HLA Antigens: Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.HLA-B27 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.HLA-B44 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.HLA-B8 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.HLA-B37 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*37 allele family.Spondylitis, Ankylosing: A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.Arthritis, Reactive: An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.HLA-A Antigens: Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Uveitis, Anterior: Inflammation of the anterior uvea comprising the iris, angle structures, and the ciliary body. Manifestations of this disorder include ciliary injection, exudation into the anterior chamber, iris changes, and adhesions between the iris and lens (posterior synechiae). Intraocular pressure may be increased or reduced.Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming: Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.HLA-B35 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Histocompatibility Testing: Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sacroiliac Joint: The immovable joint formed by the lateral surfaces of the SACRUM and ILIUM.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.HLA-B7 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.HLA-C Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).Spondylarthropathies: Heterogeneous group of arthritic diseases sharing clinical and radiologic features. They are associated with the HLA-B27 ANTIGEN and some with a triggering infection. Most involve the axial joints in the SPINE, particularly the SACROILIAC JOINT, but can also involve asymmetric peripheral joints. Subsets include ANKYLOSING SPONDYLITIS; REACTIVE ARTHRITIS; PSORIATIC ARTHRITIS; and others.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Carcinoembryonic Antigen: A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Antigens, Viral, Tumor: Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.Awards and PrizesHistocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.HLA-DQ Antigens: A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Skin Window Technique: A technique to study CELL MIGRATION in the INFLAMMATION process or during immune reactions. After an area on the skin is abraded, the movement of cells in the area is followed via microscopic observation of the exudate through a coverslip or tissue culture chamber placed over the area.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.HLA-A2 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.HLA-B51 Antigen: A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*51 allele family.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.HLA-D Antigens: Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen: Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Prostate-Specific Antigen: A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate: Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Mice, Inbred BALB CInterferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.ArthritisCell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Receptors, Antigen: Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.HLA-DQ beta-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.HLA-DRB1 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.HLA-DR3 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.HLA-DR4 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Yersinia enterocolitica: A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.HLA-A1 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Rheumatology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of inflammatory or degenerative processes and metabolic derangement of connective tissue structures which pertain to a variety of musculoskeletal disorders, such as arthritis.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens: Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Genes, MHC Class I: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.Antigens, Heterophile: Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Inbred C57BLCytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.DNA Probes, HLA: DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Nucleoproteins: Proteins conjugated with nucleic acids.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Forssman Antigen: A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.HLA-A3 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Shigella flexneri: A bacterium which is one of the etiologic agents of bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) and sometimes of infantile gastroenteritis.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Simian virus 40: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.HLA-A24 Antigen: A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.HLA-DR2 Antigen: A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.HLA-DR7 Antigen: A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Minor Histocompatibility Antigens: Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.HLA-DR5 Antigen: A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.CA-19-9 Antigen: Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Lewis Blood-Group System: A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Ki-67 Antigen: A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Hybridomas: Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.HLA-G Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Antigens, T-Independent: Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.HLA-DQ alpha-Chains: Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Antigens, Nuclear: Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.HLA-DR1 Antigen: An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.HLA-DR Serological Subtypes: HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
1994). "HLA-B15: a widespread and diverse family of HLA-B alleles". Tissue Antigens. 43 (4): 209-18. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... HLA-B46 (B46) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the gene products of HLA-B*4601 allele. B*4601 resulted from a rare ... When found B*4601 segregates with only 2 HLA-Cw alleles, A limited number of HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 alleles suggesting that the ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ...
... (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ... A2-B5 A2-B51 A2-B52 A2-B8 A2-B13 A2-B14 A2-B64 A2-B65 A2-B15 A2-B62 A2-B63 A2-B70,71,75,76 A2-B46 (Node in Southern China, may ... Before this revision, HLA-A*02 was also referred to as HLA-A2, HLA-A02, and HLA-A*2. HLA-A*02 is one particular class I major ... Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. "HLA Nomenclature @ hla.alleles.org". ...
... *45ZJ, HLA-B-3506, HLA-B-3905, HLA-B-5502, HLA-B-5602, HLA-B15, HLA-B39, HLA-B49, HLA-B50, HLA-B55, HLA-B59, HLA-B61, HLA- ... HLA-B is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. The HLA complex helps the immune system ... They are HLA-A, HLA-B, (both Class I MHCs) and HLA-DR (a Class II MHC).[5] If the two tissues have the same genes coding for ... In humans, the HLA-B gene and two related genes, HLA-A and HLA-C, are the major genes in MHC class I. ...
Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) HLA-B15 has been associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA) and oligoarthritis in different ... had HLA-B15, 70 (39.3%) showed HLA-B27 and 74 (41.6%) had other HLA-B alleles. Patients with HLA-B15 and HLA-B27 had an earlier ... Only HLA-B27 and HLA-B15 of all the analysed HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 alleles were found to be significantly associated with ... In the case of HLA-B15, recent studies have demonstrated that this molecule, as well as HLA-B14, HLA-B38, HLA-B39 and HLA-B73, ...
Crystal structure of an anaplastic lymphoma kinase-derived neuroblastoma tumor antigen bound to the Human Major ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B-15 alpha chain. A. 280. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-B (HLAB). ... lymphoma kinase-derived neuroblastoma tumor antigen bound to the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I molecule HLA-B* ... Histocompatibility Complex Class I molecule HLA-B*1501 ... Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: B2M. Find proteins for P61769 (Homo ...
1994). "HLA-B15: a widespread and diverse family of HLA-B alleles". Tissue Antigens. 43 (4): 209-18. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... HLA-B46 (B46) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the gene products of HLA-B*4601 allele. B*4601 resulted from a rare ... When found B*4601 segregates with only 2 HLA-Cw alleles, A limited number of HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 alleles suggesting that the ... 2005). "Nomenclature for factors of the HLA system, 2004". Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379. ...
HLA-A*02 (A*02) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ... A2-B5 A2-B51 A2-B52 A2-B8 A2-B13 A2-B14 A2-B64 A2-B65 A2-B15 A2-B62 A2-B63 A2-B70,71,75,76 A2-B46 (Node in Southern China, may ... Before this revision, HLA-A*02 was also referred to as HLA-A2, HLA-A02, and HLA-A*2. HLA-A*02 is one particular class I major ... Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. "HLA Nomenclature @ hla.alleles.org". ...
Alleles, Amino Acid Sequence, B-Lymphocytes, Base Sequence, Cell Line, Transformed, Epitopes, HLA-B Antigens, HLA-B15 Antigen, ... HLA-B15: a widespread and diverse family of HLA-B alleles. Tissue Antigens , 43 (4) pp. 209-218. ... One allele encoding the B76 antigen (B*1512) appears to be the product of gene conversion between the HLA-A and -B loci and ... HLA-B15 embraces a multiplicity of antigenic specificities which vary in their distribution amongst human populations. To ...
Invitrogen Anti-HLA-ABC Monoclonal (11C2), Catalog # MA5-34927. Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunocytochemistry (ICC) and ... HLA-B-3905; HLA-B-5502; HLA-B-5602; HLA-B15; HLA-B39; HLA-B49; HLA-B50; HLA-B55; HLA-B59; HLA-B61; HLA-C; HLA-Cw; HLA-DQB1; HLA ... histocompatibility antigen; HLA -B; HLA A; HLA B-40011; HLA B44; HLA C; HLA class I antigen; HLA class I antigen HLA-B; HLA ... HLA-B alpha-chain; HLA-B35; HLA-B35 antigen; HLA-Bw50 antigen; HLA-C; HLA-C alpha chain; HLA-C alpha chain (HLA-Cw*15v); HLA-C ...
HLA subtypes A1, B15, B40, A10 and DQ2 were found to be increased among nonresponders while HLA- A11, C3, DR10, DR51 (p,0.05) ... Certain human leucocyte antigen (HLA) phenotypes have been known to be associated with responsiveness to the vaccine, and found ... Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , HLA Antigens/analysis , Hepatitis B Vaccines/immunology , Hepatitis B virus/ ... Association of HLA phenotype with primary non-response to recombinant hepatitis B vaccine: a study from north India. ...
Humans , Male , Female , Blood Donors , Hepatitis B Surface Antigens , HLA Antigens , Carrier State ... Aumentos en las frecuencias de los antigenos B15 y Bw21 han sido senalados tambien por otros autores ... HLA antigens in blood donors asymptomatic chronic carriers of hepatitis type B surface antigen (HBsAg) ... Antigenos HLA donantes de sangre portadores cronicos asintomaticos del antigeno de superfice (HBsAg) de la hepatitis viral tipo ...
