Caregivers: Persons who provide care to those who need supervision or assistance in illness or disability. They may provide the care in the home, in a hospital, or in an institution. Although caregivers include trained medical, nursing, and other health personnel, the concept also refers to parents, spouses, or other family members, friends, members of the clergy, teachers, social workers, fellow patients.Nursing Homes: Facilities which provide nursing supervision and limited medical care to persons who do not require hospitalization.Home Care Services: Community health and NURSING SERVICES providing coordinated multiple services to the patient at the patient's homes. These home-care services are provided by a visiting nurse, home health agencies, HOSPITALS, or organized community groups using professional staff for care delivery. It differs from HOME NURSING which is provided by non-professionals.Homes for the Aged: Geriatric long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Home Care Agencies: Public or private organizations that provide, either directly or through arrangements with other organizations, home health services in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.Home Nursing: Nursing care given to an individual in the home. The care may be provided by a family member or a friend. Home nursing as care by a non-professional is differentiated from HOME CARE SERVICES provided by professionals: visiting nurse, home health agencies, hospital, or other organized community group.Accidents, HomeUnited StatesHealth Systems Agencies: Health planning and resources development agencies which function in each health service area of the United States (PL 93-641).Home Care Services, Hospital-Based: Hospital-sponsored provision of health services, such as nursing, therapy, and health-related homemaker or social services, in the patient's home. (Hospital Administration Terminology, 2d ed)United States Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE established in 1990 to "provide indexing, abstracting, translating, publishing, and other services leading to a more effective and timely dissemination of information on research, demonstration projects, and evaluations with respect to health care to public and private entities and individuals engaged in the improvement of health care delivery..." It supersedes the National Center for Health Services Research. The United States Agency for Health Care Policy and Research was renamed Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) under the Healthcare Research and Quality Act of 1999.Hemodialysis, Home: Long-term maintenance hemodialysis in the home.Dementia: An acquired organic mental disorder with loss of intellectual abilities of sufficient severity to interfere with social or occupational functioning. The dysfunction is multifaceted and involves memory, behavior, personality, judgment, attention, spatial relations, language, abstract thought, and other executive functions. The intellectual decline is usually progressive, and initially spares the level of consciousness.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Adaptation, Psychological: A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)Hospices: Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.International Agencies: International organizations which provide health-related or other cooperative services.Home Health Aides: Persons who assist ill, elderly, or disabled persons in the home, carrying out personal care and housekeeping tasks. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms. 2d ed, p202)House Calls: Visits to the patient's home by professional personnel for the purpose of diagnosis and/or treatment.Respite Care: Patient care provided in the home or institution intermittently in order to provide temporary relief to the family home care giver.Hospice Care: Specialized health care, supportive in nature, provided to a dying person. A holistic approach is often taken, providing patients and their families with legal, financial, emotional, or spiritual counseling in addition to meeting patients' immediate physical needs. Care may be provided in the home, in the hospital, in specialized facilities (HOSPICES), or in specially designated areas of long-term care facilities. The concept also includes bereavement care for the family. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Group Homes: Housing for groups of patients, children, or others who need or desire emotional or physical support. They are usually established as planned, single housekeeping units in residential dwellings that provide care and supervision for small groups of residents, who, although unrelated, live together as a family.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Long-Term Care: Care over an extended period, usually for a chronic condition or disability, requiring periodic, intermittent, or continuous care.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Institutionalization: The caring for individuals in institutions and their adaptation to routines characteristic of the institutional environment, and/or their loss of adaptation to life outside the institution.State Health Planning and Development Agencies: Agencies established under PL93-641 to coordinate, conduct, and implement state health planning activities. Two primary responsibilities are the preparation of an annual State Health Plan and giving assistance to the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Foster Home Care: Families who care for neglected children or patients unable to care for themselves.Spouses: Married persons, i.e., husbands and wives, or partners. Domestic partners, or spousal equivalents, are two adults who have chosen to share their lives in an intimate and committed relationship, reside together, and share a mutual obligation of support for the basic necessities of life.Terminal Care: Medical and nursing care of patients in the terminal stage of an illness.Nursing Methodology Research: Research carried out by nurses concerning techniques and methods to implement projects and to document information, including methods of interviewing patients, collecting data, and forming inferences. The concept includes exploration of methodological issues such as human subjectivity and human experience.Home Infusion Therapy: Use of any infusion therapy on an ambulatory, outpatient, or other non-institutionalized basis.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Parenteral Nutrition, Home: The at-home administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered via a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Geriatric Nursing: Nursing care of the aged patient given in the home, the hospital, or special institutions such as nursing homes, psychiatric institutions, etc.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Health Services for the Aged: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.Voluntary Health Agencies: Non-profit organizations concerned with various aspects of health, e.g., education, promotion, treatment, services, etc.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Residential Facilities: Long-term care facilities which provide supervision and assistance in activities of daily living with medical and nursing services when required.Family Relations: Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Community Health Nursing: General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population or community. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.Needs Assessment: Systematic identification of a population's needs or the assessment of individuals to determine the proper level of services needed.Professional-Family Relations: The interactions between the professional person and the family.