1-ANTITRYPSIN. It is composed of hetero- or homo-dimers of HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-ALPHA and HEPATOCYTE NUCLEAR FACTOR 1-BETA.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The posterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of an embryonic brain. It consists of myelencephalon, metencephalon, and isthmus rhombencephali from which develop the major BRAIN STEM components, such as MEDULLA OBLONGATA from the myelencephalon, CEREBELLUM and PONS from the metencephalon, with the expanded cavity forming the FOURTH VENTRICLE.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
The middle germ layer of an embryo derived from three paired mesenchymal aggregates along the neural tube.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A family of transcription factors that contain a single cut domain and a divergent homeodomain. They regulate gene networks by controlling the expression of other transcription factors and they play an important role in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and METABOLISM.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Fungal genes that mostly encode TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. In some FUNGI they also encode PHEROMONES and PHEROMONE RECEPTORS. The transcription factors control expression of specific proteins that give a cell its mating identity. Opposite mating type identities are required for mating.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Proteins obtained from species of BIRDS.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Proteins found in any species of helminth.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-alpha is a transcription factor found in the LIVER; PANCREAS; and KIDNEY that regulates HOMEOSTASIS of GLUCOSE.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Cells in certain regions of an embryo that self-regulate embryonic development. These organizers have been found in dorsal and ventral poles of GASTRULA embryos, including Spemann organizer in amphibians, and Hensen node in chicken and mouse. These organizer cells communicate with each other via a network of secreted signaling proteins, such as BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEINS and their antagonists (chordin and noggin).
An octamer transcription factor expressed primarily in B-LYMPHOCYTES and the developing CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Members of the transforming growth factor superfamily that play a role in pattern formation and differentiation during the pregastrulation and GASTRULATION stages of chordate development. Several nodal signaling ligands are specifically involved in the genesis of left-right asymmetry during development. The protein group is named after a critical region of the vertebrate embryo PRIMITIVE STREAK referred to as HENSEN'S NODE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the eye; may also be hereditary.
A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.
A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
The developmental stage that follows BLASTULA or BLASTOCYST. It is characterized by the morphogenetic cell movements including invagination, ingression, and involution. Gastrulation begins with the formation of the PRIMITIVE STREAK, and ends with the formation of three GERM LAYERS, the body plan of the mature organism.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.
A large class of structurally-related proteins that contain one or more LIM zinc finger domains. Many of the proteins in this class are involved in intracellular signaling processes and mediate their effects via LIM domain protein-protein interactions. The name LIM is derived from the first three proteins in which the motif was found: LIN-11, Isl1 and Mec-3.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A proto-oncogene protein and member of the Wnt family of proteins. It is expressed in the caudal MIDBRAIN and is essential for proper development of the entire mid-/hindbrain region.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Bone-growth regulatory factors that are members of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily of proteins. They are synthesized as large precursor molecules which are cleaved by proteolytic enzymes. The active form can consist of a dimer of two identical proteins or a heterodimer of two related bone morphogenetic proteins.
A family of intercellular signaling proteins that play and important role in regulating the development of many TISSUES and organs. Their name derives from the observation of a hedgehog-like appearance in DROSOPHILA embryos with genetic mutations that block their action.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
The complex processes of initiating CELL DIFFERENTIATION in the embryo. The precise regulation by cell interactions leads to diversity of cell types and specific pattern of organization (EMBRYOGENESIS).
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The reproductive organs of plants.
A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.
A funnel-shaped fibromuscular tube that conducts food to the ESOPHAGUS, and air to the LARYNX and LUNGS. It is located posterior to the NASAL CAVITY; ORAL CAVITY; and LARYNX, and extends from the SKULL BASE to the inferior border of the CRICOID CARTILAGE anteriorly and to the inferior border of the C6 vertebra posteriorly. It is divided into the NASOPHARYNX; OROPHARYNX; and HYPOPHARYNX (laryngopharynx).
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.

Separation of shoot and floral identity in Arabidopsis. (1/15498)

The overall morphology of an Arabidopsis plant depends on the behaviour of its meristems. Meristems derived from the shoot apex can develop into either shoots or flowers. The distinction between these alternative fates requires separation between the function of floral meristem identity genes and the function of an antagonistic group of genes, which includes TERMINAL FLOWER 1. We show that the activities of these genes are restricted to separate domains of the shoot apex by different mechanisms. Meristem identity genes, such as LEAFY, APETALA 1 and CAULIFLOWER, prevent TERMINAL FLOWER 1 transcription in floral meristems on the apex periphery. TERMINAL FLOWER 1, in turn, can inhibit the activity of meristem identity genes at the centre of the shoot apex in two ways; first by delaying their upregulation, and second, by preventing the meristem from responding to LEAFY or APETALA 1. We suggest that the wild-type pattern of TERMINAL FLOWER 1 and floral meristem identity gene expression depends on the relative timing of their upregulation.  (+info)

Novel regulation of the homeotic gene Scr associated with a crustacean leg-to-maxilliped appendage transformation. (2/15498)

Homeotic genes are known to be involved in patterning morphological structures along the antero-posterior axis of insects and vertebrates. Because of their important roles in development, changes in the function and expression patterns of homeotic genes may have played a major role in the evolution of different body plans. For example, it has been proposed that during the evolution of several crustacean lineages, changes in the expression patterns of the homeotic genes Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A have played a role in transformation of the anterior thoracic appendages into mouthparts termed maxillipeds. This homeotic-like transformation is recapitulated at the late stages of the direct embryonic development of the crustacean Porcellio scaber (Oniscidea, Isopoda). Interestingly, this morphological change is associated with apparent novelties both in the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the Porcellio scaber ortholog of the Drosophila homeotic gene, Sex combs reduced (Scr). Specifically, we find that Scr mRNA is present in the second maxillary segment and the first pair of thoracic legs (T1) in early embryos, whereas protein accumulates only in the second maxillae. In later stages, however, high levels of SCR appear in the T1 legs, which correlates temporally with the transformation of these appendages into maxillipeds. Our observations provide further insight into the process of the homeotic leg-to-maxilliped transformation in the evolution of crustaceans and suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for this process in this group of arthropods.  (+info)

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (3/15498)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

FGF8 induces formation of an ectopic isthmic organizer and isthmocerebellar development via a repressive effect on Otx2 expression. (4/15498)

Beads containing recombinant FGF8 (FGF8-beads) were implanted in the prospective caudal diencephalon or midbrain of chick embryos at stages 9-12. This induced the neuroepithelium rostral and caudal to the FGF8-bead to form two ectopic, mirror-image midbrains. Furthermore, cells in direct contact with the bead formed an outgrowth that protruded laterally from the neural tube. Tissue within such lateral outgrowths developed proximally into isthmic nuclei and distally into a cerebellum-like structure. These morphogenetic effects were apparently due to FGF8-mediated changes in gene expression in the vicinity of the bead, including a repressive effect on Otx2 and an inductive effect on En1, Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression. The ectopic Fgf8 and Wnt1 expression domains formed nearly complete concentric rings around the FGF8-bead, with the Wnt1 ring outermost. These observations suggest that FGF8 induces the formation of a ring-like ectopic signaling center (organizer) in the lateral wall of the brain, similar to the one that normally encircles the neural tube at the isthmic constriction, which is located at the boundary between the prospective midbrain and hindbrain. This ectopic isthmic organizer apparently sends long-range patterning signals both rostrally and caudally, resulting in the development of the two ectopic midbrains. Interestingly, our data suggest that these inductive signals spread readily in a caudal direction, but are inhibited from spreading rostrally across diencephalic neuromere boundaries. These results provide insights into the mechanism by which FGF8 induces an ectopic organizer and suggest that a negative feedback loop between Fgf8 and Otx2 plays a key role in patterning the midbrain and anterior hindbrain.  (+info)

