Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Breath Holding: An involuntary or voluntary pause in breathing, sometimes accompanied by loss of consciousness.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Kangaroo-Mother Care Method: A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Tetrodotoxin: An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsSodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Existentialism: Philosophy based on the analysis of the individual's existence in the world which holds that human existence cannot be completely described in scientific terms. Existentialism also stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual as well as the uniqueness of religious and ethical experiences and the analysis of subjective phenomena such as anxiety, guilt, and suffering. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Dihydropyridines: Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Nifedipine: A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Incubators: Insulated enclosures in which temperature, humidity, and other environmental conditions can be regulated at levels optimal for growth, hatching, reproduction, or metabolic reactions.omega-Conotoxin GVIA: A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Abattoirs: Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Gallopamil: Coronary vasodilator that is an analog of iproveratril (VERAPAMIL) with one more methoxy group on the benzene ring.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.Holistic Health: Health as viewed from the perspective that humans and other organisms function as complete, integrated units rather than as aggregates of separate parts.Sodium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.Hand Strength: Force exerted when gripping or grasping.Handling (Psychology): Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".Suburban Health: The status of health in suburban populations.Decapodiformes: A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.omega-Conotoxins: A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Muscarine: A toxic alkaloid found in Amanita muscaria (fly fungus) and other fungi of the Inocybe species. It is the first parasympathomimetic substance ever studied and causes profound parasympathetic activation that may end in convulsions and death. The specific antidote is atropine.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Volition: Voluntary activity without external compulsion.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Nimodipine: A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Egtazic Acid: A chelating agent relatively more specific for calcium and less toxic than EDETIC ACID.Calcium Channel Agonists: Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Hypoventilation: A reduction in the amount of air entering the pulmonary alveoli.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseLibrary Technical Services: Acquisition, organization, and preparation of library materials for use, including selection, weeding, cataloging, classification, and preservation.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Mental Healing: The use of mind to cure disease, particularly physical illness.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Purkinje Fibers: Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Nickel: A trace element with the atomic symbol Ni, atomic number 28, and atomic weight 58.69. It is a cofactor of the enzyme UREASE.Nisoldipine: A dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist that acts as a potent arterial vasodilator and antihypertensive agent. It is also effective in patients with cardiac failure and angina.Isonicotinic Acids: Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Isradipine: A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Libraries, MedicalTouch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Housing, Animal6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.Visitors to Patients: Patients' guests and rules for visiting.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Masks: Devices that cover the nose and mouth to maintain aseptic conditions or to administer inhaled anesthetics or other gases. (UMDNS, 1999)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mollusk Venoms: Venoms from mollusks, including CONUS and OCTOPUS species. The venoms contain proteins, enzymes, choline derivatives, slow-reacting substances, and several characterized polypeptide toxins that affect the nervous system. Mollusk venoms include cephalotoxin, venerupin, maculotoxin, surugatoxin, conotoxins, and murexine.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Rana catesbeiana: A species of the family Ranidae (true frogs). The only anuran properly referred to by the common name "bullfrog", it is the largest native anuran in North America.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Catalogs, UnionHeart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Nebulizers and Vaporizers: Devices that cause a liquid or solid to be converted into an aerosol (spray) or a vapor. It is used in drug administration by inhalation, humidification of ambient air, and in certain analytical instruments.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.omega-Agatoxin IVA: A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Book CollectingLidocaine: A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Helix (Snails): A genus of chiefly Eurasian and African land snails including the principal edible snails as well as several pests of cultivated plants.