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Terminally Ill: Persons with an incurable or irreversible illness at the end stage that will result in death within a short time. (From O'Leary et al., Lexikon: Dictionary of Health Care Terms, Organizations, and Acronyms for the Era of Reform, 1994, p780)Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Homebound Persons: Those unable to leave home without exceptional effort and support; patients (in this condition) who are provided with or are eligible for home health services, including medical treatment and personal care. Persons are considered homebound even if they may be infrequently and briefly absent from home if these absences do not indicate an ability to receive health care in a professional's office or health care facility. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p309)Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Child Care: Care of CHILDREN in the home or in an institution.Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Frail Elderly: Older adults or aged individuals who are lacking in general strength and are unusually susceptible to disease or to other infirmity.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Self Care: Performance of activities or tasks traditionally performed by professional health care providers. The concept includes care of oneself or one's family and friends.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Patient Discharge: The administrative process of discharging the patient, alive or dead, from hospitals or other health facilities.Videoconferencing: Communications via an interactive conference between two or more participants at different sites, using computer networks (COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS) or other telecommunication links to transmit audio, video, and data.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Parent-Child Relations: The interactions between parent and child.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Disabled Persons: Persons with physical or mental disabilities that affect or limit their activities of daily living and that may require special accommodations.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Social Work: The use of community resources, individual case work, or group work to promote the adaptive capacities of individuals in relation to their social and economic environments. It includes social service agencies.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Personal Satisfaction: The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.Equipment Safety: Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.Dependency (Psychology): The tendency of an individual or individuals to rely on others for advice, guidance, or support.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Family Nursing: The provision of care involving the nursing process, to families and family members in health and illness situations. From Lippincott Manual of Nursing Practice. 6th ed.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Home Health Nursing: A nursing specialty in which skilled nursing care is provided to patients in their homes by registered or licensed practical NURSES. Home health nursing differs from HOME NURSING in that home health nurses are licensed professionals, while home nursing involves non-professional caregivers.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rehabilitation Nursing: A nursing specialty involved in the diagnosis and treatment of human responses of individuals and groups to actual or potential health problems with the characteristics of altered functional ability and altered life-style.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Interpersonal Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Grief: Normal, appropriate sorrowful response to an immediate cause. It is self-limiting and gradually subsides within a reasonable time.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Patients: Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Bereavement: Refers to the whole process of grieving and mourning and is associated with a deep sense of loss and sadness.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Moving and Lifting Patients: Moving or repositioning patients within their beds, from bed to bed, bed to chair, or otherwise from one posture or surface to another.New YorkProblem Solving: A learning situation involving more than one alternative from which a selection is made in order to attain a specific goal.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Wounds and Injuries: Damage inflicted on the body as the direct or indirect result of an external force, with or without disruption of structural continuity.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Tobacco Smoke Pollution: Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Hospitals, State: Hospitals controlled by agencies and departments of the state government.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.CaliforniaPublic Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Safety: Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Nursing Assessment: Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.ChicagoSeverity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Safety Management: The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Telephone: An instrument for reproducing sounds especially articulate speech at a distance. (Webster, 3rd ed)Case Management: A traditional term for all the activities which a physician or other health care professional normally performs to insure the coordination of the medical services required by a patient. It also, when used in connection with managed care, covers all the activities of evaluating the patient, planning treatment, referral, and follow-up so that care is continuous and comprehensive and payment for the care is obtained. (From Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Professional-Patient Relations: Interactions between health personnel and patients.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Insurance, Long-Term Care: Health insurance to provide full or partial coverage for long-term home care services or for long-term nursing care provided in a residential facility such as a nursing home.Great BritainPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Self-Help Devices: Devices, not affixed to the body, designed to help persons having musculoskeletal or neuromuscular disabilities to perform activities involving movement.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Disaster Planning: Procedures outlined for the care of casualties and the maintenance of services in disasters.Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Housekeeping: The care and management of property.Elder Abuse: Emotional, nutritional, financial, or physical maltreatment, exploitation, or abandonment of the older person generally by family members or by institutional personnel.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)Community-Institutional Relations: The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Housing for the Elderly: Housing arrangements for the elderly or aged, intended to foster independent living. The housing may take the form of group homes or small apartments. It is available to the economically self-supporting but the concept includes housing for the elderly with some physical limitations. The concept should be differentiated from HOMES FOR THE AGED which is restricted to long-term geriatric facilities providing supervised medical and nursing services.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Existentialism: Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Florida

