Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
A serine protease that catalyses the release of an N-terminal dipeptide. Several biologically-active peptides have been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 substrates including INCRETINS; NEUROPEPTIDES; and CHEMOKINES. The protein is also found bound to ADENOSINE DEAMINASE on the T-CELL surface and is believed to play a role in T-cell activation.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.
A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
A measure of the binding strength between antibody and a simple hapten or antigen determinant. It depends on the closeness of stereochemical fit between antibody combining sites and antigen determinants, on the size of the area of contact between them, and on the distribution of charged and hydrophobic groups. It includes the concept of "avidity," which refers to the strength of the antigen-antibody bond after formation of reversible complexes.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
The structure of one molecule that imitates or simulates the structure of a different molecule.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*51 allele family.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
DR14 serotype is a split antigen of the older HLA-DR6 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR13 antigens. ... "HLA-DRB1 alleles and HLA-DRB1 shared epitopes are markers for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis subgroups in Colombian mestizos". ... HLA-DR13 is genetically linked to HLA-DR52 and HLA-DQ5 (HLA-DQ1) serotypes. derived from IMGT/HLA DR1404 - 3% DR4 - 25% ... HLA-DR14(DR14) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1401 to *1408, *1410 to *1418, and other *14 gene products. ...
... hla-dr4 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.400.440.465 - hla-dr5 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.400.440.470 - hla-dr6 antigen ... ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325.225 - ca-125 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.395 - epitopes, b-lymphocyte MeSH D23.050.550.402 - ... hla-dr4 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.410.400.440.465 - hla-dr5 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.410.400.440.470 - hla-dr6 antigen ... hla-dr4 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.450.400.440.465 - hla-dr5 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.450.400.440.470 - hla-dr6 antigen ...
DR14 serotype is a split antigen of the older HLA-DR6 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR13 antigens. ... "HLA-DRB1 alleles and HLA-DRB1 shared epitopes are markers for juvenile rheumatoid arthritis subgroups in Colombian mestizos". ... HLA-DR13 is genetically linked to HLA-DR52 and HLA-DQ5 (HLA-DQ1) serotypes. derived from IMGT/HLA DR1404 - 3% DR4 - 25% ... HLA-DR14(DR14) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1401 to *1408, *1410 to *1418, and other *14 gene products. ...
These CD4+ T cells recognize this epitope only in the context of HLA-DR4 class II molecules, of which the variants with Gly86 ... This dimorphism at position 86 is widespread, occurring in subtypes of DR1, DR2, DR3, DR5, and DR6 alleles as well as DR4. ... Helper T lymphocytes recognize fragments of foreign (or self) antigens in the peptide-binding clefts of major ... Critical role for the Val/Gly86 HLA-DRβ dimorphism in autoantigen presentation to human T cells. ...
Prediction of desmoglein-3 peptides reveals multiple shared T-cell epitopes in HLA DR4- and DR6- associated Pemphigus vulgaris ... Prediction of HLA-DQ3.2β ligands: Evidence of multiple registers in class II binding peptides. Tong, J. C., Zhang, G. L., Tan, ...
Rational design of immunotherapeutics relies on clear knowledge of the immunodominant epitopes of antigens. Current methods for ... such as an HLA-DR allele, such as HLA-DR1, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, HLA-DR5, HLA-DR6, HLA-DR7, HLA-DR8, HLA-DR9, or HLA-DR15 ... a viral antigen, a bacterial antigen, a fungal antigen, a protozoal antigen, a plasmodial antigen, a helminthic antigen, and a ... HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, HLA-DR5, HLA-DR6, HLA-DR7, HLA-DR8, HLA-DR9, and/or HLA-DR15 or an active fragment(s) thereof, or a ...
The antigens HLA-Bw4 and -Bw6 reside on a unique epitope on each HLA-B molecule and are distinctly different from the epitopes ... DR52 (DRB3): DR3 (17/18; DRB1*03), DR5 (DRB1*11/12), DR6 (DRB1*13/14) ... These are HLA-DR1, HLA-DR51, HLA-DR52, HLA-DR8, and HLA-DR53. It appears that the oldest lineages are HLA-DRB1*04 (represented ... The classical HLA antigens encoded in each region are HLA-A, -B, and -C in the class I region, and HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP in the ...
