Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
Nuclear antigens encoded by VIRAL GENES found in HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 4. At least six nuclear antigens have been identified.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*44 allele family.
Antigens stimulating the formation of, or combining with heterophile antibodies. They are cross-reacting antigens found in phylogenetically unrelated species.
Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
DNA probes specific for the human leukocyte antigen genes, which represent the major histocompatibility determinants in humans. The four known loci are designated as A, B, C, and D. Specific antigens are identified by a locus notation and number, e.g., HLA-A11. The inheritance of certain HLA alleles is associated with increased risk for certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
A glycolipid, cross-species antigen that induces production of antisheep hemolysin. It is present on the tissue cells of many species but absent in humans. It is found in many infectious agents.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*03 allele family.
An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A species of POLYOMAVIRUS originally isolated from Rhesus monkey kidney tissue. It produces malignancy in human and newborn hamster kidney cell cultures.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*24 allele family.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
A HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*07 alleles.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.
Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.
A broad-specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*11 and DRB1*12 alleles.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Sialylated Lewis blood group carbohydrate antigen found in many adenocarcinomas of the digestive tract, especially pancreatic tumors.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.
A group of dominantly and independently inherited antigens associated with the ABO blood factors. They are glycolipids present in plasma and secretions that may adhere to the erythrocytes. The phenotype Le(b) is the result of the interaction of the Le gene Le(a) with the genes for the ABO blood groups.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.
Antigens which may directly stimulate B lymphocytes without the cooperation of T lymphocytes.
Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Immunologically detectable substances found in the CELL NUCLEUS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
A major histocompatibily complex class I-like protein that plays a unique role in the presentation of lipid ANTIGENS to NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS.
Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily found on most T-LYMPHOCYTES. Activation of the receptor by CD70 ANTIGEN results in the increased proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
Methods used for studying the interactions of antibodies with specific regions of protein antigens. Important applications of epitope mapping are found within the area of immunochemistry.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)
Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*51 allele family.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.

Expression of B7 costimulatory molecules by salivary gland epithelial cells in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. (1/1082)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of B7 costimulatory molecules in the lymphoepithelial lesions of salivary gland (SG) biopsy tissues and in SG epithelial cell lines derived from patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). METHODS: B7.1 and B7.2 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in minor SGs obtained from 11 patients with SS and 10 disease control patients with nonspecific sialadenitis and in cultured SG epithelial cell lines obtained from minor SGs from 15 SS patients and 15 control patients. B7.1 and B7.2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression by SG epithelial cell lines was examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: In biopsy tissues from SS patients, but not control patients, ductal and acinar epithelial cells showed increased expression of both B7.1 and B7.2. Intense spontaneous B7.1 protein expression (as well as HLA-ABC, but not B7.2 or HLA-DR) was also found in 73% of SG epithelial cell lines from SS patients versus 13% of those from control patients (P < 0.01). Interferon-y treatment induced, or up-regulated, B7.1, B7.2, and HLA-DR expression in all SG epithelial cell lines tested. B7.1 and B7.2 expression by SG epithelial cell lines was also verified at the mRNA level by RT-PCR. CONCLUSION: Human SG epithelia are intrinsically capable of expressing B7 proteins upon activation. In SS patients, the expression of B7 molecules by SG epithelial tissues and by SG epithelial cell lines indicates the activated status of SG epithelial cells in this disorder and, possibly, their capacity for presenting antigens to T cells.  (+info)

Natural variation of the expression of HLA and endogenous antigen modulates CTL recognition in an in vitro melanoma model. (2/1082)

Increasing attention has been devoted to elucidating the mechanism of lost or decreased expression of MHC or melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs), which may lead to tumor escape from immune recognition. Loss of expression of HLA class I or MAA has, as an undisputed consequence, loss of recognition by HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). However, the relevance of down-regulation remains in question in terms of frequency of occurrence. Moreover the functional significance of epitope down-regulation, defining the relationship between MHC/epitope density and CTL interactions, is a matter of controversy, particularly with regard to whether the noted variability of expression of MHC/epitope occurs within a range likely to affect target recognition by CTLs. In this study, bulk metastatic melanoma cell lines originated from 25 HLA-A*0201 patients were analyzed for expression of HLA-A2 and MAAs. HLA-A2 expression was heterogeneous and correlated with lysis by CTLs. Sensitivity to lysis was also independently affected by the amount of ligand available for binding at concentrations of 0.001 to 1 mM. Natural expression of MAA was variable, independent from the expression of HLA-A*0201, and a significant co-factor determining recognition of melanoma targets. Thus, the naturally occurring variation in the expression of MAA and/or HLA documented by our in vitro results modulates recognition of melanoma targets and may (i) partially explain CTL-target interactions in vitro and (ii) elucidate potential mechanisms for progressive escape of tumor cells from immune recognition in vivo.  (+info)

Feasibility of immunotherapy of relapsed leukemia with ex vivo-generated cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for hematopoietic system-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens. (3/1082)

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a common treatment of hematologic malignancies. Recurrence of the underlying malignancy is a major cause of treatment failure. Donor-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) specific for patients' minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) play an important role in both graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) reactivities. mHags HA-1 and HA-2 induce HLA-A*0201-restricted CTLs in vivo and are exclusively expressed on hematopoietic cells, including leukemic cells and leukemic precursors, but not on fibroblasts, keratinocytes, or liver cells. The chemical nature of the mHags HA-1 and HA-2 is known. We investigated the feasibility of ex vivo generation of mHag HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs from unprimed mHag HA-1- and/or HA-2-negative healthy blood donors. HA-1 and HA-2 synthetic peptide-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) were used as antigen-presenting cells (APC) to stimulate autologous unprimed CD8(+) T cells. The ex vivo-generated HA-1- and HA-2-specific CTLs efficiently lyse leukemic cells derived from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) patients. No lytic reactivity was detected against nonhematopoietic cells. Sufficient numbers of the CTLs can be obtained for the adoptive immunotherapy purposes. In conclusion, we present a feasible, novel therapy for the treatment for relapsed leukemia after BMT with a low risk of GVHD.  (+info)

Assessment of immunogenicity of human Melan-A peptide analogues in HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mice. (4/1082)

Previous studies have shown that substitution of single amino acid residues in human Melan-A immunodominant peptides Melan-A27-35 and Melan-A26-35 greatly improved their binding and the stability of peptide/HLA-A*0201 complexes. In particular, one Melan-A peptide analogue was more efficient in the generation of Melan-A peptide-specific and melanoma-reactive CTL than its parental peptide in vitro from human PBL. In this study, we analyzed the in vivo immunogenicity of Melan-A natural peptides and their analogues in HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mice. We found that two human Melan-A natural peptides, Melan-A26-35 and Melan-A27-35, were relatively weak immunogens, whereas several Melan-A peptide analogues were potent immunogens for in vivo CTL priming. In addition, induced Melan-A peptide-specific mouse CTL cross-recognized natural Melan-A peptides and their analogues. More interestingly, these mouse CTL were also able to lyse human melanoma cell lines in vitro in a HLA-A*0201-restricted, Melan-A-specific manner. Our results indicate that the HLA-A*0201/Kb transgenic mouse is a useful animal model to perform preclinical testing of potential cancer vaccines, and that Melan-A peptide analogues are attractive candidates for melanoma immunotherapy.  (+info)

HLA alleles determine human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) proviral load and the risk of HTLV-I-associated myelopathy. (5/1082)

The risk of disease associated with persistent virus infections such as HIV-I, hepatitis B and C, and human T-lymphotropic virus-I (HTLV-I) is strongly determined by the virus load. However, it is not known whether a persistent class I HLA-restricted antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response reduces viral load and is therefore beneficial or causes tissue damage and contributes to disease pathogenesis. HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM/TSP) patients have a high virus load compared with asymptomatic HTLV-I carriers. We hypothesized that HLA alleles control HTLV-I provirus load and thus influence susceptibility to HAM/TSP. Here we show that, after infection with HTLV-I, the class I allele HLA-A*02 halves the odds of HAM/TSP (P < 0.0001), preventing 28% of potential cases of HAM/TSP. Furthermore, HLA-A*02(+) healthy HTLV-I carriers have a proviral load one-third that (P = 0.014) of HLA-A*02(-) HTLV-I carriers. An association of HLA-DRB1*0101 with disease susceptibility also was identified, which doubled the odds of HAM/TSP in the absence of the protective effect of HLA-A*02. These data have implications for other persistent virus infections in which virus load is associated with prognosis and imply that an efficient antiviral CTL response can reduce virus load and so prevent disease in persistent virus infections.  (+info)

The lifespan of major histocompatibility complex class I/peptide complexes determines the efficiency of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses. (6/1082)

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC)/peptide association and stability are determined by specific amino acid interactions between peptide antigens and the MHC groove, and are regarded as a critical feature in ensuring efficient monitoring by T cells. In this investigation we examined the relationship between MHC/peptide stability and the immunostimulatory capacity of MHC/peptide complexes. For this purpose we compared synthetic peptide analogues derived from the immunodominant HLA-A11-presented IVTDFSVIK (IVT) epitope, for their capacity to reactivate IVT-specific memory cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses. The analogues differentiated from the wild-type epitope by single amino acid substitution at position 2. All peptides showed similar affinity for HLA-A11 molecules and were recognized by IVT-specific CTL clones, but induced HLA-A11 complexes at the cell surface with different lifespan. This model offered the possibility of comparing the capacity of an immunogenic epitope to stimulate a unique population of T-cell precursors depending on the lifespan of its presentation at the cell surface. We demonstrated that stable HLA-A11/peptide complexes efficiently stimulate IVT-specific CTL responses, while HLA-A11/peptide complexes with short lifespan do not. The precise identification of the role of amino acid residues in the formation of stable MHC/peptide complexes may be relevant for the design of wild-type-derived epitopes with high immunogenicity. These analogues may have important applications in the immunotherapy of infectious diseases and immunogenic tumours.  (+info)

Differences in gene conversion rates among exons between HLA-A and HLA-B loci. (7/1082)

To examine whether gene conversion occurs between two homologous loci of HLA-A and HLA-B, DNA sequences were compared and the differences or the numbers of substitutions per site at synonymous and nonsynonymous sites were calculated in the coding region and in the non-coding region. (1) Totally differences at synonymous sites in introns and coding regions are small as compared with the differences in the 5' flanking region. This indicates that gene conversion should occur between HLA-A and HLA-B loci. (2) In exon2 and exon3, the differences at synonymous sites are smaller than at nonsynonymous sites. This suggests that these exons are subject to positive natural selection, which is consistent with the reports of Hughes and Nei [1,2], because exon2 and exon3 encode alpha 1 and alpha 2 domains of the HLA molecule respectively which include mainly the antigen recognition sites (ARS). (3) in exon4, the difference at the synonymous site is the same as that in the 5' flanking region, which suggests that gene conversion does not frequently occur. The difference in this exon is extremely small at the nonsynonymous sites. This exon encodes the alpha 3 domain which does not have the antigen recognition sites but have an important function in maintaining the structure of the HLA molecule. From the above results, it can be concluded that gene conversion between HLA-A and HLA-B occurs more frequently in the two exons, exon2 and exon3 which have ARS regions. Furthermore, to examine a possibility that the variability of GC content along sequence influences the difference, the GC content was calculated along the sequence.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of HLA-C heavy chains in melanoma cells with multiple defects in the expression of HLA-A, -B, -C molecules. (8/1082)

Recent investigations have shown that malignant transformation may down-regulate the expression of class I HLA molecules, beta2-microglobulin (beta2m) and members of the antigen-processing machinery. In the present study, we HLA-genotyped and identified at a biochemical level the three (HLA-A25, -B8, -Cw7) class I alleles expressed by the previously described [D'Urso CM et al (1992) J Clin Invest 87: 284-292] beta2m-defective human melanoma FO-1 cell line and tested their ability to interact with calnexin, calreticulin and the TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) complex. All these alleles were found to bind calnexin, but not calreticulin or the poorly expressed TAP complex, both in parental and beta2m-transfected FO-1 cells, demonstrating a complex defect of class I expression in FO-1 cells. In these conditions, Cw7 heavy chains interacted with calnexin more strongly than A25 and B8, and preferentially accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum, in both a calnexin-associated and a calnexin-free form. In addition, they could be transported to the cell surface at low levels even in the absence of beta2m, without undergoing terminal glycosylation. These results establish a parallel between HLA-C and the murine Db and Ld molecules which have been found to be surface expressed and functional in beta2m-defective cells. They also demonstrate distinctive features of HLA-C molecules. We propose that the accumulation of several assembly intermediates of HLA-C might favour the binding of peptide antigens not readily bound by HLA-A and -B molecules in neoplastic cells with suboptimal class I expression.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Recognition of shared melanoma antigens in association with major HLA-A alleles by tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes from 123 patients with melanoma. AU - Kawakami, Yutaka. AU - Dang, Nita. AU - Wang, Xiang. AU - Tupesis, Janis. AU - Robbins, Paul F.. AU - Wang, Rong Fu. AU - Wunderlich, John R.. AU - Yannelli, John R.. AU - Rosenberg, Steven A.. PY - 2000/2/15. Y1 - 2000/2/15. N2 - A total of 123 tumor-infiltrating T lymphocyte (TIL) cultures established from patients with HLA-A1, -A2, -A3, -A24, or -A31 metastatic melanoma in the Surgery Branch, National Cancer Institute, were screened for recognition of shared melanoma antigens including five melanosomal proteins (tyrosinase, MART-1/melan-A, gp100, TRP1, TRP2) as well as peptides derived from MAGE-1 and MAGE-3. Examination of the specificity of these T cells indicated that 16% of HLA-A1 TIL, 57% of HLA-A2 TIL, 7% of HLA-A3 TIL, 13% of HLA-A24 TIL, and 27% of HLA-A31 TIL recognized shared melanoma antigens restricted by major ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel HLA-A*03 allele, HLA-A*03:71. AU - Yu, M.. AU - Hall, J. E.. AU - Hartman, K.. AU - Czech, J.. AU - Jennings, L.. PY - 2010/10/1. Y1 - 2010/10/1. N2 - A novel HLA-A*03 allele, HLA-A*03:71, was identified by PCR sequence-based typing.. AB - A novel HLA-A*03 allele, HLA-A*03:71, was identified by PCR sequence-based typing.. KW - 03:71. KW - HLA-A. KW - PCR-SBT. KW - new allele. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77956308264&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77956308264&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2010.01532.x. DO - 10.1111/j.1399-0039.2010.01532.x. M3 - Article. C2 - 20630036. AN - SCOPUS:77956308264. VL - 76. JO - HLA. JF - HLA. SN - 2059-2302. IS - 4. ER - ...
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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - A human monoclonal antibody against HLA-Cw1 and a human monoclonal antibody against an HLA-A locus determinant derived from a single uniparous female. AU - Mulder, A. AU - Kardol, M J. AU - Uit het Broek, C M. AU - Tanke-Visser, J. AU - Young, Neil Thomas. AU - Claas, F H. PY - 1998/10/1. Y1 - 1998/10/1. N2 - Two human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs) with widely different HLA specificities were raised from a uniparous HLA-seropositive female. Screening against a large panel of serologically HLA-typed lymphocytes in the complement-dependent cytotoxicity test showed that one of these HuMAbs, VP6G3, was specific for HLA-Cw1, thereby constituting the first HuMAb against an HLA-C locus product. The second HuMAb, VP5G3, was directed against an HLA-A-encoded determinant shared by HLA-A11, -A25, -A26 and -A66. The epitopes responsible for binding were determined by comparing the aminoacid sequences and were pinpointed to the 6K/9F combination for HuMAb VP6G3, and 163R with a critical ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses play a major role in the antiviral immune response, but the relative contribution of CTL responses restricted by different HLA class I molecules is less well defined. HLA-B60 or the related allele B61 is expressed in 10 to 20% of Caucasoid populations and is even more highly prevalent in Asian populations, but yet no CTL epitopes restricted by these alleles have been defined. Here we report the definition of five novel HLA-B60-restricted HIV-1-specific CTL epitopes, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells in enzyme-linked immunospot (Elispot) assays and using CTL clones and lines in cytolytic assays. The dominant HLA-B60-restricted epitope, Nef peptide KEKGGLEGL, was targeted by all eight subjects with B60 and also by both subjects with B61 studied. This study additionally establishes the utility of the Elispot assay as a more rapid and efficient method of defining novel CTL epitopes. This approach will help to
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and no combination therapy is far superior to gemcitabine alone. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 1 (VEGFR1) is expressed on the tumor vessels and a candidate of tumor vessel-specific peptide vaccination strategy to induce T cell immune response. We conducted the study to confirm the safety and efficacy of combined modality intervention using conventional dose of gemcitabine with peptide vaccination targeting tumor-vessel specific VEGFR1 in case of advanced/inoperable or therapy-resistant pancreatic cancer patients.. Gemcitabine 1,000 mg/m^2 (body surface area) will be administered on day 1, day 8, day 15, day 29, day 36, and day 43, respectively.. VEGFR1-derived HLA-A*02:01-restricted peptide (VEGFR1-A02-770; TLFWLLLTL) emulsified with Montanide ISA51 will be subcutaneously injected twice weekly for 8 weeks (total 16 doses). ...