This trial concerns a novel approach to generating leukaemia antigen-specific T cells for adoptive cellular therapy in HLA-A* ... Birmingham, United Kingdom, B15 2TH University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust. Bristol, United Kingdom, BS38 3AP ... HLA A*0201 positive. *Completed previous course of chemotherapy ≥ 4 weeks prior to commencing the initial phase of the trial ( ... HLA-A2-restricted T cell receptor. This ex vivo gene therapy will generate T cells expressing the WT1-specific TCR and thus ...
b Comparison of HLA Class I antigen frequencies in distinct sample sets from The Gambia. X axis: antigen frequencies obtained ... B*15 alleles encode a number of antigens including B70 and we combine results for B15 and B70 here. ... Previously reported HLA associations do not replicate in these samples. This large dataset will provide a foundation for ... 6. Evidence for association across the HLA. a Evidence for association at genotyped SNPs (black plusses), imputed SNPs and ...
DNA samples were typed for alleles of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 using the phototyping method (6,7). The insulin gene variable ... B15 2TT, U.K. E-mail: a.c.britten{at}bham.ac.uk ... Tissue Antigens 46:355-367, 1995. ... Heward JM, Mijovic CH, Kelly MA, Morrison E, Barnett AH: HLA-DQ and DRB1 polymorphism and susceptibility to type 1 diabetes in ... Bunce M, ONeill CM, Barnardo MC, Krausa P, Browning MJ, Morris PJ, Welsh KI: Phototyping: comprehensive DNA typing for HLA-A, ...
Furthermore, the sequence of DCins10 was equal to the epitope (B1-B15) known to bind to the protective HLA allele HLA-DQB1*0602 ... Human antigen-presenting cells (APC) play an essential role in antigen-specific immunity and autoimmunity. Antigen processing ... Fluorescent labeled hemagglutinin-peptide (HA-AMCA) was preloaded to one of the high-risk T1D HLA-DR alleles, HLA-DRB1*0401 ... Notably, the sequence of DCins10 is equal to the peptide B1-B15, which binds to HLA-DQB1*0602 and is protective to T1D. ...
HLA-B Alleles Associated with the B15 Serologically Defined Antigens. 1997 Steiner Noriko et al. Human Immunology cited 32 ... ABSTRACT: HLA-A, and -B antigen, gene and haplotype frequencies have been calculated from 18,774 southern Chinese donors on a ... ABSTRACT: Cells expressing HLA molecules in the B15 family were identified by serologic typing in routine testing of volunteer ... ABSTRACT: Polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 loci was performed in fifty-three orthotopic liver graft recipients as well as ...
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) serotypes were as follows: A2, A26, B15, Cw1, Cw9, DR14, DR8, DR52, DQ7, and DQ6. Chest ... HLA serotypes were as follows: A24, A26, B15, B61, Cw10, DR9, DR53, and DQ9. Chest radiography and CT revealed subpleural and ... Further studies are needed to identify T cell epitopes of the pathogenic antigens, which may potentially lead to the ... The results imply potential elucidation of specific antigen(s) that oligoclonal, lung-infiltrating T cells recognize, which may ...
IDDM1-HLA, 6p21). Initial associations between T1D and the MHC were described for the HLA class I antigens A1-B8 and B15. With ... Similarly, polymorphism of the HLA class I molecules are likely to relate to antigen presentation to cytotoxic T cells, and ... are located in the antigen-binding cleft of the HLA molecule and are likely to influence the binding of antigenic peptides for ... This is best defined by DNA typing of HLA-DQ1, DQB1, and DRB1. However, due to the strong linkage disequilibrium between these ...
We cloned the TCR?? genes from the CTL showing HLA B15 restricted recognition of Kita-Kyushu Lung Cancer antigen-1 (KK-LC-1), a ... These responses were blocked by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and HLA B/C antibodies. An in vivo assay using NOD/SCID ... Growth inhibition of KK-LC-1(+), HLA-B15(+) lung cancer cells was confirmed in mice with injection of the TCR??-CD8-?? T cells ... cancer/germline gene antigen, identified in a lung adenocarcinoma case (F1121). The TCR?? and CD8 genes were transduced into ...
HLA-A1 (P = 0.037), HLA-A3 (P = 0.035), HLA-B15 (P = 0.021), HLA-B16 (P = 0.003), HLA-DR6 (P = 0.002), and HLA-Cw7 (P = 0.003) ... Human leukocyte antigen HLA-BR16 is associated with reduced risk for cytomegalovirus infection and disease after allogeneic ... On multivariate analysis, HLA-A3, HLA-B16, and HLA-Cw7 significantly affected the risk for CMV infection occurrence (P = 0.025 ... 0.004, and 0.008, respectively). Also, HLA-B16 was associated with reduced risk for CMV disease (P = 0.048). Conclusion HLA-B16 ...