Another early finding included an association with a HLA- DP2 variant which when combined with HLA-DR3, DR5 (DR11), or DR6 ( ... A more recent large study (16) did not report interactions or define epitopes, and was somewhat limited in resolution of HLA ... The genetic risk factors are known to include genes in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex on chromosome 6, which carry ... consisting of selected HLA-DRB1*01/*04 alleles, is minimally important in JIA; HLA-DRB1*04 (and HLA-DRB1*07) are in fact ...
... hla-dr4 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.400.440.465 - hla-dr5 antigen MeSH D23.050.301.500.450.400.440.470 - hla-dr6 antigen ... ca-19-9 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.325.225 - ca-125 antigen MeSH D23.050.550.395 - epitopes, b-lymphocyte MeSH D23.050.550.402 - ... hla-dr4 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.410.400.440.465 - hla-dr5 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.410.400.440.470 - hla-dr6 antigen ... hla-dr4 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.450.400.440.465 - hla-dr5 antigen MeSH D23.050.705.552.450.400.440.470 - hla-dr6 antigen ...
DNA sequences and corresponding amino acid sequences from the HLA class II beta region of the human genome that are associated ... Human leukocyte antigen typing. EP0472399A2 *. 20 Aug 1991. 26 Feb 1992. Mitsui Petrochemical Industries, Ltd.. HLA-DR antigen ... If the immune system actually responds to the mimicked HLA epitope, then normal regulation of the immune system could be ... DR6 beta-I - - - +. DR6 beta-III - + + -. DR3 beta-III + + + -. DR3 beta-III + + - + ...
Strong association with a particular HLA-DR6 (DRB1*1301) haplotype. Hum Immunol. 1994;41:146-150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Gray D, Skarvall H. B-cell memory is short-lived in the absence of antigen. Nature. 1988;336:70-73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Distinct epitopes on formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase induce autoimmune liver cytosol antibody type 1. Hepatology. 2001;34: ... Christen U, Holdener M, Hintermann E. Cytochrome P450 2D6 as a model antigen. Dig Dis. 2010;28:80-85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle ...
HLA-DR5, HLA-DR6, HLA-DR51, HLA-DR52, and HLA-DQ). Associations have also been described with polymorphisms at the tumor ... Some human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II alleles, particularly HLA-DR7 and HLA-DR4, appear to be associated with ... amplifying the damage and causing epitope spreading. An alternative hypothesis proposes that the initial damage is due to ... Because most cases do not have a positive throat swab culture or rapid antigen test, serologic evidence is usually needed. The ...
Individuals genetically prone to develop autoimmune illness (namely carriers of HLA-DR1, DR4, DR6, or HLA-B27) are more likely ... Structural similarity between these bacterial or viral antigens and host antigens may enable the triggering of an autoimmune ... epitope is recognized by idiotypic (Id) T-cell receptors and antibody Fab immune recognition surfaces (IRS), which have the ... Five subjects were HLA-DR4 positive. Nine of eleven patients genotyped for HLA-DR and DQ expressed the RA shared motif in their ...
... human leukocyte antigens (HLA)): HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. HLA-A*01, HLA-A*02, and HLA-B*07 are examples of different MHC class ... 0322] In case of a MHC class I epitope being used as an antigen, the T cells are CD8-positive T cells. [0323] If an antigen- ... DR6 Asian (North) American 25.10% DR7 Asian (North) American 13.40% DR8 Asian (North) American 12.70% DR9 Asian (North) ... TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 1 Expression frequencies F of HLA-A*02 and HLA-A*24 and the most frequent HLA-DR serotypes. Frequencies ...