We demonstrated that each of the three (β-tublin5-154, β-tublin5-309, and CGI37-72) HLA-A31-restricted CTL-epitope peptides had the ability to induce HLA-A3-, -A11-, and -A33-restricted and tumor-reactive CTLs, from the PBMCs of epithelial cancer patients. These four alleles (HLA-A0301, -A1101, -A3101, and -A3301) along with HLA-A6801 allele share the similar binding motifs, and, thus, are classified under the HLA-A3 supertype, which is dominant in the human population (11) . Namely, the phenotypic frequency of the HLA-A3 supertype except for HLA-A6801 allele is ∼30%, 35%, 44%, 52%, and 35% among Caucasians, North American African-Americans, Japanese, Chinese, and Hispanics, respectively (11) . Although HLA-A3303 is not included in the A3 supertype classically, it was reported that HLA-A3303 binding peptides shared the same anchor residues for HLA-A3101 binding peptides (19 , 20) . We used HLA-A3303+ PBMCs in this study, instead of HLA-A3301 for the experiments, because it is a predominant ...
Hemi-exon shuffling and site-directed mutagenesis have been used to determine which amino acid differences between HLA-A2.1 and HLA-A2.2 alter the CTL-defined epitopes on these two molecules. Two genes were constructed that encode novel molecules in which the effect of amino acid differences at residues 9, 43, and 95, or at residue 156 could be separately evaluated. Using both human and murine CTL that were specific for either HLA-A2.1 or HLA-A2.2, four types of epitopes were identified: 1) epitopes that were insensitive to substitutions at either residues 9, 43, and 95, or residue 156 but were lost when all four positions were changed; 2) epitopes that were dependent on the residues 9, 43, 95, but not residue 156; 3) epitopes that were dependent on residue 156, but not amino acid residues 9, 43, and 95; and 4) epitopes that were dependent on residues 9, 43, and 95, as well as amino acid residue 156. Overall, there was a roughly equal distribution of clones recognizing each of these types of ...
The underlying basis for HLA class I gene-associated risk in type 1 diabetes is not known. In an attempt to elucidate this, in the current study we manufactured an HLA class I negative human cell line to express the type 1 diabetes-risk allele HLA-A24 and also PPI, a major β-cell-specific autoantigen targeted in the disease. We used sensitive mass spectrometry to examine the HLA-associated peptides that these cells display. A 9-mer sequence from the signal peptide region of PPI, LWMRLLPLL, was identified as naturally processed and presented by HLA-A24 under these conditions. This PPI epitope was confirmed as being recognized by CD8 T cells in the peripheral blood using HLA-A24 tetramers loaded with LWMRLLPLL. Moreover, circulating CD8 T cells recognizing this peptide were significantly more frequent in patients with type 1 diabetes than in control subjects matched for HLA-A*24. It is important that disease relevance was substantiated by the demonstration that a CD8 T-cell clone specific for ...
Highly polymorphic. Polymorphic residues encode for alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains of the peptide-binding cleft, where they contribute to variations in peptide binding and TCR recognition among different alleles. The human population is estimated to have millions of HLA-A alleles. But only 11 common HLA-A alleles are considered core alleles, representing all functionally significant variation (polymorphism) in alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains. These are: A*01:01; A*02:01; A*02:05; A*03:01; A*11:01; A*24:02; A*26:01; A*29:02; A*30:01; A*74:01 and A*80:01. Among these, A*02:01; A*11:01; A*24:02 and A*26:01, were likely passed by introgression from archaic to modern humans. Functional alleles of more recent origin (non-core) were derived by recombination (PubMed:28650991). The sequence shown is that of A*03:01. The sequences of core alleles and common representative alleles of serologically distinct allele groups are described as variants of A*03:01 (PubMed:28650991). Allele A*31:01 is associated with ...
Simon M et. al. (1987) A study of 609 HLA haplotypes marking for the hemochromatosis gene: (1) mapping of the gene near the HLA-A locus and characters required to define a heterozygous population and (2) hypothesis concerning the underlying cause of hemochromatosis-HLA association.. [^] ...
Simon M et al. (1987) A study of 609 HLA haplotypes marking for the hemochromatosis gene: (1) mapping of the gene near the HLA-A locus and characters required to define a heterozygous population and (2) hypothesis concerning the underlying cause of hemochromatosis-HLA association.. ...
Encompassing all HLA molecules, this high-throughput computational method lends itself to epitope searches that are not only genome- and pathogen-wide, but also HLA-wide. Thus, it offers a truly global analysis of immune responses supporting rational development of vaccines and immunotherapy. It als …
well, that was probably the fastest ive ever completed the questionnaires for any Dread game. theyre only 8+name questions long, but i think they will cover it. room for growth. here they are ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of HLA-A3-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes reactive against the widely expressed tumor antigen telomerase. AU - Vonderheide, Robert H.. AU - Anderson, Karen S.. AU - Hahn, William C.. AU - Butler, Mark O.. AU - Schultze, Joachim L.. AU - Nadler, Lee M.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Purpose: We have reported previously that the telomerase catalytic subunit, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), is a widely expressed tumor-associated antigen recognized by CTLs. A nine-amino acid peptide derived from hTERT binds strongly to HLA-A2 antigen and elicits CTL responses against a broad panel of hTERT+ tumors (but not hTERT+ hematopoietic progenitor cells). The applicability of hTERT as a potential target for anticancer immunotherapy would be widened by the identification of epitopes restricted to other common HLA alleles, such as HLA-A3 antigen. Experimental Design: Using a method of epitope deduction, HLA-A3-restricted peptide epitopes were screened ...
Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA I) molecules composed of alpha (heavy) chain, including HLA-A, -B, or -C encoded by HLAgenes, and beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) are membrane proteins on all...
Aims/hypothesis The rate of progression from islet autoimmunity to clinical type 1 diabetes depends on the rate of beta cell destruction. The HLA-A*24 gene is associated with early diabetes onset, but previous studies have shown attenuated humoral responses to islet antigens in individuals with both recent and long-standing type 1 diabetes carrying HLA-A*24. We aimed to establish whether HLA-A*24 is also associated with attenuated humoral responses in individuals at high risk of type 1 diabetes. Methods We established HLA-A*24, DQ and rs9258750 (an HLA-A*24 tagged single-nucleotide polymorphism) genotype, as well as GAD, zinc transporter 8 (ZnT8), insulin, islet antigen-2 (IA-2), and IA-2β autoantibody status in 373 islet cell antibody-positive first-degree relatives participating in the European Nicotinamide Diabetes Intervention Trial. Results Univariate regression analyses showed that humoral responses to GAD, ZnT8 and insulin were less common in relatives carrying HLA-A*24. The prevalence ...
In previous studies of antigen presentation through HLA-B27, we identified a healthy person whose lymphoblastoid cells do not present three B27-restricted viral epitopes to specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), despite adequate cell surface expression of HLA-B2702 of normal sequence. Similar findings were observed in all members of his family sharing the HLA-A3-B2702 haplotype. The original donor, NW, carries HLA-B8 on his other class I haplotype, which his daughter, HW, has inherited. We now report a failure to present an HLA-B8-restricted epitope from influenza nucleoprotein following viral infection of NW cells, although exogenous added peptide is still presented normally. However, cells from HW, which do not carry the A3-B2702 haplotype, present the expected epitope after viral infection. Another B8-restricted epitope, from human immunodeficiency virus-gag, is presented equally well by both cell lines when infected with gag-vaccinia. This antigen processing phenotype does not correlate with any of
RefSeq Summary (NM_002116): HLA-A belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-A alleles have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_002116): HLA-A belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is anchored in the membrane. Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. They are expressed in nearly all cells. The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and its gene contains 8 exons. Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the alpha1 and alpha2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the alpha3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane region, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow and kidney transplantation. Hundreds of HLA-A alleles have been described. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
The high diversity of HLA binding preferences has been driven by the sequence diversity of short segments of relevant pathogenic proteins presented by HLA molecules to the immune system. To identify possible commonalities in HLA binding preferences, we quantify these using a novel measure termed targeting efficiency, which captures the correlation between HLA-peptide binding affinities and the conservation of the targeted proteomic regions. Analysis of targeting efficiencies for 95 HLA class I alleles over thousands of human proteins and 52 human viruses indicates that HLA molecules preferentially target conserved regions in these proteomes, although the arboviral Flaviviridae are a notable exception where nonconserved regions are preferentially targeted by most alleles. HLA-A alleles and several HLA-B alleles that have maintained close sequence identity with chimpanzee homologues target conserved human proteins and DNA viruses such as Herpesviridae and Adenoviridae most efficiently, while all ...
Allele 5 at the microsatellite locus D6S265 (D6S265*5), 100 kb centromeric of HLA-A, showed strong positive association with disease (OR = 4.7, Pc , 10-6). Haplotype analysis demonstrated that the D6S265*5 association was not caused by LD to the gene encoding HLA-A*02, which has previously been described also to be associated with JIA. Rather our data suggest that a gene in LD with D6S265*5, but distinct from HLA-A*02, is involved in predisposition to JIA. ...
It was shown that oncogenes, such as ras, myc, and HER2, can induce the downregulation of MHC class I surface expression, resulting in an escape from immunosurveillance (12, 24-27). However, there is limited information about epigenetic and oncogenic factors for downregulation of HLA-class I. To our knowledge, only one previous study (24) reported that joint action of DNA methylation and MAPK inhibition could exert a regulatory effect on HLA-A expression in colon cancer cells. In the current study, we expanded this anecdotal observation to a more general phenomenon, showing that the MAPK pathway could regulate HLA-A expression in gastric and esophageal cancer. In addition, we showed that HLA-A expression is predominantly regulated by the MAPK pathway but is influenced, in part, by the Akt pathway, as shown by the HER1 and HER3 experiments (Fig. 8), and the lapatinib treatment (Figs. 1, 4).. Although p-Akt and p-Erk were both almost completely inhibited by lapatinib in HER2-overexpressing cells ...
HLA-A3 Mouse anti-Human, FITC, Clone: GAP.A3, eBioscience™ 25 tests; FITC HLA-A3 Mouse anti-Human, FITC, Clone: GAP.A3, eBioscience™ Primary Antibodies Hj...
HLA-A2 Mouse anti-Human, PerCP-eFluor 710, Clone: BB7.2, eBioscience™ 25 tests; PerCP-eFluor 710 HLA-A2 Mouse anti-Human, PerCP-eFluor 710, Clone: BB7.2,...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against a full-length recombinant HLA-A. HLA-A (AAH03069, 24 a.a. ~ 365 a.a) full-length recombinant protein with GST tag. MW of the GST tag alone is 26 KDa. (H00003105-M01) - Products - Abnova
HLA-A*02:01 PRAME142-151 Tetramer-SLYSFPEPEA-APC(Human Class I) from MBL.MHC tetramers can be used for direct detection of antigen specific T cells.
p286/I-Ag7 tetramer-positive CD4+ T cells from G286 mice delay diabetes transfer. Tetramer-positive and -negative cells were sorted from G286 lymph node cells w
Supertypes are groups of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles which bind overlapping sets of peptides due to sharing specific residues at the anchor positions-the B and F pockets-of the peptide-bindi
4F7P: Cross-Allele Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Responses against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza A Virus among HLA-A24 and HLA-A3 Supertype-Positive Individuals.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Specific human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles associated with hepatitis C virus viremia. AU - Kuniholm, Mark H.. AU - Kovacs, Andrea. AU - Gao, Xiaojiang. AU - Xue, Xiaonan. AU - Marti, Darlene. AU - Thio, Chloe L.. AU - Peters, Marion G.. AU - Terrault, Norah A.. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth M.. AU - Goedert, James J.. AU - Cohen, Mardge H.. AU - Minkoff, Howard. AU - Gange, Stephen J.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Fazzari, Melissa. AU - Harris, Tiffany G.. AU - Young, Mary A.. AU - Strickler, Howard D.. AU - Carrington, Mary. PY - 2010/5/1. Y1 - 2010/5/1. N2 - Studies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and their relation with hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia have had conflicting results. However, these studies have varied in size and methods, and few large studies assessed HLA class I alleles. Only one study conducted high-resolution class I genotyping. The current investigation therefore involved high-resolution HLA class I and II genotyping of a large multiracial ...
The rapid and extensive spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic provides a rare opportunity to witness host-pathogen co-evolution involving humans. A focal point is the interaction between genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and those encoding HIV proteins. HLA molecules present fragments (epitopes) of HIV proteins on the surface of infected cells to enable immune recognition and killing by CD8(+) T cells; particular HLA molecules, such as HLA-B*57, HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*51, are more likely to mediate successful control of HIV infection. Mutation within these epitopes can allow viral escape from CD8(+) T-cell recognition. Here we analysed viral sequences and HLA alleles from |2,800 subjects, drawn from 9 distinct study cohorts spanning 5 continents. Initial analysis of the HLA-B*51-restricted epitope, TAFTIPSI (reverse transcriptase residues 128-135), showed a strong correlation between the frequency of the escape mutation I135X and HLA-B*51 prevalence in the 9 study cohorts (P =
PubMed journal article Identification and characterization of a human agonist cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitope of human prostate-specific antige were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of HLA-A24 epitope peptides of carcinoembryonic antigen which induce tumor-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocyte. AU - Nukaya, I.. AU - Yasumoto, M.. AU - Iwasaki, T.. AU - Ideno, M.. AU - Sette, A.. AU - Celis, E.. AU - Takesako, K.. AU - Kato, I.. PY - 1999/1/5. Y1 - 1999/1/5. N2 - Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which is expressed in several cancer types, is a potential target for specific immunotherapy. HLA-A24 is the most frequent allele among Japanese and is also frequently present in Asians and Caucasians. We tested CEA-encoded HLA-A24 binding peptides for their capacity to elicit anti-tumor cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) in vitro. For this purpose, we used CD8+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of a healthy donor and autologous peptide-pulsed dendritic cells as antigen-presenting cells. This approach enabled us to identify 2 peptides, QYSWFVNGTF and TYACFVSNL, which were capable of eliciting CTL lines that lysed tumor cells expressing ...
HLA-A30 (A30) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α30 subset of HLA-A α-chains. For A30, the alpha A chain are encoded by the HLA-A*30 allele group and the β-chain are encoded by B2M locus. A30 and A*30 are almost synonymous in meaning. A30 is a split antigen of the broad antigen serotype A19. A30 is a sister serotype of A29, A31, A32, A33, and A74. A*3002 alters Type 1 diabetes risk Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (February 1978). The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in somatic cell hybrids: requirement for beta2 microglobulin. Tissue Antigens. 11 (2): 96-112. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1978.tb01233.x. PMID 77067. Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European Bioinformatics Institute Middleton D, Menchaca L, Rood H, Komerofsky R (2003). New allele frequency database: http://www.allelefrequencies.net. Tissue Antigens. 61 (5): 403-7. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.00062.x. PMID ...
The colorectal cell line HCA-7 expresses surface human leucocyte antigen-A*0201 (HLA-A*0201), but lacks expression of HLA-A*0101 whilst the normal B-cell line (EVA-1224), derived from the same individual, expresses both surface HLA-A1 and HLA-A2. Amplification refractory mutation system-polymerase chain reaction analysis, using sequence-specific primers, suggested that HCA-7 has a mutation in a 7 base pair (bp) cytosine repeat sequence located at the beginning of Exon 4 (bp 621-627). Cloning and sequencing revealed HCA-7 to have eight cytosine residues in this repeat sequence. In contrast, EVA-1224 contained only 7 cytosines. Analysis of the mRNA for HLA-A*010 using reverse trancriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with an allele-specific 5 primer in exon 2 (bp 253-271) and a series of 3 primers in exons 3, 4 and 7 and in the 3untranslated region, revealed that HCA-7 contained a shortened message terminating in the region of the exon 3/4 boundary. The insertion of an extra cytosine in this
Differential expression of WT1 in most leukemias (17 , 18 , 19) and several solid tumors (20 , 21 , 22 , 23) has stimulated interest in WT1 as a potential target for immunotherapy. Initially, Ohminami et al. (9) isolated a CD8+ T-cell clone, termed TAK-1, which recognized the HLA-A2402+-binding WT1 peptide 235-243CMTWNQMNL. TAK-1 exhibited HLA-A2402-restricted cytotoxic activity against WT1+ leukemias and lymphomas, lysed WT1+ HLA-A2402+ lung cancer cell lines, and inhibited the growth of HLA-A2402+ WT1+ lung cancer cell-line xenografts in nude mice (24) . Oka et al. (10) subsequently sensitized T cells from one HLA-A0201+ donor with T2 cells loaded with WT1 nonapeptides that contained major anchoring motifs for HLA-A0201, including RMF and SLG. T cells, sensitized with RMF, lysed HLA-A0201+ EBV-BLCLs loaded with peptide and WT1+ HLA-A0201+ leukemic cell lines. In a different approach, Gao et al. (11) used Drosophila cells transduced to express human HLA-A0201 and/or T2 cells loaded with ...