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Bombacaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida of tropical trees.Aminopyridines: Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Ryanodine: A methylpyrrole-carboxylate from RYANIA that disrupts the RYANODINE RECEPTOR CALCIUM RELEASE CHANNEL to modify CALCIUM release from SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM resulting in alteration of MUSCLE CONTRACTION. It was previously used in INSECTICIDES. It is used experimentally in conjunction with THAPSIGARGIN and other inhibitors of CALCIUM ATPASE uptake of calcium into SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Ganglia, Spinal: Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.Space MaintenanceCattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Tetracaine: A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Interlibrary LoansXenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Spider Venoms: Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Neonatal Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)N-Methylaspartate: An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).Respiratory Therapy Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration of diagnostic pulmonary function tests and of procedures to restore optimum pulmonary ventilation.Steel: A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rana esculenta: An edible species of the family Ranidae, occurring in Europe and used extensively in biomedical research. Commonly referred to as "edible frog".Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Respiratory Dead Space: That part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT or the air within the respiratory tract that does not exchange OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE with pulmonary capillary blood.Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Lifting: Moving or bringing something from a lower level to a higher one. The concept encompasses biomechanic stresses resulting from work done in transferring objects from one plane to another as well as the effects of varying techniques of patient handling and transfer.Ciliophora: A phylum of EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of cilia at some time during the life cycle. It comprises three classes: KINETOFRAGMINOPHOREA; OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA; and POLYMENOPHOREA.Baclofen: A GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID derivative that is a specific agonist of GABA-B RECEPTORS. It is used in the treatment of MUSCLE SPASTICITY, especially that due to SPINAL CORD INJURIES. Its therapeutic effects result from actions at spinal and supraspinal sites, generally the reduction of excitatory transmission.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.United StatesHand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Nystagmus, Physiologic: Involuntary rhythmical movements of the eyes in the normal person. These can be naturally occurring as in end-position (end-point, end-stage, or deviational) nystagmus or induced by the optokinetic drum (NYSTAGMUS, OPTOKINETIC), caloric test, or a rotating chair.Calcium Channels, T-Type: A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.Nodose Ganglion: The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Nitrendipine: A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.QuinoxalinesScorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Ganglionic Stimulants: Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Picrotoxin: A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Nicardipine: A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
  • EAST SETAUKET, N.Y., Aug. 06, 2019 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Lixte Biotechnology Holdings, Inc. ( OTCQB: LIXT ) announced that it signed a clinical trial agreement with the Spanish Sarcoma Group (Grupo Español de Investigación en Sarcomas, GEIS) to support a Phase 1b/randomized Phase 2 study of doxorubicin, the global standard for initial treatment of advanced soft tissue sarcomas (ASTS), versus doxorubicin plus LB-100. (globenewswire.com)
  • PALO ALTO, Calif., Oct. 07, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Scilex Holding Company ("Scilex"), a majority-owned subsidiary of Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. (Nasdaq: SRNE, "Sorrento"), today announced continuous sales growth in ZTlido ® from quarter to quarter in 2020. (biospace.com)
  • INEOS Group Holdings S.A. ('IGH' or 'INEOS') announces its trading performance for the fourth quarter of 2018. (ineos.com)
  • The correct version of this article can be accessed at https://www.americanbankingnews.com/2018/03/13/circle-wealth-management-llc-grows-position-in-alibaba-group-holding-ltd-baba.html. (americanbankingnews.com)
  • In the Group's mainstay domestic education business, the Group conducts member-based correspondence course businesses, which had an enrollment of 2.57 million members as of April 2018, such as Shinkenzemi and Kodomo Challenge for students aged from preschool to senior high school. (benesse-hd.co.jp)
  • RNS Number: 6676L Parity Group PLC 20 April 2018 20 April 2018 This announcement contains information which, prior to its disclosure by this announcement, was inside information for the purposes of the Market Abuse Regulation. (iii.co.uk)
  • RNS Number: 9359K Parity Group PLC 13 April 2018 TR-1: S tandard form for notification of major holdings NOTIFICATION OF MAJOR HOLDINGS (to be sent to the relevant issuer and to the FCA in Microsoft Word format if possible) i 1a. (iii.co.uk)