Binding to HLA-DR1, HLA-DR2, and HLA-DR4 alleles was determined using a competition assay ( 18), measuring the ability of BAX ... T2 cells and the ALL cell lines 207, Reh, SUP-B15, NALM-6, and RS4;11 were obtained from American Type Culture Collection ( ... To determine the binding of these BAX-δ peptides to HLA-DR1 (DRB1*0101), HLA-DR2 (DRB1*1501), and HLA-DR4 (DRB1*0401) molecules ... Peptides and HLA-A*0201 and HLA-DR binding assay. The BIMAS ( 16) and SYFPEITHI ( 17) algorithms were employed to predict high- ...
MHC in humans is also called human leukocyte antigen (HLA). HLA-typing has a key role in the compatibility upon any tissue ... HLA-A02:01,HLA-B15:01.... Finally I didnt get any job in Spain, but I learned a lot 🙂 ... 9. HLA-typing with exome or RNA-seq data. # Analyzes WES, or RNA-seq if available, data and retrieves the HLA alleles of the ... Basically the HLA-typing analysis workflow after sequencing the PCR products, consists in:. *Map/align the reads against HLA ...
Şelli, ME, Thomas, AC, Wraith, D, Newby, AC & Wraith, D 2017, A humanized HLA-DR4 mouse model for autoimmune myocarditis, ... Wraith, D 2018, Designing antigens for the prevention and treatment of autoimmune diseases, Current Opinion in Chemical ... Birmingham B15 2TT. United Kingdom Main Switchboard:. Tel: +44 (0)121 414 3344. ... He is now developing this form of antigen-specific immunotherapy through Apitope, a company that designs and tests novel ...
... for HLA-A03:01, HLA-A23:01, and HLA-B08:01 (HLA-B15:18 has no experimental ligands in IEDB). Motifs found in LM_UniProt ... HLA. human leukocyte antigen. HLA-Ip. HLA class I binding peptides. FDR. false discovery rate. FP. false positive. AA. amino ... 2017) Deciphering HLA-I motifs across HLA peptidomes improves neo-antigen predictions and identifies allostery regulating HLA ... had low HLA binding affinities and produced ambiguous binding motifs compared with normal HLA-Ip. HLA loading takes place after ...
High prevalences of HLA-B15 and HLA-Dw6 in patients with cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Tissue Antigens. 1979, 14: 68-71. ... Hedfors E, Lindstrom F: HLA-B8/DR3 in sarcoidosis. Correlation to acute onset disease with arthritis. Tissue Antigens. 1983, 22 ... Schurmann M, Bein G, Kirsten D, Schlaak M, Muller-Quernheim J, Schwinger E: HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DPB1 genotypes in familial ... Tissue Antigens. 1997, 50: 650-653.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. *. Ishihara M, Naruse T, Ohno S, Kawata H, Mizuki N, ...
Morris P, Shaman J, Attaya M, Amaya M, Goodman S, Bergman C, Monaco JJ, Mellins E: An essential role for HLA-DM in antigen ... B15, B17, B19, and B21, two Ancona breed serotypes: B8 and B11, and two New Hampshire breed serotypes B23 and B24. The ... Ennis PD, Zemmour J, Salter RD, Parham P: Rapid cloning of HLA-A,B cDNA by using the polymerase chain reaction: frequency and ... It has been shown that without DM, these complexes are unstable, disrupting antigen presentation [1]. ...
Determination of HLA-A*02 antigen status in Hodgkins disease and analysis of an HLA-A*02-restricted epitope of the Epstein- ... Birmingham B15 2TT, United Kingdom. Phone: 0121-414-2803; Fax: 0121-414-4486; E-mail: s.p.lee{at}bham.ac.uk ... HLA-A2-restricted); TYG (HLA-A24-restricted)]. The immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted GLC epitope from the EBV lytic cycle ... One possibility is that H-RS cells cannot be recognized by CTLs because of a defect in the HLA class I antigen processing ...