HLA-A2 is present at high frequency in most populations, as identified by serological and biochemical means. The value of these methods is limited by their failure to discriminate between the products of the 14 known allelic HLA-A*02 variants. The great majority of genetic polymorphism which defines the allelic variants is found in exons 2 and 3 of the A*02 genes. These exons encode the alpha-1 and alpha-2 domains of the HLA Class I molecules, and variation within the genes may influence the peptide binding specificity of the gene products of each allele. Failure to accurately assign the allelic types has implications in transplantation, in interpretation of cellular assays and in the understanding of HLA disease associations. We have developed a method for determining the 14 known alleles of HLA-A*02 by use of ARMS-PCR to determine the degree of variation of HLA-A*02 alleles in 3 different population groups. Considerable variation was found in the relative frequencies of particular A*02 alleles between
HLA-A1 (A1) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-A A serotype group. The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α1 subset of HLA-A α-chains. For A1, the alpha A chain are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele group and the β-chain are encoded by B2M locus. This group currently is dominated by A*0101. A1 and A*01 are almost synonymous in meaning. A1 is more common in Europe than elsewhere, it is part of a long haplotype that appears to have been frequent in the ancient peoples of Northwestern Europe. A1 is a frequent component of the AH8.1 haplotype. A1 serotype positivity is roughly linked to a large number of inflammatory diseases and conditions believed to have immune system involvement. Because of its linkage within the AH8.1 haplotype many studies showed association with A1 or A1,B8 only later to show the association drift toward the class II region gene alleles, DR3 and DQ2.5. While it is not clear what role A1 has in infectious disease, some linkage with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Four common HLA haplotypes and their association with diseases in the Japanese population. AU - Sasazuki, T.. AU - Kaneoka, H.. AU - Ohta, N.. AU - Hayase, R.. AU - Iwamoto, I.. PY - 1979/12/1. Y1 - 1979/12/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0018567739&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0018567739&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 43610. AN - SCOPUS:0018567739. VL - 11. SP - 1871. EP - 1873. JO - Transplantation Proceedings. JF - Transplantation Proceedings. SN - 0041-1345. IS - 4. ER - ...
NetMHC version 4.0 # Input is in FSA format # Peptide length 8,9 # Affinity Threshold for Strong binding peptides 50.000 # Affinity Threshold for Weak binding peptides 500.000 # Rank Threshold for Strong binding peptides 0.500 # Rank Threshold for Weak binding peptides 2.000 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- pos HLA peptide Core Offset I_pos I_len D_pos D_len iCore Identity 1-log50k(aff) Affinity(nM) %Rank BindLevel ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 0 HLA-A0301 TPQDLNTM -TPQDLNTM 0 0 1 0 0 TPQDLNTM Gag_180_209 0.014 43017.00 95.00 1 HLA-A0301 PQDLNTML PQDLNTML- 0 8 1 0 0 PQDLNTML Gag_180_209 0.021 39881.02 80.00 2 HLA-A0301 QDLNTMLN -QDLNTMLN 0 0 1 0 0 QDLNTMLN Gag_180_209 0.018 41073.47 85.00 3 HLA-A0301 DLNTMLNT DLN-TMLNT 0 3 1 0 0 DLNTMLNT Gag_180_209 0.019 40552.86 85.00 4 HLA-A0301 LNTMLNTV -LNTMLNTV 0 0 1 0 0 LNTMLNTV Gag_180_209 0.035 34098.43 55.00 5 HLA-A0301 NTMLNTVG NTMLNTVG- 0 8 1 0 0 ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human HLA-A protein. HLA-A (NP_002107.3, 1 a.a. ~ 365 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00003105-D01) - Products - Abnova
Tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are monomorphic self-antigens that are proposed as targets for immunotherapeutic approaches to treat malignancies. We investigated whether T cells with sufficient avidity to recognize naturally overexpressed self-antigens in the context of self-HLA can be found in the T-cell repertoire of healthy donors. Minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific T cells were used as model, as the influence of thymic selection on the T-cell repertoire directed against MiHA can be studied in both self (MiHApos donors)and non-self (MiHAneg donors) backgrounds. T-cell clones directed against the HLA*02:01-restricted MiHA HA-1H were isolated from HA-1Hneg/HLA-A*02:01pos and HA-1Hpos/HLA-A*02:01pos donors. Of the 16 unique HA-1H-specific T-cell clones, 5 T-cell clones derived from HA-1Hneg/HLA-A*02:01pos donors and 1 T-cell clone derived from an HA-1Hpos/HLA-A*02:01pos donor showed reactivity against HA-1Hpos target cells. Additionally, in total 663 T-cell clones (containing at ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-HLA Class I antibody [W6/32] (ab22432) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
A specific HLA-A Surface Antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 Allele Family ...
Its even worse for the YEC crowd. They must use front-loading to explain the existence of the 670+ HLA-A alleles in the human population. By definition, the YECs must accept that only 10 alleles existed at the time of the Flood and they have to get the additional 660+ alleles in less than 6000 years. Just that would be a mutation rate to turn everyone into cancer ridden piles of jello, but they also have to deal with all the other multiple alleles (not to mention all the human specific diseases that either existed on the ark or came into being since the ark... as Rick would say... Oops ...
Brilliant Violet 510™ anti-human HLA-A,B,C Antibody - MHC class I antigens associated with β2-microglobulin are expressed by all human nucleated cells.
Two different BALB/c anti-CBA (H-2k)monoclonal antibodies that bind to Kk and Dk antigens blocked Tc cell-mediated lysis of L929 (Kk, Dk) target cells, but with
EBV peptide GLCTLVAML (HLA-A*0201) for stimulation of T-cells. Single peptide (GLCTLVAML) for stimulation of human EBV BMLF-1(280-288) CD8+ T-cells. …
https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.16900 Laurie Rangan, Jeanne Galaine, Romain Boidot, Mohamad Hamieh, Magalie Dosset, Julie Francoual, Laurent Beziaud, Jean-René Pallandre, Elodie Lauret Marie...
Can anybody please give me an up-to-date list of all the alleles of the following HLA specificities: HLA-A1, A2, A3, A11, A24, B7, B8, B35 and B44. In addition, could you also tell me the frequencies of the alleles in the population? Id be most grateful if anybody could help me on this ...
1HHI: The antigenic identity of peptide-MHC complexes: a comparison of the conformations of five viral peptides presented by HLA-A2.
Example: Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles[edit]. HLA constitutes a group of cell surface antigens also known as the MHC of ... Table 2. Linkage disequilibrium among HLA alleles in pan-Europeans[15] HLA-A alleles i HLA-B alleles j Δ. i. j. {\displaystyle ... Antigen i +. {\displaystyle +}. A. 1. +. {\displaystyle A1^{+}}. a. =. 376. {\displaystyle a=376}. b. =. 237. {\displaystyle b= ... HLA alleles B. 27. +. {\displaystyle B27^{+}}. a. =. 96. {\displaystyle a=96}. b. =. 77. {\displaystyle b=77}. C. {\ ...
Human leucocyte antigen polymorphisms[edit]. Main article: Human leukocyte antigen. Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms ... In West Africa an HLA class I antigen (HLA Bw53) and an HLA class II haplotype (DRB1*13OZ-DQB1*0501) are independently ... Gerbich antigen receptor negativity[edit]. Main article: Gerbich antigen system. The Gerbich antigen system is an integral ... Non-expression of Duffy antigen on red cells Miller, et al. 1976 P. vivax Non-expression of Duffy antigen on red cells Miller ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... Riberdy J.M., Newcomb J.R., Surman M.J., Barbosa J.A., Cresswell P. HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell ... Machamer C.E., Cresswell P. Biosynthesis and glycosylation of the invariant chain associated with HLA-DR antigens (англ.) // ... Ia-associated invariant chainMHC HLA-DR gamma chainCD74HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class ...
In humans MHC is also called human leukocyte antigen (HLA). Though cytotoxic-crossmatch assay can predict rejection mediated by ... Unlike virtually all other mammals, humans and other primates do not make αGal, and in fact recognize it as an antigen.[12] ... An animal's exposure to the antigens of a different member of the same or similar species is allostimulation, and the tissue is ... In the living donor, such presentation of self antigens helped maintain self tolerance.) Thereupon, the T cell receptors (TCRs ...
Macrophages and T lymphocytes demonstrated a marked expression of HLA-DR antigen. A delayed type hypersensitivity reaction of ...
It is most commonly caused by antibodies directed against donor leukocytes and HLA antigens. This is in contrast to transfusion ... in which the donor plasma has antibodies directed against the recipient HLA antigens, mediating the characteristic lung damage ...
... inferred by HLA study". Tissue Antigens. 57 (3): 192-199. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2001.057003192.x. PMID 11285126.. ... Lin's research was based on the study of human tissue antigens (HLA) of Hoklo, Hakka and plains indigenous peoples. Through ...
"HLA in the Azores Archipelago: possible presence of Mongoloid genes". Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, ... "Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Santo Espirito de Angra do Heroismo, Azores. 54 (4): 349-59. doi: ... "Tissue Antigens. Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital de Santo Espirito de Angra do Heroismo, Azores. 54 (4): 349-59. doi: ... A24-B44-DR6-DQ1 HLA haplotypes of Oriental Mongoloid origin.[85] Presence of Mongoloids on the islands an unknown point in ...
In humans, narcolepsy is associated with a specific variant of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex.[21] Furthermore, ... Klein J, Sato A (September 2000). "The HLA system. Second of two parts". The New England Journal of Medicine. 343 (11): 782-6. ... genome-wide analysis shows that, in addition to the HLA variant, narcoleptic humans also exhibit a specific genetic mutation in ...
Allogeneic HSC donors must have a tissue (human leukocyte antigen, HLA) type that matches the recipient. Matching is performed ... HLA-A, HLA-B, or HLA-C) increase the risk of graft rejection. A mismatch of an HLA type II gene (i.e. HLA-DR or HLA-DQB1) ... A compatible donor is found by doing additional HLA testing from the blood of potential donors. The HLA genes fall in two ... Cord blood can be harvested from the umbilical cord of a child being born after preimplantation genetic diagnosis for HLA ...
Tests may also determine the donor's compatibility with particular recipients through an HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) test. ... Collecting the platelets from a single donor also simplifies human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching, which improves the chance ... Since it is time-consuming to find even a single compatible donor for HLA-matched transfusions, being able to collect a full ...
"HLA and narcolepsy in a German population." Tissue Antigens. 1986 sep;28(3):163-9. PMID 3641479 ... "Crystal structure of HLA-DQ0602 that protects against type 1 diabetes and confers strong susceptibility to narcolepsy." ... Ezin izan da baieztatu sindrome honen jarrera fisiopatologikoak (gaixotasun aske klasikoekin lotuta daudenak), hauek HLA-rekin ... Gaixotasun honen kausa ezezaguna da, ikertutako gaixo guztiek HLA haplotipoak azaltzen duten arren. Beraz jatorri ...
HLA antigen.jpg 1.361 × 876; 124 KB. *. HLA region.jpg 1.104 × 653; 52 KB. ...
Antibodies to human Neutrophil Antigen's (HNA) and Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA) have been associated with this type of ... The severity of the transfusion reaction is depended upon amount of donor's antigen transfused, nature of the donor's antigens ... Laura, Dean (2005). Blood Groups and Red Cell Antigens. Bethesda, United States: National Center for Biotechnology Information ... When antibodies are bound to its antigens, histamine is released from mast cells and basophils. Either IgE antibodies from the ...
Other genes that are commonly thought to be associated with lupus are those in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) family. There ... List of human leukocyte antigen alleles associated with cutaneous conditions. References[edit]. *^ Fitzpatrick, Thomas B.; ...
"Colonia Tovar: the history of a semi-isolated Venezuelan population of German ancestry described by HLA Class I genes". Tissue ... Antigens. 62 (5): 401-407. ISSN 0001-2815.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{ ...
"Use of an in vitro immunoselected tumor line to identify shared melanoma antigens recognized by HLA-A*0201-restricted T cells ... SLC45A2 is also a melanocyte differentiation antigen that is expressed in a high percentage of melanoma cell lines. A similar ... SLC45A2 was identified as a melanoma tumor-associated antigen with high tumor specificity and reduced potential for autoimmune ... Membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP) also known as solute carrier family 45 member 2 (SLC45A2) or melanoma antigen ...
Certain forms of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-especially B46, DR9, DQB1*0303, A2, Bw22, AW19, B17, and DRW8-are more common in ... Linkage to particular forms of HLA, which plays a central role in the immune response, might imply an immune system cause, but ...
T-lymphocytes are able to distinguish between self and non-self by recognizing human leukocyte antigens (HLA) bound to the ... In addition to HLA and PRA typing, the complete blood count (CBC), coagulation profile, complete metabolic panel, and ABO blood ... measures the proportion of the population to which a recipient will react via pre-existing antibodies to various HLA antigens; ... Therefore, it is essential that HLA and PRA statuses are tested for and demonstrate low immunoreactivity of the patient to the ...
Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) typing and wait time. When a recipient for a kidney or pancreas has no direct antibodies to the ... donor HLA the match is said to be a 0 ABDR mismatch or zero antigen mismatch. A zero mismatch organ has a low rate of rejection ... Blood type (or blood group) is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells. ...
... risk of graft-versus-host disease complications after transplantation due to genetic variants in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ... "Human leukocyte antigen profiles of Latin American populations: differential admixture and its potential impact on ...
HLA-DR3 and HLA-DRw52 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) markers; collectively known as Jo-1 syndrome.[25][35] ... Extractable nuclear antigens[edit]. Extractable nuclear antigens (ENA) are a group of autoantigens that were originally ... Each well of a microtitre plate is coated with either a single antigen or multiple antigens to detect specific antibodies or to ... Target antigen. Sensitivity (%) SLE. Drug-induced LE. Diffuse systemic sclerosis. Limited systemic scleroderma. Sjögren ...
Antigens most responsible for graft loss are HLA-DR (first six months), HLA-B (first two years), and HLA-A (long-term survival ... HLA) allele compatibility in patients receiving a marrow transplant from serologically HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-DR matched ... However, graft-versus-host disease can occur even when HLA-identical siblings are the donors[19]. HLA-identical siblings or HLA ... The T cells produce an excess of cytokines, including TNF-α and interferon-gamma (IFNγ). A wide range of host antigens can ...
In general, the donor and recipient should be ABO blood group and crossmatch (human leukocyte antigen - HLA) compatible. If a ... The level of sensitization to donor HLA antigens is determined by performing a panel reactive antibody test on the potential ... In the United States, up to 17% of all deceased donor kidney transplants have no HLA mismatch. However, HLA matching is a ... with the aim to reduce ABO and HLA antibodies that the recipient may have to the donor. ...
... mobilized human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells following a reduced-intensity ... Matched HLA between donor and recipient is not necessary. The stem cells are collected from donor's blood through a process ... Donor's Requirements: Mismatched HLA with recipient Age between 18 and 60 years old Good overall state of health No major heart ... To overcome the intolerable severe reactions of high-dose chemotherapy and GVHD, as well as the challenge to find HLA-matched ...
Autoreactive thymic B cells are efficient antigen-presenting cells of cognate self-antigens for T cell negative selection., 110 ... Jørgensen A, Röpke C, Nielsen M, Madsen H, Svejgaard A, Odum N., Human thymic epithelial cells express functional HLA-DP ... Ana C. Anderson ja Vijay K. Kuchroo, Expression of Self-antigen in the Thymus A Little Goes a Long Way, 1. detsember 2003 // ... Jørgensen A, Röpke C, Nielsen M, Madsen H, Svejgaard A, Odum N., Human thymic epithelial cells express functional HLA-DP ...
HLA-DQ is part of the MHC class II antigen-presenting receptor (also called the human leukocyte antigen) system and ... The two subunits of the HLA-DQ protein are encoded by the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genes, located on the short arm of the sixth ... Almost all people (95%) with coeliac disease have either the variant HLA-DQ2 allele or (less commonly) the HLA-DQ8 allele.[28][ ... Furthermore, around 5% of those people who do develop coeliac disease do not have typical HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 alleles (see below ...