  • RNS Number: 5211I Parity Group PLC 22 March 2018 22 March 2018 Parity Group plc ('Parity 'or the 'Group') Parity Professionals awarded new Managed Service Contract by Primark Parity Consultancy Services has secured Contract Extensions with MoD, BAT and ESFA This announcement contains information which, prior to its disclosure by this announceme. (iii.co.uk)
  • RNS Number: 7855F Parity Group PLC 23 February 2018 23 February 2018 Parity Group plc ('Parity' or the 'Company') Block Listing Six Monthly Return The Company today announces an update to its block listing application of 16 December 2015. (iii.co.uk)
  • VAUGHAN, ON, May 29, 2020 /CNW/ - CannTrust Holdings Inc. ('CannTrust' or the 'Company') announced that it has received notice from Health Canada that the Company's licenses for its Fenwick Perpetual Harvest Facility (the 'Fenwick facility') have been reinstated. (yahoo.com)
  • VAUGHAN, ON, April 9, 2020 /CNW/ - CannTrust Holdings Inc. ('CannTrust' or the 'Company', TSX: TRST, NYSE: CTST) today provided a status update in accordance with its obligations under the alternative information guidelines set out in National Policy 12-203 - Management Cease Trade Orders ('NP 12-203'), which require the Company to provide bi-weekly updates until such time as the Company is current with its filing obligations under Canadian securities laws. (yahoo.com)
  • In February 2019 the Group paid a dividend of €1,450 million to its parent company. (ineos.com)
  • Financial information in respect of the Transaction The Assets contributed approximately ZAR 1.91 billion4,5 in revenue, ZAR 0.53 billion5 in operating profit and ZAR 0.45 billion5 in profit after tax6 to the Group for the six months ended 31 December 2019. (sharenet.co.za)
  • In other UnitedHealth Group news, Director Richard T. Burke sold 6,090 shares of the business's stock in a transaction that occurred on Wednesday, November 28th. (americanbankingnews.com)
  • Receive News & Ratings for Alibaba Group Daily - Enter your email address below to receive a concise daily summary of the latest news and analysts' ratings for Alibaba Group and related companies with MarketBeat.com's FREE daily email newsletter . (americanbankingnews.com)
  • As the premier news organization and supplier of computerized financial information services, Reuters Holdings PLC serves financial and business communities in all of the world ' s major markets and the news media in more than 160 countries. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Effective January 1, 2015, Dr. Ralf Marquard has been named Chief Operating Officer (COO) with responsibility for all business units at FEV Group Holding GmbH (Source: FEV GmbH). (fev.com)
  • Aachen - Effective January 1, 2015, Dr. Ralf Marquard will accept the position of Chief Operating Officer (COO) for the FEV Group Holding GmbH. (fev.com)
  • Headquartered in Marietta, GA, Smart Holdings, Inc., through its wholly owned subsidiary, Assurance Group Direct, is in the business of selling automotive extended service plans on a nationwide basis directly to consumers through national television advertising and internet marketing, while continuing to add new product lines in the personal protection categories. (fiercepharma.com)
  • World Assurance Group through its wholly owned subsidiary ANAV Holdings Corporation intends to participate in all areas of real estate transactions, including direct ownership, co-investment with other institutions or developers, as well as indirect participation through the acquisition of distressed debt and/or non-performing loans with the eventual goal of control of the underlying assets. (marketwired.com)
  • The University of Phoenix is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Apollo Education Group. (wikipedia.org)
  • SG Holdings Global Plc Ltd, the overseas arm of SG Holdings of Japan which bought 30 percent stake in Expolanka Holdings PLC in a Rs.6.2 billion deal last Friday, has made a mandatory offer to acquire remaining Expolanka shares at Rs.10.70 per share. (dailymirror.lk)
  • Hai Huang is Secretary for Poly Developments & Holdings Group Co., Ltd. and Chairman for Poly Property Development Co. Ltd. (a subsidiary of Poly Developments & Holdings Group Co., Ltd.). He is also on the board of Guangdong Provincial Expressway Development Co. Ltd. and Poly Commercial Real Estate Investment & Management Co. Ltd. (wsj.com)
  • WDAS ) announced today that its subsidiary Anav Holdings Corporation is investigating working with Custom Building Products of South Carolina to enhance its building projects which are environmentally green. (marketwired.com)
  • Parity Group plc ('Parity 'or the 'Group') Disposal of non-core subsidiary The Board of Parity (AIM:PTY), the technology focusse. (iii.co.uk)
  • An FPI is exempt of filing insider holdings with the SEC. Therefore, it is recommended to visit the company's website for up to date information. (nasdaq.com)
  • This position is accountable for managing the Company's IT Projects that support all divisions within Orion Group Holdings, Inc. General responsibilities include the initiation, planning, execution, and reporting of all projects within Company's IT department (both Infrastructure and Application). (careerbuilder.com)
  • In the meantime, it appears that the mandatory offer by SG Holdings on Expolanka will give a good return to private investors who invested at Rs.6 per share and not to the public investors who invested in the company's shares at Rs.14 in 2011. (dailymirror.lk)
  • Mr. Collett was seized by a group calling itself the Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Moslems, which was said to have close relations with Libya. (nytimes.com)
