An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.
A serine protease that catalyses the release of an N-terminal dipeptide. Several biologically-active peptides have been identified as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 substrates including INCRETINS; NEUROPEPTIDES; and CHEMOKINES. The protein is also found bound to ADENOSINE DEAMINASE on the T-CELL surface and is believed to play a role in T-cell activation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.

HLA-DR expression and soluble HLA-DR levels in septic patients after trauma. (1/3769)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if cellular and soluble HLA-DR molecules may be relevant in severely injured patients for the development of gram-positive or gram-negative sepsis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: HLA-DR molecules play a central role in the specific immune response to infection. The reduced HLA-DR expression on monocytes is considered to correlate with infectious complications and the development of sepsis. Data on the role of HLA-DR expression on T cells and soluble HLA-DR molecules are rare. METHODS: HLA-DR expression on monocytes and T cells was measured by flow cytometry. Plasma levels of soluble HLA-DR were studied by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: HLA-DR expression on circulating T cells, calculated as mean fluorescence intensity in channels, was reduced at day 1 after admission in 20 patients with subsequent severe sepsis compared with 46 patients without sepsis. The septic patients immediately after trauma had significantly lower soluble HLA-DR plasma levels than the nonseptic patients. At day 2 after admission, HLA-DR expression on monocytes was significantly lower in the severe sepsis group than in the patients without sepsis, and lasted until day 14 after injury. CONCLUSIONS: In severely injured patients, decreased levels of cellular and soluble HLA-DR appear as early indicators of an immune deviation associated with the development of severe sepsis. Moreover, immune alterations of different cell types may promote distinct kinds of septicemia.  (+info)

Specificity and function of immunogenic peptides from the 35-kilodalton protein of Mycobacterium leprae. (2/3769)

We identified a T-cell determinant of the 35-kDa antigen of Mycobacterium leprae which is discriminatory against cross-sensitization by its closely related homologue in Mycobacterium avium. From synthetic peptides covering the entire sequence, those with the highest affinity and permissive binding to purified HLA-DR molecules were evaluated for the stimulation of proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from leprosy patients and healthy sensitized controls. Responses to the peptide pair 206-224, differing by four residues between M. leprae and M. avium, involved both species-specific and cross-reactive T cells. Lymph node cell proliferation in HLA-DRB1*01 transgenic mice was reciprocally species specific, but only the response to the M. leprae peptide in the context of DR1 was immunodominant. Of the cytokines in human PBMC cultures, gamma interferon production was negligible, while interleukin 10 (IL-10) responses in both patients and controls were more pronounced. IL-10 was most frequently induced by the shared 241-255 peptide, indicating that environmental cross-sensitization may skew the response toward a potentially pathogenic cytokine phenotype.  (+info)

Expression of B7 costimulatory molecules by salivary gland epithelial cells in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (3/3769)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of B7 costimulatory molecules in the lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary gland (SG) biopsy tissues and in SG epithelial cell lines derived from patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: B7.1 and B7.2 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in minor SGs obtained from 11 patients with SS and 10 disease control patients with nonspecific sialadenitis and in cultured SG epithelial cell lines obtained from minor SGs from 15 SS patients and 15 control patients. B7.1 and B7.2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by SG epithelial cell lines was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In biopsy tissues from SS patients, but not control patients, ductal and acinar epithelial cells showed increased expression of both B7.1 and B7.2. Intense spontaneous B7.1 protein expression (as well as HLA-ABC, but not B7.2 or HLA-DR) was also found in 73% of SG epithelial cell lines from SS patients versus 13% of those from control patients (P < 0.01). Interferon-y treatment induced, or up-regulated, B7.1, B7.2, and HLA-DR expression in all SG epithelial cell lines tested. B7.1 and B7.2 expression by SG epithelial cell lines was also verified at the mRNA level by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Human SG epithelia are intrinsically capable of expressing B7 proteins upon activation. In SS patients, the expression of B7 molecules by SG epithelial tissues and by SG epithelial cell lines indicates the activated status of SG epithelial cells in this disorder and, possibly, their capacity for presenting antigens to T cells.  (+info)

Disease pattern in cranial and large-vessel giant cell arteritis. (4/3769)

OBJECTIVE: To identify variables that distinguish large-vessel giant cell arteritis (GCA) with subclavian/axillary/brachial artery involvement from cranial GCA. METHODS: Seventy-four case patients with subclavian/axillary GCA diagnosed by angiography and 74 control patients with temporal artery biopsy-proven GCA without large vessel involvement matched for the date of first diagnosis were identified. Pertinent initial symptoms, time delay until diagnosis, and clinical symptoms, as well as clinical and laboratory findings at the time of diagnosis, were recorded by retrospective chart review. Expression of cytokine messenger RNA in temporal artery tissue from patients with large-vessel and cranial GCA was determined by semiquantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Distribution of disease-associated HLA-DRB1 alleles in patients with aortic arch syndrome and cranial GCA was assessed. RESULTS: The clinical presentation distinguished patients with large-vessel GCA from those with classic cranial GCA. Upper extremity vascular insufficiency dominated the clinical presentation of patients with large-vessel GCA, whereas symptoms related to impaired cranial blood flow were infrequent. Temporal artery biopsy findings were negative in 42% of patients with large-vessel GCA. Polymyalgia rheumatica occurred with similar frequency in both patient groups. Large-vessel GCA was associated with higher concentrations of interleukin-2 gene transcripts in arterial tissue and overrepresentation of the HLA-DRB1*0404 allele, indicating differences in pathogenetic mechanisms. CONCLUSION: GCA is not a single entity but includes several variants of disease. Large-vessel GCA produces a distinct spectrum of clinical manifestations and often occurs without involvement of the cranial arteries. Large-vessel GCA requires a different approach to the diagnosis and probably also to treatment.  (+info)

Ovine MHC class II DRB1 alleles associated with resistance or susceptibility to development of bovine leukemia virus-induced ovine lymphoma. (5/3769)

For the further characterization of bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-induced leukemogenesis, we investigated the association between polymorphism of ovine leukocyte antigen (OLA)-DRB1 gene and tumor development after infection of sheep with BLV. We infected 28 sheep with BLV and cloned exon 2 of the OLA-DRB1 gene from asymptomatic animals and from animals with lymphoma Sequence analysis revealed that, among 12 healthy sheep without any evidence of tumor, ten (83.3%) carried DRB1 alleles encoding Arg-Lys (RK) at positions beta70/71 as compared with only 6 (37.5%) of the 16 sheep with lymphoma, which suggested that alleles encoding the RK motif might protect against development of tumors after infection by BLV. By contrast, alleles encoding Ser-Arg (SR) at positions beta70/71 were present at a significantly elevated frequency in sheep with lymphoma as compared with the healthy carriers, which indicated that OLA-DRB1 alleles encoding the SR motif might be positively related to susceptibility to tumor development. The two amino acids in these motifs line a pocket that accommodates the side chain of a bound peptide according to a model of the crystal structure of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR1. To analyze immunoreactions of sheep with alleles that encoded RK or SR at beta70/71, we selected sheep with either the RK/SR genotypes or the SR/SR genotypes and immunized them with a mixture of multiple synthetic antigenic peptides that corresponded to T-helper, T-cytotoxic, and B-cell epitopes of the BLV envelope glycoprotein gp51. Two weeks after the last immunization, all of the sheep were challenged with BLV. Sheep with the RK/SR genotype produced neutralizing antibodies against BLV; they eliminated BLV completely within 28 weeks of the BLV challenge, and they gave strong lymphocyte-proliferative responses to the peptides used for immunization. Moreover, such animals did not develop lymphoma. By contrast, sheep with the SR/SR genotype continued to produce BLV throughout the experimental period and developed terminal disease. Our results indicate that the differences in immunoresponse were due to differences in major histocompatibility complex class II alleles and reflected the risk of BLV-induced leukemogenesis. In addition, it appears that susceptibility to tumor development may be determined to some extent by polymorphic residues binding to antigenic peptides directly within the binding cleft of the OLA-DR molecule.  (+info)

Bone marrow and peripheral blood dendritic cells from patients with multiple myeloma are phenotypically and functionally normal despite the detection of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus gene sequences. (6/3769)

Multiple myeloma (MM) cells express idiotypic proteins and other tumor-associated antigens which make them ideal targets for novel immunotherapeutic approaches. However, recent reports show the presence of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) gene sequences in bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) in MM, raising concerns regarding their antigen-presenting cell (APC) function. In the present study, we sought to identify the ideal source of DCs from MM patients for use in vaccination approaches. We compared the relative frequency, phenotype, and function of BMDCs or peripheral blood dendritic cells (PBDCs) from MM patients versus normal donors. DCs were derived by culture of mononuclear cells in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-4. The yield as well as the pattern and intensity of Ag (HLA-DR, CD40, CD54, CD80, and CD86) expression were equivalent on DCs from BM or PB of MM patients versus normal donors. Comparison of PBDCs versus BMDCs showed higher surface expression of HLA-DR (P =.01), CD86 (P =. 0003), and CD14 (P =.04) on PBDCs. APC function, assessed using an allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR), demonstrated equivalent T-cell proliferation triggered by MM versus normal DCs. Moreover, no differences in APC function were noted in BMDCs compared with PBDCs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of genomic DNA from both MM patient and normal donor DCs for the 233-bp KSHV gene sequence (KS330233) was negative, but nested PCR to yield a final product of 186 bp internal to KS330233 was positive in 16 of 18 (88.8%) MM BMDCs, 3 of 8 (37.5%) normal BMDCs, 1 of 5 (20%) MM PBDCs, and 2 of 6 (33.3%) normal donor PBDCs. Sequencing of 4 MM patient PCR products showed 96% to 98% homology to the published KSHV gene sequence, with patient specific mutations ruling out PCR artifacts or contamination. In addition, KHSV-specific viral cyclin D (open reading frame [ORF] 72) was amplified in 2 of 5 MM BMDCs, with sequencing of the ORF 72 amplicon revealing 91% and 92% homology to the KSHV viral cyclin D sequence. These sequences again demonstrated patient specific mutations, ruling out contamination. Therefore, our studies show that PB appears to be the preferred source of DCs for use in vaccination strategies due to the ready accessibility and phenotypic profile of PBDCs, as well as the comparable APC function and lower detection rate of KSHV gene sequences compared with BMDCs. Whether active KSHV infection is present and important in the pathophysiology of MM remains unclear; however, our study shows that MMDCs remain functional despite the detection of KSHV gene sequences.  (+info)

Identification of MAGE-3 epitopes presented by HLA-DR molecules to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. (7/3769)