Arnaiz-Villena A, Rodriguez de Córdoba S, Vela F, Pascual JC, Cerveró J, Bootello A. - HLA antigens in a sample of the Spanish ... contribution of HLA class I molecular markers to their evolutionary history. ...
B51 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B5, and is a sister serotype of B52.[2] There are a large number of alleles within ... derived from IMGT/HLA *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ... EBI-HLA B*5101 1e28​, 1e27​ HLA-B51 (B51) is an HLA-B serotype. The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*51 gene products. ... the association of HLA antigens". J. Med. Virol. 7 (4): 287-97. doi:10.1002/jmv.1890070405. PMID 6950026.. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... DO suppresses peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by inhibiting HLA-DM. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
Surface antigens[edit]. Terminally differentiated plasma cells express relatively few surface antigens, and do not express ... Another important surface antigen is CD319 (SLAMF7). This antigen is expressed at high levels on normal human plasma cells. It ... After leaving the bone marrow, the B cell acts as an antigen presenting cell (APC) and internalizes offending antigens, which ... cannot act as antigen-presenting cells because they no longer display MHC-II, and do not take up antigen because they no longer ...
... 和HLA-DR (人类T细胞的特异标志)。CTLA-4在活化T细胞表面的上调,对共激活受体有竞争性抑制作用,可以避免活化T细胞的过度活化。活化T细胞的表面糖基化情况也有改变[32]。 ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. Proceedings of the National ... An induced rebinding model of antigen discrimination. Trends Immunol. 2014, 35 (4): 153-8.
"Correlation between acetylcholine receptor antibody titer and HLA-B8 and HLA-DRw3 antigens in myasthenia gravis". Trans Am ... November 1979). "Primary biliary cirrhosis associated with HLA-DRw3". Tissue Antigens. 14 (5): 449-52. doi:10.1111/j.1399- ... Prior to refined typing for HLA-DQ and DR, the association with HLA-A1 and B8 was identified for coeliac disease in 1973 and ... HLA A1-B8-DR3-DQ2 haplotype (Also: AH8.1, COX,[1] Super B8, ancestral MHC 8.1[2] or 8.1 ancestral haplotype[3]) is a multigene ...
... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... HLA - Hodgkin's disease - holistic medicine - homology (biology) - hormone - host - host factors - HPTN - HPV - HRSA - HTLV-I ...
These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ... Dendritic cells (Although these will often migrate to local lymph nodes upon ingesting antigens) ... class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. Helper T cells make cytokines and perform other functions that help coordinate ...
This is carried out by using donor-derived antigen-presenting cells. These new methods have reduced culture time to 10-12 days ... HLA-DR, CD25, CD80 (B cells). Tests for T cell function: skin tests for delayed-type hypersensitivity, cell responses to ... recurrent infections and failure of the development of antibodies on exposure to antigens. The 1999 criteria also distinguish ... selective immunoglobulin A deficiency Specific antibody deficiency to specific antigens with normal B cell and normal Ig ...
... that use recombinant antigens will not have a false-positive result. ... Genetic markers: HLA-B8, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3. *Race: Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans ...
... or using human leukocyte antigen antigens. The current techniques for paternity testing are using polymerase chain reaction ( ... In the 1960s, highly accurate genetic paternity testing became a possibility when HLA typing was developed, which compares the ... genetic fingerprints on white blood cells between the child and alleged parent.[10] HLA tests could be done with 80% accuracy, ...
TI-1 antigen[edit]. TI-1 antigens have an intrinsic B cell activating activity, that can directly cause proliferation and ... TI-2 antigen[edit]. Second group of TI antigens consists mainly of highly repetitive surface structures (epitopes) of ... TI-1 antigen, which has an activity that can directly activate B cells and TI-2 antigen, which has highly repetitive structure ... TI-1 antigens activate B-cells via Toll like receptors, which are, in human, expressed on the surface of B lymphocytes after ...
Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... A native antigen is an antigen that is not yet processed by an APC to smaller parts. T cells cannot bind native antigens, but ...
Memorijske T ćelije su podskup antigen - specifičnih T ćelijs koje traju dugoročno nakon savladavanja infekcije.[1] One se brzo ... Somatska hipermutacija • V(D)J rekombinacija • Sastavna raznovrsnost • Promena imunoglobulinske klase • MHC/HLA ... Ove ćelije prepoznaju svoje ciljeve putem vezanja za antigen koji je asociran sa molekulama MHC klase I, koje se ispoljavaju na ... MR1 antigen presentation to mucosal-associated invariant T cells was highly conserved in evolution. 2009 ...
Binding of antigens to IgE already bound by the FcεRI on mast cells causes cross-linking of the bound IgE and the aggregation ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. ... IgE also plays a pivotal role in responses to allergens, such as: anaphylactic drugs, bee stings, and antigen preparations used ... Degranulation processes 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, ...
Exogenous antigens for IgA have not been identified in the kidney, but it is possible that this antigen has been cleared before ... Some HLA alleles have been suspected along with complement phenotypes as being genetic factors. Non-aggressive Berger's disease ... Associations described include those with C4 null allele, factor B Bf alleles, MHC antigens and IgA isotypes. ACE gene ... It has also been proposed that IgA itself may be the antigen. ... abnormal mucosal antigen handling) and not the ultimate cause ...
... may be caused by a bacterial antigen; the occurrence of this syndrome is strongly linked to HLA-B27 genotype, but the ...
In these cases, patients should be tested for the presence of HLA-DQ2/DQ8 genetic markers because a negative HLA-DQ2 and HLA- ... There is evidence that not only gliadin (main cytotoxic antigen of gluten), but also other proteins present in gluten and ... A 2015 systematic review showed that 20% of NCGS patients who presented with negative serology, HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 ... especially in patients positive for HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotypes, is celiac disease, with a documented prevalences ranging ...
... they are professional antigen-presenting cells, they regulate other immune cell functions (e.g., CD4+ T cell, dendritic cell, B ...
The HLA class II locus makes patients susceptible to the condition. Most SPS patients have the DQB1* 0201 allele.[2] This ... The antibodies appear to interact with antigens in the brain neurons and the spinal cord synapses, causing a functional ...
... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... Klein J, Sato A (September 2000). "The HLA system. Second of two parts". N. Engl. J. Med. 343 (11): 782-6. doi:10.1056/ ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, ... T-Cell-B-Cell discordance - A normal immune response is assumed to involve B and T cell responses to the same antigen, even if ...
Antigens presented on MHC 1 molecules activates CD8+ T cells on keratinocytes or by encounters with activated CD4+ helper T ... It is associated with HLA-DQB1.[16][36] ... Autoimmune response to epithelial self-antigens remains a ... An immune-mediated mechanism where basal keratinocytes are being targeted as foreign antigens by activated T cells, especially ...
HLA-B12, HLA-B51, HLA-Cw7, HLA-A2, HLA-A11, and HLA-DR2 are examples of human leukocyte antigen types associated with aphthous ... or present a more substantial barrier to microbes and antigens, but this is unclear. Nicotine is also known to stimulate ... stomatitis.[2][5] However, these HLA types are inconsistently associated with the condition, and also vary according to ...
... is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. The HLA complex helps the immune system ... HLA-B*45ZJ, HLA-B-3506, HLA-B-3905, HLA-B-5502, HLA-B-5602, HLA-B15, HLA-B39, HLA-B49, HLA-B50, HLA-B55, HLA-B59, HLA-B61, HLA- ... They are HLA-A, HLA-B, (both Class I MHCs) and HLA-DR (a Class II MHC).[5] If the two tissues have the same genes coding for ... In humans, the HLA-B gene and two related genes, HLA-A and HLA-C, are the major genes in MHC class I. ...
HLA)). This MHC: antigen complex is recognized by T-cells passing through the lymph node. Exogenous antigens are usually ... Exogenous antigensEdit. Antigen presentation stimulates T cells to become either "cytotoxic" CD8+ cells or "helper" CD4+ cells. ... Antigen presentationEdit. Main article: Antigen presentation. Acquired immunity relies on the capacity of immune cells to ... Endogenous antigensEdit. Endogenous antigens are produced by intracellular bacteria and viruses replicating within a host cell ...
HLA) The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA). The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins ... Research on human blood cells in the 1950s identified three genes associated with the HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C). In the 1970s, ... Antigen World of Forensic Science COPYRIGHT 2005 Thomson Gale. Antigen. Antigens, which are usually proteins or polysaccharides ...
AntigensHLA AntigensHLA-A AntigensHLA-A1 AntigenHLA-A11 AntigenHLA-A2 AntigenHLA-A24 AntigenHLA-A3 AntigenHLA-B AntigensHLA-B13 ... AntigensHLA AntigensHLA-A AntigensHLA-A1 AntigenHLA-A11 AntigenHLA-A2 AntigenHLA-A24 AntigenHLA-A3 AntigenHLA-B AntigensHLA-B13 ... AntigenHLA-B39 AntigenHLA-B40 AntigenHLA-B44 AntigenHLA-B51 AntigenHLA-B52 AntigenHLA-B7 AntigenHLA-B8 AntigenHLA-C AntigensHLA ... AntigenHLA-B39 AntigenHLA-B40 AntigenHLA-B44 AntigenHLA-B51 AntigenHLA-B52 AntigenHLA-B7 AntigenHLA-B8 AntigenHLA-C AntigensHLA ...
The protein is called human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27). ... HLA-B27 is a blood test to look for a protein that is found on ... Human leukocyte antigen B27; Ankylosing spondylitis-HLA; Psoriatic arthritis-HLA; Reactive arthritis-HLA ... The protein is called human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27).. Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are proteins that help the bodys ... Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) B-27 - blood. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures. 6th ...
... antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukoc ... The earliest HLA associations with rheumatic diseases, such as the association of the HLA-B*27 allele at the HLA-B gene with ... antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is ... including the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes (figure 1). Thus, the human MHC region is also referred to as the HLA region ...
Typing for HL-A antigens had shown a positive correlation between HL-A 8 and myasthenia gravis which was significantly higher ... HL-A 2-positive patients more often had thymomas and antibodies to skeletal muscle than HL-A 2-negative patients; HL-A 2- ... The fact that the clinical aspects of the HL-A 8-negative and HL-A 2-positive patients were different from those of the HL-A 8- ... Myasthenia Gravis, Autoantibodies, and HL-A Antigens Br Med J 1974; 1 :131 ...
A process called HLA typing makes sure that the donor and recipient are closely matched. ... Why HLA testing is done. HLA testing is done to identify your pattern of antigens and to find antibodies to the HLA antigens. ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing is also called HLA typing or tissue typing. It is ... How HLA testing is done. A sample of blood is taken by inserting a needle into a vein in your arm. Sometimes a swab of cells is ...
A process called HLA typing makes sure that the donor and recipient are closely matched. ... Why HLA testing is done. HLA testing is done to identify your pattern of antigens and to find antibodies to the HLA antigens. ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing is also called HLA typing or tissue typing. It is ... Cancer information / Diagnosis and treatment / Tests and procedures / Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) testing ...
... neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA ... In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry ... A neural network trained on diverse datasets improves prediction of HLA class II epitope presentation. ... expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our ...
A test indicating that HLA-B27 is present means that the patient might have a risk of... ... HLA-B27 is a human leukocyte antigen that helps the body differentiate its own cells from foreign substances. ... Patients may get an HLA-B27 antigen test to find the cause of joint swelling and pain. Another reason for an HLA test is to see ... HLA-B27 is a human leukocyte antigen that helps the body differentiate its own cells from foreign substances. A test indicating ...
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing. What is this test?. This test looks at the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in your blood. ... Testing helps make sure you have the best possible match between your HLA antigens and those on the organ you receive. You may ... The results will show the degree to which HLA antigens match between you and the donor. ... HLA Antigen. Does this test have other names?. ... antibodies that will react with HLA antigens on a new ...
HLA class II regulation and structure: Analysis with HLA-DR3 and HLA-DP point mutants. J Exp Med 1985; 162: 1193-1207.CrossRef ... Antigen presentation and assembly by mouse I-Ak class II molecules in human APC containing deleted or mutated HLA DM molecules ... Accumulation of HLA-DM, a regulator of antigen presentation, in MHC class II compartments. Science 1994; 266: 1566-1569. ... Invariant chain peptides in most HLA-DR molecules of an antigen-processing mutant. Science 1992; 258: 1801-1804.CrossRefGoogle ...
Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the ... Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the ... HLA class II antigen presentation by prostate cancer cells Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11(4):334-41. doi: 10.1038/sj. ... The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospect of antigen specific immunotherapy against prostate cancer via the HLA ...
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) associated drug hypersensitivity: consequences of drug binding to HLA.. Yun J1, Adam J, Yerly D ... As HLA molecules are a critical element in T-cell stimulation, it is no surprise that particular HLA alleles have a direct ... Recent publications have shown that certain human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles are strongly associated with hypersensitivity ... In some HLA-associated drug hypersensitivity reactions, the presence of a risk allele is a necessary but incomplete factor for ...
HLA B17, B37 and B62 were significantly increased in PsA patients. Univariate analyses suggest that the HLA antigens B37, B62 ... clinical manifestations were more reliable predictors of aggressive joint damage than were specific HLA antigens. However, HLA ... Disease manifestations and HLA antigens in psoriatic arthritis in northern Sweden. Alenius, Gerd-Marie Umeå universitet, ... HLA antigens, Joint damage, Psoriatic arthritis Nationell ämneskategori Reumatologi och inflammation Identifikatorer. URN: urn: ...
Antigens, HLA-DS. A group of the D-related HLA Antigens found to differ from the DR Antigens in Genetic Locus and therefore ... These Antigens are polymorphic Glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other Cells, often ...
Antigens, HLA B. Class I Human Histocompatibility (HLA) Surface Antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable Alleles on locus B ... of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these Antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are ... Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T Lymphocytes. ...
tr,Q30003,Q30003_HUMAN Lymphocyte antigen (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=HLA-DQB1 PE=4 SV=1 ... Lymphocyte antigenImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ...
HLA class I typing, low resolution one. Antigen equivalent. Service Code: 81374, Service Type: Medical ...
HLA) in your blood. It helps match donors and recipients for stem-cell and organ transplants. ... This test looks at the human leukocyte antigens ( ... HLA Antigen. Does this test have other names?. Human leukocyte ... antigen (HLA) typing. What is this test?. This test looks at the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) in your blood. This test is ... Testing helps make sure you have the best possible match between your HLA antigens and those on the organ you receive. You may ...
Epitope analysis of HLA-DQ antigens: what does the antibody see?. [Anat R Tambur, Jimmy Rosati, Shirley Roitberg, Denis Glotz, ... Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ has emerged as the alloantibody most frequently associated with the generation of de novo ... Our data support the need for changing the manner in which HLA-DQ antigens and antibodies are evaluated for organ ... The generation of HLA-DQ de novo DSA was interrogated in 40 transplant recipients who were immunologically naive before their ...
Hla-a antigens explanation free. What is Hla-a antigens? Meaning of Hla-a antigens medical term. What does Hla-a antigens mean? ... Looking for online definition of Hla-a antigens in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from Hla-a antigens). Also found in: Dictionary, Encyclopedia. human leukocyte antigen (HLA). any one of four ... human leukocyte antigen (HLA). The human MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.. human leukocyte antigen. ; HLA antigenic molecules ...
Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules.. L Pazmany, S Rowland-Jones, S Huet, A Hill, J Sutton, R ... Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules.. L Pazmany, S Rowland-Jones, S Huet, A Hill, J Sutton, R ... These data are compatible with the presence of a factor(s), possibly HLA linked, interfering with antigen presentation by ... None of the eight B cell lines that expressed HLA-B27 presented a known peptide epitope to CTL. However, cells from a family ...
... are presented on the cell surface in the context of HLA-A*02:01 (HLA-A2) molecules (13, 14). HLA-A2 is the most common HLA-I ... Pr20 binds to ALY/HLA-A2 complexes in PRAME/HLA-A2-expressing leukemias. TCRm clones reactive with ALY/HLA-A2 complexes were ... HLA-A2- AML cell line HL60, indicating that the epitope was restricted by HLA-A2. In addition, Pr20 did not bind PRAME-HLA-A2+ ... We aimed to identify a TCRm Ab that recognized ALY/HLA-A2, but not HLA-A2 alone or in complex with irrelevant HLA-A2-binding ...
A therapeutic T cell receptor mimic antibody targets tumor-associated PRAME peptide/HLA-I antigens. ... A therapeutic T cell receptor mimic antibody targets tumor-associated PRAME peptide/HLA-I antigens. ... Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias ... is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of ...