... on Arabs with HLA-A2, -A9, -B35 and -DR7, on North-Americans with HLA-DR4 and on Mexican Mestizo with HLA-B5, -B52 and -DR6. On ... HLA-B52 and HLA-B39) associated with the disease share some residues important on the antigen presentation. CONCLUSIONS: Hence ... More recent data point the possible participation of an epitope located on the peptide-binding site of the HLA-B molecule ( ... it stands out the increase on HLA-B52 and HLA-DR4 reported on ethnically different populations. ...
These results emphasize the need to define the dominant autoantigenic epitopes in human autoimmune diseases, since peptide ... is possibly more effective in controlling undesired immune responses than the use of non-antigen, TCR-directed approaches such ... raised in HLA DR6 individuals preferentially express V beta 2 in the TCR. A p2-specific T cell line (60% V beta 2+) was used to ... T cells recognizing tetanus toxin peptide p2 (sequence 830-844) raised in HLA DR6 individuals preferentially express V beta 2 ...
Prediction of desmoglein-3 peptides reveals multiple shared T-cell epitopes in HLA DR4- and DR6-associated pemphigus vulgaris. ... Allelic Polymorphism of HLA class ll antigens: clues to the moleular basis of autoimmunity. In: Allelic Polymorphism of HLA ... HLA-DR and HLA-DQ ALLELES ASSOCIATED WITH PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS. In: HLA-DR and HLA-DQ ALLELES ASSOCIATED WITH PEMPHIGUS VULGARIS ... Characterization of HLA-DRb and HLA-DQb alleles associated with Pemphigus Vulgaris. Immunobiology of HLA (Jan), 2: 426-428. ...
... which was observed in linkage to the haplotype HLA-B60-DR6 in seven cases. In one of the other two individuals without this ... and the 180-kD antigen (BPAG2). The present study demonstrated the precise ultrastructural localization of the epitopes for ... The B7/BB1 antigen provides one of several costimulatory signals for the activation of CD4+T lymphocytes by human blood ... The B7/BB1 antigen provides one of several costimulatory signals for the activation of CD4+T lymphocytes by human blood ...
... anchored antigen and co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory signaling in the presence of cytokines. Most of the currently used ... anchored antigen and co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory signaling in the presence of cytokines. Most of the currently used ... Human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) expression in biliary epithelial cells is associated with allograft acceptance in liver- ... and DR6, receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK), osteoprotegerin (OPG), TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) ...
Long-term human cytolytic T-cell lines allospecific for HLA-DR6 antigen are OKT4+. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79: 2365. ... Melanoma cells present a MAGE-3 epitope to CD4+ cytotoxic T cells in association with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen DR11 ... One possibility is that they may play a role in containing viral infections tropic for HLA class II+ cells, such as EBV in B ... Individual variation in the frequency of HLA class II-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors. Eur. J. Immunol. 20: 847. ...
... and identify novel associations to HLA-DR6 (encompassing HLA-DRB1*1401), HLA-DR8 (including HLA-DRB1*0802 and *0803), and HLA- ... Tissue Antigens 63: 237-247.HF HarboBA LieS. SawcerEG CeliusKZ Dai2004Genes in the HLA class I region may contribute to the HLA ... The most common (,5% population frequency) HLA-DRB1 shared epitope susceptibility alleles include *0101, *0401, and *0404 in ... Other novel associations in UC are demonstrated for HLA-DR5 (and its subspecificities HLA-DR11 and -DR12), HLA-A19 and HLA-A24. ...
This is particularly so with respect to HLA. ... HLA) genetic markers. However, there are also important points ... In common with other autoimmune diseases, both have associations and linkage with human keukocyte antigen ( ... Among children who carry HLA-A2 and any two HLA-DR alleles (HLA-DR3, -DR5, -DR6, -DR8), the median age at onset of ... including the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. The genes of the MHC in general, and the HLA genes in particular, are highly ...
The B cell antigen may be CD22 and the epitope may be epitope A, epitope B, epitope C, epitope D and epitope E of CD22 and ... The B cell-associated antigen may also be another cell antigen such as CD 19, CD20, HLA-DR and CD74. The T-cell antigens may ... DR6, VEGF, P1GF, ED-B fibronectin, tenascin, PSMA, PSA, carbonic anhydrase IX, and IL-6. In more particular embodiments, a ... different lymphocyte antigen. The binding site or sites may bind a distinct epitope, or epitopes of an antigen selected from ...