The homeobox gene Pitx2: mediator of asymmetric left-right signaling in vertebrate heart and gut looping. (5/15498)

Left-right asymmetry in vertebrates is controlled by activities emanating from the left lateral plate. How these signals get transmitted to the forming organs is not known. A candidate mediator in mouse, frog and zebrafish embryos is the homeobox gene Pitx2. It is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm, tubular heart and early gut tube. Localized Pitx2 expression continues when these organs undergo asymmetric looping morphogenesis. Ectopic expression of Xnr1 in the right lateral plate induces Pitx2 transcription in Xenopus. Misexpression of Pitx2 affects situs and morphology of organs. These experiments suggest a role for Pitx2 in promoting looping of the linear heart and gut.  (+info)

The cardiac homeobox gene Csx/Nkx2.5 lies genetically upstream of multiple genes essential for heart development. (6/15498)

Csx/Nkx2.5 is a vertebrate homeobox gene with a sequence homology to the Drosophila tinman, which is required for the dorsal mesoderm specification. Recently, heterozygous mutations of this gene were found to cause human congenital heart disease (Schott, J.-J., Benson, D. W., Basson, C. T., Pease, W., Silberbach, G. M., Moak, J. P., Maron, B. J., Seidman, C. E. and Seidman, J. G. (1998) Science 281, 108-111). To investigate the functions of Csx/Nkx2.5 in cardiac and extracardiac development in the vertebrate, we have generated and analyzed mutant mice completely null for Csx/Nkx2.5. Homozygous null embryos showed arrest of cardiac development after looping and poor development of blood vessels. Moreover, there were severe defects in vascular formation and hematopoiesis in the mutant yolk sac. Interestingly, TUNEL staining and PCNA staining showed neither enhanced apoptosis nor reduced cell proliferation in the mutant myocardium. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated that, among 20 candidate genes examined, expression of ANF, BNP, MLC2V, N-myc, MEF2C, HAND1 and Msx2 was disturbed in the mutant heart. Moreover, in the heart of adult chimeric mice generated from Csx/Nkx2.5 null ES cells, there were almost no ES cell-derived cardiac myocytes, while there were substantial contributions of Csx /Nkx2.5-deficient cells in other organs. Whole-mount &bgr;-gal staining of chimeric embryos showed that more than 20% contribution of Csx/Nkx2. 5-deficient cells in the heart arrested cardiac development. These results indicate that (1) the complete null mutation of Csx/Nkx2.5 did not abolish initial heart looping, (2) there was no enhanced apoptosis or defective cell cycle entry in Csx/Nkx2.5 null cardiac myocytes, (3) Csx/Nkx2.5 regulates expression of several essential transcription factors in the developing heart, (4) Csx/Nkx2.5 is required for later differentiation of cardiac myocytes, (5) Csx/Nkx2. 5 null cells exert dominant interfering effects on cardiac development, and (6) there were severe defects in yolk sac angiogenesis and hematopoiesis in the Csx/Nkx2.5 null embryos.  (+info)

Requirement of a novel gene, Xin, in cardiac morphogenesis. (7/15498)

A novel gene, Xin, from chick (cXin) and mouse (mXin) embryonic hearts, may be required for cardiac morphogenesis and looping. Both cloned cDNAs have a single open reading frame, encoding proteins with 2,562 and 1,677 amino acids for cXin and mXin, respectively. The derived amino acid sequences share 46% similarity. The overall domain structures of the predicted cXin and mXin proteins, including proline-rich regions, 16 amino acid repeats, DNA-binding domains, SH3-binding motifs and nuclear localization signals, are highly conserved. Northern blot analyses detect a single message of 8.9 and 5.8 kilo base (kb) from both cardiac and skeletal muscle of chick and mouse, respectively. In situ hybridization reveals that the cXin gene is specifically expressed in cardiac progenitor cells of chick embryos as early as stage 8, prior to heart tube formation. cXin continues to be expressed in the myocardium of developing hearts. By stage 15, cXin expression is also detected in the myotomes of developing somites. Immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that the mXin protein is colocalized with N-cadherin and connexin-43 in the intercalated discs of adult mouse hearts. Incubation of stage 6 chick embryos with cXin antisense oligonucleotides results in abnormal cardiac morphogenesis and an alteration of cardiac looping. The myocardium of the affected hearts becomes thickened and tends to form multiple invaginations into the heart cavity. This abnormal cellular process may account in part for the abnormal looping. cXin expression can be induced by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in explants of anterior medial mesoendoderm from stage 6 chick embryos, a tissue that is normally non-cardiogenic. This induction occurs following the BMP-mediated induction of two cardiac-restricted transcription factors, Nkx2.5 and MEF2C. Furthermore, either MEF2C or Nkx2.5 can transactivate a luciferase reporter driven by the mXin promoter in mouse fibroblasts. These results suggest that Xin may participate in a BMP-Nkx2.5-MEF2C pathway to control cardiac morphogenesis and looping.  (+info)

Retinoids are produced by glia in the lateral ganglionic eminence and regulate striatal neuron differentiation. (8/15498)

In order to identify molecular mechanisms involved in striatal development, we employed a subtraction cloning strategy to enrich for genes expressed in the lateral versus the medial ganglionic eminence. Using this approach, the homeobox gene Meis2 was found highly expressed in the lateral ganglionic eminence and developing striatum. Since Meis2 has recently been shown to be upregulated by retinoic acid in P19 EC cells (Oulad-Abdelghani, M., Chazaud, C., Bouillet, P., Sapin, V., Chambon, P. and Dolle, P. (1997) Dev. Dyn. 210, 173-183), we examined a potential role for retinoids in striatal development. Our results demonstrate that the lateral ganglionic eminence, unlike its medial counterpart or the adjacent cerebral cortex, is a localized source of retinoids. Interestingly, glia (likely radial glia) in the lateral ganglionic eminence appear to be a major source of retinoids. Thus, as lateral ganglionic eminence cells migrate along radial glial fibers into the developing striatum, retinoids from these glial cells could exert an effect on striatal neuron differentiation. Indeed, the treatment of lateral ganglionic eminence cells with retinoic acid or agonists for the retinoic acid receptors or retinoid X receptors, specifically enhances their striatal neuron characteristics. These findings, therefore, strongly support the notion that local retinoid signalling within the lateral ganglionic eminence regulates striatal neuron differentiation.  (+info)

Some common types of eye abnormalities include:

1. Refractive errors: These are errors in the way the eye focuses light, causing blurry vision. Examples include myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism, and presbyopia (age-related loss of near vision).
2. Amblyopia: This is a condition where the brain favors one eye over the other, causing poor vision in the weaker eye.
3. Cataracts: A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye that can cause blurry vision and increase the risk of glaucoma.
4. Glaucoma: This is a group of eye conditions that can damage the optic nerve and lead to vision loss.
5. Macular degeneration: This is a condition where the macula, the part of the retina responsible for central vision, deteriorates, leading to vision loss.
6. Diabetic retinopathy: This is a complication of diabetes that can damage the blood vessels in the retina and lead to vision loss.
7. Retinal detachment: This is a condition where the retina becomes separated from the underlying tissue, leading to vision loss.
8. Corneal abnormalities: These are irregularities in the shape or structure of the cornea, such as keratoconus, that can cause blurry vision.
9. Optic nerve disorders: These are conditions that affect the optic nerve, such as optic neuritis, that can cause vision loss.
10. Traumatic eye injuries: These are injuries to the eye or surrounding tissue that can cause vision loss or other eye abnormalities.

Eye abnormalities can be diagnosed through a comprehensive eye exam, which may include visual acuity tests, refraction tests, and imaging tests such as retinal photography or optical coherence tomography (OCT). Treatment for eye abnormalities depends on the specific condition and may include glasses or contact lenses, medication, surgery, or other therapies.