... we used this approach to accurately predict the HLA-A and HLA-B alleles of most subjects in the first cohort. As all memory T ... Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens * Expand Authors & Affiliates Michael ... Birmingham B15 2WB, UK ... HLA-A 02:01/KLL tetramerþ CD8+ T cells from MCC patient ... T-cell immunity has been linked to the exceptional outcome of the few long-term survivors, yet the relevant antigens remain ...
  • We analysed whether HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-DRB1 alleles could associate with these patterns. (bmj.com)
  • Results Only HLA-B27 and HLA-B15 alleles were associated with SpA. (bmj.com)
  • When found B*4601 segregates with only 2 HLA-Cw alleles, A limited number of HLA-A and HLA-DRB1 alleles suggesting that the allele recently expanded from a limited sized group within SE Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • To correlate B15 molecular structure with the serological picture we have sequenced alleles encoding the various subspecificities of the B15 antigen: B62, B63, B75, B76 and B77, and a number of "variants" of these antigens including the 8w66 split of B63. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Three alleles encoding variant B15 and B62 antigens (B*1508, B*1511 and B*1515) differ from B*1501 by localized clusters of substitutions that probably result from interallelic conversion. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The B15 sequences described in this paper, in combination with those previously determined, define a family of 22 alleles, including those encoding the B46 and B70 antigens. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • DNA samples were typed for alleles of HLA-DRB1, -DQA1, and -DQB1 using the phototyping method ( 6 , 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At the population level the strongest genetic association with T1D is with HLA-DQ alleles. (doctorabel.us)
  • The clinical potential of these antigens is hampered by their limited expression in ALL patients or by their restricted presentation by nonprevalent HLA alleles. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Many of the current studies have evaluated risk based upon HLA class II alleles ( 4 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Such a remarkably high risk for anti-islet autoimmunity among relatives with DR3/DR4 suggests that other alleles within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) may be contributing risk, in addition to the class II alleles, in that most often siblings of probands with diabetes who are DR3/DR4 are HLA identical to the proband (two identical haplotypes). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Over one hundred HLA-C alleles have been described [provided by RefSeq, Jul (usc.edu)
  • We applied four-color multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM), using a large panel of alloantigen-specific anti-HLA-A and -B monoclonal antibodies, to study membranous expression of individual HLA alleles in freshly isolated colorectal cancer cell suspensions from 21 patients. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Alterations in HLA class I phenotype were observed in 8 (38%) of the 21 tumors and comprised loss of a single A or B alleles in 4 cases, and loss of all four A and B alleles in the other 4 cases. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Generation of the HLA-B35, -B5, -B16, and B15 groups of alleles studied by intron 1 and 2 sequence analysis. (naver.com)
  • Thus, the critical residues of DR and DQ, accounting for the disease association with T1D, are located in the antigen-binding cleft of the HLA molecule and are likely to influence the binding of antigenic peptides for subsequent presentation to T helper cells. (doctorabel.us)
  • 3) adopt individual cell lines for experiments in which knowledge of HLA molecule expression is relevant. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Immunisation of mice that are both transgenic for the human HLA-A02.01 molecule and knockout for murine MHC class I molecules, with DNA encoding HBsAg shows that epitopes presented after in vivo processing in HLA-A2 transgenic mice are very similar to those generated in humans during HBV infection. (bmj.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is an antigen-presenting molecule that presents metabolites of microbial vitamin B to MAITs. (genecards.org)
  • Antigen-presenting molecule specialized in presenting microbial vitamin B metabolites. (genecards.org)
  • as of December 2013 there are 456 different HLA-A*02 proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in addition to the proteasome, the antigen processing and presentation machinery comprises several other proteases, transporters, and chaperones that cooperatively digest the proteins in the cytoplasm, funnel the peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), further trim and edit them, load them on newly synthesized HLA-I, and finally direct the stable complexes to the cells' surface ( 1 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Via proteomics data and STRING analysis, we demonstrated that the highly-expressed CD13 is also associated with proteins involved in the antigen presenting process, especially with CD1 proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The strongest cytotoxic T lymphocyte, CTL, response is directed against the EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) 3A, -B, and -C to 6, and a minor response to the latent membrane proteins, LMP2 and LMP1, has been detected ( 42 , 77 ). (asm.org)
  • Systemic immunisation of mice by intramuscular injection of plasmid DNA expressing HBV envelope proteins and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) induces rapid, strong and sustained humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. (bmj.com)