*Home care

This 2003 case, Evelyn Coke v. Long Island Care at Home, Ltd. and Maryann Osborne, argued that agency-employed home caregivers ... Home care (also referred to as domiciliary care, social care, or in-home care) is supportive care provided in the home. Care ... Evelyn Coke, a home care worker employed by a home care agency that was not paying her overtime, sued the agency in 2003, ... In-home medical care is often and more accurately referred to as home health care or formal care. Often, the term home health ...

*Centre For Learning Resources

Support to Chhattisgarh Government Agencies for Forthcoming Project in Caregiver Education for Home-based Holistic Child Care ... It also works in collaboration with government agencies and NGOs engaged in the same field. CLR was founded in 1984 in Pune, ... The program aims at promoting holistic based Child-care. Financially supported by the UNICEF and EU, its a unified effort by ... It works with the goal of improving quality, rather than quantity, of early childhood Care and development, early childhood ...

*Residential care

... with additional support from home care agencies. However, if home-based care is not available or not appropriate for the ... dementia or who are frail aged are often cared for at home by paid or voluntary caregivers, such as family and friends, ... Nursing homes, also known as rest homes or skilled nursing facilities, are intended for people who need ongoing medical care as ... Children, including children with special needs, may be cared for in a licensed foster care home. Special training or special ...

*Alzheimer's Foundation of America

... home healthcare agencies, long-term care residences, research facilities, and other dementia-related groups. Experts believe[ ... AFA Care Quarterly, a free quarterly magazine for caregivers of people with Alzheimer's disease or related illnesses A bi- ... and their caregivers and families. Member organizations include grassroots Alzheimer's agencies, senior centers, adult daycare ... monthly educational teleconferences with guest experts for family and professional caregivers Dementia Care Professionals of ...

*Phoenix Sinclair

The agency considered Steve Sinclair to be the "primary caregiver" of record for Phoenix. However, during this period she spent ... most of her time at the home of Kim Edwards, a family friend. The agency's file on Phoenix was closed in early 2002, but ... Phoenix was returned to her parents in September, with conditions including that they receive training on how to care for ... Another CFS file was opened in May 2005 after someone claiming to be a relative called the agency with concerns of possible ...

*Home health care software

Agency software is used by home health care providers for office use and is a subset of medical practice management software ... EVV monitors locations of caregivers, and is mandated by certain states, including Texas and Illinois. Other states do not ... Home health care software sometimes referred to as home care software or home health software falls under the broad category of ... The data is used to establish a measurement of patient home health care options. Home health care software allows health care ...