HLA-DR antigens in small and large intestinal epithelia were examined in Crohns disease (CD). Seventy-two biopsy specimens (10 ... Crohns disease elemental diet HLA-DR antigens large intestine small intestine This work was partly supported by a grant from ... Wang CY, Al-Katib A, Lane CL, et al: Induction of HLA-DC/ DS (Leu 10) antigen expression by human precursor B cell lines. J Exp ... HLA-DR antigens in small and large intestinal epithelia were examined in Crohns disease (CD). Seventy-two biopsy specimens (10 ...
HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, B-27 alpha Chain*HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, B-27 alpha Chain ... "HLA-B27 Antigen" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "HLA-B27 Antigen" was a major or minor topic of ... A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele ... "HLA-B27 Antigen" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
"HLA-DR2 Antigen" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "HLA-DR2 Antigen" was a major or minor topic of ... A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles. ... "HLA-DR2 Antigen" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... HLA-DM captures partially empty HLA-DR molecules for catalyzed removal of peptide. Nat Immunol. 2011 Jan; 12(1):54-61. ...
tr,F4YZW3,F4YZW3_HUMAN MHC class II antigen (Fragment) OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=HLA-DRB1 PE=4 SV=1 ... Name:HLA-DRB1Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href ... MHC class II antigenImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>, ...
Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its ... Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its ... Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune ... DO was discovered in association with another chaperone HLA-DM (DM) but unlike DM, its distribution is more tissue specific, ...
If patients could recognise themselves, or anyone else could recognise a patient from your description, please obtain the patients written consent to publication and send them to the editorial office before submitting your response [Patient consent forms] ...
  • Rather, class II molecules are on the surface of immune cells such as macrophages and B-lymphocytes that are designed to process cells and present the antigens from these cells to T lymphocytes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The two classes of histocompatibility molecules allow an organism to in essence establish an inventory of what cells are "self" and to expose foreign antigens to the immune system so that antibodies to these antigens can be made. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a term used to describe a group of genes in animals and humans that encode a variety of cell surface markers, antigen-presenting molecules, and other proteins involved in immune function. (uptodate.com)
  • Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapies. (nature.com)
  • An essential role for HLA-DM in antigen presentation by class II major histocompatibility molecules. (springer.com)
  • The extracellular domains of MHC class II molecules determine their processing requirements for antigen presentation. (springer.com)
  • HLA-DR molecules from an antigen-processing mutant cell line are associated with invariant chain peptides. (springer.com)
  • Invariant chain peptides in most HLA-DR molecules of an antigen-processing mutant. (springer.com)
  • Recent evidence suggests that reduced expression of target protein antigens and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecules is the predominant immune escape mechanism of malignant prostate tumor cells. (nih.gov)
  • Prostate tumor cells transduced with class II molecules efficiently presented tumor-associated antigens/peptides to CD4+ T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic modulation of antigen presentation by HLA-B27 molecules. (rupress.org)
  • In studies of antigenic peptide presentation, we have found a healthy volunteer whose lymphoblastoid cells were unable to present three different virus-derived epitopes to cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) despite expressing the correct restricting HLA-B27 molecules on the cell surface. (rupress.org)
  • The cloned cDNA was transfected into HLA-A- and B-negative HMy/C1R cells, and the B2702 molecules generated in this environment rendered these cells, after incubation with peptide, susceptible to lysis by peptide-specific CTL. (rupress.org)
  • These data are compatible with the presence of a factor(s), possibly HLA linked, interfering with antigen presentation by otherwise normal B2702 molecules in this family. (rupress.org)
  • HLA-DM captures partially empty HLA-DR molecules for catalyzed removal of peptide. (harvard.edu)
  • Helper T cells are stimulated to fight infections or diseases upon recognition of peptides from antigens that are processed and presented by the proteins of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • In general, polymorphic classical MHC class II molecules bind and present peptide antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. (rcsb.org)
  • To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. (rcsb.org)
  • HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. (rcsb.org)
  • In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. (rcsb.org)
  • Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading. (rcsb.org)
  • 3 MHC class II molecules bind to a CD74 homotrimer (also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain). (rcsb.org)
  • After proteasomal processing, the PRAME300-309 peptide ALYVDSLFFL (ALY) is presented in the context of human leukocyte antigen HLA-A*02:01 molecules for recognition by the T cell receptor (TCR) of cytotoxic T cells. (jci.org)
  • The positions of mutations (blue) that alter interactions between class I molecules and the peptide-loading machinery are shown relative to the US2 binding site on HLA-A2 (magenta). (pnas.org)
  • Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). (prospecbio.com)
  • The crucial immunological function of the classical human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, and -C, is the presentation of peptides to T cells. (rupress.org)
  • The fetus, semiallograft by its genotype, escapes maternal allorecognition by downregulation of HLA-A and HLA-B molecules at this interface. (rupress.org)
  • We present three NK lines that are inhibited via the interaction of their NKAT3 receptor with HLA-G and with HLA-Bw4 molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Class I HLA molecules have diversified into two distinct, though structurally related, families of proteins. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Unlike class Ia HLA molecules, class Ib HLA-E, -F, and -G antigens display very limited or no polymorphism within the human population, may function in presenting limited sets of peptides, and/or exhibit a restricted tissue expression ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, unlike polymorphic class Ia HLA molecules, which have evolved as efficient activators of immune responses, presentation of HLA-G may have specialized to increase the activation/effector thresholds of T-, NK, and antigen-presenting cells for the immune protection of the semiallogeneic fetus and certain autologous tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This is a unique demonstration of HLA-associated B cell responses to epitopes within a single autoantigen in humans and is consistent with modification of Ag processing by specific Ab-influencing peptide presentation by HLA molecules. (jimmunol.org)
  • Antigen presentation to T cells is mediated by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via two classes of HLA molecules: HLA Class I, recognized by CD8 + -expressing T cells (Class I is present on nearly all nucleated cells), and HLA Class II, recognized by CD4 + -expressing T cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Peptides extracted from HLA-A2.1 class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules expressed on the antigen processing mutant CEMx721.174.T2 were characterized by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. (sciencemag.org)
  • It binds to the leader peptide derived from the polymorphic classical major histocompatibility molecules HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C. This peptide binding is highly specific and stabilizes the HLA-E protein, allowing it to migrate to the cell surface. (portlandpress.com)
  • The anti-tumor effect of DLI after HLA-matched alloSCT is mediated by donor T cells recognizing minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) in the context of HLA molecules. (haematologica.org)
  • 12 Since these MiHA were all presented in HLA-A*02:01 and B*07:02, we selected 80 third-party EBV-B cell lines for co-expression of these HLA molecules, and genotyped all cell lines for more than one million SNPs. (haematologica.org)
  • This work requires availability of purified HLA-DQ and other HLA class II molecules, maintaining high physiologic accuracy of the three-dimensional structure. (californianewswire.com)
  • Since CD4(+) T lymphocytes play a critical role in generating antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte and antibody responses, we searched for NY-ESO-1 epitopes presented by histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules. (uzh.ch)
  • HLA-E belongs to the MHC Class I molecules (MHC Class Ib, nonclassical) and it is expressed on. (biomol.com)
  • The published results revealed that the antibody cross-reacts with some classical MHC Class I molecules (MHC Class Ia): HLA-B7 (strongly), HLA-B8 (moderately), HLA-B27, -B44 (weakly). (biomol.com)
  • Here, we isolated exosomes from K562 cells (referred to as CoEX-A2s) engineered to express human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A2 and costimulatory molecules such as CD80, CD83, and 41BBL. (ovid.com)
  • http://hla.alleles.org/nomenclature/ (Accessed on November 29, 2017). (uptodate.com)
  • https://maria.stanford.edu/ ), a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA class II alleles. (nature.com)
  • A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles. (harvard.edu)
  • A disparity between antigen density and mean fluorescence intensity values for some alleles within an eplet group was noted, with mean fluorescence intensity values of the lowest fluorescence bead being one tenth of the highest fluorescence bead, despite the fact that the amount of antigen on these beads were not significantly different. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • for example, there appear to be 300+ alleles in the HLA-B or DRB1 loci. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Several probes could be used to identify an array of HLA alleles. (bio-medicine.org)
  • By constructing an array of PCR primers complementary to the range of HLA polymorphisms, it is possible to detect the HLA alleles directly by PCR. (bio-medicine.org)
  • To date, two RA genetic susceptibility factors have been identified: HLA-DRB1-SE (Shared epitope) and PTPN22 620W alleles. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The predictive value of the alleles for diagnosis of RA was previously investigated in cohorts of caucasians patients with early unclassified arthritis that showed restrained association between RA and HLA-SE. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The association between the different HLA alleles among French West-Indian RA patients and the autoantibodies production. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • There were no associations between HLA DRB1 alleles and clinical characteristics of CLL patients at diagnosis, including age, clinical stage according to Rai classification, surface CD38 expression, serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and β2-microglobulin ( data not shown ). (haematologica.org)
  • Neither of assessed HLA DRB1 alleles was associated with response to first-line treatment or mortality. (haematologica.org)
  • Clinical stage according to Rai classification as a unique parameter (Rai 0-1 vs 2-4), with HLA DRB1* 01, HLA DRB1*02 null alleles and CD38 surface expression was included for analysis. (haematologica.org)
  • Because of their invol- vement in generating immune responses, Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) alleles are considered can- didate genetic risk markers for periodontitis. (scirp.org)
  • Results: HLA-A*30 (P-value = 0.010), HLA- B*41 (P1 = 0.012 and P2 = 0.014), HLA-DRB1*13 (P1 = 0.031 and P2 = 0.063) alleles seemed to be associ- ated with protection against AP in Lebanese patients. (scirp.org)
  • Conclusion: In conclusion, protective, but no sus- ceptible HLA alleles were detected in AP. (scirp.org)
  • HLA -B*18 and HLA -Cw*07 alleles was found more frequently in Group1 than in Group 2 (14.3 percent vs 2.7 percent, p=0.026, and 31 percent vs 14.9 percent, p=0.036, respectively). (aaem.pl)
  • However, the frequencies of HLA -A*03 and HLA -Cw*03 alleles were increased in Group 2 compared to Group 1 (20.3 percent vs 7.1 percent, p=0.049 and 10.8 percent vs 0 percent, p=0.024, respectively). (aaem.pl)
  • Among HLA -class II genotypes, HLA -DQB1*03 allele was significantly increased in Group 2 (60.9 percent vs 38.1 percent, p=0.018), while a higher frequency of HLA -DR B1*03 and HLA -DR B1*14 alleles showed a tendency statistically significant in Group 1 (9.5 percent vs 1.4 percent, p=0.057 and 11.9 percent vs 2.7 percent, p=0.058, respectively). (aaem.pl)
  • HLA -B*18 and HLA -Cw*07 alleles may probably be associated with susceptibility to venom allergy, whereas HLA -A*03, HLA -Cw*03 and HLA -DQB1*03 seem to be protective markers in a small Turkish population. (aaem.pl)
  • The applicability of hTERT as a potential target for anticancer immunotherapy would be widened by the identification of epitopes restricted to other common HLA alleles, such as HLA-A3 antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • EH-57.1+ individuals therefore carry a 26 times higher risk of developing type I psoriasis than individuals who are EH-57.1-negative Further analysis of individual HLA alleles revealed that within EH-57.1, HLA class I antigens (Cw6-B57) were associated to a much higher extent with type I psoriasis than the HLA class II alleles (DRB1*0701-DQA1*0201-DQB1* 0303). (diva-portal.org)
  • Our panel of highly representative HLA-DQ alleles will help to drive novel research to prevent transplant rejection and to contribute to more insight into DSA responses and we are thrilled to be working with Dr. Tambur, a world leader in this field. (californianewswire.com)
  • No statistically significant differences were observed in the distribution of HLA‐G alleles between controls and RSA couples, however, 15% of the RSA women carried the HLA‐G*0106 allele compared to 2% of the control women. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, the HLA‐G alleles without the 14 bp sequence were prominent in the RSA males in contrast to the RSA women in whom alleles including the 14 bp sequence were frequently observed, especially as homozygotes. (deepdyve.com)
  • Another hypothesis concerned certain HLA‐G alleles associated with an altered expression profile of HLA‐G isoforms or reduced expression of certain HLA‐G isoforms. (deepdyve.com)
  • To identify possible epitopes presented by distinct HLA class II alleles, overlapping 18-mer peptides derived from NY-ESO-1 were synthetized and tested for recognition by CD4(+) T lymphocytes in autologous settings. (uzh.ch)
  • We identified three NY-ESO-1-derived peptides presented by DRB4*0101-0103 and recognized by CD4(+) T lymphocytes of two melanoma patients sharing these HLA class II alleles. (uzh.ch)
  • We have collected peripheral blood samples 26 patients receiving HCT and generated CTL restricted by HLA alleles commonly seen in Japanese population. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Identification of novel CTL epitopes of CMV-pp65 presented by a variety of HLA alleles. (nii.ac.jp)
  • in there you will find a Supplemental Table that includes a list of SNPs and alleles that can be used to predict the classical HLA alleles, as well as r2 values between SNP alleles and HLA alleles. (biostars.org)
  • Fig. 4: MARIA trained on human HLA-DQ ligand peptides identified celiac-related gluten antigens. (nature.com)
  • Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells ( APC ) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. (rcsb.org)
  • MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in B-cells, in order to release CLIP and facilitate the binding of antigenic peptides. (rcsb.org)
  • HLA-DRB1 takes an essential part in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. (prospecbio.com)
  • While the high polymorphism of these proteins ensures immune recognition of a variety of self-antigens and viral peptides, it also represents a major barrier to allo-transplantation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Class I HLAs present peptides from inside the cell whereas class II HLAs present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A recent study shows that individuals with the allele HLA-B*46:01 have the fewest predicted binding peptides for SARS-CoV-2, suggesting they may be particularly vulnerable to COVID-19, as they were previously shown to be for SARS. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A different allele, HLA-B*15:03, showed the greatest capacity to present highly conserved SARS-CoV-2 peptides that are shared among common human coronaviruses, suggesting it could enable cross-protective T-cell based immunity. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Improved induction of melanoma-reactive CTL with peptides from the melanoma antigen gp100 modified at HLA-A*0201-binding residues. (jimmunol.org)
  • Upon stimulation with these peptides, melanoma-reactive CTL could be induced in vitro from PBL of some HLA-A2+ melanoma patients. (jimmunol.org)
  • Therefore, to enhance the immunogenicity of gp100 peptides, amino acid substitutions were introduced into G9154, G9209, and G9280 at HLA-A*0201-binding anchor positions, but not at TCR contact residues, to increase peptide class I MHC-binding affinity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Several modified gp100 peptides bound with greater affinity to HLA-A*0201 than unmodified peptides and were recognized by TIL specific for the natural epitopes. (jimmunol.org)
  • These peptides were used to sensitize PBL from HLA-A2+ melanoma patients in vitro using peptide-pulsed autologous PBMC as stimulators. (jimmunol.org)
  • Only seven dominant peptides were found, in contrast to over 200 associated with HLA-A2.1 on normal cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • These peptides were derived from the signal peptide domains of normal cellular proteins, were usually larger than nine residues, and were also associated with HLA-A2.1 in normal cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • A functioning TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) molecule is required to transport these peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum, where they can interact with HLA-E. HLA-E then migrates to the cell surface, where it interacts with CD94/NKG2A receptors on natural killer cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • In this study, we extended our search for hTERT-derived immunogenic peptides to HLA-A3 antigen because this allele is expressed by 15-25% of patients and identify one such peptide that can trigger HLA-A3-restricted CTLs that kill hTERT + tumors from multiple histologies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) presents antigenic peptides to cytotoxic CD8+ T cells (CTLs). (lu.se)
  • Antigen processing machinery (APM) proteins are involved in the maturation of HLA-I and in the selection of which peptides are - or are not - presented. (lu.se)
  • Additionally, in total 663 T-cell clones (containing at least 91 unique clones expressing different T-cell receptors) directed against HLA*02:01-restricted peptides of TAA WT1-RMF, RHAMM-ILS, Proteinase-3-VLQ, PRAME-VLD and NY-eso-1-SLL were isolated from HLA-A*02:01pos donors. (onmedica.com)
  • Further, the therapeutic efficacy of active immunization using antigenic HLA class I-restricted peptides may be improved by adding HLA class II-presented epitopes. (uzh.ch)
  • Interaction of HLA-DR with an acidic face of HLA-DM disrupts sequence-dependent interactions with peptides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Using the information of the binding motif of HLA-B35, we selected and synthesized 61 different peptides (8mer to 10 mer) from TC cysteine protease. (nii.ac.jp)
  • HLA testing is done to identify your pattern of antigens and to find antibodies to the HLA antigens. (cancer.ca)
  • HLA antibodies. (rochester.edu)
  • People who have been pregnant or get a blood transfusion or organ transplant may have antibodies that will react with HLA antigens on a new transplant. (rochester.edu)