  • HLA-B77(B*1513) and B75 (B*1502) heavy chains differ solely in segments determining the Bw4 and Bw6 public epitopes, consistent with the serological description of the B77 and B75 antigens. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • The identification of new tumor-associated antigens (TAA) is critical for the development of effective immunotherapeutic strategies, particularly in diseases like B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), where few target epitopes are known. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Correlation between HLA class I and spontaneous control of HIV-1 was significant for 7-8 epitopes when 341 chronic, HIV-infected subjects, divided into controllers and non-controllers, were tested for EliSpot responses to 257 optimally defined epitopes. (lanl.gov)
  • Sequence analysis of the full-length LMP1 variants revealed changes in many of the known and computer-predicted HLA-restricted epitopes with changes in key positions in multiple, potential epitopes for the specific HLA of the patients. (asm.org)
  • However, information on the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype of these cell lines is scant and mostly antiquated since it was derived from serological typing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Accurate information about the HLA genotype of each cell line may, in addition, help their identification, validation and qualification among different laboratories excluding possible errors related to switching of cell lines or culture contamination. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ABSTRACT: HLA-A, and -B antigen, gene and haplotype frequencies have been calculated from 18,774 southern Chinese donors on a Hong Kong-based bone marrow donor registry. (naver.com)
  • ABSTRACT: An ELISA, PRA-STAT®was recently introduced for the detection of HLA class I specific antibodies of IgG isotype in patients' sera. (naver.com)
  • ABSTRACT: Polymorphism of HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 loci was performed in fifty-three orthotopic liver graft recipients as well as in 108 unrelated healthy controls. (naver.com)
  • Thus any alteration to the HLA that induces decreased binding to a certain peptide or increased binding to a certain peptide, is expressed as, respectively, increased susceptibility to disease or decreased susceptibility to disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have recently demonstrated that EBV-encoded nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) induces cellular transcription factors, and given these findings, we investigated the role of EBNA1 in induction of EBER-associated transcription factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the processing and presentation of proinsulin by antigen-presenting cells (APC) in humans is only partially understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Several studies have shown that T-cell responses specific for distinct tumor antigens can be primed or expanded in the cancer-bearing host ( 1 - 4 ), suggesting that the immune response against tumors can be manipulated in humans for therapeutic benefit. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In particular, we focused on results of multicenter randomized phase III trial (GRAALL-2005- Group for Research on Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) that evaluated the benefit of associating rituximab to chemotherapy in Ph-negative, B-lineage ALL expressing the CD20 antigen. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We found that over one-third of patient DR3 chromosomes consisted of an extended DR3 haplotype, from DQ2 to D6S2223 (DQ2, DR3, D6S273-143, MIC-A5.1, HLA-B8, HLA-Cw7, HLA-A1, and D6S2223-177) with an identical extended haplotype in controls. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Certain human leucocyte antigen (HLA) phenotypes have been known to be associated with responsiveness to the vaccine, and found to be different in different ethnic groups, such as Caucasians and Orientals. (bvsalud.org)
  • The study was designed to identify the HLA phenotypes that are associated with non-responsiveness to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination amongst a cohort of Indian subjects who agreed to participate in the vaccination programme. (bvsalud.org)
  • Fifteen nonresponders (15/102) and 15 of the 88 responders were randomly selected after age and sex matching for the purpose of studying the HLA phenotypes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Further studies are needed to characterize the HLA phenotypes amongst the responders in different ethnic groups in India with respect to HBV vaccination. (bvsalud.org)
  • FCM allows the discrimination of complex phenotypes related to the expression of HLA class I. The different patterns of HLA class I expression might underlie different tumor behavior and influence the success rate of immunotherapy. (beds.ac.uk)
  • IgG1 production is induced by exposure to soluble and membrane protein antigens and allergens. (beds.ac.uk)
  • To evaluate safety and pharmacokinetics (PK), and determine the recommended dose for efficacy studies, of L-377202, a novel peptide conjugate of doxorubicin (Dox) that releases the active metabolites leucine-doxorubicin (Leu-Dox) and Dox on cleavage by membrane-bound prostate-specific antigen (PSA). (termsreign.cf)
  • The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of the α2 domain of the HLA-A α-chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within this family the patterns of allelic substitution are analogous to those of other HLA-A and -B families, in that pairwise differences almost always involve functional positions of the antigen recognition site and recombination is the major agent of diversification. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • Studies on T-cell responses in healthy virus carriers have demonstrated a hierarchy of immunodominance among EBV latent antigens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • CTL responses restricted by HLA-B*1503 were analyzed in HIV-1 subtype B and C-infected patients. (lanl.gov)