*Foster care in the United States

... as it receives for out-of-home placements or foster care services. In other words, the Agency benefits, financially, from ... group home, or private home of a state certified caregiver referred to as a "foster parent". The placement of the child is ... in group homes, 5% on trial home visits (where the child returns home while under state supervision), 4% in preadoptive homes, ... Children can be removed from their homes and placed into the foster care system for a variety of reasons, but, in California, ...

*Foster care

Children may be placed into foster care for a variety of reasons; including, removal from the home by a governmental agency ... group home, or private home of a state-certified caregiver, referred to as a "foster parent". The placement of the child is ... Family-based foster care is generally preferred to other forms of out of home care. Foster care is intended to be a short term ... The system is still the main structure for "out-of-home care." The system took care of both local and foreign children. "The ...

*Elder law (United States)

... nursing homes and in-home care; powers of attorney; physicians' or medical care directives, declarations and powers of attorney ... Consumer Protection Agency, political watch-dog groups, health care providers, researchers, funeral planners, grief counselors ... The OAA of 2000 was amended on November 13, 2000, to include the National Family Caregiver Support Program, which was intended ... Elder law developed as a specialty because as lifespans increased there was an increased need for medical care, care giving, ...

*Temasek Cares

Under the programme, a network of trained community caregivers visit the elderly at home to monitor their health and provide ... Temasek Cares - CAN (Caring Assistance from Neighbours): Temasek Cares partnered the Agency for Integrated Care (AIC) to set up ... "Agency for Integrated Care". "Temasek Cares AIC" (PDF). "Temasek Cares 2012/2013" (PDF). "Temasek Cares 2012/2013" (PDF). " ... Temasek Cares - [email protected]: Temasek Cares partnered with the Agency for Integrated Care (AIC) to launch [email protected] ...

*United States Army's Family and MWR Programs

Depending on unique circumstances, the care can be provided at either the home of the care user or the home of care provider. ... The Non-Appropriated Fund Instrumentality Program (NAFI), is operated by the Army for Department of Defense agencies and MWR ... As a specific example, EFMP provides temporary rest periods for family members who serve as caregivers to persons with ... Home to the Edelweiss Lodge and Resort. On 25 October 1975 a traditional Hawaiian blessing complete with royal procession ...

*Kinship care

This type of kinship is when a child was placed in the home or a relative and the child welfare agency is involved. Examples ... Caregivers may be hesitant to pursue legal custody of children in their care if they want to maintain relationships with the ... The fourth type of Kinship Care is Formal Kinship Care. In this type of kinship care, "the child is placed in the legal custody ... There are four different types of Kinship Care, Informal Kinship Care, Temporary Guardianship, Voluntary Kinship Care and ...

*Language deprivation

... often she was taken care of by inmates. The caregiver at the foster home used the same method to talk to Anna by which a mother ... Genie was discovered in 1971 in the family home, where she was recognized as highly abnormal. A social welfare agency took her ... Upon leaving she was still very unsocial, because there was no predetermined caregiver in the county home, which consisted of ... She lived at the county home for 9 months until she was moved to a foster home. ...

*Administration on Aging

The agency also funds $539 million in grants to programs to help seniors stay in their homes through services (such as ... Some of these grants are for Cash & Counseling programs that provide Medicaid participants a monthly budget for home care and ... and through help given to caregivers. ... The Administration on Aging (AoA) is an agency of the United ... p.22 Self-Directed Budget Enhances Access to Home Health and Other Needed Services, Resulting in Fewer Unmet Needs, Better ...

*Guided Care

... care, reduced family caregivers' strain, and improved physicians' satisfaction with chronic care Guided Care also appeared to ... The end result is the establishment of a "patient-centered medical home" for high-risk patients with complex health care needs ... and coordinates the efforts of health care professionals, hospitals and community agencies to avoid duplication and conflicting ... Patients who received Guided Care rated their quality of care significantly more highly than patients who received usual care, ...