Gehring WJ, Affolter M, Bürglin T (1994). "Homeodomain proteins". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 63: 487-526. doi:10.1146/ ... Homeo domain 3.1.1 Family: Homeo domain only; includes Ubx 3.1.2 Family: POU domain factors; includes Oct 3.1.3 Family: Homeo ... RAV Cdx protein family DNA-binding protein Inhibitor of DNA-binding protein Mapper(2) Nuclear receptor, a class of ligand ... Bürglin TR, Affolter M (June 2016). "Homeodomain proteins: an update". Chromosoma. 125 (3): 497-521. doi:10.1007/s00412-015- ...
Homeodomain proteins are considered to be master control genes, meaning that a single protein can regulate expression of many ... Homeobox genes encode homeodomain protein products that are transcription factors sharing a characteristic protein fold ... The LIM domains function in protein-protein interactions and can bind zinc molecules. LIM domain proteins are found in both the ... homeodomain proteins, etc.). One of the principal differences between HTH motifs in these different proteins arises from the ...
... class of homeodomain transcription factors. ZEB2 protein has 8 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain ... Bürglin TR, Affolter M (June 2016). "Homeodomain proteins: an update". Chromosoma. 125 (3): 497-521. doi:10.1007/s00412-015- ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB2 gene. The ZEB2 protein is a ... a novel zinc finger/homeodomain repressor, interacts with Smad proteins and binds to 5'-CACCT sequences in candidate target ...
The ability of Hox proteins to bind DNA is conferred by a part of the protein referred to as the homeodomain. The homeodomain ... Both the regulatory protein and the morphogenic protein are involved in the development of the tail segment. Proteins with a ... The products of Hox genes are Hox proteins. Hox proteins are a subset of transcription factors, which are proteins that are ... The sequence bound by the homeodomain of a Hox protein is only six nucleotides long, and such a short sequence would be found ...
... protein has 7 zinc fingers and 1 homeodomain. The structure of the homeodomain is shown on the right. Mutations of the ... "Entrez Gene: ZEB1 zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 1". Bürglin TR, Affolter M (July 2016). "Homeodomain proteins: an update ... Dillner NB, Sanders MM (January 2004). "Transcriptional activation by the zinc-finger homeodomain protein delta EF1 in estrogen ... Zinc finger E-box-binding homeobox 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZEB1 gene. ZEB1 (previously known as TCF8) ...
Homeodomain proteins are transcription factors that share a DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain. Changes in the ... They encode homeodomain proteins which interact with Hox and other homeotic genes to initiate segment-specific gene regulation ... The proteins do not bind directly to the DNA, rather, they interact with other regulatory proteins which are already bound to ... Mannervik M (April 1999). "Target genes of homeodomain proteins". BioEssays. 21 (4): 267-70. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1521-1878(199904 ...
Analysis of Pitx2 homeodomain protein activities". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (32): 20066-72. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.32.20066. PMID ... Homeobox protein prophet of PIT-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PROP1 gene. PROP1 has both DNA-binding and ... "Entrez Gene: PROP1 prophet of Pit1, paired-like homeodomain transcription factor". Osorio MG, Kopp P, Marui S, et al. (2000). " ... GeneReviews/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on PROP1- Related Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency (CPHD) PROP1+protein,+human at the US ...
The human engrailed homologs 1 and 2 encode homeodomain-containing proteins and have been implicated in the control of pattern ... Homeobox protein engrailed-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EN1 gene. Homeobox-containing genes are thought to ... Schaefer LK, Wang S, Schaefer TS (November 2001). "Functional interaction of Jun and homeodomain proteins". The Journal of ... EN1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Schaefer LK, Wang S, Schaefer TS (2001). "Functional interaction of Jun and homeodomain proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (46): ... Homeobox protein Hox-C8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXC8 gene. This gene belongs to the homeobox family of ... Shi X, Yang X, Chen D, Chang Z, Cao X (1999). "Smad1 interacts with homeobox DNA-binding proteins in bone morphogenetic protein ... "The leukemia-associated protein Btg1 and the p53-regulated protein Btg2 interact with the homeoprotein Hoxb9 and enhance its ...
... protein HHEX is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HHEX gene and also known as Proline Rich Homeodomain protein PRH. ... "The proline-rich homeodomain protein recruits members of the Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer of split protein family to co- ... "The promyelocytic leukemia protein PML interacts with the proline-rich homeodomain protein PRH: a RING may link hematopoiesis ... "The promyelocytic leukemia protein PML interacts with the proline-rich homeodomain protein PRH: a RING may link hematopoiesis ...
Shen WF, Krishnan K, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (Nov 2001). "The HOX homeodomain proteins block CBP histone acetyltransferase ... Homeobox protein Hox-A11 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXA11 gene. In vertebrates, the genes encoding the ... Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A ... HOXA11+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ...
Shen WF, Krishnan K, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (Nov 2001). "The HOX homeodomain proteins block CBP histone acetyltransferase ... Homeobox protein Hox-B2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXB2 gene. This gene is a member of the Antp homeobox ... "A homeodomain protein binds to gamma-globin gene regulatory sequences". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ... HOXB2+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
"Homeodomain-interacting protein kinases, a novel family of co-repressors for homeodomain transcription factors". J. Biol. Chem ... Homeobox protein Hox-D4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXD4 gene. This gene belongs to the homeobox family of ... Shen WF, Krishnan K, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (2001). "The HOX Homeodomain Proteins Block CBP Histone Acetyltransferase Activity ... The protein encoded by this gene may play a role in determining positional values in developing limb buds. Alternatively ...
"AbdB-like Hox proteins stabilize DNA binding by the Meis1 homeodomain proteins". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (11): 6448- ... Homeobox protein Hox-A10 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXA10 gene. In vertebrates, the genes encoding the ... Shen WF, Krishnan K, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (Nov 2001). "The HOX homeodomain proteins block CBP histone acetyltransferase ... Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A ...
Hansen LP, Crabtree GR (April 1993). "Regulation of the HNF-1 homeodomain proteins by DCoH". Current Opinion in Genetics & ... 2007). "Large-scale mapping of human protein-protein interactions by mass spectrometry". Molecular Systems Biology. 3 (1): 89. ... "Characterization of a cofactor that regulates dimerization of a mammalian homeodomain protein". Science. 254 (5039): 1762-1767 ... Lim S, Jin K, Friedman E (July 2002). "Mirk protein kinase is activated by MKK3 and functions as a transcriptional activator of ...
Kömüves LG, Ma XK, Stelnicki E, Rozenfeld S, Oda Y, Largman C (Jun 2003). "HOXB13 homeodomain protein is cytoplasmic throughout ... Homeobox protein Hox-B4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXB4 gene. This gene is a member of the Antp homeobox ... Shen WF, Krishnan K, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (Nov 2001). "The HOX homeodomain proteins block CBP histone acetyltransferase ... "HOXB4 homeodomain protein is expressed in developing epidermis and skin disorders and modulates keratinocyte proliferation". ...
Shen WF, Krishnan K, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (2001). "The HOX homeodomain proteins block CBP histone acetyltransferase activity ... Homeobox protein Hox-B9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXB9 gene. This gene is a member of the Abd-B homeobox ... "The leukemia-associated protein Btg1 and the p53-regulated protein Btg2 interact with the homeoprotein Hoxb9 and enhance its ... "The leukemia-associated protein Btg1 and the p53-regulated protein Btg2 interact with the homeoprotein Hoxb9 and enhance its ...