MAGE-type genes are expressed by many tumors of different histological types and not by normal cells, except for male germline cells, which do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Therefore, the antigens encoded by MAGE-type genes are strictly tumor specific and common to many tumors. We describe here the identification of the first MAGE-encoded epitopes presented by histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules to CD4(+) T lymphocytes. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells were loaded with a MAGE-3 recombinant protein and used to stimulate autologous CD4(+) T cells. We isolated CD4(+) T cell clones that recognized two different MAGE-3 epitopes, MAGE-3114-127 and MAGE-3121-134, both presented by the HLA-DR13 molecule, which is expressed in 20% of Caucasians. The second epitope is also encoded by MAGE-1, -2, and -6. Our procedure should be applicable to other proteins for the identification of new tumor-specific antigens presented by HLA class II molecules. The knowledge of such antigens will be useful for evaluation of the immune response of cancer patients immunized with proteins or with recombinant viruses carrying entire genes coding for tumor antigens. The use of antigenic peptides presented by class II in addition to peptides presented by class I may also improve the efficacy of therapeutic antitumor vaccination.  (+info)

Melanoma cells present a MAGE-3 epitope to CD4(+) cytotoxic T cells in association with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen DR11. (8/3769)

In this study we used TEPITOPE, a new epitope prediction software, to identify sequence segments on the MAGE-3 protein with promiscuous binding to histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR molecules. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the identified sequences were synthesized and used to propagate CD4(+) T cells from the blood of a healthy donor. CD4(+) T cells strongly recognized MAGE-3281-295 and, to a lesser extent, MAGE-3141-155 and MAGE-3146-160. Moreover, CD4(+) T cells proliferated in the presence of recombinant MAGE-3 after processing and presentation by autologous antigen presenting cells, demonstrating that the MAGE-3 epitopes recognized are naturally processed. CD4(+) T cells, mostly of the T helper 1 type, showed specific lytic activity against HLA-DR11/MAGE-3-positive melanoma cells. Cold target inhibition experiments demonstrated indeed that the CD4(+) T cells recognized MAGE-3281-295 in association with HLA-DR11 on melanoma cells. This is the first evidence that a tumor-specific shared antigen forms CD4(+) T cell epitopes. Furthermore, we validated the use of algorithms for the prediction of promiscuous CD4(+) T cell epitopes, thus opening the possibility of wide application to other tumor-associated antigens. These results have direct implications for cancer immunotherapy in the design of peptide-based vaccines with tumor-specific CD4(+) T cell epitopes.  (+info)

HLA-DR3 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances. The HLA-DR3 antigen is encoded by the DRB1*03:01 gene and is commonly found in individuals with certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and celiac disease.

The HLA-DR3 antigen plays a role in presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) to CD4+ T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that helps coordinate the immune response. The presentation of specific peptides by the HLA-DR3 antigen can lead to an abnormal immune response in some individuals, resulting in the development of autoimmune diseases.

It's important to note that having the HLA-DR3 antigen does not guarantee that a person will develop an autoimmune disease, as other genetic and environmental factors also play a role.

HLA-DR antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes. HLA-DR molecules present peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells, thereby initiating an immune response.

HLA-DR antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variants of these molecules in the human population. This diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented and recognized by the immune system. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.

In transplantation, HLA-DR compatibility between donor and recipient is an important factor in determining the success of the transplant. Incompatibility can lead to a heightened immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue, resulting in rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-DR types have been associated with increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in our body. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are three types of HLA antigens: HLA class I, HLA class II, and HLA class III. HLA class I antigens are found on the surface of almost all cells in the body and help the immune system recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells. They consist of three components: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C.

HLA class II antigens are primarily found on the surface of immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. They assist in the presentation of foreign particles (like bacteria and viruses) to CD4+ T cells, which then activate other parts of the immune system. HLA class II antigens include HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

HLA class III antigens consist of various molecules involved in immune responses, such as cytokines and complement components. They are not directly related to antigen presentation.

The genetic diversity of HLA antigens is extensive, with thousands of variations or alleles. This diversity allows for a better ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens. However, this variation can also lead to compatibility issues in organ transplantation, as the recipient's immune system may recognize the donor's HLA antigens as foreign and attack the transplanted organ.

HLA-DR4 is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II histocompatibility antigen, which is found on the surface of white blood cells. It is encoded by the HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB1 genes, located on chromosome 6. The HLA-DR4 antigen includes several subtypes, such as DRB1*04:01, DRB1*04:02, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:05, DRB1*04:06, DRB1*04:07, DRB1*04:08, DRB1*04:09, DRB1*04:10, DRB1*04:11, and DRB1*04:12.

The HLA-DR4 antigen plays a crucial role in the immune system by presenting peptides to CD4+ T cells, which then stimulate an immune response. This antigen is associated with several autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. However, it's important to note that having the HLA-DR4 antigen does not necessarily mean that a person will develop one of these conditions, as other genetic and environmental factors also contribute to their development.

Histocompatibility antigens Class II are a group of cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to foreign substances. They are expressed on the surface of various cells, including immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated T lymphocytes.

Class II histocompatibility antigens are encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes, which are located on chromosome 6 in humans. These antigens are composed of two non-covalently associated polypeptide chains, an alpha (α) and a beta (β) chain, which form a heterodimer. There are three main types of Class II histocompatibility antigens, known as HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

Class II histocompatibility antigens present peptide antigens to CD4+ T helper cells, which then activate other immune cells, such as B cells and macrophages, to mount an immune response against the presented antigen. Because of their role in initiating an immune response, Class II histocompatibility antigens are important in transplantation medicine, where mismatches between donor and recipient can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

HLA-D antigens, also known as HLA class II antigens, are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the immune system. "HLA" stands for Human Leukocyte Antigen, which is a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans.

HLA-D antigens are primarily expressed by immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but they can also be found on other cell types under certain conditions. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" by presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that is crucial for mounting an immune response.

HLA-D antigens are divided into three subtypes: HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR. Each subtype has a specific function in presenting peptides to T lymphocytes. The genes that encode HLA-D antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variations of these genes in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a better match between an individual's immune system and the wide variety of pathogens they may encounter.

Abnormalities in HLA-D antigens have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, certain variations in HLA-D genes can influence the severity of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C.

HLA-DR serological subtyping refers to the identification and classification of specific variants or subtypes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DR antigens based on their reactivity with a panel of antibodies in serological assays. HLAs are cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting peptide antigens to T-cells. The HLA-DR molecules are involved in the presentation of foreign antigens, such as viruses and bacteria, to the immune system.

The serological subtyping of HLA-DR antigens is performed using a panel of antibodies with known specificity for different HLA-DR epitopes. The reactivity of an individual's HLA-DR antigens with these antibodies allows for the determination of their HLA-DR serological subtype. This information can be useful in various clinical settings, such as histocompatibility testing for organ transplantation and the diagnosis of certain autoimmune diseases.

It is important to note that HLA-DR serological subtyping has largely been replaced by molecular typing methods, which provide more precise and detailed information about HLA alleles. Molecular typing involves the direct sequencing or genotyping of HLA genes, allowing for the identification of specific HLA alleles and their associated amino acid sequences.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II genes are a group of genes that encode cell surface proteins responsible for presenting peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, which are crucial in the adaptive immune response. These proteins are expressed mainly on professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. MHC Class II molecules present extracellular antigens derived from bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, facilitating the activation of appropriate immune responses to eliminate the threat. The genes responsible for these proteins are found within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 in humans (chromosome 17 in mice).

HLA-B antigens are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the body's immune system. They are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present pieces of proteins from inside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell involved in immune responses.

HLA-B antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations or alleles of this gene in the human population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential HLA-B proteins to be expressed, which can help recognize and respond to a variety of foreign substances, such as viruses and cancer cells.

The HLA-B antigens are inherited from both parents, and an individual may express one or two different HLA-B antigens depending on their genetic makeup. The specific combination of HLA-B antigens that a person expresses can have implications for their susceptibility to certain diseases, as well as their compatibility with organ transplants.

HLA-DQ antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that are found on the surface of cells in our body. They are a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of proteins from outside the cell to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells. This presentation process is essential for initiating an appropriate immune response against potentially harmful pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

HLA-DQ antigens are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6p21.3 in the HLA region. Each individual inherits a pair of HLA-DQ genes, one from each parent, which can result in various combinations of HLA-DQ alleles. These genetic variations contribute to the diversity of immune responses among different individuals.

HLA-DQ antigens consist of two noncovalently associated polypeptide chains: an alpha (DQA) chain and a beta (DQB) chain. There are several isotypes of HLA-DQ antigens, including DQ1, DQ2, DQ3, DQ4, DQ5, DQ6, DQ7, DQ8, and DQ9, which are determined by the specific combination of DQA and DQB alleles.

Certain HLA-DQ genotypes have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease (DQ2 and DQ8), type 1 diabetes (DQ2, DQ8), and rheumatoid arthritis (DQ4). Understanding the role of HLA-DQ antigens in these conditions can provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

HLA-DR2 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins that play an important role in the body's immune system. They help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-DR2 antigen is found on the surface of certain white blood cells called B lymphocytes and activated T lymphocytes. It is encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in a region known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The HLA-DR2 antigen is further divided into two subtypes, DRB1*1501 and DRB1*1502.

The HLA-DR2 antigen is associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. It is also associated with an increased susceptibility to certain infectious diseases, such as leprosy and tuberculosis.

It's important to note that having the HLA-DR2 antigen does not guarantee that a person will develop an autoimmune or infectious disease, but it may increase their risk. Other genetic and environmental factors also play a role in the development of these conditions.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

A Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed (LCTM) is not a standardized medical test with a universally accepted definition. However, in some contexts, it may refer to a laboratory procedure where both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are cultured together from a sample of peripheral blood or other tissues. This test is sometimes used in research or specialized diagnostic settings to evaluate the immune function or to study the interactions between T-cells and B-cells in response to various stimuli, such as antigens or mitogens.

The test typically involves isolating lymphocytes from a sample, adding them to a culture medium along with appropriate stimulants, and then incubating the mixture for a period of time. The resulting responses, such as proliferation, differentiation, or production of cytokines, can be measured and analyzed to gain insights into the immune function or dysfunction.

It's important to note that LCTM is not a routine diagnostic test and its use and interpretation may vary depending on the specific laboratory or research setting.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

HLA-DR7 antigen is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) serotype that is part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. The HLA-DR7 antigen is encoded by the DRB1*07 gene and is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells such as B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells.

The HLA-DR7 antigen presents peptide fragments to CD4+ T helper cells, which then activate other immune cells like B cells and cytotoxic T cells to mount an immune response against pathogens or infected cells. The HLA-DR7 serotype is relatively common in many populations, with varying frequencies depending on the ethnic background.

It's important to note that certain HLA types, including HLA-DR7, have been associated with increased susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. However, the relationship between HLA types and disease is complex and not fully understood, as it involves multiple genetic and environmental factors.

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca, also known as dry eye syndrome, is a condition characterized by decreased quality and/or quantity of tears to lubricate and nourish the eye. This can result in discomfort, visual disturbance, and potentially damage to the ocular surface. It is often associated with inflammation of the conjunctiva and the cornea. The symptoms may include dryness, scratchiness, burning, foreign body sensation, pain, redness, blurred vision, and light sensitivity.