DUrso CM, Wang ZG, Cao Y, Tatake R, Zeff RA, Ferrone S. Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by cultured melanoma cells FO-1 ... DR3 and DR6) as well as stress ligands on the tumor cells, it was not effective in AML and RCC patients (99, 222). The efficacy ... is a tumor specific mutant epitope that is expressed on one-third of GBMs and mediates an aggressive phenotype. Unarmed mAbs ... autologous NK cells express inhibitory KIRs that do not recognize HLA-A, HLA-Bw4, or HLA-C self-alleles. These NK cells are ...
HLA class II nucleotide sequences. Tissue Antigens 1993; 40:229-243. Moraes JR, Moraes ME, Fernandez-Viña M. HLA antigens and ... Pemphigus vulgaris is reported to be associated with HLA DR4 and/or DR6, and some studies in patients affected by pemphigus ... An epitope in the third hypervariable region of the DRB1 gene is involved in the susceptibility to endemic pemphigus foliaceus ... Based on the medical literature regarding HLA loci, it is likely that in El Bagre-EPF, the HLA region exerts an epistatic ...
Human leukocyte antigens and systemic lupus erythematosus: A protective role for the HLA-DR6 alleles DRB1*13:02 and *14:03. ... Komata T, Tsuchiya N*, Hatta Y, Matsushita M, Ogawa A, Mitsui H, Tokunaga K: HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the shared epitope ... Significant association of HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 alleles with cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Tissue Antigens 1999;53:147- ... Preferential expression of HLA-DR antigen on the surface of Leu 2a+ cells. J Rheumatol 1988;15:946-951. ...
HLA-DR-promiscuous T cell epitopes from Plasmodium falciparum pre-erythrocytic-stage antigens restricted by multiple HLA class ... The third cluster consists of DR4 (DRB1*0402, 12, 15, 25, 36, 37, 47), DR5 (DRB1*1101-47, DRB1*1201-09), DR6 (DRB1*1301-62, ... Instead of developing a single epitope for each of the common HLA alleles, attempts were made to identify epitopes capable of ... Structure of celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ8 and non-associated HLA-DQ9 alleles in complex with two disease-specific epitopes ...
D23.50.705.552.450.400.440.389.968 HLA-DR6 Antigen D23.50.301.500.410.400.440.470 D12.776.395.550.509.400.440.400.60 D23.50. ... C8.730.798.200 Epitope Mapping E1.450.495.200 E5.478.274 E5.478.594.280 Epothilones D4.345.349.187 Erythrocyte Aggregation ... D12.776.543.750.705.222.500 Antigens, CD70 D12.776.543.550.172 D12.776.543.550.170 Antigens, CD8 D23.50.301.264.35.108 Antigens ... D23.50.705.552.100.400 HLA-A1 Antigen D23.50.301.500.400.370.372 D12.776.395.550.489.400.10 D23.50.301.500.450.370.372 D12.776. ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with extended HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR6 haplotypes. Tissue Antigens 2007, 69, 161-9. ... Interaction analysis between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles and MHC class II transactivator CIITA gene with regard to risk of ... Tissue Antigens 1997, 50, 15-22.. Lie BA, Akselsen HE, Joner G, Dahl-Jørgensen K, Rønningen KS, Thorsby E, Undlien DE. HLA ... Norwegian Sami differs significantly from other Norwegians according to their HLA profile. Tissue Antigens 2010, 75, 207-217. ...
... derived T cell epitopes in VACV-infected human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 (HLA-A2.1) transgenic (Tg) mice and A2.1/1/positive ... involving specific DR4 and DR6 alleles in Cau… ... Identification of conformational B-cell Epitopes in an antigen ... In silico characterization of immunogenic epitopes presented by HLA-Cw*0401 HLA-C locus products are poorly understood in part ... One of the major challenges in the field of vaccine design is to predict conformational B-cell epitopes in an antigen. In the ...