Shen WF, Krishnan K, Lawrence HJ, Largman C (Nov 2001). "The HOX homeodomain proteins block CBP histone acetyltransferase ... Homeobox D10, also known as HOXD10, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the HOXD10 gene. This gene is a member of the ... HOXD10+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ... It is included in a cluster of homeobox D genes located on chromosome 2. The encoded nuclear protein functions as a sequence- ...
This gene encodes a member of the RIEG/PITX homeobox family, which is in the bicoid class of homeodomain proteins. This protein ... Paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2 also known as pituitary homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Analysis of Pitx2 homeodomain protein activities". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (32): 20066-72. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... This protein is involved in the development of the eye, tooth and abdominal organs. This protein acts as a transcriptional ...
Homeodomain-only protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOPX gene. It is an important regulator of cardiac ... The protein encoded by this gene is a homeodomain protein that lacks certain conserved residues required for DNA binding. It ... "Entrez Gene: HOP homeodomain-only protein". Chen, Fabian; Kook, Hyun; Milewski, Rita; Gitler, Aaron D.; Lu, Min Min; Li, Jun; ... a novel homeodomain only protein-binding partner, induces skeletal muscle differentiation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry ...
Members of the SIX gene family encode proteins that are characterized by a divergent DNA-binding homeodomain and an upstream ... Homeobox protein SIX1 (Sine oculis homeobox homolog 1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIX1 gene. The vertebrate ... preventing its interaction with the six class of homeodomain-containing proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (41 ... "Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of the human SIX1 homeodomain protein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (29): ...
"Homeodomain proteins belong to the ancestral molecular toolkit of eukaryotes". Evolution & Development. 9 (3): 212-9. doi: ... The proteins from these in turn control the pair-rule genes, which in the next stage set up 7 bands across the embryo's long ... The protein products of the regulatory toolkit are reused not by duplication and modification, but by a complex mosaic of ... Each regulatory protein controls "scores to hundreds" of cis-regulatory elements. For instance, 67 fruit fly transcription ...
... belongs to the family of proteins that contains homeodomain. Homeodomain is a stretch of 32 specific amino acids in ... Homeobox protein NOBOX, also known as newborn ovary homeobox protein, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOBOX gene ... Qin Y, Shi Y, Zhao Y, Carson SA, Simpson JL, Chen ZJ (April 2009). "Mutation analysis of NOBOX homeodomain in Chinese women ... Qin Y, Shi Y, Zhao Y, Carson SA, Simpson JL, Chen ZJ (April 2009). "Mutation analysis of NOBOX homeodomain in Chinese women ...
Harris SE, Winchester CL, Johnson KJ (2000). "Functional analysis of the homeodomain protein SIX5". Nucleic Acids Res. 28 (9): ... Homeobox protein SIX5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SIX5 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000177045 - ... "A protein-protein interaction network for human inherited ataxias and disorders of Purkinje cell degeneration". Cell. 125 (4): ... Dintilhac A, Bernués J (2002). "HMGB1 interacts with many apparently unrelated proteins by recognizing short amino acid ...
The protein encoded by this gene contains a paired-like homeodomain and binds to the core of the locus control region of the ... Dorval KM, Bobechko BP, Ahmad KF, Bremner R (2005). "Transcriptional activity of the paired-like homeodomain proteins CHX10 and ... The encoded protein may regulate expression of the cone opsin genes early in development. Mutations in this gene can cause ... Semina EV, Mintz-Hittner HA, Murray JC (Apr 2000). "Isolation and characterization of a novel human paired-like homeodomain- ...
Dorval KM, Bobechko BP, Ahmad KF, Bremner R (2005). "Transcriptional activity of the paired-like homeodomain proteins CHX10 and ... Visual system homeobox 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VSX2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000119614 ... Pax6-mediated transactivation from paired domain-binding sites by dna-independent recruitment of different homeodomain proteins ... "Entrez Gene: CHX10 ceh-10 homeodomain containing homolog (C. elegans)". Sanger Centre, The; Washington University Genome ...
Cserjesi P, Lilly B, Bryson L, Wang Y, Sassoon DA, Olson EN (August 1992). "MHox: a mesodermally restricted homeodomain protein ... Grueneberg DA, Natesan S, Alexandre C, Gilman MZ (Sep 1992). "Human and Drosophila homeodomain proteins that enhance the DNA- ... The DNA-associated protein encoded by this gene is a member of the paired family of homeobox proteins localized to the nucleus ... The protein functions as a transcription coactivator, enhancing the DNA-binding activity of serum response factor, a protein ...
Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HIPK1 gene. The protein encoded by this ... "Homeodomain-interacting protein kinases, a novel family of co-repressors for homeodomain transcription factors". The Journal of ... "Entrez Gene: HIPK1 homeodomain interacting protein kinase 1". Kondo S, Lu Y, Debbas M, Lin AW, Sarosi I, Itie A, Wakeham A, ... Ecsedy JA, Michaelson JS, Leder P (Feb 2003). "Homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 1 modulates Daxx localization, ...
2001). "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 and Pax3 transcription factors". FEBS Lett. 499 (3): 274-8. doi: ... Paired box protein Pax-1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAX1 gene. This gene is a member of the paired box (PAX ... Stamataki D, Kastrinaki M, Mankoo BS, Pachnis V, Karagogeos D (2001). "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 ... PAX1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
Stamataki D, Kastrinaki M, Mankoo BS, Pachnis V, Karagogeos D (2001). "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 ... Homeobox protein MOX-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEOX2 gene. This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of ... The encoded protein may play a role in the regulation of vertebrate limb myogenesis. Mutations in the related mouse protein may ... "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 and Pax3 transcription factors". FEBS Lett. 499 (3): 274-8. doi:10.1016/ ...
Developmental genes and proteins, Transcription factors). ... NKX-homeodomain factors are a family of homeodomain ... Human genes that encode NKX-homeodomain factors include: NKX1-1, NKX1-2 NKX2-1, NKX2-2, NKX2-4, NKX2-8 NKX3-1, NKX3-2 NKX6-1, ... NKX6-2, NKX6-3 Stanfel MN, Moses KA, Schwartz RJ, Zimmer WE (2005). "Regulation of organ development by the NKX-homeodomain ...
Gladden, JM; Meyer, BJ (November 2007). "A ONECUT homeodomain protein communicates X chromosome dose to specify Caenorhabditis ... Male specific lethal proteins (MSLs) are a family of four proteins that bind to the X chromosome exclusively in males. The name ... More recently, Meyer's lab has shown that proteins known as X-linked signal elements (XSEs) operate in concert with SDC-2 to ... This could be in part because these genes encode different proteins that act cooperatively rather than in an isolated fashion; ...
... homeodomain protein - homology - homoserine - homozygote - homunculus - hormone - housekeeping gene - Human Genome Project - ... protein - protein biosynthesis - Protein Data Bank - protein design - protein expression - protein folding - protein isoform - ... protein P16 - protein P34cdc2 - protein precursor - protein structure prediction - protein subunit - protein synthesis - ... proto-oncogene protein C-kit - proto-oncogene proteins c-abl - proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2 - Proto-oncogene proteins c-fos ...
2001). "Toward a catalog of human genes and proteins: sequencing and analysis of 500 novel complete protein coding human cDNAs ... 2001). "claudin-18, a novel downstream target gene for the T/EBP/NKX2.1 homeodomain transcription factor, encodes lung- and ... Claudin-12 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CLDN12 gene. It belongs to the group of claudins. GRCh38: Ensembl ... 2004). "Distribution of the tight junction proteins ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-4, -8, and -12 in bladder epithelium". Am. J. ...
The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the homeodomain family of DNA binding proteins. It regulates gene expression, ... "Regulation of the homeodomain CCAAT displacement/cut protein function by histone acetyltransferases p300/CREB-binding protein ( ... "Regulation of the homeodomain CCAAT displacement/cut protein function by histone acetyltransferases p300/CREB-binding protein ( ... Cux1 (CUTL1, CDP, CDP/Cux) is a homeodomain protein that in humans is encoded by the CUX1 gene. ...