  • HLA-DR antigens on the intestinal epithelia were identified by the indirect immunoperoxidase staining method using two mouse anti-HLA-DR monoclonal antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Ogasawara K, Kojima H, Ikeda H, et al: A study on class II antigens involved in the T cell proliferative responses to PPD using cross-reacting monoclonal antibodies in human and murine system. (springer.com)
  • Our data support the need for changing the manner in which HLA-DQ antigens and antibodies are evaluated for organ transplantation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The data provide rationale for developing TCRm antibodies as therapeutic agents for cancer, offer mechanistic insight on proteasomal regulation of tumor-associated peptide/HLA antigen complexes, and yield possible therapeutic solutions to target antigens with ultra-low surface presentation. (jci.org)
  • Transplantation induces new antibodies reactive to non-HLA antigens. (asnjournals.org)
  • Screening is hampered by the lack of true monospecific anti‐HLA‐B27 monoclonal antibodies. (currentprotocols.com)
  • HLA-DQ antibodies are likely also the most detrimental to graft survival. (californianewswire.com)
  • Human HLA specific antibodies crossreact with swine leucocyte antigens. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Polyspecific HLA antibodies often crossreact with other HLA antigens through so called public and private determinants. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Swine leucocyte antigens share approximately 75-87% homology with HLA and as such, it may be expected that some HLA antibodies would react with certain SLA antigens. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Upon absorption of the HLA antibodies, the majority of anti-pig reactivity was abrogated. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The eluates showed that HLA class I and II antibodies were eluted from pig splenocytes. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • We leveraged a collection of 14 ICI-resistant lung cancer samples to investigate whether alterations in genes encoding HLA Class I antigen processing and presentation machinery (APM) components or interferon signaling play a role in acquired resistance to PD-1 or PD-L1 antagonistic antibodies. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Research on human blood cells in the 1950s identified three genes associated with the HLA (HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C). In the 1970s, another gene was identified (HLA-D). With the advent of molecular technology beginning in the 1980s, more genes that code for proteins that function in the antigen complex have continued to be identified. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans refers to a genetic region containing hundreds of genes, including the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes ( figure 1 ). (uptodate.com)
  • HLA genes express their gene products on the surface of white blood cells (hence the name 'human leukocyte antigen,' although HLA class I genes (see 'Class I region' below) are also expressed on all nucleated cells) and were originally recognized to contain the genes encoding 'tissue antigens' or 'tissue types. (uptodate.com)
  • Adapative immunity: Histocompatibility antigens and immune response genes. (uptodate.com)
  • In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry, expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. (nature.com)
  • DNA test of HLA-related genes. (rochester.edu)
  • Genes in the MHC that may affect antigen processing. (springer.com)
  • Fling SP, Arp B, Pious D. HLA-DMA and -DMB genes are both required for MHC class II/peptide complex formation in antigen-presenting cells. (springer.com)
  • Defective processing and presentation of exogenous antigens in mutants with normal HLA class II genes. (springer.com)
  • n a collection of human genes on chromosome 6 that encode proteins that function in cells to transport antigens from within the cell to the cell surface. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region, located on the short arm of chromosome 6 (6p21.3), is a highly polymorphic region containing about 200 genes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The HLA region is the human equivalent of the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC), and as such contains a set of genes that serve as the backbone of antigen presentation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The Class I proteins, classically involved in presenting endogenous antigens to CD8+ T-cells, are expressed by genes located in the HLA-A, -B and C loci. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. (curehunter.com)
  • The HLA-G gene has the same general structure as the classical MHC class I genes with five exons and three introns. (rupress.org)
  • In humans, MHC proteins are encoded by the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA), a group of more than 200 genes located closely together on the short arm of chromosome 6. (antibodies-online.com)
  • We investigated whether particular human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II genes contribute to the development of venom allergy. (aaem.pl)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes in humans, are the prominent susceptibility factor for many autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune diabetes (type 1 diabetes or T1D), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (sciencemag.org)
  • HLA-D is a so-called class II major histocompatibility molecule. (encyclopedia.com)
  • At the outer surface of the cell the molecule contains an antigen that has been acquired from the surrounding environment. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, cells from a family member that expressed HLA-B8 could present an epitope peptide restricted by that molecule. (rupress.org)
  • The specific expression of HLA-G in placental trophoblast suggests an important role for this molecule in the immunological interaction between mother and child. (rupress.org)
  • Selective expression of the human class Ib HLA molecule HLA-G in immunologically protected sites and its function in the inhibition of NK and T-cell effector functions support an important role of this molecule in immunoregulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We hypothesize that the expression of HLA-G as an immunomodulatory molecule may be relevant at sites of organ-specific autoimmunity, such as pancreatic islets. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • HLA-E (human leucocyte antigen-E) is a conserved class I major histocompatibility molecule which has only limited polymorphism. (portlandpress.com)
  • Understanding the unique structural and molecular properties that make the HLA-DQ molecule so pathogenic may eventually help us better predict which mismatches will induce harmful antibody formation, and which are more permissible. (californianewswire.com)
  • Using chronically infected HLA-B35-TG,we tried to identify the T cell epitopes that HLA molecule presents to the CD8 cytotoxic T cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The earliest HLA associations with rheumatic diseases, such as the association of the HLA-B*27 allele at the HLA-B gene with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) risk and the association of the HLA-DRB1*04 allele at the HLA-DRB1 gene with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), were discovered several decades ago. (uptodate.com)
  • Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 Allele Family . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • We assessed HLA DRB1 allele frequency using low (two-digit) typing resolution. (haematologica.org)
  • In patients with HLA DRB1*01 allele, there was a trend towards a shorter time from diagnosis to treatment (log-rank test, p =0.07, Figure 1A . (haematologica.org)
  • Furthermore, HLA -A*01 allele frequency had a trend to be higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (14.3 percent vs 4.1 percent, p=0.055). (aaem.pl)
  • In type I, but not type II psoriasis, the Caucasian HLA extended haplotype (EH) Cw6-B57-DRB1*0701-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0303 named according to the B allele EH-57.1 was highly significantly overrepresented (p cor= 0.00021). (diva-portal.org)
  • Through its new ecommerce website, www.hlaprotein.com, Pure Protein now offers academic and commercial researchers the ability to purchase individual HLA reagents to detect, profile, and monitor allele-specific immune responses, as well as HLA peptide epitope binding services to aide in improving the design of vaccination and therapeutic targeting strategies. (californianewswire.com)
  • The serotype identifies the B*38 allele products of the HLA-B gene-locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linkage studies indicate a factor in the HLA-class I region is more greatly associated, with HLA-B38 so far the only linked allele Marsh, S. G. (wikipedia.org)
  • For A11, the alpha "A" chain are encoded by the HLA-A*11 allele group and the β-chain are encoded by B2M locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Allele Query Form IMGT/HLA - European Bioinformatics Institute Gregoriadis S, Zervas J, Varletzidis E, Toubis M, Pantazopoulos P, Fessas P (December 1982). (wikipedia.org)
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is not a single antigen, but is rather a group of proteins that are located on the surface of white blood cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) are proteins that help the body's immune system tell the difference between its own cells and foreign, harmful substances. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Here, we show for the first time that prostate cancer cells express HLA class II proteins that are recognized by CD4+ T cells. (nih.gov)
  • As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. (rcsb.org)
  • In contrast, the Class II proteins, which associate with and present exogenous antigens to CD4+ T-cells, are expressed by the HLA DR, -DQ and DP loci. (bio-medicine.org)
  • High-throughput epitope discovery reveals frequent recognition of neo-antigens by CD4 + T cells in human melanoma. (nature.com)
  • None of the eight B cell lines that expressed HLA-B27 presented a known peptide epitope to CTL. (rupress.org)
  • Epitope analysis of HLA-DQ antigens: what does the antibody see? (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Rapid antigen processing and presentation of a protective and immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted hepatitis C virus-specific CD8+ T-cell epitope. (doaj.org)
  • To better define the immunological mechanisms underlying HLA-B*27-mediated protection in HCV infection, we analyzed the functional avidity, functional profile, antiviral efficacy and naïve precursor frequency of CD8+ T cells targeting the immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted HCV-specific epitope as well as its antigen processing and presentation. (doaj.org)
  • The HLA-B*27-restricted CD8+ T-cell epitope was not superior to epitopes restricted by HLA-A*02 when considering the functional avidity, functional profile, antiviral efficacy or naïve precursor frequency. (doaj.org)
  • However, the peptide region containing the HLA-B*27-restricted epitope was degraded extremely fast by both the constitutive proteasome and the immunoproteasome. (doaj.org)
  • This efficient proteasomal processing that could be blocked by proteasome inhibitors was highly dependent on the hydrophobic regions flanking the epitope and led to rapid and abundant presentation of the epitope on the cell surface of antigen presenting cells. (doaj.org)
  • Our data suggest that rapid antigen processing may be a key immunological feature of this protective and immunodominant HLA-B*27-restricted HCV-specific epitope. (doaj.org)
  • Here, we report a high degree of epitope overlap and T cell promiscuity between susceptible HLA-DQ8 and HLA-DQ8 transdimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • Using a method of epitope deduction, HLA-A3-restricted peptide epitopes were screened from hTERT and tested for immunogenicity in a human in vitro T-cell system. (aacrjournals.org)
  • HLA-A^*3303-rectricted CTL recognized 10-mer epitope ending Arg while HLA-A^*3101 -rectricted CTL recognized 9-mer epitope ending the same Arg. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] Clinical relevance of a newly identified HLA-A24-restricted minor histocompatibility antigen epitope derived from BCL2A1,ACC-1,in patients receiving HLA genotypically matched unrelated bone marrow transplant. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Fig. 6: MARIA scores predict melanoma HLA-II-presented antigens and are associated with post-vaccine CD4 + T cell responses. (nature.com)
  • Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is a cancer-testis antigen that is expressed in many cancers and leukemias. (jci.org)
  • Previous studies have suggested that, in human melanoma, expression of HLA-A2 antigen is important for tumor cell recognition by autologous T-lymphocytes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because of the recent demonstration that expression of HLA Class I antigens may be selectively lost in several human tumors, including melanoma, we derived pairs of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and melanoma cell lines from 4 human lymphocytic antigen (HLA)-A2 + patients with metastatic melanoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We observed that, although all 4 TIL cultures expressed HLA-A2 antigen, only 2 melanoma cell lines did so. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Melanoma cells derived from the other 2 patients showed neither surface expression of the HLA-A2 antigen nor presence of the corresponding mRNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • TIL derived from patients whose melanoma cell lines had normal expression of HLA-A2 had a CD8 phenotype and were capable of lysing autologous melanoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Melanoma cell killing was CD3 and major histocompatibility complex Class I restricted in both cases, but HLA-A2 restricted in only one case. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, TIL derived from the 2 patients whose melanoma cell lines had lost expression of HLA-A2 had a predominant CD4 phenotype and virtually no cytotoxic activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Preincubation of the HLA-A2 negative melanoma cell lines with α- or γ-interferon did not induce the re-expression of the HLA-A2 antigen. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In an attempt to restore HLA-A2 antigen expression in one of the melanoma cell lines that were HLA-A2 negative, we transfected these cells with the HLA-A2 gene subcloned in the pSV2-neo vector. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overall, our data suggest that selective down-regulation of HLA-A2 antigen expression in melanoma cells may represent one of the mechanisms by which tumor cells escape immunological recognition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because the expression of classic and nonclassic HLA antigens is crucial for the recognition and elimination of tumor cells by cytotoxic T and/or NK cells, we analyzed the HLA-A, -B, -C, and -G expression in uveal melanoma specimens from 18 patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • HLA-C and -G antigens were not found in uveal melanoma tissue implying a susceptibility for NK lysis. (arvojournals.org)
  • 5 6 Especially in uveal melanoma there is evidence that the downregulation of HLA-A and -B antigens correlates with a favorable patient outcome, 7 8 which is completely different from the situation known to exist with other tumors. (arvojournals.org)
  • For example, recently, it is reported that exosomes admixed with CpG oligonucleotides were efficient in prophylactic and therapeutic settings of melanoma in HLA-A2 transgenic mice ( 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A gene in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region controlling the class I antigen presentation pathway. (springer.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the prospect of antigen specific immunotherapy against prostate cancer via the HLA class II pathway of immune recognition. (nih.gov)
  • These β-cells also expressed mRNA for Class II and Class II antigen presentation pathway components, but lacked the macrophage marker CD68. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ has emerged as the alloantibody most frequently associated with the generation of de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA), antibody-mediated-rejection, and unfavorable transplantation outcome. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we have described Pr20, a TCR mimic (TCRm) human IgG1 antibody that recognizes the cell-surface ALY peptide/HLA-A2 complex. (jci.org)
  • An afucosylated Fc form (Pr20M) directed antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against PRAME+HLA-A2+ leukemia cells and was therapeutically effective against mouse xenograft models of human leukemia. (jci.org)
  • This unit describes screening for HLA‐B27 on peripheral blood lymphocytes using more than one HLA‐B27 monoclonal antibody to detect possible cross‐reactivity with non‐HLA‐B27 antigens. (currentprotocols.com)
  • Advances in desensitization therapy and immunosuppressants made kidney transplantation possible in a recipient who had incompatible blood type with donor or preformed antibody against donor human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (ovid.com)
  • 1) positive result in crossmatch test and/or (2) donor specific antibody with mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) over 5000 measured by Luminex single antigen assay. (ovid.com)
  • A recipient who had combined immunologic risk of blood type incompatibility and preformed antibody against donor HLA antigen presented comparable outcome to a patient who had one of these risk factors. (ovid.com)
  • The Tambur lab at the Comprehensive Transplant Center, Northwestern University, Chicago, is focusing on understanding the immunogenicity of HLA-DQ antigens and its role in antibody-mediated rejection in solid organ transplantation," said Dr. Tambur. (californianewswire.com)
  • The presence of HLA specific antibody in the eluates was investigated. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Some HLA specific sera still reacted against some pigs after removal of natural antibody and no reactivity was identical to any other. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • In addition, the presence of a non-HLA antibody was also found. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α11 subset of HLA-A α-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the HLA is a chemical tag that distinguishes "self" from "nonself," the antigen is important in the rejection of transplanted tissue and in the development of certain diseases (e.g., insulin-dependent diabetes). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Defects in the structure of the HLAs is the cause of some diseases where the body's immune system perceives a host antigen as foreign and begins to attack the body's own tissue. (encyclopedia.com)
  • HLA testing is also used to match donated tissue with a person's tissue who is getting an organ transplant. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) testing is also called HLA typing or tissue typing. (cancer.ca)
  • A pattern of antigens, called a tissue type, is inherited from your parents. (cancer.ca)
  • DO was discovered in association with another chaperone HLA-DM (DM) but unlike DM, its distribution is more tissue specific, and its function more subtle. (frontiersin.org)
  • The HLA system is used to assess tissue compatibility. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A clear understanding of the differences between HLA polymorphisms has provided ample insight into why and how foreign tissue is rejected by the host, and as such been a critical enabler of the field of transplantation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Today, a variety of techniques are applied for HLA tissue typing, providing an important tool to increase the success rate of human transplants. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Furthermore, we provide evidence that HLA-G expressed in this tissue may associate with a subset of insulin-containing granules and may be shuttled to the cell surface in response to secretory stimuli. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, these tissues represent immunologically protected sites (the fetal trophoblast), sites of immune privilege (the anterior chamber of the eye and the testis), or lymphocyte selection (the thymus), suggesting a role for HLA-G in tissue-specific immunoregulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • After solubilization of tumor tissue and specific immunoprecipitation of classic HLA-A, -B, and -C and nonclassic HLA-G antigens the tumor samples were analyzed by one-dimensional isoelectric focusing (1D-IEF) and Western blot analysis. (arvojournals.org)