HLA-DR1 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances. The HLA-DR1 antigen is encoded by the HLA-DRB1*01 gene and is expressed on the surface of various cells, including B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells.

HLA-DR1 is one of several HLA antigens that can be associated with specific diseases or conditions. For example, it has been found to be more common in individuals with certain autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Additionally, the presence of HLA-DR1 may influence the outcome of organ transplantation, as it can affect the likelihood of rejection.

It's important to note that while HLA typing can provide useful information for medical purposes, such as matching donors and recipients for organ transplants or identifying genetic susceptibility to certain diseases, it does not definitively predict the development of a particular disease or the outcome of treatment.

Gold sodium thiomalate is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) that contains gold, which can help reduce pain, swelling, and stiffness in joints caused by rheumatoid arthritis. It works by possibly inhibiting certain enzymes involved in inflammation and modulating the immune system's response to reduce tissue damage.

This medication is given as an intramuscular injection and requires medical supervision due to its potential side effects, including kidney and liver problems, skin rashes, mouth sores, and changes in blood cell counts. Regular monitoring of blood and urine tests is necessary during treatment with gold sodium thiomalate.

It's important to note that the use of this medication has declined over time due to the availability of newer and more effective treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, as well as its potential side effects.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

HLA-DRB1 chains are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in the human body. The MHC class II molecules play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of foreign proteins to CD4+ T cells, which then stimulate an immune response.

HLA-DRB1 chains are one of the two polypeptide chains that make up the HLA-DR heterodimer, the other chain being the HLA-DRA chain. The HLA-DRB1 chain contains specific regions called antigen-binding sites, which bind to and present foreign peptides to CD4+ T cells.

The HLA-DRB1 gene is highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations or alleles of this gene in the human population. These variations can affect an individual's susceptibility or resistance to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. Therefore, the identification and characterization of HLA-DRB1 alleles have important implications for disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens refer to specific proteins expressed by polyomaviruses that can induce cellular transformation and lead to the development of cancer. These antigens are called large T antigen (T-Ag) and small t antigen (t-Ag). They manipulate key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

The large T antigen is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in viral replication and transformation. It has several domains with different functions:

1. Origin binding domain (OBD): Binds to the viral origin of replication, initiating DNA synthesis.
2. Helicase domain: Unwinds double-stranded DNA during replication.
3. DNA binding domain: Binds to specific DNA sequences and acts as a transcriptional regulator.
4. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding domain: Recruits PP1 to promote viral DNA replication and inhibit host cell defense mechanisms.
5. p53-binding domain: Binds and inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53, promoting cell cycle progression and preventing apoptosis.
6. Rb-binding domain: Binds to and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to deregulation of the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth.

The small t antigen shares a common N-terminal region with large T antigen but lacks some functional domains, such as the OBD and helicase domain. Small t antigen can also bind to and inactivate PP1 and pRb, contributing to transformation. However, its primary role is to stabilize large T antigen by preventing its proteasomal degradation.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens are associated with various human cancers, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus) and some forms of brain tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas (associated with simian virus 40).

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

HLA-A antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in our body. They are proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and distinguish its own cells from foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria, and transplanted organs.

The HLA-A antigens are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The CTLs then recognize and destroy any cells that display foreign or abnormal peptides on their HLA-A antigens.

Each person has a unique set of HLA-A antigens, which are inherited from their parents. These antigens can vary widely between individuals, making it important to match HLA types in organ transplantation to reduce the risk of rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-A antigens have been associated with increased susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

H-2 antigens are a group of cell surface proteins found in mice that play a critical role in the immune system. They are similar to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex in humans and are involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to T cells, which is a crucial step in the adaptive immune response.

The H-2 antigens are encoded by a cluster of genes located on chromosome 17 in mice. They are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these proteins circulating in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented to T cells, thereby enhancing the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to a variety of pathogens.

The H-2 antigens are divided into two classes based on their function and structure. Class I H-2 antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells and consist of a heavy chain, a light chain, and a peptide fragment. They present endogenous peptides, such as those derived from viruses that infect the cell, to CD8+ T cells.

Class II H-2 antigens, on the other hand, are found primarily on professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. They consist of an alpha chain and a beta chain and present exogenous peptides, such as those derived from bacteria that have been engulfed by the cell, to CD4+ T cells.

Overall, H-2 antigens are essential components of the mouse immune system, allowing for the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

An epitope is a specific region on an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) that is recognized and bound by an antibody or a T-cell receptor. In the case of T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity, epitopes are typically presented on the surface of infected cells in association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.

T-lymphocytes recognize and respond to epitopes through their T-cell receptors (TCRs), which are membrane-bound proteins that can bind to specific epitopes presented on the surface of infected cells. There are two main types of T-lymphocytes: CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, and CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells.

CD4+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class II molecules, which are typically expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-cells. CD4+ T-cells help to coordinate the immune response by producing cytokines that activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class I molecules, which are expressed on the surface of almost all nucleated cells. CD8+ T-cells are able to directly kill infected cells by releasing cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes that can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cell.

In summary, epitopes are specific regions on antigens that are recognized and bound by T-lymphocytes through their T-cell receptors. CD4+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class II molecules, while CD8+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class I molecules.

Histocompatibility antigens, class I are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." These antigens are composed of three polypeptides - two heavy chains and one light chain - and are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 in humans.

Class I MHC molecules present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T cells. This presentation allows the immune system to detect and destroy cells that have been infected by viruses or other intracellular pathogens, or that have become cancerous.

There are three main types of class I MHC molecules in humans: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. The term "HLA" stands for human leukocyte antigen, which reflects the original identification of these proteins on white blood cells (leukocytes). The genes encoding these molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variants in the population, and matching HLA types is essential for successful organ transplantation to minimize the risk of rejection.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein that is normally produced in small amounts during fetal development. In adults, low levels of CEA can be found in the blood, but elevated levels are typically associated with various types of cancer, particularly colon, rectal, and breast cancer.

Measurement of CEA levels in the blood is sometimes used as a tumor marker to monitor response to treatment, detect recurrence, or screen for secondary cancers in patients with a history of certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that CEA is not a specific or sensitive indicator of cancer and can be elevated in various benign conditions such as inflammation, smoking, and some gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings.

Antigens are substances that trigger an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules found on the surface of cells or viruses.

Viral antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of viruses. When a virus infects a cell, it may display viral antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This can alert the immune system to the presence of the virus and trigger an immune response.

Tumor antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens may be unique to the cancer cells, or they may be similar to antigens found on normal cells. Tumor antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign, leading to an immune response against the cancer cells.

It is important to note that not all viral infections lead to cancer, and not all tumors are caused by viruses. However, some viruses have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increased risk of cervical, anal, and oral cancers. In these cases, the virus may introduce viral antigens into the cells it infects, leading to an altered presentation of tumor antigens on the surface of the infected cells. This can potentially trigger an immune response against both the viral antigens and the tumor antigens, which may help to prevent or slow the growth of the cancer.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Histocompatibility antigens, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells. Histocompatibility antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are two main types of histocompatibility antigens: class I and class II. Class I antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells, while class II antigens are primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These antigens present pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

When foreign peptides are presented to T-cells by histocompatibility antigens, it triggers an immune response aimed at eliminating the threat. This is why histocompatibility antigens are so important in organ transplantation - if the donor's and recipient's antigens do not match closely enough, the recipient's immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and attack it.

Understanding the role of histocompatibility antigens has been crucial in developing techniques for matching donors and recipients in organ transplantation, as well as in diagnosing and treating various autoimmune diseases and cancers.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a range of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling pathway or changing the cell's behavior. There are various types of receptors, including ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies or T-cells, as foreign and potentially harmful. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or even non-living substances like pollen, chemicals, or toxins. An antigen typically contains epitopes, which are the specific regions that antibodies or T-cell receptors recognize and bind to.

3. T-Cell: Also known as T lymphocytes, T-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity, a part of the adaptive immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs). T-cells recognize antigens presented to them by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via their surface receptors called the T-cell receptor (TCR). Once activated, T-cells can proliferate and differentiate into various effector cells that help eliminate infected or damaged cells.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

HLA-A2 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule, which is found on the surface of cells in our body. HLA molecules are responsible for presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from inside the cell to the immune system's T-cells, helping them distinguish between "self" and "non-self" proteins.

HLA-A2 is one of the most common HLA class I antigens in the Caucasian population, with an estimated frequency of around 50%. It presents a variety of peptides to T-cells, including those derived from viruses and tumor cells. The presentation of these peptides can trigger an immune response, leading to the destruction of infected or malignant cells.

It is important to note that HLA typing is crucial in organ transplantation, as a mismatch between donor and recipient HLA antigens can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. Additionally, HLA-A2 has been associated with certain autoimmune diseases and cancer types, making it an area of interest for researchers studying these conditions.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. This results in an inability to regulate blood glucose levels, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. It is usually managed with regular insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, along with monitoring of blood glucose levels and adjustments to diet and physical activity. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a variety of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling cascade or changing the cell's metabolism. Receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including communication between cells, regulation of immune responses, and perception of senses.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the adaptive immune system, specifically by B-cells and T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as microorganisms (like bacteria, viruses, or fungi), pollen, dust mites, or even components of our own cells (for instance, in autoimmune diseases). An antigen's ability to stimulate an immune response is determined by its molecular structure and whether it can be recognized by the receptors on immune cells.

3. B-Cell: B-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system, particularly in humoral immunity. They originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens. Each B-cell has receptors on its surface called B-cell receptors (BCRs) that can recognize a unique antigen. When a B-cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated, undergoes proliferation, and differentiates into plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein enzyme produced by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. It is primarily involved in liquefying semen after ejaculation, allowing sperm mobility.

In clinical medicine, PSA is used as a tumor marker, mainly for monitoring the treatment and recurrence of prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSA can indicate inflammation, infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer. However, it's important to note that an elevated PSA level does not necessarily confirm cancer; further diagnostic tests like digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostate biopsy are often required for definitive diagnosis.

Doctors may also use PSA isoforms or derivatives, such as free PSA, total PSA, and PSA density, to help improve the specificity of cancer detection and differentiate between malignant and benign conditions.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease that primarily affects the joints. It is characterized by persistent inflammation, synovial hyperplasia, and subsequent damage to the articular cartilage and bone. The immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues, specifically targeting the synovial membrane lining the joint capsule. This results in swelling, pain, warmth, and stiffness in affected joints, often most severely in the hands and feet.

RA can also have extra-articular manifestations, affecting other organs such as the lungs, heart, skin, eyes, and blood vessels. The exact cause of RA remains unknown, but it is believed to involve a complex interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial in managing rheumatoid arthritis to prevent joint damage, disability, and systemic complications.

Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) is a serine protease enzyme that is widely distributed in various tissues and organs, including the kidney, liver, intestines, and immune cells. It plays a crucial role in regulating several biological processes, such as glucose metabolism, immune function, and cell signaling.

In terms of glucose metabolism, DPP-4 is responsible for breaking down incretin hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), which are released from the gut in response to food intake. These hormones stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells, suppress glucagon release, and promote satiety, thereby helping to regulate blood sugar levels. By degrading GLP-1 and GIP, DPP-4 reduces their activity and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes.

DPP-4 inhibitors are a class of drugs used to treat type 2 diabetes by blocking the action of DPP-4 and increasing incretin hormone levels, leading to improved insulin secretion and glucose control.

CD8 antigens are a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes or cytotoxic T cells. These cells play a critical role in the adaptive immune response, which is the specific and targeted response of the immune system to foreign substances (antigens) that invade the body.

CD8 antigens help cytotoxic T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells, such as those that have been infected by a virus or have become cancerous. When a cytotoxic T cell encounters a cell displaying a specific antigen bound to a CD8 molecule, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances that can kill the target cell.

CD8 antigens are also known as cluster of differentiation 8 antigens or CD8 receptors. They belong to a larger family of proteins called major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) molecules, which present antigens to T cells and play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to distinguish between self and non-self.

CD15 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain types of white blood cells called neutrophils and monocytes. It is also expressed on some types of cancer cells, including myeloid leukemia cells and some lymphomas. CD15 antigens are part of a group of molecules known as carbohydrate antigens because they contain sugar-like substances called carbohydrates.

CD15 antigens play a role in the immune system's response to infection and disease. They can be recognized by certain types of immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells, which can then target and destroy cells that express CD15 antigens. In cancer, the presence of CD15 antigens on the surface of cancer cells can make them more visible to the immune system, potentially triggering an immune response against the cancer.

CD15 antigens are also used as a marker in laboratory tests to help identify and classify different types of white blood cells and cancer cells. For example, CD15 staining is often used in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to distinguish it from other types of leukemia.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are a type of tumor antigen that are expressed on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens are abnormal forms of carbohydrates, also known as glycans, which are attached to proteins and lipids on the cell surface.

TACAs are often overexpressed or expressed in a different form on cancer cells compared to normal cells. This makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy because they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and elicit an immune response. Some examples of TACAs include gangliosides, fucosylated glycans, and sialylated glycans.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens have been studied as potential targets for cancer vaccines, antibody therapies, and other immunotherapeutic approaches. However, their use as targets for cancer therapy is still in the early stages of research and development.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Blood group antigens are molecular markers found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and sometimes other types of cells in the body. These antigens are proteins, carbohydrates, or glycoproteins that can stimulate an immune response when foreign antigens are introduced into the body.

There are several different blood group systems, but the most well-known is the ABO system, which includes A, B, AB, and O blood groups. The antigens in this system are called ABO antigens. Individuals with type A blood have A antigens on their RBCs, those with type B blood have B antigens, those with type AB blood have both A and B antigens, and those with type O blood have neither A nor B antigens.

Another important blood group system is the Rh system, which includes the D antigen. Individuals who have this antigen are considered Rh-positive, while those who do not have it are considered Rh-negative.

Blood group antigens can cause complications during blood transfusions and pregnancy if there is a mismatch between the donor's or fetus's antigens and the recipient's antibodies. For example, if a person with type A blood receives type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack the foreign B antigens on the donated RBCs, causing a potentially life-threatening transfusion reaction. Similarly, if an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus, her immune system may produce anti-D antibodies that can cross the placenta and attack the fetal RBCs, leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn.

It is important for medical professionals to determine a patient's blood group before performing a transfusion or pregnancy-related procedures to avoid these complications.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

CD3 antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The CD3 antigens are composed of several different subunits (ε, δ, γ, and α) that associate to form the CD3 complex, which is involved in T-cell activation and signal transduction.

The CD3 complex is associated with the T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. When the TCR binds to an antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to T-cell activation and the initiation of an immune response.

CD3 antigens are important targets for immunotherapy in some diseases, such as certain types of cancer. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target CD3 have been developed to activate T-cells and enhance their ability to recognize and destroy tumor cells. However, CD3-targeted therapies can also cause side effects, such as cytokine release syndrome, which can be serious or life-threatening in some cases.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis B virus. They are present in the blood of individuals infected with the Hepatitis B virus and are used as a marker for the presence of a current Hepatitis B infection. The detection of HBsAg in the blood indicates that an individual is infectious and can transmit the virus to others. It is typically used in diagnostic tests to detect and diagnose Hepatitis B infections, monitor treatment response, and assess the risk of transmission.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

HLA-C antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in the human body. They are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells.

HLA-C antigens are responsible for presenting peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This presentation allows the CTLs to recognize and destroy infected or damaged cells, helping to prevent the spread of viruses and other pathogens.

Like other HLA antigens, HLA-C antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these molecules in the human population. This diversity allows for a better match between an individual's immune system and the pathogens they encounter, increasing the chances of mounting an effective immune response. However, this same diversity can also make it more challenging to find compatible organ donors for transplantation.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

HLA-DQ beta-chains are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecule found on the surface of cells in the human body. The HLAs are a group of proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-DQ beta-chains are part of the HLA-DQ complex, which is a heterodimer made up of two polypeptide chains: an alpha chain (HLA-DQ alpha) and a beta chain (HLA-DQ beta). These chains are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.

The HLA-DQ complex is involved in presenting peptides to CD4+ T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The peptides presented by the HLA-DQ complex are derived from proteins that have been processed within the cell, and they are used to help the CD4+ T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells.

Variations in the genes that encode the HLA-DQ beta-chains can affect an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 proteins or CD4 molecules, are a type of cell surface receptor found on certain immune cells, including T-helper cells and monocytes. They play a critical role in the immune response by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and helping to activate T-cells. CD4 antigens are also the primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, leading to the destruction of CD4-positive T-cells and a weakened immune system.

CD45 is a protein that is found on the surface of many types of white blood cells, including T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. It is also known as leukocyte common antigen because it is present on almost all leukocytes. CD45 is a tyrosine phosphatase that plays a role in regulating the activity of various proteins involved in cell signaling pathways.

As an antigen, CD45 is used as a marker to identify and distinguish different types of white blood cells. It has several isoforms that are generated by alternative splicing of its mRNA, resulting in different molecular weights. The size of the CD45 isoform can be used to distinguish between different subsets of T-cells and B-cells.

CD45 is an important molecule in the immune system, and abnormalities in its expression or function have been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

Antigen receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells, particularly B cells and T cells. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances such as proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids that stimulate an immune response.

B cell receptors (BCRs) are membrane-bound antibodies that recognize and bind to native antigens. When a BCR binds to its specific antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signals that lead to the activation and differentiation of the B cell into an antibody-secreting plasma cell.

T cell receptors (TCRs) are membrane-bound proteins found on T cells that recognize and bind to antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. TCRs can distinguish between self and non-self antigens, allowing T cells to mount an immune response against infected or cancerous cells while sparing healthy cells.

Overall, antigen receptors play a critical role in the adaptive immune system's ability to recognize and respond to a wide variety of foreign substances.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the cell-mediated immune system. They are responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells and cancer cells. When a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognizes a specific antigen presented on the surface of an infected or malignant cell, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes, which can create pores in the target cell's membrane and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). This process helps to eliminate the infected or malignant cells and prevent the spread of infection or cancer.

CD1 antigens are a group of molecules found on the surface of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells and B cells. They play a role in the immune system by presenting lipid antigens to T cells, which helps initiate an immune response against foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses. CD1 molecules are distinct from other antigen-presenting molecules like HLA because they present lipids rather than peptides. There are five different types of CD1 molecules (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, and CD1e) that differ in their tissue distribution and the types of lipid antigens they present.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

HLA-A1 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule that plays an important role in the immune system. The HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-A1 antigen is one of several different types of HLA-A molecules, and it is determined by a specific set of genes located on chromosome 6. The HLA-A1 antigen is expressed on the surface of some cells in the human body and can be detected through laboratory testing.

The HLA-A1 antigen is associated with certain diseases or conditions, such as an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer or autoimmune disorders. It is also used as a marker for tissue typing in organ transplantation to help match donors and recipients and reduce the risk of rejection.

It's important to note that the presence or absence of HLA-A1 antigen alone does not determine whether someone will develop a particular disease or experience a successful organ transplant. Other genetic and environmental factors also play a role in these outcomes.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria that can be recognized by the immune system and provoke an immune response. In the context of differentiation, antigens refer to specific markers that identify the developmental stage or lineage of a cell.

Differentiation antigens are proteins or carbohydrates expressed on the surface of cells during various stages of differentiation, which can be used to distinguish between cells at different maturation stages or of different cell types. These antigens play an essential role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to abnormal or infected cells while sparing healthy cells.

Examples of differentiation antigens include:

1. CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules: A group of membrane proteins used to identify and define various cell types, such as T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes, and granulocytes.
2. Lineage-specific antigens: Antigens that are specific to certain cell lineages, such as CD3 for T cells or CD19 for B cells.
3. Maturation markers: Antigens that indicate the maturation stage of a cell, like CD34 and CD38 on hematopoietic stem cells.

Understanding differentiation antigens is crucial in immunology, cancer research, transplantation medicine, and vaccine development.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria that the immune system recognizes as foreign and mounts a response against.

Differentiation in the context of T-lymphocytes refers to the process by which immature T-cells mature and develop into different types of T-cells with specific functions, such as CD4+ helper T-cells or CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. Once mature, they circulate throughout the body in search of foreign antigens to attack and destroy.

Therefore, 'Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte' refers to the process by which T-lymphocytes mature and develop the ability to recognize and respond to specific foreign antigens.

HLA-B7 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in our body. The HLAs are proteins that help our immune system recognize and fight off foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. Specifically, HLA-B7 is a class I HLA antigen, which presents peptides from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response.

HLA-B7 has been identified as one of the many different HLA types that can be inherited from our parents. It is located on chromosome 6 and has several subtypes. The HLA-B7 antigen is associated with certain diseases, such as ankylosing spondylitis, a type of arthritis that affects the spine. However, having this HLA type does not necessarily mean that a person will develop the disease, as other genetic and environmental factors are also involved.

It's important to note that HLA typing is used in organ transplantation to match donors and recipients and reduce the risk of rejection. Knowing a patient's HLA type can help identify compatible donors and improve the chances of a successful transplant.

HLA-B27 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of white blood cells. HLAs are proteins that help the body's immune system distinguish its own cells from foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

HLA-B27 is a specific type of HLA-B antigen, which is part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The presence of HLA-B27 antigen can be inherited from parents to their offspring.

While most people with the HLA-B27 antigen do not develop any health problems, this antigen is associated with an increased risk of developing certain inflammatory diseases, particularly spondyloarthritis, a group of disorders that affect the joints and spine. Examples of these conditions include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. However, not everyone with HLA-B27 will develop these diseases, and many people without the antigen can still develop spondyloarthritis.