This new Distal-less gene could not be considered the human homologue of murine Dlx4 or Dlx7 because the homeodomain sequences ... It has been suggested that DLX promotes the migration of interneurons by repressing a set of proteins that are normally ... Genes in the DLX family encode homeodomain transcription factors related to the Drosophila distal-less (Dll) gene. The family ...
"The homeotic protein Six3 is a coactivator of the nuclear receptor NOR-1 and a corepressor of the fusion protein EWS/NOR-1 in ... Laflamme C, Filion C, Labelle Y (Dec 2004). "Functional characterization of SIX3 homeodomain mutations in holoprosencephaly: ... NR4A3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) v t e (Articles with short ... Labelle Y, Bussières J, Courjal F, Goldring MB (May 1999). "The EWS/TEC fusion protein encoded by the t(9;22) chromosomal ...
Homeobox protein Nkx-2.3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NKX2-3 gene. NKX2C is a member of the NKX family of ... Pabst O, Schneider A, Brand T, Arnold HH (Jul 1997). "The mouse Nkx2-3 homeodomain gene is expressed in gut mesenchyme during ... homeodomain-containing transcription factors, which are implicated in many aspects of cell type specification and maintenance ...
It is involved in the signaling pathway and works in conjunction with DLX homeodomain proteins to increase the effectiveness of ... An alternatively spliced form of DLX6-AS1, DLX6-AS2, forms a stable complex with the Dlx-2 protein. This complex activates ...
... and FGF19 proteins share about 50% amino acid identity, are found in the same tissues, and have similar functions in ... fibroblast growth factor gene expressed in the developing nervous system is a downstream target of the chimeric homeodomain ... Fibroblast growth factor 15 is a protein in mouse encoded by the Fgf15 gene. It is a member of the fibroblast growth factor ( ... FGF19 is the orthologous protein in humans. They are often referred together as FGF15/19. FGF15 was first described in ...
... homeobox/POU domain protein RDC-1 or Oct-T1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the POU4F1 gene. BRN3A (POU4F1) is a ... "A novel POU homeodomain gene specifically expressed in cells of the developing mammalian nervous system". Nucleic Acids ... The protein product is still frequently referred to as Brn3a. In addition to sensory neurons, in rodents and birds (and ... POU4F1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text ...
Protein Wnt-16 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WNT16 gene. It has been proposed that stimulation of WNT16 ... McWhirter JR, Neuteboom ST, Wancewicz EV, Monia BP, Downing JR, Murre C (Sep 1999). "Oncogenic homeodomain transcription factor ... The WNT gene family consists of structurally related genes that encode secreted signaling proteins. These proteins have been ... ". "OBCD Consortium". Smolich BD, McMahon JA, McMahon AP, Papkoff J (Dec 1993). "Wnt family proteins are secreted and ...
"A novel homeodomain-encoding gene is associated with a large CpG island interrupted by the myotonic dystrophy unstable (CTG)n ... Myotonin-protein kinase (MT-PK) also known as myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (MDPK) or dystrophia myotonica protein kinase ( ... For example, myotonic dystrophy protein kinase has been shown to turn off (inhibit) part of a muscle protein called myosin ... a novel member of the small heat shock protein family, binds and activates the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase". The Journal ...
Many proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression contain DNA-binding domains. For example, proteins that regulate ... In eukaryotes, the homeodomain comprises 2 helices, one of which recognizes the DNA (aka recognition helix). They are common in ... One or more DNA-binding domains are often part of a larger protein consisting of further protein domains with differing ... OB-folds bind single-stranded DNA, and hence are single-stranded binding proteins. OB-fold proteins have been identified as ...
... co-activates transcription with DLX homeodomain proteins". Brain Research. Developmental Brain Research. 130 (2): 217-30. doi: ... Homeobox protein DLX-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the distal-less homeobox 5 gene, or DLX5 gene. DLX5 is a ... The encoded protein may play a role in bone development and fracture healing. Current research holds that the homeobox gene ... DLX5+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ...
"A single amino acid can determine the DNA binding specificity of homeodomain proteins". Cell. 59 (3): 553-562. doi:10.1016/0092 ... Leidel, Sebastian; Delattre, Marie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Baumer, Karine; Gönczy, Pierre (2005). "SAS-6 defines a protein family ... Leidel, Sebastian; Delattre, Marie; Cerutti, Lorenzo; Baumer, Karine; Gönczy, Pierre (2005-02-23). "SAS-6 defines a protein ... "Inherited immunodeficiency with a defect in a major histocompatibility complex class II promoter-binding protein differs in the ...
"The LIM/homeodomain protein islet-1 modulates estrogen receptor functions". Mol. Endocrinol. 14 (10): 1627-48. doi:10.1210/mend ... 4-dienoyl-CoA reductase related protein using the M13 phage protein VI phage display technology". Comb Chem High Throughput ... Braastad CD, Leguia M, Hendrickson EA (2002). "Ku86 autoantigen related protein-1 transcription initiates from a CpG island and ...
His team then demonstrated the involvement of Engrailed-1/2 proteins in the development and survival of dopaminergic neurons by ... Cell internalization of the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain is receptor-independent. Archived 2008-04-25 at the ... or even whole proteins such as Hox5, can be internalized in a cell and therefore suggests the possible secretion of a given ... but also of different extracellular matrix proteins such as tenascin, glycoaminoglycans...) in these phenomena. As was then ...
... and an octapeptide and complete homeodomain (HD) encoded by exons 5 and 6. In addition, the PAX3 protein has a C-terminal ... Compared to the wild-type PAX3 protein, the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein more potently activates PAX3 target genes. In ARMS cells ... "Wild type PAX3 protein and the PAX3-FKHR fusion protein of alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma contain potent, structurally distinct ... PAX3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ...
"The binding of Ku antigen to homeodomain proteins promotes their phosphorylation by DNA-dependent protein kinase". J. Biol. ... "The binding of Ku antigen to homeodomain proteins promotes their phosphorylation by DNA-dependent protein kinase". J. Biol. ... Homeobox protein Hox-C4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXC4 gene. This gene belongs to the homeobox family of ... Kim EC, Edmonston CR, Wu X, Schaffer A, Casali P (2004). "The HoxC4 homeodomain protein mediates activation of the ...
1999). "Isolation and chromosomal assignment of human genes encoding cofactor of LIM homeodomain proteins, CLIM1 and CLIM2". J ... LIM domain-binding protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LDB2 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Retaux S, Rogard M, Bach I, Failli V, Besson MJ (Feb 1999). "Lhx9: a novel LIM-homeodomain gene expressed in the developing ... 1999). "RLIM inhibits functional activity of LIM homeodomain transcription factors via recruitment of the histone deacetylase ...
"The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor stabilizes novel plant homeodomain protein Jade-1". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (42): 39887-98. ... Filamin A, alpha (FLNA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FLNA gene. Actin-binding protein, or filamin, is a 280-kD ... The protein structure includes an actin binding N terminal domain, 24 internal repeats and 2 hinge regions. Filamin has been ... He X, Li Y, Schembri-King J, Jakes S, Hayashi J (August 2000). "Identification of actin binding protein, ABP-280, as a binding ...
Common examples include the bromodomain, the globin fold and the homeodomain fold. All-β proteins are a class of structural ... They are one of the common types of protein along with soluble globular proteins, fibrous proteins, and disordered proteins. ... They constitute one of the main types of protein (alongside globular, fibrous and membrane proteins). Coiled coil proteins form ... cysteine-rich proteins), metal ligands (metal-binding proteins), and or cofactors such as heme. Numerous protein structures are ...