*Elderly care

This senior care guide compares the cost of care and services offered by in home care agencies, assisted living communities, ... "Family Care Homes,"[permanent dead link] Piedmont Triad Council of Governments FCA: Family Caregiver Alliance Archived 2014-02- ... long term care, nursing homes (often referred to as residential care), hospice care, and home care. Because of the wide variety ... nursing homes, and continuing care retirement communities (CCRCs). A family care home is a residential home with support and ...

*Child care

... or in home care. It refers to the care provided to a group of children in the home of a caregiver. State laws differ regarding ... The most now common way to find a nanny is via the childcare website/care website or a nanny agency. Nanny agencies will ... care-penalty. A care-penalty is the price one pays for doing care work for a family member. Care giving demands a lot out of an ... Nanny and au pair services provide certified caregivers and the cost of in-home care is the highest of childcare options per ...

*Health Care System of Elderly in Germany

With the emergence of care insurance an emergence of private home-care agencies and new residential arrangements for elderly ... This insurance either provides care services or cash benefits to pay for a private caregiver, such as a family member. This ... "Elderly care in the family in Germany". University of Jena, 2012 Wegner, Eldon L. "Restructuring care for the elderly in ... "Why is less money spent on health care for the elderly than for the rest of the population? Health care rationing in German ...

*Restricted foster home

... regular foster homes in the sense that their caregiver approval is based specifically on the child they are looking to care for ... Child Protection Agencies will sometimes place a child in a restricted foster home as way of maintaining consistency in the ... Restricted foster homes are one of the many parts of foster care in British Columbia. These homes are considered Ministry of ... Restricted foster homes are unlike regular foster homes in the sense that the caregivers probably had a relationship with the ...

*Incarceration of women in the United States

Those who take care of the children with an incarcerated mother where the mother is the primary caregiver, the financial costs ... group home or social service agency. Children often feel stigma for having a parent in prison where they may feel the need to ... Prenatal care in prisons is erratic. The Federal Bureau of Prisons, the National Commission on Correctional Health Care, the ... group homes or social service agencies. The Children often feel stigma for having a parent in prison where they may feel the ...

*Caregiver stress

"Care for Caregivers". Health Net. Retrieved 2013-02-27. [dead link] "Caring for Yourself". Assurance Home Care. May 11, 2016. ... "Caregiver Stress Syndrome: Let's Start Talking About it". Midnight Sun Homecare Inc. Retrieved 2013-03-07. Esterling, B. A.; ... as well as requiring health insurance agencies to pay for appropriate treatment. Some ways to improve this syndrome have been ... Over 13 million caregivers are also caring for their own children as well. Caregiver syndrome is acute when caring for an ...

*Advance healthcare directive

... nursing homes and home health agencies) to give patients information about their rights to make advance directives under state ... "Living Wills, Health Care Proxies, & Advance Health Care Directives". ABA. American Bar Association. Retrieved 8 May 2017. "Do ... A living will usually provides specific directives about the course of treatment healthcare providers and caregivers are to ... "The Way Forward- moving towards an integrated palliative approach to care: survey of GP/FPs and nurses in primary care" (PDF). ...

*Mantelzorg

A care home is a For the construction or installation of a home for a caregiver for someone in the grounds of a house who needs ... to a person who provides care provide care compliment. The condition is that the CIZ or youth care agency is registered for at ... Mantelzorg means Family care in Dutch. It describes the system of informal social care in the Netherlands. Informal care is the ... a caregiver that provides for more people can get the benefit per annum once. If the caregiver and the cared for relatives in ...

*Nursing home care in the United States

... home health caregivers or home caregivers, "support aides", peer companions, and social day care in senior centers. They are ... home care agencies, medication management counselors, physical therapists, county aging workers, and rehabilitation counselors ... Long-term care insurance is another potential option to help pay for nursing home care. Long-term care insurance was designed ... A large majority of board and care homes are designed to room less than 6 people.[citation needed] Board and care homes are ...