HLA-B8 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins that play an important role in the body's immune system by helping to distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-B8 antigen is a specific variant of the HLA-B gene, which is located on chromosome 6. It is commonly found in approximately 10% of the Caucasian population and is associated with an increased risk of certain autoimmune diseases such as coeliac disease, type 1 diabetes, and autoimmune thyroid disease.

It's important to note that while having the HLA-B8 antigen may increase the risk of developing these conditions, it does not necessarily mean that the person will definitely develop the disease. Other genetic and environmental factors also play a role in the development of these conditions.

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins in vertebrates that play a central role in the adaptive immune system. They are responsible for presenting peptide antigens to T-cells, which helps the immune system distinguish between self and non-self. The MHC is divided into two classes:

1. MHC Class I: These proteins present endogenous (intracellular) peptides to CD8+ T-cells (cytotoxic T-cells). The MHC class I molecule consists of a heavy chain and a light chain, together with an antigenic peptide.

2. MHC Class II: These proteins present exogenous (extracellular) peptides to CD4+ T-cells (helper T-cells). The MHC class II molecule is composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, together with an antigenic peptide.

MHC genes are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different alleles within a population. This diversity allows for better recognition and presentation of various pathogens, leading to a more robust immune response. The term "histocompatibility" refers to the compatibility between donor and recipient MHC molecules in tissue transplantation. Incompatible MHC molecules can lead to rejection of the transplanted tissue due to an activated immune response against the foreign MHC antigens.