Iroquois-class homeodomain protein IRX-5, also known as Iroquois homeobox protein 5, is a protein that in humans is encoded by ...
This protein seems to act as a stop signal for migrating neurons, controlling the positioning and orientation of neurons in ... Subpopulations of these neurons from the septum and pallial-subpallial border express the homeodomain transcription factor Dbx1 ... CR cells secrete the extracellular matrix protein reelin, which is critically involved in the control of radial neuronal ... and the cytoplasmic adapter protein disabled 1 (Dab1). In early cortical development in mice, mutations of Dab1, VLDLR, and ...
The result is the combination of two usually separate proteins into a new fusion protein. This protein can have a new function ... McWhirter JR, Neuteboom ST, Wancewicz EV, Monia BP, Downing JR, Murre C (September 1999). "Oncogenic homeodomain transcription ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ... January 2011). "The leukemogenic AF4-MLL fusion protein causes P-TEFb kinase activation and altered epigenetic signatures". ...
... which encodes a particular portion of the Hox proteins called the homeodomain. The homeodomain can then bind to other portions ... The neural crest cells that are found outside of a given neuromere will express the same proteins as the cells that are found ... Meanwhile, the overlying ectoderm secretes bone morphogenetic protein (BMP). This induces the roof plate to begin to secrete ... The genes that are being expressed fall into two categories, extracellular signaling proteins and intracellular transcription ...
Homeodomain Proteins * Nerve Tissue Proteins * Nuclear Proteins * Transcription Factors * SMARCA4 protein, human ... We concentrated on activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP), a prevalent autism gene. The unique availability of ...
The PHOX2A gene provides instructions for making a protein that is found in the nervous system. Learn about this gene and ... aristaless homeobox protein homolog. *ARIX. *arix homeodomain protein. *ARIX1 homeodomain protein. *CFEOM2 ... The PHOX2A gene provides instructions for making a protein that is found in the nervous system. This protein acts early in ... nonfunctional version of the PHOX2A protein. A lack of this protein prevents the normal development of several cranial nerves ...
2004) The LIM-homeodomain protein Lhx2 is required for complete development of mouse olfactory sensory neurons. Proc Natl Acad ... 2001) LIM-homeodomain gene Lhx2 regulates the formation of the cortical hem. Mech Dev 100:165-175, doi:10.1016/S0925-4773(00) ... 2007) Dual role for LIM-homeodomain gene Lhx2 in the formation of the lateral olfactory tract. J Neurosci 27:2290-2297, doi: ... The LIM-Homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 is an essential organizer of early eye development and is subsequently expressed ...
Thirdly, the homeodomain proteins are found to exhibit AA identities ranging from 41% to 67% over stretches of 10-27 AA in AFP ... Protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions of the nuclear oncoproteins are often mediated through helix-loop-helix and ... protein existing in monomeric, filamentous, and protein-complexed forms. Profilin, also a major intracellular protein, binds ... Examples of the homeodomain proteins would include Pou, antennepedia, crumbs, Wnt, Sonic Hedgehog, forkhead, and Pax (Manak, ...
This gene encodes a homeodomain and LIM-domain containing protein. The encoded protein is a transcription factor that acts as a ...
ZEB proteins are members of a large family of zinc finger proteins known as Zinc finger homeodomain, that was first identified ... The homeodomain protein TGIF has been identified as a Smad2-binding protein and a repressor of transcription. A TGFbeta- ... This motif is not confined to these homeodomain proteins, but is also present in the Smad2-interacting winged-helix proteins ... together with the expression patterns of these homeodomain proteins, suggest a proposal for how these proteins might function ...
This modification is recognized by the plant homeodomain (PHD) present at the C-terminus of the five ING proteins ... ... This modification is recognized by the plant homeodomain (PHD) present at the C-terminus of the five ING proteins. ING5 ... Inhibitor of growth protein 5. A, B. 107. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ING5. ... NMR analysis of the full-length protein reveals that the two PHD fingers of the dimer are chemically equivalent and independent ...
... is a peptide derived from the third helix of the Drosophila melanogaster Antennapedia homeodomain protein [63,98]. It is one of ... Ku70, a protein that plays an important role in DNA repair, was found to bind Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), a member of the ... In vivo protein transduction: delivery of a biologically active protein into the mouse. Science 1999, 285, 1569-1572. [Google ... In vivo protein transduction: intracellular delivery of biologically active proteins, compounds and DNA. Trends Pharmacol Sci ...
Reamon-Buettner SM, Borlak J. NKX2-5: an update on this hypermutable homeodomain protein and its role in human congenital heart ...
Briscoe, J., Pierani, A., Jessell, T.M., and Ericson, J. (2000). A Homeodomain Protein Code Specifies Progenitor Cell Identity ... Control of Interneuron Fate in the Developing Spinal Cord by the Progenitor Homeodomain Protein Dbx1. Neuron 29, 367-384. ... The lack of pigment in the tyrosinase CRISPR mutant was used to assess the efficacy of the Cas9 protein and also served as a ... A guide RNA-Cas9 injection cocktail contains 50∼100ng/μl of the pooled guide RNAs and 5.6 μM of Cas9 protein, with an injection ...
... these processes using the NF-κB transcription factor system and the family of stress-regulated homeodomain-interacting protein ... The analysis of the noncanonical IKKs and their adaptor proteins is of special relevance for the lab, as their overexpression ... We investigate how external signals lead to the activation of protein kinases, which then transmit their signals into the ...
A Prospero-related homeodomain protein is a novel co-regulator of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha that regulates the ... One or more labile proteins regulate the stability of chimeric mRNAs containing the 3-untranslated region of cholesterol- ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ... transfection assays with CYP7A1 promoter/luciferase chimaeras mutated at putative response elements and studied protein-DNA ...
Specification of hypothalamic neurons by dual regulation of the homeodomain protein Orthopedia ... The homeodomain transcription factor Orthopedia (Otp) is co-expressed with the two PAS domain factors Sim1 and Arnt2, the ... Neural protein Olig2 acts upstream of the transcriptional regulator Sim1 to specify diencephalic dopaminergic neurons ... Slit proteins bind Robo receptors and have an evolutionarily conserved role in repulsive axon guidance ...
In the lung, TTF-1 controls the expression of surfactant proteins that are essential for lung stability and lung host defence. ... is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for the morphogenesis and differentiation of the thyroid, lung and ... TTF-1 [thyroid transcription factor-1; also known as Nkx2.1, T/EBP (thyroid-specific-enhancer-binding protein) or TITF1] ... specificity protein) 1, Sp3, GATA-6 and HOXB3 (homeobox B3) transcription factors. There is limited information on the ...
Antibodies, ELISA kits, proteins, reagents. Order quickly and easily at ... Protein level used designations for HOXA1. *HOX A1 homeodomain protein. *Hox 1.6-like protein ... The encoded protein may be involved in the placement of hindbrain segments in the proper location along the anterior-posterior ... Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A ...
The experimental data is in the form of mass spectrometry, yeast two-hybrid, protein structure prediction, light microscopy and ... The YRC PDR provides for the searching of millions of protein descriptions from many databases to find proteins and public ... experimental data describing those proteins produced by the YRC. ... Homeodomain-like View. Download. 0.605. 0.688. 3-5- ... RS1_CHLMU - 30S ribosomal protein S1 OS=Chlamydia muridarum GN=rpsA PE=1 SV=2. RS1_CHLMU - 30S ribosomal protein S1 OS= ...
We applied our approach on Thaumatin like protein (TLP) as example. TLP is of group 5 of pathogenesis related proteins which ... In contrast, Osmotin like proteins (OLPs) are basic form of TLPs with proved role only in abiotic stresses. We demonstrated the ... principle component analysis showed that promoter regulatory elements of TLPs and OLPs are more variable than protein ... coexpressed gene as well as protein domain and prosite analysis. ... Homeodomain protein. CNAC. Calmodulin binding NAC protein. NCS1 ...