Antigen:. β-catenin. Clone:. EM-22. Target Species:. Hamster. Regulatory Status:. RUO. ...
  • This dimorphism at position 86 is widespread, occurring in subtypes of DR1, DR2, DR3, DR5, and DR6 alleles as well as DR4. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Specific HLA epitopes, potential interactions of alleles at specific loci and between loci, (accounting for linkage disequilibrium and haplotypic associations), and an assessment of the current ILAR classification were considered. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Extensive and well-documented associations with multiple HLA alleles in JIA have been described ( 2 - 4 ) for at least 25 years. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • OBJECTIVE: Since 1972, the relationship between HLA alleles and the susceptibility for Takayasu arteritis (TA) has been studied on different populations. (bvsalud.org)
  • Hence the results up to date are heterogeneous, the objective of the present review is to analyze the relationship between the presence of HLA alleles and the susceptibility for the development of TA considering the ethnic origin of the studied populations. (bvsalud.org)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a bibliographic review from clinical articles of case and controls studies on different populations on which the relationship between HLA alleles and the susceptibility for TA was studied, published since 1972 until February 2000. (bvsalud.org)
  • On the other hand, recent reports establish that several HLA-B alleles (HLA-B52 and HLA-B39) associated with the disease share some residues important on the antigen presentation. (bvsalud.org)
  • More recent data point the possible participation of an epitope located on the peptide-binding site of the HLA-B molecule (positions 63 and 67) that seems to be shared by several alleles associated with the disease. (bvsalud.org)
  • HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 alleles in Japanese type 1 autoimmune hepatitis: The predisposing role of the DR4/DR8 heterozygous genotype. (tsukuba.ac.jp)
  • Gulucota and DeLisi ( 5 ) found that three to six class I HLA alleles, depending on the ethnic group, would cover ∼90% of the population. (jimmunol.org)
  • HLA-C alleles confer risk for anti-citrullinated peptide antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis independent of HLA-DRB1 alleles. (oslo-universitetssykehus.no)
  • Several reports based on serologic HLA typing have pointed out the positive association between patients with recurrent fetal miscarriage who are positive for antiphospholipid antibodies and specific HLA alleles (13, 14). (healthdocbox.com)
  • A molecular genetic approach for determining HLA class II genes, however, has not yet been taken to analyze the association between the patients and specific HLA alleles. (healthdocbox.com)
  • morphism (RFLP) recently has become available for use in typing HLA class II genes at the nucleotide sequence level, thus enabling us to determine accurately two alleles of HLA class II genes in individuals (15 17). (healthdocbox.com)
  • 6 year group limited to the HLA-DRB1*08 haplotype, a marked distinction from the additional susceptibility haplotypes, HLA-DRB1*1103/1104, found in the oligoarticular cohort and the younger polyarticular group. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 1. A marker DR-beta-I DNA sequence from the HLA class II beta genes associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and with DR4-associated susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris. (google.com.au)
  • 5. Marker DQ-beta DNA sequences from the HLA class II beta genes associated with DRw6-associated susceptibility to Pemphigus vulgaris. (google.com.au)
  • 7. A marker DNA sequence from the HLA DQ-beta allele associated with susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, wherein said sequence can be used to detect either directly or indirectly the identity of the codon at position 57 of the DQ-beta protein sequence. (google.com.au)
  • Susceptibility to autoimmune chronic active hepatitis: human leukocyte antigens DR4 and A1-B8-DR3 are independent risk factors. (springer.com)
  • Allelic basis for HLA-encoded susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. (springer.com)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to type 1 autoimmune hepatitis. (springer.com)
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) systems are useful in examining the immunogenetic basis of some diseases because these systems control both the immune response to natural antigens and the susceptibility or resistance to several diseases, especially autoimmune diseases (12). (healthdocbox.com)