  • Many pathways of immune escape are known, including signaling defects in T cells, contact-induced anergy of T cells, and downregulation of HLA expression in tumor tissue. (arvojournals.org)
  • These preliminary data support a role for tissue matching in cadaver transplantation and suggest that combined matching for HLA AB and DR antigens may be more useful than matching for either alone. (mdedge.com)
  • The differences between placental (fetal) Mφ and adult peritoneal Mφ may reflect both tissue-specific differences and generally diminished class II antigen expression on fetal and neonatal mononuclear phagocytes. (caltech.edu)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes(CTL) specific for minor histocompatibility antigens(mHAgs) whose tissue expression is limited to hematopoietic cells are useful for immunotherapy of relapsed leukemia/lymphoma following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation(HCT). (nii.ac.jp)
  • In the present study we have tested the possibility of the role of 14bp insertion / deletion polymorphism of HLA-G in cancer progression and susceptibility. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Classical class I and class II Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) are leading candidates for infectious disease susceptibility. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Many observations point to a major role for classical HLA loci in determining susceptibility to viral infections 1 . (antibodies-online.com)
  • Analysis of HLA DR2&DQ6 (DRB1*1501, DQA1*0102, DQB1*0602) haplotypes in Iranian patients with multiple sclerosis. (harvard.edu)
  • Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II DR Beta 1 also known as HLA-DRB1 ia a member of the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. (prospecbio.com)
  • HLA-DRB1 produced in Sf9 Baculovirus cells is a single, glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 207 amino acids (30-227a.a.) and having a molecular mass of 24.0kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • HLA-DRB1 is expressed with a 9 amino acid His tag at C-Terminus and purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques. (prospecbio.com)
  • HLA-DRB1 protein solution (0.25mg/ml) contains Phosphate Buffered Saline (pH 7.4) and 30% glycerol. (prospecbio.com)
  • We investigated HLA DRB1 correlations with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) outcome in 90 patients. (haematologica.org)
  • HLA DRB1*01 and HLA DRB1*02-null were associated with shorter overall survival ( p =0.007, p =0.002). (haematologica.org)
  • Allelic frequencies of HLA DRB1 were systematically examined in 90 B-CLL patients seen in the Department of Hematology during 2003-2004 for control visits, and in 94 ethnically-matched, healthy controls. (haematologica.org)
  • The HLA DRB1 allelic frequencies and distributions were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and did not differ significantly between CLL patients and the control group. (haematologica.org)
  • We were therefore unable to detect previously reported associations of HLA DRB1*0401 and DRB1*0403 with CLL incidence, or DRB3 (DR52) and DRB4 (DR53) supertypical loci with age-at-onset of CLL. (haematologica.org)
  • In a multivariate Cox regression model, the HLA DRB1*01 remained an independent factor predicting for shorter OS (p=0.005, relative risk [RR]= 3.84). (haematologica.org)
  • Serum soluble HLA class I antigen levels in hemodialysis patients and following renal transplantation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We measured the serum levels of soluble HLA class I antigen (sHLA-I) to evaluate the immune status of uremia and following renal transplantation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Long-term maintenance of HLA-D restricted T cells specific for soluble antigens. (diva-portal.org)
  • It seems important to recognize the function and role of soluble histocompatibility antigens in the pathogenesis of a disease. (medscimonit.com)
  • Soluble HLA-I antigens from the serum of CAH children demonstrate incorrect concentration level values in comparison with sHLA-I antigens of healthy individuals. (medscimonit.com)
  • Furthermore, these antigens are not expressed in the placenta with the exception of HLA‐C. However, HLA‐G is expressed on especially invasive cytotrophoblasts and exists in both membrane and soluble forms. (deepdyve.com)
  • Coordinate defects in human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class II expression and antigen presentation in bare lymphocyte syndrome. (springer.com)
  • For many years HLA polymorphisms were typed by serological respons. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The second HLA DNA typing technique is to use the PCR amplification reaction directly to detect HLA polymorphisms. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Therefore, 61 RSA couples (with three or more spontaneous abortions) and 47 fertile control couples were HLA‐G genotyped by direct DNA sequencing and analyzed for specific polymorphisms. (deepdyve.com)
  • Essentially the different HLA arrangement on cells allows the immune system to develop an inventory of "self" antigens in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In the future, an invading organism that possesses one or some of these "non-self" antigens will be swiftly recognized as an invader and will be dealt with. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Regulatory CD4 + T cells are another specialized subset that plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of immune tolerance to self-antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Besides CD4 + effector cells, CD4 + regulatory T cells (Tregs), consisting of thymus-derived or induced cells, maintain peripheral tolerance to self-antigens by regulating other types of immune cells ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Tumor-associated antigens (TAA) are monomorphic self-antigens that are proposed as targets for immunotherapeutic approaches to treat malignancies. (onmedica.com)
  • We investigated whether T cells with sufficient avidity to recognize naturally overexpressed self-antigens in the context of self-HLA can be found in the T-cell repertoire of healthy donors. (onmedica.com)
  • These results illustrate that self-HLA-restricted T cells specific for self-antigens like MiHA in MiHApos donors and TAA are present in peripheral blood of healthy individuals, but clinical efficacy would require highly effective in-vivo priming by peptide vaccination in the presence of proper adjuvants or in-vitro expansion of the low numbers of self-antigen-specific T cells of sufficient avidity to recognize endogenously processed antigen. (onmedica.com)
  • HLA-B27 is a blood test to look for a protein that is found on the surface of white blood cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • It is a blood test that identifies antigens on the surface of cells and tissues. (cancer.ca)
  • HLA-B27 is a human leukocyte antigen that helps the body differentiate its own cells from foreign substances. (reference.com)
  • Human leukocyte antigens help regulate the immune system, and their main role is to let the body tell the difference between normal cells and substances that it needs to attack, states MedlinePlus. (reference.com)
  • The presentation of antigen to T cells requires that the antigens first be processed prior to presentation. (springer.com)
  • Assembly and intracellular transport of HLA-DM and correction of the class II antigen-processing defect in T2 cells. (springer.com)
  • These Antigens are polymorphic Glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other Cells , often associated with certain Diseases . (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • Fais S, Pallone F, Squarcia O, et al: HLA-DR antigens on colonic epithelial cells in inflammatory bowel disease: I. Relation to the state of activation of lamina propria lymphocytes and to the epithelial expression of other surface markers. (springer.com)
  • McDonald GB, Jewell DP: Class II antigen (HLA-DR) expression by intestinal epithelial cells in inflammatory diseases of colon. (springer.com)
  • Darr AS, Fuggle SV, Ting A, et al: Anomolous expression of HLA-DR antigens on human colorectal cancer cells. (springer.com)
  • Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although much has been accomplished regarding how antigens are processed and presented to T cells, many questions still remain unanswered, preventing the design of therapeutics for direct intervention with antigen processing. (frontiersin.org)
  • Primary dendritic cells (DCs) also to express HLA-DO. (rcsb.org)
  • D ) In US2+ cells, HLA-A2 heavy chains are rapidly targeted for dislocation from the ER to the cytosol, where they are deglycosylated before proteasomal degradation. (pnas.org)
  • Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is an emerging approach that necessitates defining robust and efficient methods for the in vitro expansion of antigen-specific T cells then infused into patients. (frontiersin.org)
  • To address this challenge, artificial antigen presenting cells (AAPCs) have been developed. (frontiersin.org)
  • They constitute a reliable and easily usable platform to stimulate and amplify antigen-specific CD4 + T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Finally, we discuss the potential interest of these AAPCs, both as fundamental tools to decipher CD4 + T cell responses and as reagents to generate clinical grade antigen-specific CD4 + T cells for immunotherapy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Surface expression of this HLA determinant in endocrine cells is regulated in response to growth and inflammatory stimuli. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, HLA-G presentation by endocrine cells may be regulated in concert with their secretory activity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The latter feature characterizes the expression of HLA-G. Thus, high levels of HLA-G were described in the blastocyst and the fetal cytotrophoblast during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, the epithelial cells of the anterior chamber of the eye, the testis, and the fetal liver ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, we have reported a restricted expression of HLA-G within the thymus in a select subset of medullary and subcortical epithelial cells ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In support of this hypothesis, it was demonstrated that presentation of HLA-G on target cells downregulates effector functions in NK cells, antigen-specific CD8 + T cells, and monocytes through engagement of inhibitory receptors expressed on effector cells ( 5 - 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Hence, it was shown that transgenic expression of viral antigens within pancreatic islets does not elicit an immune response even in the face of circulating autoreactive T-cells ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Here we present a nanoparticle delivery system that facilitates presentation of an immunogenic measles antigen specifically in cancer cells. (sri.com)
  • Treatment with this system facilitates activation of a secondary immune response against cancer cells, bypassing the need to identify tumor-associated antigens or educate the immune system through a primary immune response. (sri.com)
  • Cancerous cells start expressing HLA-G which in turn provides a shield for various immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • β-Cell surface expression of HLA Class II was detected on a portion of CD45 − insulin + β-cells from donors with type 1 diabetes by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, we observed selective recognition of the HLA-A2 expressing clones by autologous cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes (which contained CD8 cells) as well as allogeneic CD8 + TIL with a HLA-A2 restricted pattern of recognition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In damaged cells, such as virally infected or tumour cells, down-regulation of HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C production or inhibition of TAP prevents stabilization of HLA-E by the leader peptide. (portlandpress.com)
  • Under these circumstances, HLA-E does not reach the cell surface and the cell is then vulnerable to lysis by natural killer cells. (portlandpress.com)
  • A considerable portion of the uveal melanomas tested showed a loss of classic HLA class I antigens, which may enable them to escape from the immunosurveillance of cytotoxic T cells. (arvojournals.org)
  • A nine-amino acid peptide derived from hTERT binds strongly to HLA-A2 antigen and elicits CTL responses against a broad panel of hTERT + tumors (but not hTERT + hematopoietic progenitor cells). (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, highly enriched HLA-A3 + CD34 + peripheral blood progenitor cells or activated T cells were not lysed. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To improve the immunogenicity of exosomes as cancer vaccine, we prepared exosomes from heat-stressed carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-positive tumor cells (CEA + /HS-Exo) and tested the efficacy of these exosomes in the induction of CEA-specific antitumor immunity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, in vitro incubation of lymphocytes from HLA-A*0201 + healthy donors and HLA-A*0201 + CEA + cancer patients with CEA + /HS-Exo-pulsed autologous dendritic cells induces HLA-A*0201-restricted and CEA-specific CTL response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Exosomes derived from tumor antigen peptide-pulsed dendritic cells elicit potent tumor-specific immune responses ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Exosomes derived from tumor cells are also a source of shared tumor rejection antigens for CTL cross-priming in animal model ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • HSP70 prepared from tumor cells or virus-infected cells can elicit potent antigen-specific CD8 + CTL response and therapeutic effects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Evidence has revealed that by priming antigen-presenting cells, especially dendritic cells, HSP70 exhibits potent adjuvant functions in stimulating the host immune response ( 19 - 23 ) and has a potent antitumor effect in animal model ( 21 - 23 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The effect of donor lymphocyte infusion is mediated by donor T cells recognizing minor histocompatibility antigens. (haematologica.org)
  • T cells recognizing hematopoietic restricted minor histocompatibility antigens may induce selective graft- versus -leukemia reactivity, whereas broadly-expressed antigens may be targeted in graft- versus -host disease. (haematologica.org)
  • Results Three antigens were demonstrated to be expressed on primary leukemic cells of various origins as well as subtypes of non-malignant hematopoietic cells, whereas one antigen was selectively recognized on malignant hematopoietic cells with antigen presenting cell phenotype. (haematologica.org)
  • All antigens may have contributed to a graft- versus -leukemia effect, and one minor histocompatibility antigen (LB-SWAP70-1Q) has specific therapeutic value based on its in vivo immunodominance and strong presentation on leukemic cells of various origins, but absence of expression on cytokine-treated fibroblasts. (haematologica.org)
  • We and others recently demonstrated that Whole Genome Association scanning (WGAs) is an efficient method for high throughput identification of MiHA, 8 - 12 illustrated by the discovery of 10 novel MiHA as targets for CD8 + T cells in 2 different patients with leukemia who responded to DLI after HLA-matched alloSCT. (haematologica.org)
  • A Minority of T Cells Recognizing Tumor-Associated Antigens Presented in Self-HLA Can Provoke Anti-Tumor Reactivity. (onmedica.com)
  • Minor histocompatibility antigen (MiHA)-specific T cells were used as model, as the influence of thymic selection on the T-cell repertoire directed against MiHA can be studied in both self (MiHApos donors)and non-self (MiHAneg donors) backgrounds. (onmedica.com)
  • Of the 16 unique HA-1H-specific T-cell clones, 5 T-cell clones derived from HA-1Hneg/HLA-A*02:01pos donors and 1 T-cell clone derived from an HA-1Hpos/HLA-A*02:01pos donor showed reactivity against HA-1Hpos target cells. (onmedica.com)
  • The effect of recombinant human interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) on the induction of HLA class II (HLA-DR, -DP, -DQ) antigen expression on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells was examined in different stages of culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • Class II antigens were not detected on HCE cells in either stage without IFN-gamma treatment. (arvojournals.org)
  • IFN-gamma induced three class II antigens on HCE cells in both stages in a dose- and time-dependent manner but at different levels for each antigen (DR greater than DP greater than DQ). (arvojournals.org)
  • These findings indicate that the induction of class II antigens on HCE cells may be regulated by IFN-gamma independently for each of the antigens and that DQ induction may depend upon the differentiation of HCE cells in culture. (arvojournals.org)
  • Evidence to support the role of HLA-G5 in allograft acceptance through induction of immunosuppressive/ regulatory T cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • HLA-E protects glioma cells from NKG2D-mediated immune responses in vitro: implications for immune escape in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We next attempted to identify a gene encoding HLA-A^*3303 restricted, male specific mHAg using a CTL clone that preferentially lysed hematopoietic cells. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complex(MHC),is a transmembrane glycoprotein composed of an alpha chain (36 kDa) and a beta subunit(27kDa) expressed primarily on antigen presenting cells:B cells, monocytes, macrophages and thymic epithelial cells. (cylch.org)
  • HLA-DR is also expressed on activated T cells. (cylch.org)
  • In previous studies, genetically engineered K562 have been used to generate artificial antigen presenting cells (AAPC). (ovid.com)
  • CoEX-A2s were capable of stimulating antigen-specific CD8+ T cells both directly and indirectly via CoEX-A2 cross-dressed cells. (ovid.com)
  • The results suggest that these novel exosomes may provide a crucial reagent for generating antigen-specific CD8+ T cells for adoptive cell therapies against viral infection and tumors. (ovid.com)
  • Those T cells recognize the invaders antigen with their own HLA-class lmolecules. (nii.ac.jp)
  • later, the viable cells (T cells) were examined for their cytotoxic activity against peptide pulsed target cells (HLA-B35 Transfectant) by Chromium 51 release assay. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 2. Search for the major T cell antigens recognized by human T cells from the patients in the endemic area. (nii.ac.jp)
  • HLA-I Antigen Presentation and Tapasin Influence Immune Responses Against Malignant Brain Tumors - Considerations for Successful Immunotherapy. (lu.se)
  • Loss of HLA class I expression in prostate cancer: implications for immunotherapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen: the major histocompatibility complex of man. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A gene required for class II restricted antigen presentation maps to the major histocompatibility complex. (springer.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex products Class I (HLA Class I) antigens are not expressed on the surface of normal human hepatocytes but become so in pathological conditions. (kuleuven.be)
  • The protein is called human leukocyte antigen B27 (HLA-B27). (medlineplus.gov)
  • A type of protein made by the immune system that disarms or destroys a specific foreign substance (antigen) when it appears in the body. (cancer.ca)
  • Human Leukocyte antigen -G is an immunosuppressive protein with multiple functions. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Chakhtoura, M. , Souccar, N. , Al-Akl, N. and Abdelnoor, A. (2011) Human leukocyte antigen associations and c-reactive protein levels in lebanese patients with aggressive periodontitis-HLA and CRP in aggressive periodontitis. (scirp.org)
  • Protein microarray is a screening tool that reproducibly detects serums reactivities to non-HLA antigens. (asnjournals.org)
  • We pay special attention to the HLA-I dedicated multifunctional protein, tapasin, and in relation to the different tapasin-dependency of HLA-I allomorphs we also discuss allomorph specific traits in maturation, structure and linkage to malignant diseases and brain tumors in particular. (lu.se)