Domain Protein, Homeo Homeo Domain Protein Homeo Domain Proteins Homeobox Protein Homeobox Proteins Homeodomain Protein ... Protein, Homeodomain Protein, Homeotic Proteins, Homeo Domain Proteins, Homeobox Proteins, Homeodomain Proteins, Homeotic ... Domain Protein, Homeo. Homeo Domain Protein. Homeo Domain Proteins. Homeobox Protein. Homeobox Proteins. Homeodomain Protein. ... Homeotic Proteins. Protein, Homeo Domain. Protein, Homeobox. Protein, Homeodomain. Protein, Homeotic. Proteins, Homeo Domain. ...
Dive into the research topics of High mobility group I/Y protein functions as a specific cofactor for Oct-2A: Mapping of ... High mobility group I/Y protein functions as a specific cofactor for Oct-2A: Mapping of interaction domains. ...
Homeodomain Proteins (1) * Calcineurin (1) * Myocytes, Cardiac (1) * Cell Proliferation (1) * Myeloid Ecotropic Viral ...
A TALE-type homeodomain protein and transcription factor that functions as a regulator of PAX6 PROTEIN expression and as an ... Myeloid Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 1 Protein*Myeloid Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 1 Protein ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Myeloid Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 1 Protein" by people ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Myeloid Ecotropic Viral Integration Site 1 Protein" by people in Profiles ...
Jo A, Li S, Shin JW, Zhao X, Cho Y. Structure Basis for Shaping the Nse4 Protein by the Nse1 and Nse3 Dimer within the Smc5/6 ... a class IV homeodomain transcription factor, in rice and Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell 23 (9), 3392-3411. ... Wu R, Li S, He S, Waßmann F, Yu C, Qin G, Schreiber L, Qu LJ, Gu H (2011). CFL1, a WW domain protein, regulates cuticle ... Yan J, Li S, Kim YJ, Zeng Q, Radziejwoski A, Wang L, Nomura Y, Nakagami H, Somers DE (2021). TOC1 clock protein phosphorylation ...
... and we demonstrate here that homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 4 (HIPK4) is essential for spermiogenesis and male ... and 16 embryos were examined for VEGF protein secretion.Embryonic expression of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by ... and further information regarding the alternatively spliced mRNAs resulting in freely secreted proteins or proteins bound to ... CD9 mRNA and protein expression levels in mouse slow frozen-rapid thawed oocytes were compared with those in fresh oocytes by ...
ATHB52 (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX PROTEIN 52). Encodes a homeodomain leucine zipper class I (HD-Zip I) protein.. O.I.. C.G. ... protein kinase family protein. F:protein serine/threonine kinase activity, protein kinase activity, kinase activity, ATP ... palmitoyl protein thioesterase family protein. F:palmitoyl-(protein) hydrolase activity;P:protein modification process;C: ... ATNAC3 (ARABIDOPSIS NAC DOMAIN CONTAINING PROTEIN 3). Encodes a protein with transcription factor activity. Note: this protein ...
A homeodomain-containing nuclear transcription protein of the Nkx2 gene family. The commercially available monoclonal antibody ... TTF-1 protein expression in pleural malignant mesotheliomas and adenocarcinomas of the lung. Cancer letters 1998;124:73-78. ... Utility of surfactant protein B precursor and thyroid transcription factor 1 in differentiating adenocarcinoma of the lung from ...
Transcription Factor AREB6 / transcription factor 8 /zinc finger homeodomain enhancer-binding protein inhibits interleukin-2 ( ... What protein functions are associated with "ZEB1"?. This protein has been associated with "Protein Functions". Please view the ... What other proteins interact with "ZEB1"?. This protein has been reported to interact with "Protein Interactions". Please view ... What is the molecular weight of the protein?. The molecular weight reported by Uniprot for this item is "124kDa".. Please note ...
Cell cycle-regulated phosphorylation of the human SIX1 homeodomain protein. J Biol Chem. 2000 Jul 21; 275(29):22245-54.View ... Murine protein kinase CK2: gene and oncogene. Mol Cell Biochem. 1999 Jan; 191(1-2):65-74.View Related Profiles.. Seldin, David ... Protein kinase CK2: signaling and tumorigenesis in the mammary gland. Mol Cell Biochem. 2001 Nov; 227(1-2):153-65.View Related ... Protein kinase CK2 in mammary gland tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2001 May 31; 20(25):3247-57.View Related Profiles.. Seldin, David ...
HOX proteins are composed of DNA binding homeodomain, and large regions of unstructured, or intrinsically disordered, protein ... Although mutation and/or mis-expression of HOX proteins during development can be lethal, changes in HOX proteins that do not ... The power of these proteins is striking: mis-expressing a HOX protein causes homeotic transformation of one body part into ... During development, HOX proteins interpret their cellular context through protein interactions, alternative splicing, and post- ...
repo encodes a glial-specific homeo domain protein required in the Drosophila nervous system. Xiong, W. C., Okano, H., Patel, N ... Role of protein kinase C-mediated pathway in the pathogenesis of coronary artery spasm in a swine model. Ito, A., Shimokawa, H. ... RNA splicing regulates the activity of a SH2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase. Mei, L., Doherty, C. A. & Huganir ... Regulation of extragonadal insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 by testosterone in oophorectomized women. Azziz, R., ...
  • This study aimed to determine the role of the interleukin-4 (IL-4)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) signaling pathway and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) in aberrant IgA1 O-glycosylation production, and identify potential therapeutic targets in IgAN. (
  • Protein kinase CK2 inhibition suppresses neointima formation via a proline-rich homeodomain-dependent mechanism. (
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in transcription regulation, apoptosis and steroidogenic gene expression. (
  • Serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in transcription regulation, p53/TP53-mediated cellular apoptosis and regulation of the cell cycle. (
  • Here, we show that the CINCINNATA-like TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PROLIFERATING CELL FACTORS (CIN-TCP) transcription factors activate the class II KNOTTED1-LIKE ( KNOX-II ) genes and the CIN-TCP and KNOX-II proteins together redundantly suppress leaflet initiation in simple leaves. (
  • Furthermore, we demonstrated that the reduction of KMT2D protein level in patients' lymphoblastoid and skin fibroblast cell lines carrying KMT2D-truncating mutations affects the expression levels of known KMT2D target genes. (
  • 6. Target genes of homeodomain proteins. (
  • NRL interacts with homeodomain protein CRX and numerous other regulatory factors to control expression of most rod-expressed genes. (
  • The characterization of genes encoding the nodal-related factor, Squint, and homeodomain protein, Bozozok, both of which are expressed in the YSL, suggested that the YSL has a role in mesendoderm induction. (
  • Most animal homeotic genes encode transcription factor proteins that contain a region called the homeodomain and are called Hox genes . (
  • the proteins encoded by early genes regulate the expression of later genes. (
  • Proteins encoded by homeobox genes ( GENES, HOMEOBOX ) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. (
  • In this study, we identified plant homeodomain finger-containing protein 20 (PHF20) as a crucial epigenetic regulator for sustaining the stem cell-like phenotype of GBM. (
  • Plant homeodomain-finger containing protein 20 (PHF20) has been previously identified as a novel antigen in glioma patients and named as glioma-expressed antigen 2 (GLEA2) ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Our work investigated the DNA binding specificity of the HPV E2 proteins and their effects on gene regulation and cell survival. (
  • Defining how homeodomain proteins achieve DNA binding specificity has therefore been a long-standing goal . (
  • 17. Cofactor-interaction motifs and the cooption of a homeotic Hox protein into the segmentation pathway of Drosophila melanogaster. (
  • 7. The role of the homeodomain protein Bozozok in zebrafish axis formation. (
  • AFP AA sequences are further presented as peptide identification sites for growth factors, receptors, cytoskeletal proteins, and chemokines. (
  • Approximately one third of the paired-like homeodomain proteins cooperatively bind palindromic sequences spaced 3 bp apart, whereas other homeodomain proteins cooperatively bind sites with distinct orientation and spacing requirements. (
  • In addition, the binding site spacing requirements of select homeodomain proteins provide a mechanism by which seemingly similar AT-rich DNA sequences can preferentially recruit specific homeodomain factors. (