  • HLA-DM-mediated editing contributes significantly to immunodominance and is exploited in discovering immunodominant epitopes from novel or previously uncharacterized antigens, particularly antigens associated with pathogens, tumors or autoimmune diseases. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • As with other autoimmune diseases, the non-HLA genetic component appears to be largely mediated by multiple low risk polymorphisms. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These results emphasize the need to define the dominant autoantigenic epitopes in human autoimmune diseases, since peptide based therapy such as the use of peptide analogues to induce anergy or a change in cytokine profile, is possibly more effective in controlling undesired immune responses than the use of non-antigen, TCR-directed approaches such as superantigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In common with other autoimmune diseases, both have associations and linkage with human keukocyte antigen (HLA) genetic markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For a disease to be defined as autoimmune, the ensuing tissue harm should be mediated by autoreactive lymph cells and/or their soluble merchandises, proinflammatory cytokines, and autoantibodies as an adaptative immune response to self-antigens ( 5 ) .Autoimmune diseases are extremely of import as they play a major function in morbidity and mortality around the Globe. (artspace-jhb.co.za)
  • Interestingly, when adult RA is stratified by the presence or absence of anti-CCP antibodies, HLA-DRB1*13 is protective for anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive RA and is a risk factor for anti-citrullinated protein antibody-negative RA ( 9 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • B-cell epitopes are the sites of molecules that are recognized by antibodies of the immune system. (neueve.com)
  • It is also possible that HLA antigen systems are associated with recurrent fetal miscarriage in patients who are positive for antiphospholipid antibodies. (healthdocbox.com)
  • OMIM 152700) is characterised by the production of antibodies to nuclear antigens. (jove.com)
  • There are currently no images for DR6/TNFRSF21 Antibody (NB500-345AF488). (novusbio.com)
  • The present invention furthermore relates to tumor-associated T-cell peptide epitopes, alone or in combination with other tumor-associated peptides that can for example serve as active pharmaceutical ingredients of vaccine compositions that stimulate anti-tumor immune responses, or to stimulate T cells ex vivo and transfer into patients. (patents.com)
  • Prediction of the binding ability of antigen peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is important in vaccine development. (neueve.com)
  • Disclosed herein is a reductionistic system incorporating known participants of MHC class II antigen processing in solution to generate peptide pools from antigens, including those for which no immunodominant epitope has yet been identified, that are highly enriched for proteolytic fragments containing their immunodominant epitopes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Large Protein Fragments as Substrates for Endocytic Antigen Capture by MHC Class II Molecules," J. Immunology, 161:4048-4057 (1998). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex proteins are glycoproteins that bind, within the cell, small peptide fragments, or epitopes, derived, through proteolysis, from both host and pathogen proteins, and present them at the cell surface for interaction by T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • These CD4+ T cells recognize this epitope only in the context of HLA-DR4 class II molecules, of which the variants with Gly86 are absolutely required. (nus.edu.sg)
  • Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APCs), B lymphocytes, dendritic cells and macrophages [7]. (studylib.net)
  • A principal feature of MHC molecules is their allelic polymorphism: the July 2004 ImMunoGeneTics/HLA database release lists 1114 class I and 707 class II molecules ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Moreover, any poly-epitope vaccine targeting the whole population would, on the same basis, need to bind a range of HLA molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • The 1998 Nomenclature Committee recognized more HLA genes all of which are in the class I and Ib regions: HLA-E, -F, -G, -H, -J, -K and -L 59 . (dorak.info)
  • The genetic risk factors are known to include genes in the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) complex on chromosome 6, which carry the more substantial component of risk, as well as non-HLA genes or regions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nine of eleven patients genotyped for HLA-DR and DQ expressed the RA shared motif in their HLA class II genes. (whale.to)
  • HLA-DR14(DR14) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1401 to *1408, *1410 to *1418, and other *14 gene products. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody DR-6-04-EC recognizes human DR6 (Death receptor-6), a type I transmembrane protein containing cytoplasmic death domain, widely expressed in most human tissues and cell lines. (novusbio.com)