*Respite care

... the caregiver has already identified a provider or facility to call in case there is an emergency. Many homecare agencies, ... In-home care is popular for obvious reasons. The temporary caregiver comes to the regular care receiver's home, and gets to ... Caregiver burden Caregiver stress Respite care in the United States "Respite care". healthdirect. Retrieved 2016-05-18. Carer ... Respite care is planned or emergency temporary care provided to caregivers of a child or adult. Respite programs provide ...
Built upon the findings of RESOURCES FOR ENHANCING ALZHEIMERS CAREGIVER HEALTH, 1996-2001, BASELINE AND FOLLOW-UP DATA [ICPSR 3678], REACH II designed and tested a single multi-component intervention among family caregivers of persons with Alzheimers disease or related disorders. The overall objectives were (1) to identify and reduce modifiable risk factors among diverse family caregivers of patients with Alzheimers Disease or a related disorder, (2) to enhance the quality of care provided to the care recipients, and (3) to enhance the well-being of the caregivers. REACH II is the first project to simultaneously test a comprehensive caregiver intervention in three distinct racial/ethnic groups: Hispanic/Latino, ...
Built upon the findings of RESOURCES FOR ENHANCING ALZHEIMERS CAREGIVER HEALTH, 1996-2001, BASELINE AND FOLLOW-UP DATA [ICPSR 3678], REACH II designed and tested a single multi-component intervention among family caregivers of persons with Alzheimers disease or related disorders. The overall objectives were (1) to identify and reduce modifiable risk factors among diverse family caregivers of patients with Alzheimers Disease or a related disorder, (2) to enhance the quality of care provided to the care recipients, and (3) to enhance the well-being of the caregivers. REACH II is the first project to simultaneously test a comprehensive caregiver intervention in three distinct racial/ethnic groups: Hispanic/Latino, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Health and frailty among older spousal caregivers:. T2 - an observational cohort study in Belgium.. AU - Potier, Florence. AU - Degryse, Jean-Marie. AU - Bihin, BenoƮt. AU - Chainiaux, Florence. AU - Charlet-Renard, Chantal. AU - Martens, Henri. AU - de SAINT HUBERT, Marie. PY - 2018/11/26. Y1 - 2018/11/26. N2 - Among older couples, spouses are first in line to provide care, and they are key elements in the home support of dependent older persons. In this context, ensuring the health of these older spousal caregivers should be an important issue for all of the providers who care for older adults. The aim of this study was to longitudinally assess the health of older spousal caregivers considering frailty, nutrition, cognition, physical ...
Going for a walk outside, reading, listening to music - these and other enjoyable activities can reduce blood pressure for elderly caregivers of spouses with Alzheimers disease, suggests a study. "Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with lowered caregivers blood pressure over time," according to the report by Brent T. Mausbach, PhD, of University of California San Diego and colleagues. "Participation in pleasant leisure activities may have cardiovascular benefits for Alzheimers caregivers." The study included 126 caregivers enrolled in the UCSD Alzheimers Caregiver Study, a follow-up study evaluating associations between stress, coping, and cardiovascular risk in Alzheimers caregivers. The ...
Caregiver depression and age predicted the first two factors. Caregivers satisfaction with their relationship with the patient and patients functional independence also predicted the direct impact of caregiving upon caregivers lives. Patients behavioral problems and caregivers relationship satisfaction predicted frustration/embarrassment.. Caregiver burden has been found to be associated with poorer physical health, and increased rates of emotional distress and depression. This study shows that caregiver burden has several dimensions, each with its own predictors. The finding suggests that caregivers may benefit from interventions tailored to their specific subtype of ...
Caregiver depression and age predicted the first two factors. Caregivers satisfaction with their relationship with the patient and patients functional independence also predicted the direct impact of caregiving upon caregivers lives. Patients behavioral problems and caregivers relationship satisfaction predicted frustration/embarrassment.. Caregiver burden has been found to be associated with poorer physical health, and increased rates of emotional distress and depression. This study shows that caregiver burden has several dimensions, each with its own predictors. The finding suggests that caregivers may benefit from interventions tailored to their specific subtype of ...