"Crystallization of HLA-DR antigens". Res. Immunol. 142 (5-6): 401-407. doi:10.1016/0923-2494(91)90038-k. PMID 1754711.{{cite ... papain-solubilized fragments of the human class II MHC antigens HLA-DR1, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DR8 were ... Early work, elucidated the three-dimensional structures of the human class I MHC molecules of HLA-A2, HLA-A68, and HLA-B27. ... "Complete amino acid sequence of a papain-solubilized human histocompatibility antigen, HLA-B7. 2. Sequence determination and ...
"HLA-DR antigens in rheumatoid arthritis. A Swiss collaborative study; final report. Swiss Federal Commission for the Rheumatic ... HLA-DR1 (DR1) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*01 gene products. It has been observed to be common among ... "Strong associations between specific HLA-DQ and HLA-DR alleles and the tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome". ... HLA-DR1 is not genetically linked to DR51, DR52 or DR53, but is linked to HLA-DQ1 and DQ5 serotypes. Fernández MM, Guan R, ...
"HLA-DR antigens in pemphigus among Japanese". Tissue Antigens. 17 (2): 238-9. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1981.tb00689.x. PMID ... HLA-DR4 (DR4) is an HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*04 gene products. The DR4 serogroup is large and has a number of ... "HLA-DR specificities among Japanese with several autoimmune diseases". Tissue Antigens. 19 (2): 129-33. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... Hermann R, Turpeinen H, Laine A, Veijola R, Knip M, Simell O, Sipilä I, Akerblom H, Ilonen J (2003). "HLA DR-DQ-encoded genetic ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... Riberdy JM, Newcomb JR, Surman MJ, Barbosa JA, Cresswell P (December 1992). "HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant ... "Membrane insertion and oligomeric assembly of HLA-DR histocompatibility antigens" (PDF). Cell. 29 (1): 61-69. doi:10.1016/0092- ... "Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens". Journal of Immunology. 129 (6): 2564- ...
... have reduced expression of HLA-DR antigens, causing immunosuppression. In addition, nicotine impairs the ... and HLA-DR antigen expression in smokers and nonsmokers". Cancer Detection and Prevention. 19 (3): 268-273. ISSN 0361-090X. ... Zmijewski, Jaroslaw W.; Pittet, Jean-Francois (October 2020). "Human Leukocyte Antigen-DR Deficiency and Immunosuppression- ...
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR is positive in most patients. Occasional cases require in situ hybridization to identify the ... but immunophenotyping demonstrates myeloid antigens. In acute myeloblastic leukemia (M0), the blasts are agranular and ...
Macrophages and lymphocytes show marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. Arguably XO is the bone localization of the ...
Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ...
Peptide and Peptide Mimetic Inhibitors of Antigen Presentation by HLA-DR Class II MHC Molecules. Design, Structure−Activity ...
... is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the antigens encoded by the minor DR locus HLA-DRB5. DRB3, DRB4, and DRB5 are ... leprosy HLA-DRB5 (DR51)is linked to the following HLA-DR serotypes and DRB1 allele groups. HLA-DR2 HLA-DR15 - DRB1*15 HLA-DR16 ... "Redundancy in antigen-presenting function of the HLA-DR and -DQ molecules in the multiple sclerosis-associated HLA-DR2 ... Gongora R, Figueroa F, Klein J (1996). "The HLA-DRB9 gene and the origin of HLA-DR haplotypes". Hum. Immunol. 51 (1): 23-31. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRA gene. HLA-DRA ... There are two different HLA-DRA chains in the human population coded by three different DRA alleles: HLA-DR ENSG00000228987, ... "Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DRA major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha". Bénichou S, Benmerah A (2003). "[The HIV nef and ...
Wang JF, Zhang D, Zhao JZ, Jia BX, Bi RM (2006). "A study on the relationship between HLA-DR, DQ antigen, and intracranial ... HLA-DQ5 (DQ5) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype subgroup within HLA-DQ(DQ) serotypes. The serotype is determined by the ... HLA-DQ5 and HLA-DQB1*05 are almost synonymous in meaning. DQ5 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA ... A study on the relationship between HLA-DR, DQ antigen, and intracranial aneurysm in the Han nationality show DQ5 more likely, ...
Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), HLA-B (first two years), and HLA-A (long-term survival ... The complex of HLA-DR (Human Leukocyte Antigen - DR isotype) and peptide, generally between 9 and 30 amino acids in length, ... HLA-DR is encoded by several loci and several 'genes' of different function at each locus. The DR α-chain is encoded by the HLA ... The HLA-DRB4 locus encodes the HLA-DR53 specificity, has some variation, and is associated with certain HLA-DRB1 types. The HLA ...
... class II Human Leucocyte Antigens (HLA) DR-11. Dr Okello joined the Uganda Heart Centre in 2010. In an interview that he gave ... MESAU Consortium Uganda (2015). "Dr. Emmy Okello PhD Defence: Burden, Risk Factors And Outcome of Rheumatic Heart Disease in ... Africa Stemi (2019). "Africa Stemi Live 2019: 25th to 27th April 2019: Radisson Blue Hotel Nairobi: Speakers: Dr Emmy Okello, ... Thrive Organization Uganda (2017). "Dr Emmy Okello". Kampala: Thrive.or.ug. Retrieved 8 April 2019. Emmy Okello (2019). "Emmy ...
RFD7 and HLA-DR antigens, it was found that all epithelioid cells have an immunological phenotype RFD9+/RFD7-/HLA-DR+. A series ...
Pollack MS, Gold J, Metroka CE, Safai B, Dupont B (1984). "HLA-A,B,C and DR antigen frequencies in acquired immunodeficiency ... HLA-DR3 is composed of the HLA-DR17 and HLA-DR18 split 'antigens' serotypes. DR3 is a component gene-allele of the AH8.1 ... 2007). "Primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with extended HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR6 haplotypes". Tissue Antigens. 69 (2): ... DR3 is genetically linked to HLA-DR52, DRB3*02:02 allele, and HLA-DQ2 (DQ2.5). derived from IMGT/HLA Wiencke K, Karlsen TH, ...
... (DR15) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1501 to *1505 and *1507 gene products. DR15 is found at high ... DR15 is part of the older HLA-DR2 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR16 antigens. Serotypes are unknown for ... DQB1*0501 haplotype is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus HLA-DR15 is genetically linked to HLA-DR51 and HLA-DQ6 (HLA ... Ungar B, Mathews J, Tait B, Cowling D (1981). "HLA-DR patterns in pernicious anaemia". Br Med J (Clin Res Ed). 282 (6266): 768- ...
"HLA-DR, DQ nucleotide sequence polymorphisms in five Melanesian populations". Tissue Antigens. 40 (1): 31-37. doi:10.1111/j. ... Tanaka T, Ohmori M, Yasunaga S, Ohshima K, Kikuchi M, Sasazuki T (1999). "DNA typing of HLA class II genes (HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP ... HLA-DQ4 and HLA-DQB1*04 are almost synonymous in meaning. DQ4 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA ... The linkage of DQ4 in Asia appears to be heaviest with DR8 (DR*0801, DR*0802, DR*0804) for DQ4.24 and the frequency is elevated ...
"Frequencies of HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, and HLA-DQ phenotypes in the United Arab Emirates population". Tissue Antigens. 66 (2): ... HLA-DQ8 (DQ8) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ8 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... Pimtanothai N, Hurley C, Leke R, Klitz W, Johnson A (2001). "HLA-DR and -DQ polymorphism in Cameroon". Tissue Antigens. 58 (1 ... October 2003). "New HLA haplotype frequency reference standards: high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ ...
... a conserved transcriptional element in the promoter of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR alpha. The expression of this ... Liou HC, Eddy R, Shows T, Lisowska-Grospierre B, Griscelli C, Doyle C, Mannhalter J, Eibl M, Glimcher LH (1991). "An HLA-DR ... "A new member of the leucine zipper class of proteins that binds to the HLA DR alpha promoter". Science. 247 (4950): 1581-4. ...
"HLA-DR, DQ genotypes of celiac disease patients and healthy subjects from the West of Ireland". Tissue Antigens. 47 (2): 127-33 ... HLA DR3-DQ2 is double serotype that specifically recognizes cells from individuals who carry a multigene HLA DR, DQ haplotype. ... Jönsen A, Bengtsson A, Sturfelt G, Truedsson L (2004). "Analysis of HLA DR, HLA DQ, C4A, FcgammaRIIa, FcgammaRIIIa, MBL, and IL ... HLA-DR3-DQ2 is found in HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype in Northern Europeans (including the British Ilse, Ireland, Iceland). HLA ...
... high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in a sample of European Americans". Tissue Antigens. 62 (4): ... The DQ loci are in close genetic linkage to HLA-DR, and less closely linked to HLA-DP, HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C. Different ... Recognize HLA-DQB1*02 gene products which include gene products of the following alleles: HLA-DQB1*02:01 HLA-DQB1*02:02 HLA- ... HLA-DQ (DQ) is encoded on the HLA region of chromosome 6p21.3, in what was classically known as the "D" antigen region. This ...
... high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in a sample of European Americans". Tissue Antigens. 62 (4): ... HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQB1*02 are almost synonymous in meaning. DQ2 β-chains combine with α-chains, encoded by genetically linked HLA ... HLA-DQ2 (DQ2) is a serotype group within HLA-DQ (DQ) serotyping system. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition ... This haplotype, HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2, is associated with diseases in which HLA-DQ2 has suspect involvement. Direct involvement of ...
... function and tissue distribution of HLA-DR and Ia antigens. From 1990 to 1993, he held the chair of clinical immunology at ... The presence of HLA-DR shared epitope (SE) genes was a risk factor for RA with the presence of anticitrulline antibodies but ... For smokers there was a large interaction between smoking and HLA-DR SE genes for anticitrulline-positive RA but not for ... 36-45 doi:10.1002/art.23188 A new model for rheumatoid arthritis: Smoking may trigger HLA-DR (shared epitope) -restricted ...
T6 Antigens) and Class II Molecules (HLA-DR Antigens) » Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of ...
... (DR12) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1201 to *1203, *1206. DR12 serotype is a split antigen of the ... "The association between HLA DR, DQ antigens, and vulval lichen sclerosus in the UK: HLA DRB112 and its associated DRB112/ ... colorectal cancer HLA-DR12 is genetically linked to DR52 and HLA-DQ7 serotypes. derived from IMGT/HLA DR8 - 2% Gao X, Barnardo ... older HLA-DR5 serotype group which also contains the similar HLA-DR11 antigens. The table above describes the efficiency of ...
Role of aberrant HLA-DR expression and antigen presentation in the induction of endocrine autoimmunity. Lancet ii: 1115-1119. " ... "Professors Marc Feldmann and Sir Ravinder Maini Named Winners of the 2008 Dr. Paul Janssen Award for Biomedical Research". ... the Dr. Paul Janssen Award for Biomedical Research; in 2010, the Ernst Schering Prize in Germany; in 2014, the Canada Gairdner ...
... high-resolution and large sample typing of HLA DR-DQ haplotypes in a sample of European Americans". Tissue Antigens. 62 (4): ... HLA-DQ7 (DQ7) is an HLA-DQ serotype that recognizes the common HLA DQB1*0301 and the less common HLA DQB1*0304 gene products. ... Waine GJ, Ross AG, Williams GM, Sleigh AC, McManus DP (1998). "HLA class II antigens are associated with resistance or ... HLA DQB1*0301 in Turks is associated with Thymoma but the risk may be associated with HLA class I loci. DQA1*0601:DQB1*0301 ( ...
DR haplotype frequencies in Tuscany, Italy: implications for recruitment of bone marrow donors". Tissue Antigens. 64 (4): 478- ... Müller C, Ehninger G, Goldmann S (2003). "Gene and haplotype frequencies for the loci hLA-A, hLA-B, and hLA-DR based on over ... Finch T, Lawlor E, Borton M, Barnes C, McNamara S, O'Riordan J, McCann S, Darke C (1997). "Distribution of HLA-A, B and DR ... June 2007). "HLA alleles as predisposal factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis in a Greek population". Tissue Antigens. 69 (6 ...
DR haplotype frequencies in Tuscany, Italy: implications for recruitment of bone marrow donors". Tissue Antigens. 64 (4): 478- ... HLA A1-B8 (Also:HL A1,8; HL A1,A8; HLA A1-Cw7-B8; HLA A*01-B*08, HLA A*0101-B*0801, HLA A*0101-Cw*0701-B*0801; HLA A*01:01-C*07 ... Müller C, Ehninger G, Goldmann S (2003). "Gene and haplotype frequencies for the loci hLA-A, hLA-B, and hLA-DR based on over ... Ambrus M, Hernádi E, Bajtai G (May 1977). "Prevalence of HLA-A1 and HLA-B8 antigens in selective IgA deficiency". Clin. Immunol ...
Diabetes-associated HLA-DR risk alleles were associated with a strong immune responsiveness and protective alleles with a weak ... responsiveness against enterovirus antigens. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration in serological case-control ... The HLA-DR phenotype modulates the humoral immune response to enterovirus antigens K Sadeharju 1 , M Knip, M Hiltunen, H K ... The HLA-DR phenotype modulates the humoral immune response to enterovirus antigens K Sadeharju et al. Diabetologia. 2003 Aug. ...
... patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with gold have been studied for possible associations between HLA DR antigens and ... Patients possessing HLA DR3 had a significantly greater frequency of side effects than pa … ... HLA DR antigens and gold toxicity J T Gran et al. Ann Rheum Dis. 1983 Feb. ... HLA DR antigens and gold toxicity J T Gran, G Husby, E Thorsby ... HLA antigens and toxic reactions to sodium aurothiomalate in ...
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HLA-DR antigen. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. LL2 (epratuzumab). 131I, 90Y-conjugated. CD-22 antigen. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ... CD-20 antigen. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Tositumomab. Cetuximaba B1 antigen. EGFR(HER-1). Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Colorectal ... Individual patients B-cell tumor antigens. B-cell lymphoma. CAMPATH-I (alemtuzumab)a CD-52 antigen. Chronic lymphocytic ... CD-33 antigen. CD-20 antigen. Acute/chronic myelogenous leukemia. Non-Hodgkins lymphoma. ...
"Crystallization of HLA-DR antigens". Res. Immunol. 142 (5-6): 401-407. doi:10.1016/0923-2494(91)90038-k. PMID 1754711.{{cite ... papain-solubilized fragments of the human class II MHC antigens HLA-DR1, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, HLA-DR7, and HLA-DR8 were ... Early work, elucidated the three-dimensional structures of the human class I MHC molecules of HLA-A2, HLA-A68, and HLA-B27. ... "Complete amino acid sequence of a papain-solubilized human histocompatibility antigen, HLA-B7. 2. Sequence determination and ...
Induction of HLA-DR antigen on human squamous carcinoma by recombinant interferon gamma. / Koch, Wayne M.; Dugan, Elizabeth; ... Induction of HLA-DR antigen on human squamous carcinoma by recombinant interferon gamma. In: Laryngoscope. 1988 ; Vol. 98, No. ... Induction of HLA-DR antigen on human squamous carcinoma by recombinant interferon gamma. Laryngoscope. 1988 May;98(5):511-515. ... Koch, W. M., Dugan, E., Diaz, L. A., & Richtsmeier, W. J. (1988). Induction of HLA-DR antigen on human squamous carcinoma by ...