  • The rat monoclonal antibody IM7 recognizes CD44 antigen, an 80-95 kDa transmembrane glycoprotein (hyaladherin family) present on the most of cells and tissues (leukocytes, endothelial cells, mesenchymal cells, etc. (sysmex-fcm.jp)
  • The rat monoclonal antibody MJ7/18 recognizes CD105 antigen, a 90 kDa type I homodimerizing membrane glycoprotein expressed on vascular endothelial cells (small and large vessels), activated monocytes and tissue macrophages, stromal cells of certain tissues including bone marrow, pre-B lymphocytes in fetal (bone? (sysmex-fcm.jp)
  • T cell activation is a synergistic process of T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-anchored antigen and co-stimulatory/co-inhibitory signaling in the presence of cytokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • showed that nephritis-associated plasmin receptor (NAPlr), a group A streptococcal antigen, may have a pathogenetic role in a subset of patients with HSP nephritis [10]. (spotidoc.com)
  • the alpha subunit of Mac-1 (Macrophage-1 antigen), the CR3 complement receptor which consists of CD11b and CD18. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein the soluble human HLA-DM protein is used in step (b)(ii). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Jean Dausset described the first human MHC antigen MAC (HLA-A2) as part of the Hu-1 system 5 followed by the discovery of the FOUR series 4a and 4b (HLA-Bw4 and -Bw6) by the Leiden group led by Jon van Rood in 1963 6;7 . (dorak.info)
  • The MHC in humans is called Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA). (dorak.info)
  • DNA sequences and corresponding amino acid sequences from the HLA class II beta region of the human genome that are associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) have been identified. (google.com.au)
  • Based on human leukocyte antigen (HLA) phenotyping, HCT can be categorized into allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT) and syngeneic HCT (syn-HCT). (frontiersin.org)
  • Shortly afterward, Jean Dausset recognized the human MHC, or human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, so named because Dausset originally demonstrated MHC antigens on the surface of white blood cells [2] . (plos.org)
  • 1. A fusion protein comprising: (i) an antibody, an antigen-binding antibody fragment or a cytokine conjugated to (ii) a dimerization and docking domain (DDD) moiety of human protein kinase A regulatory subunit RIα, RIβ, RIIα and RIIα. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 5. The fusion protein of claim 1, wherein the antibody or antigen-binding fragment thereof is chimeric, humanized or human. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and autoantibodies The major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 (HLA-II), also known as HLA-DQA1, is a human gene 169 www.najms.org North American Journal of Medical Sciences 2009 September, Volume 1. (studylib.net)
  • Main Outcome Measure(s): Human leukocyte antigen class II was determined using a polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Conclusion: Human leukocyte antigen systems appear to be involved in the genesis of antiphospholipid syndrome. (healthdocbox.com)
  • A fusion protein representing amino acids 42-335 (extracellular part) of human DR6 linked to the Fc portion of human IgG1 was used as an immunogen. (novusbio.com)
  • The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is a critical component of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen processing and presentation pathway. (neueve.com)
  • Oligoclonal band phenotypes in MS differ in their HLA class II association, while specific KIR ligands at HLA class I show association to MS in general. (oslo-universitetssykehus.no)
  • The HLA complex is divided into three regions: class I, II, and III regions as first proposed by Jan Klein in 1977 57 . (dorak.info)
  • The classical HLA antigens encoded in each region are HLA-A, -B, and -C in the class I region, and HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP in the class II region. (dorak.info)
  • PCR-based high resolution HLA typing for Class I and Class II loci was accomplished for 802 JIA patients and 273 controls. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Also in contrast to findings for oligoarticular JIA, polyarticular patients had no evidence of an HLA class I effect. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Class I involvement has also been demonstrated, with evidence of association with HLA-A2 ( 11 , 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In parallel to the CSA, we tested for the presence of short tandem repeats from HLA class II, DQ alpha 1, involving the gene locus D6S291 by using the Hardy-Weinberg- Castle law. (studylib.net)
  • HLA-DQA1 belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. (studylib.net)
  • This was done to clarify the role of the HLA class II antigens in patients positive for anticardiolipin antibody who repeatedly have fetal miscarriages. (healthdocbox.com)