The objective of this multi-province randomized controlled trial will be to determine if the TIR Stroke Family Support Program delivered across the care continuum contributes to positive caregiver outcomes. Since this program targets family caregiver support, the primary outcomes of the intervention will be caregivers perception of being supported in their care-giving role and improvements in caregiver mental health outcomes (e.g., less depression and more psychological well-being). To determine the impact of the intervention on caregiver outcomes, we will compare two modes of intervention delivery with standard care: 1) repeated contact in person and by telephone with a stroke support person and 2) a self-directed program ...
Although caregiving for stroke survivors is usually long-term, most studies on caregivers have generally involved only the first year following the event. We assessed and compared the long-term level of well-being measures among stroke survivors and their caregivers at more than 1 year following the stroke event and examined the associations between well-being, survivors characteristics, and caregiver burden. We interviewed a convenience sample of 51 community-dwelling stroke survivors, at least 1 year after the last stroke event, and their primary caregivers. Disability of survivors was assessed using the Barthel index and the modified Rankin Scale; health-related quality of life by the SF-36 questionnaire; and depression and anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. ...
Brn.sagepub.com: 4/23/12.. Informal caregivers of stroke survivors experience elevated chronic stress and are at risk of developing depressive symptoms. The cumulative effects of chronic stress can increase allostatic load and dysregulate biological processes, thus increasing risk of stress-related disease. Stress-induced alterations in the pattern of cortisol secretion vary with respect to stressor onset, intensity, and chronicity. Little is known about the psychoendocrine response to stress in female caregivers Read More. ...
Family caregivers are instrumental in the care of people with chronic and disabling conditions. Family caregivers provide hands-on personal care, perform health management activities, and navigate health system demands. The availability and adequacy of support provided by family caregivers has important consequences for patients health and quality of life, the services they use, and the quality and costs of care they receive. However, family caregivers are not systematically identified in care delivery, and providers do not typically assess whether they have the requisite knowledge, understanding, or proficiency in the tasks they are expected to perform. Family ...
Objectives: The capability to live well in people with dementia can be influenced by many factors, including those related to the experiences of their informal caregiver. How caregivers experience their own role can affect not only their well-being but also the way they provide care and hence the experience of the person with dementia. The aim of this study is to identify the potential impact of the caregivers perception of the caregiving experience on how people with mild to moderate dementia self-rate their QoL, well-being and satisfaction with life. Method: This study utilised time-point 1 data from 1283 informal caregiver and the 1283 people with dementia whom they provide care from the IDEAL cohort study. Multivariate modelling was used to investigate ...
As dementia progresses, caregivers increasingly have to manage the decline of food-related abilities with little outside information or input from support services The provision of food coping skills and knowledge can lessen the burden on caregivers. However, there is little research on caregivers perspectives on food-related services. This paper reports on a qualitative study to investigate informal caregivers experiences of, and views on, food-related information and support services in dementia. Twenty informal caregivers were interviewed and the transcripts from these interviews were analysed using both deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Four categories emerged. Direct food-related Information, covers written material, training, Direct ...
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Researchers said nursing homes must help residents maintain clean teeth and dentures because germs found in dental plaque can make their way into the lungs and cause deadly pneumonia in elderly residents, according to a new study report.
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) results in a devastating disability that affects not only the individual victim but also the entire family system. Many family members find themselves taking on the role of primary caregiver for their loved one living with SCI. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of family caregivers of SCI survivors. The search for potential stressors affecting caregivers was explored. Findings from this study are intended to provide input into specific nursing interventions that can be used to better prepare the caregiver for that role. This study was conducted using a qualitative research design. Two singular case studies were used to explore the caregiving experience from a holistic approach. Interviews, observations, and a journaling activity comprised a triangular ...
Mother gives birth to 14.5-pound baby Carisa Ruscak at Massachusetts General Hospital, largest baby to be born at MGH in more than a decade.