  • Most of the other foreign hostages have been held by two pro-Iran groups, Islamic Holy War and the Revolutionary Justice Organization. (nytimes.com)
  • Lenovo Group Limited, together with its subsidiaries, engages in the manufacture and distribution of IT products, and provision of IT services in worldwide. (sbwire.com)
  • Viva China Holdings Ltd. engages in sports talent management and event production, sports related merchandise, sports consultancy, sports media and content distribution. (wsj.com)
  • The chairs of the Congressional Hispanic , Black and Asian Pacific American Caucus are speaking out against House Oversight Committee Chairman Darrell Issa for holding a contempt vote against Attorney General Eric Holder. (nbclatino.com)
  • Dan Caruso is the chairman and CEO of Zayo Group Holdings, Inc. (NYSE:ZAYO), a global provider of communications infrastructure. (zayo.com)
  • Search terms used to identify fatal and nonfatal unintentional drowning cases based on the swimmer's behavior included "repeated breath-holding," "breath-holding games/competition," "prolonged/extended submersion," "underwater distance swimming," and "hyperventilation. (cdc.gov)
  • the remaining 45% was acquired in 2009 1993 Enhanced catering offering with the acquisition of Mustard Catering, a large Western Australia based up-market catering group 1999 Strengthened facility maintenance and cleaning capabilities with the acquisition of Support Services businesses from P&O in Australia and New Zealand 2001 Acquired Braitrim (UK based), which was merged with Plastiform to form Braiform to further expand garment hanger manufacturing and supply capability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The TEN STAR GROUP PLUS trademark is filed in the description of Marketing services which offer a benefit to third parties, and counseling, namely, educating and selling by means of seminars, print publications, and interactive software, life insurance products, namely life insurance, critical illness policies, GICs and term deposits. (trademarkia.com)
  • Finally, Trustcore Financial Services LLC acquired a new position in Alibaba Group in the fourth quarter valued at approximately $107,000. (americanbankingnews.com)
  • The Group manages a variety of information on its information systems required for providing products and services and for sales activities. (benesse-hd.co.jp)
  • Moreover, the Group provides educational services utilizing original tablet PCs and other digital devices, as well as language lessons and other services using the Internet. (benesse-hd.co.jp)
  • China Distance Education Holdings Limited is a leading provider of online education and value-added services for professionals and corporate clients in China. (streetinsider.com)
  • Controlled through a complicated set of minority holdings by the Keswick family (descendants of cofounder William Jardine) Jardine Matheson is involved in a variety of activities, most prominently trading, financial services, and real estate. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Assurance Group will begin advertising the program on national TV the same way insurance is sold. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Assurance Group anticipates building a membership base with recurring revenue. (fiercepharma.com)
  • In addition, Assurance Group will be running a new TV campaign for its Extended Auto Warranty starting June 13th, testing a new product line. (fiercepharma.com)
  • SOURCE: World Assurance Group Inc. (marketwired.com)
  • K2M Group Holdings, Inc. is a global leader of complex spine and minimally invasive solutions focused on achieving three-dimensional Total Body Balance. (globenewswire.com)
  • With the addition of Dr. Marquard to our Board, we gain expertise that will strengthen the global expansion of FEV,' said Professor Stefan Pischinger, President and CEO of FEV Group Holding GmbH. (fev.com)
  • Najafi Companies, a Phoenix firm, the New York-based Apollo Global Management and, the Vistria Group of Chicago. (wikipedia.org)
  • How do I become a group member? (just-food.com)
  • A disposable skin-impaling and retracting or bone holding and retracting device comprises a support member from which is supported and extends a skin-impaling or bone-holding member most advantageously formed of cannulated needle stock the end portion of which is bent to form a skin-impaling or bone-holding. (google.com)
  • Maybe you can't stand the way one group member always talks over other people or you're sick of one of your group members being a non-participant. (kidshealth.org)
  • This article will deal with only some visible challenges being faced by Indian tribals and why this social group needs more support at different levels in these trying times. (yahoo.com)
  • The apparatus of the present invention provides a means for holding an infant on the support surface so that he or she can be securely supported while the child care provider is free to perform other tasks. (google.com)
  • Sanford C. Bernstein reissued an "outperform" rating and issued a $230.00 price target (up from $205.00) on shares of Alibaba Group in a report on Monday, February 5th. (americanbankingnews.com)
  • Phosphate Holdings is the sole stockholder of Mississippi Phosphates Corporation, which produces diammonium phosphate, the most common form of phosphate fertilizer used as a source of phosphate on all major row crops. (msbusiness.com)
  • Rica Foods, Inc. (Amex: RCF) announced today it has signed a letter of intent to acquire, in the near future, 60% of the total outstanding members equity of Bounty Group Holding, LLC, (Bounty). (just-food.com)