These strongly express HLA-DR antigens. Urine Cytology. Tubular cells with vacuolization and ...
The HLA-DRB1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. Learn about this ... which is produced from the HLA-DRA gene. Together, they form a functional protein complex called the HLA-DR antigen-binding ... The HLA-DRB1 gene is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. The HLA complex helps the ... is most increased by two specific combinations of variations of the HLA-DRB1 gene and other HLA genes called HLA-DQA1 and HLA- ...
HLA-DR Antigens / biosynthesis * HLA-DR Antigens / genetics * Homeostasis * Humans * Immunity, Innate ... These monocytes overexpressed HLA-DR and PDL1 molecules, suggesting their activated inflammatory status. PDL1 increase was ...
Seminoma and HLA-DR antigens].. Májský A; Abrahámová J. Cas Lek Cesk; 1988 Apr; 127(15):459-60. PubMed ID: 3378250. [No ... HLA antigens in patients with germ cell cancers of the testis.. Pollack MS; Vugrin D; Hennessy W; Herr HW; Dupont B; Whitmore ... The expression of HLA class I antigens in germ cell testicular cancer.. Klein B; Klein T; Konichezky M; Nyska A; Livini E; ... 4. HLA antigens and germ-cell tumours.. Aiginger P; Kuzmits R; Kratzig C; Schwarz HP; Zielinski CC; Kühböck J; Mayr WR. Lancet ...
HLA-DR Antigens/genetics; HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism; Humans; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Lung/metabolism; Lung/ ... MeSH Terms: Antigens, CD/genetics; Antigens, CD/metabolism; Asthma/diagnosis; Asthma/genetics; Asthma/metabolism*; Asthma/ ...
Matching for B-cell antigens of the HLA-DR series in cadaver renal transplantation. Lancet. 1978 Mar 18. 1 (8064):575-7. [QxMD ... HLA-DP, -DQ, and -DR), which are expressed on antigen-presenting cells (APC): dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-cells. MHC-I ... 18] Improvement in graft survival followed the routine use of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) tissue matching and the use of anti ... Foreign antigens are processed by macrophages or dendritic cells (antigen-presenting cell) and then presented to T-helper ...
The HLA-DRB1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. Learn about this ... which is produced from the HLA-DRA gene. Together, they form a functional protein complex called the HLA-DR antigen-binding ... The HLA-DRB1 gene is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. The HLA complex helps the ... is most increased by two specific combinations of variations of the HLA-DRB1 gene and other HLA genes called HLA-DQA1 and HLA- ...
DR alpha chainHLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chainHLA class II histocompatibility antigen, gamma chain ... 1A6A: THE STRUCTURE OF AN INTERMEDIATE IN CLASS II MHC MATURATION: CLIP BOUND TO HLA-DR3. ... HLA Class II Histocompatibility Antigen, Dr-1 Beta Chain. (Gene symbol: HLA-DRB1) ... HLA Class II Histocompatibility Antigen, DR Alpha Chain. (Gene symbol: HLA-DRA) ...
Some of the most useful markers were believed to be ultimately CD31 and human leukocyte antigen (HLA DR), which were molecules ... the CD31−/HLA DR−/CD34+/CD45− populations were the plastic-adherent ADSCs, while the CD31+/HLA DR+/CD34+/CD45− populations were ... Less than 2% of MSC population can express of hematopoietic lineage markers CD45, CD34, CD14 or CD11b, CD79α or CD19 and HLA ... released to drive mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis on adrenergic stimulation [199] [200] . ...
PDB Compounds: (E:) hla class II histocompatibility antigen, dr alpha chain. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d3o6fe1:. Sequence; ... Superfamily d.19.1: MHC antigen-recognition domain [54452] (2 families) *. Family d.19.1.1: MHC antigen-recognition domain [ ... PDB Description: crystal structure of a human autoimmune tcr ms2-3c8 bound to mhc class ii self-ligand mbp/hla-dr4 ... d3o6fe1 d.19.1.1 (E:2-81) Class II MHC alpha chain, N-terminal domain {Human (Homo sapiens), HLA-DR2 [TaxId: 9606]} ...
PDB Compounds: (A:) hla class II histocompatibility antigen, dr alpha chain. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1t5wa2:. Sequence; ... Superfamily d.19.1: MHC antigen-recognition domain [54452] (2 families) *. Family d.19.1.1: MHC antigen-recognition domain [ ... Species Human (Homo sapiens), HLA-DR1 [TaxId:9606] [88808] (18 PDB entries). Uniprot P01903 28-207. ... PDB Description: hla-dr1 in complex with a synthetic peptide (aaysdqatplllspr). ...
DR, defense response; HBSI, human leukocyte antigen-B (HLA-B) specific inhibitory MHC class I receptor activity; HCSI, HLA-C ... antigen presentation, exogenous antigen; APEA, antigen processing, exogenous antigen via MHC class II; CDR, cellular defense ... HLA-DQA1, HLA-DQB1, SOCS3, HLA-DPA1, and GZM2. We also saw significant differences in transcripts involved in the nervous ... HLA-G up-regulates ILT2, ILT3, ILT4, and KIR2DL4 in antigen presenting cells, NK cells, and T cells. FASEB J 19(6):662-664. ...
Selective increase of activation antigens HLA-DR and CD38 on CD4+ CD45RO+ T lymphocytes during HIV-1 infection. Clin Exp ... In one study, patients who received probiotic cocktails had a reduction in CD4+ T cell activation markers, including HLA-DR and ... Notch-4 exosomal levels are elevated and correlated with other activation markers, HLA-DR. (E) HIV-infection reduces expression ... as well as decreased surface markers CD38 and HLA-DR on CD4+ T-cells and mRNA expression of IDO and IFN-γ in PBMCs (137). ...
HLA Class II Histocompatibility Antigen Gamma Chain. *HLA-DR Antigens-Associated Invariant Chain ... CD74 Antigen (Invariant Polypeptide Of Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class II Antigen-Associated) ... and is an important chaperone that regulates antigen presentation for immune response. It also serves as cell surface receptor ...
Immunohistochemical staining is positive for CD1a, S-100 protein, and HLA-DR antigens. ...
Influence of HLA AB and DR antigen matching in transfused cadaver renal transplant patients Sergio J. Rybka, M.D., Andrew C. ... Influence of HLA, A, B, and DR antigen matching in transfused cadaver renal transplant patients Ronald H. Kerman, Ph.D ...
Mapping of a disease-linked sequence motif to the antigen binding site of the HLA-DR molecule. Weyand CM, Hicok KC, Hunder GG, ... The HLA-DRB1 locus as a genetic component in giant cell arteritis. ...
DCs are specialized antigen-presenting cells, and they interact with T cells and B cells to initiate immune responses. ... antigens (CD54, CD86, HLA-DR antigens) [18-21]. The immune reaction of DCs remains weak without costimulatory molecules. ... Our heartfelt appreciation goes to Dr. Nukada Yuko, Dr. Abo Takayuki, Dr. Ito Yuichi, Dr. Nishiyama, and Dr. Kawai Shuji from ... E. S. Trombetta and I. Mellman, "Cell biology of antigen processing in vitro and in vivo," Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 23 ...
A recent study of class II major histocompatibility (HLA-DR) antigen in BCC revealed a strong reaction to this antigen in ... Human lymphocyte antigen HLA-DR expression on basal cell carcinoma of the head and neck region [Thesis]. Mansoura, Egypt, ... As antigen-presenting cells, they can bind to a specific antigen, internalize it and then degrade the antigen into peptides, ... Since T cells cannot be triggered by free antigens, presentation of antigens is obligatory for induction of cell-mediated ...
Immunohistochemical staining is positive for CD1a, S-100 protein, and HLA-DR antigens. ...
  • Researchers have identified hundreds of different versions (alleles) of the HLA-DRB1 gene, each of which is given a particular number (such as HLA-DRB1 *04:01). (medlineplus.gov)
  • HLA-DR alleles, polymorphisms, and aberrant expression are linked to a variety of diseases including autoimmunity and cancer. (rndsystems.com)
  • An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles. (musc.edu)
  • Association of extrahepatic manifestations with HLA class II alleles and with virus genotype in HCV infected patients. (cdc.gov)
  • Viral genotype and HLA class II alleles influence on extra-hepatic manifestations of chronic HCV infection]. (cdc.gov)
  • Peptide and peptide mimetic inhibitors of antigen presentation by HLA-DR class II MHC molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • Molecular features of ligand binding to MHC class II HLA-DR molecules have been elucidated through a combination of peptide structure-activity studies and structure-based drug design, resulting in analogues with nanomolar affinity in binding assays. (rcsb.org)
  • These studies illustrate the complementary roles played by phage display library methods, peptide analogue SAR, peptide mimetics substitutions, and structure-based drug design in the discovery of inhibitors of antigen presentation by MHC class II HLA-DR molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • HLA-DR, like other MHC class II molecules, is a transmembrane glycoprotein composed of a 36 kDa alpha chain (DRA) and 27 kDa beta chain (DRB). (thermofisher.com)
  • Upon infection many viruses, including Herpesviruses, target T cell function via specific interactions with TCR and HLA-I molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conjunction with the CD3/TCR complex and CD4 molecules, HLA-DR is critical for efficient peptide presentation to CD4 + T cells. (biolegend.com)
  • The L243 monoclonal antibody reacts with the HLA-DR antigen, a member of MHC class II molecules. (biolegend.com)
  • Coexpression of susceptible and resistant HLA class II transgenes in murine experimental autoimmune thyroiditis: DQ8 molecules downregulate DR3-mediated thyroiditis. (musc.edu)
  • To perform this function, DC are capable of capturing antigens, processing them, and presenting them on the cell surface complexed to major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules, for example, human leukocyte antigen- (HLA-) DR. Along with that, context-dependent expression of costimulatory molecules, such as CD80 and CD86, and secretion of cytokines occurs. (hindawi.com)
  • HLA-DR molecules were affinity purified and bound peptides acid eluted. (jci.org)
  • Specific aim 1 is to determine the expression of HLA antigens and co-stimulatory molecules on PDX1+ pancreatic progenitor cells. (rotrf.org)
  • Antigens are the molecules that are recognized and stimulate the cells of immune system. (medscape.com)
  • Immunoglobulins (Igs), the term is sometimes used interchangeably with "antibodies," are glycoprotein molecules produced by B lymphocytes and plasma cells in response to an immunogen or after recognition of specific epitopes on the antigen. (medscape.com)
  • Variable region constitutes the antibody binding region of the molecule to the different antigens as it consists of about 110 amino acids that vary widely among the different antibody molecules. (medscape.com)
  • Although a limited number of immunodominant peptide epitopes are consistently observed in diseases such as HIV-1 infection, the relationship between immunodominance and antigen processing in humans is largely unknown. (jci.org)
  • We used a novel in vitro degradation assay involving cytosolic extracts as well as endogenous intracellular processing assays to examine 2 well-characterized HIV-1 Gag overlapping epitopes presented by the same HLA class I allele, one of which is consistently immunodominant and the other subdominant in infected persons. (jci.org)
  • Epitopes are a component of the antigen that are recognized by the immune system and determine whether the cellular or the humoral arm of the immune system shall be activated against that particular antigen. (medscape.com)
  • Within the DR molecule the beta chain contains all the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities. (thermofisher.com)
  • and the antigen presenting molecule HLA-DR (CD105+ EV Mo: 58.3? (woofahs.com)
  • Davies speculated that the specificity of transplantation antigen might also be determined by cell surface arrangements of sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • This interaction is central to antigen specificity in the adaptive immune response. (rndsystems.com)
  • that is, different beta-2 polypeptides were associated with the same HLA-DR specificity in different geographical populations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: HLA-DR Monoclonal Antibody (LN3), Super Bright™ 436, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # 62-9956-42, RRID AB_2744822. (thermofisher.com)
  • Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were stained with (A) Mouse Anti-Human HLA-DR Alexa Fluor® 700-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB4869N) or (B) isotype control antibody (Catalog # IC002N ) Mouse anti-Human CD19 PE-conjugated Monoclonal Antibody (Catalog # FAB4867P ). (rndsystems.com)
  • Class II Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) play an important role in host protection from foreign. (hla-dr.com)
  • Background: Monocytic human leukocyte antigen DR (mHLA-DR) expression levels have been reported to be a marker of immunosuppression and predictors of sepsis and death. (hla-dr.com)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HLA complex is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Description: The LN3 mAb reacts with the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, HLA-DR. HLA-DR is expressed on the surface of human antigen presenting cells (APC) including B cells, monocytes, macrophages, DCs, and activated T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Three loci, DR, DQ and DP, encode the major expressed products of the human class II region. (thermofisher.com)
  • Detects human HLA‑DR. (rndsystems.com)
  • Detection of HLA‑DR in Human Blood Lymphocytes by Flow Cytometry. (rndsystems.com)
  • HLA-DR is a transmembrane human major histocompatibility complex 2 (MHC II) family member and consists of a 34 kDa (alpha) subunit and one of several 28 kDa (beta) subunits. (rndsystems.com)
  • Multiparameter flow cytometric analysis of HLA-DR expression on Human peripheral blood leucocyte populations. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Left Plot) or BD Horizon™ RB780 Mouse Anti-Human HLA-DR antibody (Cat. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Monocytes activated by tumour-derived microvesicles from pancreatic, colon and lung cancer cell lines have been found to show increased expression of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR and a resulting increase in production of reactive oxygen intermediates and TNF-α 11 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Pathogenic human thyroglobulin peptides in HLA-DR3 transgenic mouse model of autoimmune thyroiditis. (musc.edu)
  • HLA-DR and HLA-DQ polymorphism in human thyroglobulin-induced autoimmune thyroiditis: DR3 and DQ8 transgenic mice are susceptible. (musc.edu)
  • Background post-injury acquired immunodepression (AID) is frequently assessed by the diminished expression of Human Leukocyte Antigen-D Related on circulating monocytes (mHLA-DR). The relation with mortality and the occurrence of ICU-acquired infections (IAI) requires confirmation in large cohorts of patients. (medrxiv.org)