  • Members of the E2 class of DNA binding proteins regulate human papillomavirus (HPV) gene expression and are required for HPV replication. (
  • Study of these proteins has provided several insights into how transcription factors find their binding sites and regulate gene expression. (
  • This protein acts early in development to help promote the formation of nerve cells (neurons) and regulate the process by which the neurons mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation). (
  • We investigate how external signals lead to the activation of protein kinases, which then transmit their signals into the nucleus where they regulate transcription factors and epigenetic events. (
  • Genetic studies have demonstrated that homeodomain proteins regulate many developmental processes. (
  • A discussion follows in which peptide epitopes, extracellular matrix proteins, serine proteases, extracellular matrix, and cellular adhesion AA identity sites on AFP are considered. (
  • How do distinct transcriptional regulatory proteins coordinate their job with extrinsic factors and the microenvironment? (
  • How do post-transcriptional events modulate the expression of functional macromolecules, including proteins and non-coding RNAs? (
  • May act as a transcriptional corepressor for NK homeodomain transcription factors. (
  • Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development ( GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL ). (
  • Emphasis is further placed upon homeodomain and apoptosis AA sequence identities given that AFP serves as a fetal, phase-specific protein throughout embryogenesis, histogenesis, and organogenesis. (
  • Inhibits cell growth and promotes apoptosis through the activation of p53/TP53 both at the transcription level and at the protein level (by phosphorylation and indirect acetylation). (
  • Addition or deletion of nucleotides changes the sequence of amino acids in the PHOX2B protein. (
  • The atlas further shows AFP as a protein consisting of multiple peptide-cassettes consisting of amino acid (AA) sequence stretches matched to peptide segments on prohormones and biological response modifier proteins. (
  • The AFP molecule is also viewed as a carrier/transport protein based on AA sequence comparison of various proteins that bind hydrophobic ligands and heavy metals similar to AFP binding of such components. (
  • Classes for this protein according to by Drug Target Ontology (DTO). (
  • Description of the protein which includes the UniProt Function and the NCBI Gene Summary. (
  • The multiple molecular variant forms of AFP are discussed in relation to published reports of AFP binding proteins and cell surface receptors. (
  • Upon ligand binding, the receptors of the TGFbeta family phosphorylate Smad proteins, which then move into the nucleus where they activate transcription. (
  • To assess this, we performed a proof-of-principle study on 14 KMT2D and two KDM6A nonsense mutations using specific compounds that mediate translational readthrough and thereby stimulate the re-expression of full-length functional proteins. (
  • Structural and functional studies of the MutS mismatch repair protein. (
  • non-olfactory GPCRs, ion channels, and protein kinases. (
  • We study these processes using the NF-κB transcription factor system and the family of stress-regulated homeodomain-interacting protein kinases (HIPKs) as model systems. (
  • Discovery of New Intronic Small Nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA) Associated with the Ribosomal Protein SA Gene in Fruit Fly, Chicken and Human. (
  • Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGFbeta) is up-regulated in many tumours and this protein can induce EMT and increase cell migration. (
  • The protein produced from the PHOX2B gene contains two areas where a protein building block (amino acid) called alanine is repeated multiple times. (
  • In some people with neuroblastoma, mutations in the PHOX2B gene change a single protein building block (amino acid) in the PHOX2B protein. (
  • Goosecoid Protein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • The PHOX2B protein helps support the formation of nerve cells (neurons) and regulates the process by which the neurons mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation). (
  • The focus of my research is on transcription factors and the roles that these proteins play in tumourigenesis. (
  • Homeodomain proteins constitute one of the largest families of metazoan transcription factors . (
  • Importantly, we found that 15 of 88 homeodomain factors form cooperative homodimer complexes on DNA sites with precise spacing requirements. (
  • Acts as a corepressor of several transcription factors, including SMAD1 and POU4F1/Brn3a and probably NK homeodomain transcription factors. (
  • Specific areas of expertise include RNA sequencing and ChIP sequencing and related bioinformatics, protein-DNA interactions, cell migration and cell invasion assays, and the analysis of signal transduction pathways. (
  • The E2 proteins are an excellent model system in which to study DNA-protein interactions. (
  • Our previous work looked at the human papillomavirus E2 proteins. (
  • Long, J. A., Moan, E. I., Medford, J. I. & Barton, M. K. A member of the KNOTTED class of homeodomain proteins encoded by the STM gene of Arabidopsis . (
  • We also present data that indicate the stability of existing proteins in the YSL is unaffected by RNase injection. (
  • Prediction of cooperative homeodomain DNA binding sites from high-throughput-SELEX data. (
  • Here, we developed a novel computational approach to predict cooperative dimeric binding of homeodomain proteins using High-Throughput (HT) SELEX data. (
  • SCOPe: Structural Classification of Proteins - extended. (
  • This page lists protein targets that have been identified by the IDG program for additional research. (
  • These models are being used to systematically elucidate proteins required for cutaneous carcinogenesis and to test their potential role as therapeutic targets. (
  • Although the PHOX2A protein plays an important role in autonomic nervous system development, PHOX2A mutations do not seem to affect the function of this part of the nervous system. (
  • The PHOX2A protein is also involved in the formation of certain nerves in the head and face (cranial nerves). (
  • A lack of this protein prevents the normal development of several cranial nerves and the extraocular muscles they control. (
  • Las proteínas de homeodominios participan en el control de la expresión génica durante la morfogénesis y el desarrollo (REGULACIÓN DE LA EXPRESIÓN GÉNICA, DESARROLLO). (
  • Cell identity and sexual development in Cryptococcus neoformans are controlled by the mating-type-specific homeodomain protein Sxi1alpha. (
  • From these studies, it is clear that the protein plays a critical role in the development of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary body functions such as breathing, blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion. (
  • The PHOX2A gene provides instructions for making a protein that is found in the nervous system. (
  • We found that a number of KMT2D truncating mutations result in mRNA degradation through the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, contributing to protein haploinsufficiency. (
  • Our current focus is the Proline Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hhex), an oligomeric transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation and cell migration in multiple contexts. (
  • 1) During Epithelial-Mesenchymal transition (EMT) epithelial cells begin to express different cell adhesion proteins and they start to become more migratory. (
  • The analysis of the noncanonical IKKs and their adaptor proteins is of special relevance for the lab, as their overexpression in pathophysiological conditions triggers oncogenic transformation of breast cancer cells and mediates chemoresistance of non-small cell lung cancer and HER2+ breast cancer cells. (
  • Most of researchers' knowledge about the PHOX2A protein comes from studies in animals. (
  • During neuron development, the protein is active in the neural crest, which is a group of cells in the early embryo that give rise to many tissues and organs. (
  • The LIM-Homeodomain transcription factor Lhx2 is an essential organizer of early eye development and is subsequently expressed in retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). (
  • It is unclear how brief protein-DNA contacts can mediate efficient transcription from enhancers containing low-affinity binding sites. (
  • At the scale of a single enhancer over a few hundred base pairs long, multiple low-affinity binding sites for the same transcription factor in close proximity could increase the frequency of binding events by trapping the protein. (