  • these women were examined for HLA class II s after informed consent was obtained. (healthdocbox.com)
  • These residues might be participating on the presentation of an unknown antigen that would unchain the disease on the genetically susceptible individuals group. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Hence the heterogeneity of the results obtained up to date, it stands out the increase on HLA-B52 and HLA-DR4 reported on ethnically different populations. (bvsalud.org)
  • An HLA DRB1-DQB1 effect was shown to be exclusively due to DRB1 and showed similarity between oligoarticular patients and a younger subgroup of polyarticular patients. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It has been long realized that HLA associations in children are largely distinct from those in adult rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with HLA-DRB1*08, *11 and *13 reported in children with inflammatory arthritis ( 5 - 7 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HLA-DRB1*04 (and HLA-DRB1*07) are in fact protective depending on clinical subtype. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • HLA-DR13 is genetically linked to HLA-DR52 and HLA-DQ5 (HLA-DQ1) serotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The development of epitope-based vaccines, which have wide population coverage, is greatly complicated by MHC polymorphism. (jimmunol.org)
  • Epitopes can be defined as the molecular structures bound by specific receptors, which are recognized during immune responses. (neueve.com)
  • The HLA profiles of mixed connective tissue disease differ distinctly from the profiles of clinically related connective tissue diseases. (oslo-universitetssykehus.no)
  • Most of the diseases studied have HLA-associations. (artspace-jhb.co.za)
  • Among 33 children with biopsy proven HSP nephritis, 30% had segmental or global mesangial deposition of NAPlr antigen, comparing to 3% in other children with non-HSP nephritis glomerular diseases (half of these children had IgA nephropathy) [10]. (spotidoc.com)
  • 9. A fusion protein comprising: (i) an antibody, an antigen-binding antibody fragment or a cytokine conjugated to (ii) an anchoring domain (AD) moiety of an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • An antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells. (advancedcancerresearchinstitute.com)
  • To quantitate risk and study heterogeneity at high resolution for HLA in the most common JIA subtypes, IgM RF negative polyarticular and oligoarticular. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Inherited HLA factors in JIA show similarities overall as well as differences between subtypes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • As for HLA-DQ, the frequency of HLA-DQB1*0501 was significantly lower in the patient group. (healthdocbox.com)
  • T cells recognizing tetanus toxin peptide 'p2' (sequence 830-844) raised in HLA DR6 individuals preferentially express V beta 2 in the TCR. (ox.ac.uk)
  • DR14 serotype is a split antigen of the older HLA-DR6 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR13 antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MHC was first associated with disease in 1967 when HLA-B antigens were found at increased frequency in patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma [5] . (plos.org)
  • In this study, the frequency of s of HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP antigens was evaluated by means of the PCR- RFLP method. (healthdocbox.com)
  • Based on HLA phenotyping and source of donor hematopoietic cells, allo-HCT can be further divided into match related, match unrelated and haploidentical HCT. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tolerance is the procedure that eliminates or neutralizes autoreactive cells ( autoantigens ) and a failure in this procedure will ensue in autoimmunity ( 13 ) .It is known that every person possesses tolerance to self-antigens but this mechanism can blemish ensuing in autoimmunity. (artspace-jhb.co.za)
  • Katoh S, Matsumoto N, Kawakita K, Tominaga A, Kincade PW, Matsukura S: A role for CD44 in an antigen‑induced murine model of pulmonary eosinophilia. (sysmex-fcm.jp)
  • Another early finding included an association with a HLA- DP2 variant which when combined with HLA-DR3, DR5 (DR11), or DR6 (DR13) gave an enhanced level of risk, but not when combined with HLA-DR8. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • See full references for early MHC-HLA work . (dorak.info)
  • Are they more or less prone to develop autoimmune side effects as their system is exposed to these foreign antigens at a very early stage? (whale.to)
  • Thus the naturally occurring alternatives Dw14.2 (Gly86) and Dw14.1 (Val86)-which differ only at this one position in the entire antigen-binding region-show an all-or-nothing difference in presenting activity. (nus.edu.sg)