  • Among the reported biomarkers for the characterization of immune status, the expression of human leucocyte antigen-D related on circulating monocyte (mHLA-DR) has gained credence during the past decade. (medrxiv.org)
  • Milder disease has been associated with human leukocyte antigen HLA-DR3, and more severe disease has been associated with HLA-DQ/DR variants ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In PRA testing, recipient serum is incubated with white blood cells pooled from a group of blood donors with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) types representative of the community. (medscape.com)
  • They used human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) conjunctival expression as a biomarker of ocular surface inflammation. (medscape.com)
  • HLA DR-DQ combination associated with the increased risk of developing human HCV positive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is related to the type II mixed cryoglobulinemia. (cdc.gov)
  • In a case-control study involving patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we studied interactions between a major environmental risk factor (smoking), major susceptibility genes included in the SE of HLA-DR, and the presence of the most specific autoimmunity known for RA (i.e., antibodies to proteins modified by citrullination). (nih.gov)
  • The cellular response is mainly a lymphocyte-mediated reaction, whereas the humoral response includes production of antibodies against the antigen by the plasma cells. (medscape.com)
  • The antibodies then specifically bind to only those particular antigens. (medscape.com)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene belongs to a group of MHC genes called MHC class II. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein produced from the HLA-DRB1 gene, called the beta chain, attaches (binds) to another protein called the alpha chain, which is produced from the HLA-DRA gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Certain variations in the HLA-DRB1 gene have been linked to an increased risk of developing an autoimmune disorder called autoimmune Addison disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A particular HLA-DRB1 gene variant called HLA-DRB1*04:04 is the most well-known risk factor for autoimmune Addison disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is not clear how HLA-DRB1*04:04 and other HLA-DRB1 variations are involved in the inappropriate immune response that causes autoimmune Addison disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Variations in the HLA-DRB1 gene have been associated with an increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We have previously shown that Scandinavian sarcoidosis patients expressing the HLA-DR allele DRB1*0301 are characterized by large accumulations in the lungs of CD4+ T cells expressing the TCR AV2S3 gene segment. (jci.org)
  • To identify candidates for the postulated sarcoidosis-specific antigen, lung cells from 16 HLA-DRB1*0301pos patients were obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. (jci.org)
  • HLA class II antigens (DR, DQ loci) and peripheral arthritis in ankylosing spondylitis. (bmj.com)
  • The data indicate that lymphoblastoid cells express at least three sets of HLA-D region antigens that are encoded by different loci including HLA-DR and DC. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Large amount of CD lymphocytes (CD 3+ CD 4+ CD 8+) and increased marker expression of CD 11a, CD 45 RO, HLA-DR and, to a lesser degree, CD 15 suggest immune system involvement in the pathogenesis of gastritis in children with collagenosis. (medscimonit.com)
  • We found no correlation between CD antigen expression and HLA-DR antigen expression and histopathological assessment of the mucosa. (medscimonit.com)
  • Glycosteroids used in the treatment of collagenosis partly reduced CD antigen expression in the gastric mucosa but did not affect HLA-DR antigen expression.The study was carried out within the framework of ST-60/AMG. (medscimonit.com)
  • The bivariate pseudocolor density plot showing the correlated expression of HLA-DR (or Ig Isotype control staining) versus side-light scatter (SSC-A) signals was derived from gated events with the side and forward light-scatter characteristics of intact leucocyte populations. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • The system has been mainly related to the expression of HLA-G by tumor cells and to its release in a form associated to EVs. (woofahs.com)
  • Interpretation the association between the early mHLA-DR expression and ICU mortality does not improve the prediction given by the severity scores. (medrxiv.org)
  • The persistence or a decrease of low mHLA-DR expression are independent and reliable predictors of ICU-acquired infection. (medrxiv.org)
  • Compared with vehicle, CsA CE significantly decreased median HLA-DR expression at six months. (medscape.com)
  • At 1 week, cells were analyzed by means of flow cytometry for cell-surface marker expression (HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, Toll-like receptor 2, Toll-like receptor 4, mCD14, and CD16), phagocytosis (IgG-opsonized zymosan particles), and intracellular killing of Streptococcus pneumoniae. (cdc.gov)
  • To investigate whether smoking and HLA-DR shared epitope (SE) genes may interact in triggering immune reactions to citrulline-modified proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Clone L243 binds a conformational epitope on HLA-DRa which depends on the correct folding of the aß heterodimer. (biolegend.com)
  • In the present review, we provide evidence for how the interaction of dietary lectins with enterocytes and lymphocytes may facilitate the translocation of both dietary and gut-derived pathogenic antigens to peripheral tissues, which in turn causes persistent peripheral antigenic stimulation. (cambridge.org)
  • Interestingly, the number of CD80 + pDC positively correlates with the presence of IL-10-producing regulatory type 1 cells (Tr1), an important cell type for maintaining peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. (hindawi.com)
  • HLA-DR is a heterodimeric transmembrane protein composed of alpha and beta subunits and plays an important role in the presentation of peptides to CD4+ T lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • HLA-DR is expressed primarily by B cells and dendritic cells (DC), in which it binds peptides derived from internalized and processed antigenic proteins. (rndsystems.com)
  • The saga of MHC-bound peptides: a renaissance for antigen presentation? (jci.org)
  • For the first time, to our knowledge, we have identified HLA-bound peptides presented in vivo during an inflammatory condition. (jci.org)
  • This approach can be extended to characterize HLA-bound peptides in various autoimmune settings. (jci.org)
  • peptides bound to HLA-DR17 from bronchoalveolar lavage cells of sarcoidosis patients were analyzed in order to identify target antigens of the autoimmune response (see the related article beginning on page 3576). (jci.org)
  • His postdoctoral training was performed on minor H antigens in organ- and stem-cell transplantation in the laboratory of Prof. Dr. Els Goulmy, Leiden, The Netherlands. (umcutrecht.nl)
  • Dr Amin Ziaei's has been awarded the McDonald Fellowship for a project studying environmental factors and its interactions with genetics to affect disease course in pediatric multiple sclerosis. (msif.org)
  • Later, Stan Nathenson worked with Davies to characterize transplantation antigens and discovered that they could be solubilized from the surfaces of cells by the protease papain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together, they form a functional protein complex called the HLA-DR antigen-binding heterodimer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Biochemical analysis of the polymorphism of three HLA-D region antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The polymorphism has been examined using lymphoblastoid cell lines that were derived from different geographical populations (North European and Italian) and that expressed various HLA-DR alloantigenic specificities. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SD of CD80, CD86, HLA-DR, CD1a, 4 integrin, CD54, 5 integrin, CD14, CD83 and CD40 by monocyte-derived DCs differentiated in the presence or in absence (CTL DC) of CD105+ EVs (CD105+ EV Mo) or CD105- EVs (CD105- EV Mo). (woofahs.com)
  • Methods This prospective, observational study in a surgical ICU of a French tertiary hospital reports mHLA-DR measurements (fixed flow cytometry protocol) done 1st within the 3 days post-admission and 2nd after the 7th day. (medrxiv.org)
  • Dr. Spierings received his PhD degree as immunologist at the Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands and was subsequently recognized as SMBWO Immunologist by the Dutch Society for Immunology. (umcutrecht.nl)
  • The patient's T-cells are introduced to DNA that first incorporates itself into their genome to produce a new protein - a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) - that activates each cell, giving it the ability to detect and bind to a lymphoma cell. (rochester.edu)
  • We identified an environmental factor, smoking, that in the context of HLA-DR SE genes may trigger RA-specific immune reactions to citrullinated proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The HLA complex helps the immune system distinguish the body's own proteins from proteins made by foreign invaders such as viruses and bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Conclusions In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that renal cancer cells and in particular CSCs and derived EVs impair maturation of DCs and T cell immune response by a mechanism involving HLA-G. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-2025-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. (woofahs.com)
  • The body's immune system can react adaptively against the antigen via 2 pathways: cellular or humoral. (medscape.com)
  • HLA-DR is expressed primarily on antigen presenting cells such as B lymphocytes, monocytes, macrophages, thymic epithelial cells and activated T lymphocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • His current scientific interest focusses on the role of indirect recognition of mismatched HLA in transplantation and on post-transplant immunomonitoring via Next Generation Sequencing of T- and B-cell receptors and immunoglobulins. (umcutrecht.nl)
  • Noninvasive diagnostic studies include the carbon 13 urea breath test (UBT), fecal antigen test, and serologic parameters (pepsinogen I and II, H pylori antibody) as surrogate markers of H pylori gastritis and as indicators of gastritis severity. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with new peptic ulcer disease should have a carbon 13 UBT, they should be tested for antibody titers, or they may require an investigation for stool antigens. (medscape.com)
  • Genetic diversity of the KIR/HLA system and susceptibility to hepatitis C virus-related diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • The associations between mHLA-DR and outcomes were tested by adjusted Fine and Gray sub-distribution competing risk models. (medrxiv.org)
  • Firocoxib HLA-G blockade significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of EVs on DC differentiation. (woofahs.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Repetitive organic dust exposure significantly decreases markers of antigen presentation and host defense function in MDMs. (cdc.gov)
  • The antigen processing and presentation, natural killer (NK) cell-mediated cytotoxicity and T-cell receptor signaling pathway were enriched in PL compared with LM. (bmj.com)
  • HLA-DR is a heterodimeric cell surface glycoprotein comprised of a 36 kD α (heavy) chain and a 27 kD β (light) chain. (biolegend.com)
  • Dr Pappolla will conduct a project on "Correlation of serum biomarkers and treatment response scoring systems for early treatment assessment in highly aggressive multiple sclerosis" at Cemcat, Barcelona, Spain under supervision of Professor Xavier Montalban . (msif.org)
  • Frequencies of HLA and Gm immunogenetic markers in Kaposi's sarcoma. (musc.edu)
  • The antigen for MRP 8/14 has been found in inflammatory tissues only and shown to be absent from normal resident mononuclear phagocytes 13 . (ersjournals.com)
  • These cells are reported to express the CD163 antigen 7 , 8 . (ersjournals.com)
  • DC are professional antigen-presenting cells with the unique capacity to polarize the differentiation of T cells, thereby regulating the balance between inflammation and tolerance [ 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Dr Evelyn Heck from Argentina will join Prof Francisco Quintana in Boston, USA, at the Brigham and Women's Hospital, to study the molecular mechanisms of the relationship between Epstein-Barr Virus persistent in B cells and the development of MS. (msif.org)
  • This association afforded us a unique opportunity to identify a sarcoidosis-specific antigen recognized by AV2S3+ T cells. (jci.org)
  • You're bypassing a lot of the regulatory checks and balances that have prevented previous attempts to generate tumor-killing T-cells,' said Dr. Dan Ryan , director of Central Labs . (rochester.edu)
  • The results confirm that the positional variation of one beta polypeptide (namely beta-1) correlated with the HLA-DR allospecificity and was not influenced by the ethnic origin of the individual donating the cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • that is, apparently the same beta-3 polypeptide was associated with different HLA-DR specificities provided the cells were of the same ethnic origin. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Correspondence with low molecular weight chemicals that results in the priming of chemical-specific, Prof. Dr. Stefan F. Martin, Allergy Research skin-homing CD8+ Tc1/Tc17 and CD4+ Th1/Th17 cells. (cdc.gov)
  • A major gene-environment interaction between smoking and HLA-DR SE genes was evident for anticitrulline-positive RA, but not for anticitrulline-negative RA, and the combination of smoking history and the presence of double copies of HLA-DR SE genes increased the risk for RA 21-fold compared with the risk among nonsmokers carrying no SE genes. (nih.gov)
  • The positional variation of a second beta polypeptide (namely beta-2) was consistent with strong linkage dis-equilibrium between the corresponding genetic locus and the HLA-DR locus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Pooled phase III data indicate CsA CE produced significant improvement in signs/symptoms versus vehicle in patients with moderate-to-severe DED (especially in those with severe keratitis), including patients with (Sjogren's syndrome) with severe DED," Dr. Andrea Leonardi of the University of Padua, Italy, and colleagues write in the British Journal of Ophthalmology, online March 15. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Leonardi and colleagues analyzed data from two similar studies: SICCANOVE in patients with moderate-to-severe DED, and SANSIKA in those with severe DED and severe keratitis. (medscape.com)
  • Dr. Frank Hwang, an assistant professor of ophthalmology at Loma Linda University School of Medicine in Loma Linda, California, told Reuters Health by email, "There are not many good treatment options available for patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye disease. (medscape.com)