  • Independent of the observed variability, HCV-specific CD8+ T cell responses decline and no adaption to different or new antigens during the course of infection could be detected. (biomedcentral.com)
  • DNA based or genetic vaccination is an efficient new technique to stimulate specific immune responses after in vivo delivery of bacterial plasmids encoding antigens. (bmj.com)
  • B*4601 resulted from a rare, interlocus, gene conversion between B62, probably B*1501, and a HLA-C allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is the result of a recombination event between B62(B*1501) and an HLA-C allele within Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • One allele encoding the B76 antigen (B*1512) appears to be the product of gene conversion between the HLA-A and -B loci and differs from B*1501 in codons 166 and 167. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, a second allele encoding the B76 antigen (B*1514) differs from B*1501 by an unrelated substitution in codon 167 which confers similarily with B45, an antigen crossreactive with B76. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We performed de novo sequencing of the HLA-peptide spectra and discarded all de novo sequences found in the UniProt database. (mcponline.org)
  • In essence, there are indicators, albeit from a small study comparing HLA expression in fertile and infertile couples, that HLA-A*02 may induce increased maternal immune response to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Distinct patterns of HLA surface expression might conceal different immune escape mechanisms employed by the tumors and are worth further study. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Hence, an effective tumor immune escape mechanism could occur through a subtle alteration of the tumor cell HLA phenotype, circumventing both CTL and NK cell attack. (beds.ac.uk)
  • IQQEFGIPY was significantly nonprotective, associated with HIV chronic disease progression when restricted by HLA-A*34 in a cohort of 245 controllers and 96 progressors. (lanl.gov)
  • 1996. DNA-mediated immunisation in a transgenic mouse model of the hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carrier state. (bmj.com)
  • Seven of these 8 tumors were located on the right side of the colon, and those showing loss of both HLA-A and -B membranous expression were all of the MSI-H phenotype. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Although antiquated and partial information about the HLA phenotype of some of the NCI-60 cell lines is available through the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC), Rockville, MD, no high-resolution information obtained by definitive sequence-based typing (SBT) has ever been published. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report here the use of gene expression profiling to identify BAX-δ as a novel candidate tumor antigen in ALL. (aacrjournals.org)
  • a pipeline for the identification of personalized Variant Antigens by Cancer Sequencing (pVAC-Seq) that integrates tumor mutation and expression data (DNA- and RNA-Seq) ( original article ). (sixthresearcher.com)
  • When using commercially available kits such as HercepTest (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) and Pathway HER2 (Ventana, Tucson, AZ), staining is graded semiquantitatively on a scale from 0 (no detectable HER-2) to 3+ (high HER-2 expression) on the basis of comparison with cell lines of known HER-2 receptor density. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HLA staining by IHC is often strongly cytoplasmic, which could potentially obscure functionally relevant membranous co-expression and result in a false negative interpretation. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Since genome-based typing does not guarantee actual surface protein expression, further characterization of relevant cell lines should be entertained to verify surface expression in experiments requiring correct antigen presentation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • All 102 volunteers were offered recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (20 microg) at 0, 1, and 6 months. (bvsalud.org)
  • HIV produces a protein called Nef that binds to the cytoplasmic tail of HLA-A and B and diverts it to the lysosomes for destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a significant decrease and is almost certainly a result of the abnormally efficient binding of HLA-A*02 to peptides originating from EBV. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reported proteasomal spliced HLA peptides do not fit the consensus binding motifs. (mcponline.org)
  • The selective interaction between the HLA-I complex and the peptides is the major factor that defines the presented repertoire and is often represented with binding motifs. (mcponline.org)
  • In addition, there are several HLA-A*02 haplotypes that appear to contribute heavily to higher or lower viral loads in HIV patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-A*02-C*16 and HLA-A*02-B*45 have been shown to contribute to significantly increased viral loads (greater than 100,000 copies per milliliter). (wikipedia.org)
  • An association between HLA-B*1503 and reduced viral loads in individuals infected with clade B was found. (lanl.gov)
  • tuberculosis by intraperitoneal route presented downmodulation of very late antigen 4 (VLA-4) and unchanged levels of CD18 and CD44hi on peritoneal lymphocytes. (termsreign.ml)