  • Pure Transplant Solutions, LLC was founded in 1999 in order to leverage the leading research in HLA protein of parent company, Pure Protein, LLC, into solutions to address a growing list of needs in organ transplantation. (californianewswire.com)
  • Pure Protein, LLC is a biotechnology company funded and managed by Emergent Technologies, Inc. that is focused on the development and commercialization of proprietary technologies related to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, formed and exclusively licensed from the University of Oklahoma. (californianewswire.com)
  • The serum of 100 patients with myasthenia gravis and 441 of their first-degree relatives was studied for the presence of autoantibodies against several antigens. (bmj.com)
  • Fig. 5: MARIA identifies lymphoma immunoglobulin HLA-DR presentation hotspots in patients with MCL. (nature.com)
  • Patients may get an HLA-B27 antigen test to find the cause of joint swelling and pain. (reference.com)
  • Antigen HLA-A29 was present in 16 of 20 patients (80%) with birdshot retinochoroidopathy, but only in 31 of 418 controls (7.4%) (P less than .0001). (nih.gov)
  • Of the 20 patients, 13 were also tested for evidence of an in vitro mitotic immune response to purified retinal S-antigen. (nih.gov)
  • 1. Human leucocyte AB antigens were determined by means of a lymphocyte toxicity test in 84 patients with essential hypertension and in 1000 blood donors. (clinsci.org)
  • 2. The prevalence of HLA B8 was 16.4% in hypertensive patients and 8.9% in controls ( P = 0.07). (clinsci.org)
  • 3. The prevalence of HLA B12 was 34.5% in hypertensive patients and 26.9% in the control group (N.S.). In WHO stage III hypertension HLA B12 was found in six out of 10 patients. (clinsci.org)
  • 6. A positive family history of hypertension tended to be more common in those patients with essential hypertension associated with HLA B8. (clinsci.org)
  • BACKGROUND: Alveolar macrophages from patients with sarcoidosis express increased quantities of HLA-DR during activation. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS: The relation between silver staining patterns of nucleoli and HLA-DR antigen expression was examined in alveolar macrophages collected by bronchoalveolar lavage from 11 patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and 11 control subjects. (bmj.com)
  • The number of silver stained dots in alveolar macrophages correlated significantly with the intensity and the density of HLA-DR antigen expression in the patients with sarcoidosis. (bmj.com)
  • HLA-B27 is found in 90% of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and 80% in Reiter's disease. (specialtylabs.com)
  • Three common gp100 epitopes have been identified that are recognized in the context of HLA-A2 by TIL from different patients: G9154 (KTWGQYWQV), G9209 (ITDQVPFSV), and G9280 (YLEPGPVTA). (jimmunol.org)
  • Aim: The aims of this study were to deter- mine if there is an HLA-AP association in Lebanese patients, and to determine CRP levels in patients and compare them to those in healthy controls. (scirp.org)
  • Cullinan, M.P., Sachs, J., Wolf, E. and Seymour, G.J. (1980) The distribution of HLA-A and -B antigens in patients and their families with periodontitis. (scirp.org)
  • I have 3 patients with HLA 17-2-52B that seem to have biotoxin illness. (survivingmold.com)
  • We have looked at the per cent of non-HLA susceptible patients with confirmed mold illness. (survivingmold.com)
  • In parallel, patients were typed for HLA-A, -B, and -C class I antigens by PCR with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). (arvojournals.org)
  • In addition, HLA-A2 and -G expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumor sections from these patients. (arvojournals.org)
  • We analyzed the graft survival according to presence of rejection episode, the result was inferior in patients who had rejection episode, but there was not statistical significance (p=0.102) We compared graft survival of presented patients with standard ABOi KT patients (n=88) and sensitized to donor HLA antigen patients (n=51) performed same period in our institute and there was no statistical significance (p=0.788). (ovid.com)
  • The hTERT peptide K973 was used to generate specific CD8 + CTLs from HLA-A3 + cancer patients and healthy individuals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Then, we evaluated their ability to induce a CEA-specific immune response in vivo in HLA-A2.1/K b transgenic mice and CEA-specific CTL response in vitro in HLA-A*0201 + healthy donors and HLA-A*0201 + CEA + cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Background Patients with hematologic malignancies can be successfully treated with donor lymphocyte infusion after HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (haematologica.org)
  • To further evaluate the nature of the HLA association with psoriasis, HLA haplotypes of 60 patients with type 1 (early onset, positive family history) and 30 patients with type II (late onset, no family history) psoriasis were investigated by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridization (HLA class II) and serology (HLA class I). Ethnically matched blood donors (146) served as controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • The focus of the collaboration is to develop and test novel HLA reagents created by PTS that may be used for enhanced analysis and characterization of DQ antigens, an HLA Class II type that is increasingly gaining importance in causing rejection in transplant patients. (californianewswire.com)
  • This is a retrospective analysis of the results of HLA AB and DR antigen matching in 56 transfused cadaver transplant patients. (mdedge.com)
  • Histocompatibility (HLA) antigen phenotypes have been studied in 100 patients with ulcerative colitis, 100 with Crohn's disease, and 283 normal controls. (bmj.com)
  • There was no significant difference in antigen frequency between patients and controls. (bmj.com)
  • However, the incidence of HLA-B27 was increased in the patients complicated by ankylosing spondylitis and/or sacroiliitis in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. (bmj.com)
  • In contrast, none of the 29 IBD patients with "enteropathic" peripheral arthropathy had B27 antigen. (bmj.com)
  • Furthermore, ankylosing spondylitis was found more frequently in ulcerative colitis bearing HLA-B27 compared with non-B27 patients (P less than 0-01). (bmj.com)
  • In addition, 12 of 14 ulcerative colitis patients and five out of six Crohn's patients with HLA-B27 had total colitis, compared with the frequency of total colitis in non-B27 patients (P less than 0-024 and less than 0-03 respectively). (bmj.com)
  • NY-ESO-1 is a member of the cancer-testis family of tumor antigens that elicits strong humoral and cellular immune responses in patients with NY-ESO-1-expressing cancers. (uzh.ch)
  • The characterization of HLA class II-restricted epitopes will be useful for the assessment of spontaneous and vaccine-induced immune responses of cancer patients against defined tumor antigens. (uzh.ch)
  • First we examined the impact of BCL2A1/A24 disparity on clinical outcome using 320 HLA-A24-positive patients receiving HLA-identical HCT.donor pairs. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kenji Hirayama: 'T-Lymphoproliferative response of the patients with Chagas'desease to epimastigote antigen of T. curuzi in GUATEMALA' Jpn. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kenji Hirayama: 'T-Lympho-proliferative response of the patients with Chagas' disease to epimastigote antigen of T.cruzi in Guatemala' Jpn.J.Trop.Med.Hyg. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Kenji Hirayama: 'T-Lymphoproliferative response of the patients with Chagas' disease to epimastigote antigen of T.cruzi in Gatemala' Jpn.J.Parasit.44 Suppl. (nii.ac.jp)
  • One hundred and fourteen Chinese patients with hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) were studied for α-fetoprotein (AFP), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBsAg, and HLA markers. (nus.edu.sg)
  • A higher frequency of HLA-B38 was noted psoriatic arthritis patients with erythroderma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complete structure and gene map of the HLA region have been published [ 1,2 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • Third, identification of mHAg gene(s) encoding HLA-A^*3303 and -A^*3101-restricted mHAgs was conducted. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Journal Article] A Novel HLA-A^*3303-restricted minor histocompatibility antigen encoded by an unconventional open reading frame of human TMSB4Y gene. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our collaboration with Pure Transplant Solutions allows us to develop unique approaches to study the unique involvement of HLA-DQ in transplant immunology. (californianewswire.com)
  • The generation of HLA-DQ de novo DSA was interrogated in 40 transplant recipients who were immunologically naive before their failed transplantation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This will pave the way to identifying acceptable mismatches and will allow risk stratification for generating de novo HLA-DSA after transplantation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Rationale: Chemotherapy with fludarabine, cyclophosphamide and anti-thymocyte globulin may induce the engraftment cross the immunologic barrier in the setting of HLA-haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • AUSTIN, Texas, Mar 17, 2021 (SEND2PRESS NEWSWIRE) - Pure Transplant Solutions, LLC (PTS), a collaboration driven biotechnology company focused on the development of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-based diagnostics and therapeutics within the field of transplantation, is proud to announce that it has entered into a collaboration agreement with Northwestern University, a world leader in HLA DQ antigen research. (californianewswire.com)
  • In the last years, we have seen a re-emerging role of HLA-DQ in transplantation medicine with increasing evidence that DQ mismatches between transplant recipient and donor are most detrimental to graft survival," said Dr. Buchli. (californianewswire.com)
  • Conditions such as arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and inflammation of the sacroiliac joint may cause an increase in HLA-B27 and human leukocyte antigens, states MedlinePlus. (reference.com)
  • for example, HLA-B27 is usually present in people who have ankylosing spondylitis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Ankylosing spondylitis is 10 times more common among individuals with HLA-B27 compared to individuals without this antigen. (specialtylabs.com)
  • A group of the D-related HLA Antigens found to differ from the DR Antigens in Genetic Locus and therefore inheritance. (online-medical-dictionary.org)
  • However, the advent of recombinant DNA technology, which paved the way to identifying genetic differences among the HLA loci directly, has led many laboratories to abandon classic serological typing methods. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Our findings suggested that birdshot retinochoroidopathy has a genetic predisposition and that retinal autoimmunity, resulting from the S-antigen or other retinal antigens, plays a role in the manifestation of this disease. (nih.gov)
  • Despite the contribution of HLA to the overall genetic risk has been estimated to range from 30% to 50%, it has never been studied in the French west-Indian population. (bioportfolio.com)
  • 5. In view of a previous report of HLA antigens in a Spanish diabetic population, this study does not support the suggestion of a genetic and possibly HLA-linked connection between essential hypertension and diabetes mellitus among the Spanish population. (clinsci.org)
  • HLA-C at 6p21.33) in multi-ethnic populations with genetic heterogeneity and racial/ethnic differences among Caucasians, African-Americans, and Hispanics. (curehunter.com)
  • Although a tendency towards an association with a certain genetic type and with HLA-B51 is suspected, the incidence of several siblings with Behçet's disease in a single family is rare. (bmj.com)
  • Genetic aspect of venom allergy: association with HLA class I and class II antigens. (aaem.pl)
  • The detection of the HLA‐B27 antigen by immunomagnetic separation and enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay: Comparison with a flow cytometric procedure. (currentprotocols.com)
  • In the first stage of the experiment we determined the appearance of CAH HLA-A, B, C lymphocyte antigens in comparison with 1152 healthy individuals. (medscimonit.com)
  • This recognition occurs because the HLA groups are "read" by an immune cell called the T cell . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Antigen presentation profiling reveals recognition of lymphoma immunoglobulin neoantigens. (nature.com)
  • It has been suggested that the maternal NK recognition of this downregulation is balanced by the expression of HLA-G, thus preventing damage to the placenta. (rupress.org)
  • However, little is known about HLA-DQ8 transdimer-restricted CD4 T cell recognition, an event crucial for triggering HLA-DQ8 transdimer-specific anti-islet immunity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Class Ia HLAs, namely HLA-A, -B, and -C, are heterodimers comprising a 45-kDa polymorphic heavy chain noncovalently associated with an invariant light chain, β2-microglobulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. (nih.gov)
  • In general, HLA DNA can be typed either by hybridizing labeled, sequence specific oligonucleotide probes to HLA loci amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or by using PCR to amplify th e HLA DNA directly through differential primer extension. (bio-medicine.org)
  • for example, it is possible to construct PCR primers pre labeled with biotin, and then amplify biotin labeled HLA loci. (bio-medicine.org)
  • For those laboratories with access to Sequencers, it may be the most sensitive, specific and cost effective option to sequence certain HLA loci directly. (bio-medicine.org)
  • E ) Alignment of HLA-A2 with consensus heavy chain sequences of class I loci in the three regions contacted by US2. (pnas.org)
  • The characterization of hTERT as a polyepitope, polyallelic tumor-associated antigen may provide an approach for circumventing therapy-induced resistance potentially mediated by antigenic- and allelic-loss tumor escape mutants. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Routine HLA‐B27 typing by flow cytometry: Differentiation of the products of HLA‐B*2702, B*2705 and B*2708. (currentprotocols.com)
  • The results will show the degree to which HLA antigens match between you and the donor. (rochester.edu)
  • They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. (curehunter.com)
  • Knowing the "self" antigen allows the immune system to rapidly distinguish foreign antigens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A large groove between the alpha-helices provides a binding site for processed foreign antigens. (nih.gov)
  • Natali PG, Martino CD, Quaranta V, et al: Expression of lalike antigens in normal human nonlymphoid tissues. (springer.com)
  • Chiba M, Iizuka M, Masamune O: Ubiquitous expression of HLA-DR antigens on human small intestinal epithelium. (springer.com)
  • Iizuka M, Chiba M, Ohta H, et al: Expression of HLA-DR antigens on colonic epithelium in ulcerative colitis. (springer.com)
  • Selby WS, Janossy G, Mason DY, et al: Expression of HLA-DR antigens by colonic epithelium in inflammatory bowel disease. (springer.com)
  • Disease progression despite protective HLA expression in an HIV-infected transmission pair. (harvard.edu)
  • Correlation of morphological patterns of nucleoli in alveolar macrophages with HLA-DR antigen expression in sarcoidosis. (bmj.com)
  • Because silver staining has been described as a sensitive indicator of cellular activity a study was performed to examine whether it relates to HLA-DR antigen expression. (bmj.com)
  • The +14bp/-14bp and −14bp/-14bp genotypes have already been shown to be associated with higher expression of HLA-G and its mRNA stability and might be providing favorable micro-environment for cancer progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We also observed some correlation between loss of HLA-A2 expression and level of c- myc transcription. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Four transfected clones, with high levels of HLA-A2 antigen expression, were expanded and characterized. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Three to four parameters-forward scatter, side scatter, HLA‐B27 expression, and, in some cases CD3 or B7 expression-are acquired. (currentprotocols.com)
  • This especially concerns HLA antigen concentration levels (sHLA-1) in their different allogenic expression. (medscimonit.com)
  • In 9 (50%) of 18 specimens, a full HLA-A and -B antigen expression pattern was detected by 1D-IEF. (arvojournals.org)
  • Both the quantity and quality of peptide-HLA-I (pHLA-I) complexes are crucial for CTL responses, but the level of HLA-I expression per se is also directly involved in dictating NK-cell responses. (lu.se)
  • The purpose of this study was to specify the ultrastructural topography of HLA Class I antigens expression. (kuleuven.be)
  • HLA class II antigen expression and IL-1 production by mononuclear phagocytes are important for antigen-stimulated T-cell activation. (caltech.edu)
  • These data indicate that class II antigen expression and IL-1 secretion by mononuclear phagocytes are only in part co-ordinately modulated. (caltech.edu)
  • Regulation of HLA class II antigen expression on cultured corneal epithelium by interferon-gamma. (arvojournals.org)
  • Tumor-specific up-regulation of the nonclassical class I HLA-G antigen expression in renal carcinoma. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Lack of human leukocyte antigen-G expression in extravillous trophoblasts is associated with pre-eclampsia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/imgt/hla/ (Accessed on November 29, 2017). (uptodate.com)
  • Consensus sequences were obtained from the IMGT/HLA Sequence Database ( www.ebi.ac.uk/imgt/hla/align.html ). (pnas.org)
  • 1) HLA-B35 might not be ideal for the analysis of immune response against the cysteine protease antigen due to row affintiy. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Indeed much of the early knowledge of the antigen complex came from work on mice in the early decades of the twentieth century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex is synonymous with the human MHC. (uptodate.com)
  • Positioning of autoimmune TCR-Ob.2F3 and TCR-Ob.3D1 on the MBP85-99/HLA-DR2 complex. (harvard.edu)
  • Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL , leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). (rcsb.org)
  • The removal of CLIP is facilitated by HLA-DM via direct binding to the alpha-beta-CLIP complex so that CLIP is released. (rcsb.org)
  • Structure of the US2/HLA-A2/Tax complex and topology of the US2 Ig-like domain. (pnas.org)
  • The US2/HLA-A2/Tax complex and interaction surfaces. (pnas.org)
  • 2 The Human Leukocyte Antigen complex (HLA) is one of the inherited factors that influences the development of B-CLL and clinical outcome of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. (haematologica.org)
  • Mutagenesis at the α chain of HLA-DQ8 transdimer in complex with the disease-relevant GAD65 250-266 peptide and in silico analysis reveal the DQ α52 residue located within the N-terminal edge of the peptide-binding cleft for the enhanced T cell reactivity, altering avidity and biophysical affinity between TCR and HLA-peptide complexes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Nine human liver specimens, known from light microscopic investigation to display membranous positivity for HLA Class I antigens, were processed for immunoelectronmicroscopy using monoclonal anti-HLA Class I in an indirect immunoperoxidase procedure. (kuleuven.be)
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen in question with higher specificity in approved samples than the available alternatives. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Despite preservation of putative residues for T cell receptor (TCR) contact, stronger disease-associated responses to cross-reactive, immunodominant islet epitopes are elicited by HLA-DQ8 transdimer. (sciencemag.org)
  • We have produced T cell clones reactive to epimastigote antigen. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Horie Y, Chiba M, Iizuka M, et al: Colonie lymphoid cell subsets and epithelial HLA-DR antigens in familial polyposis coli. (springer.com)
  • HLA antigens in familial Guillain-Barré syndrome. (bmj.com)
  • HLA antigen familial study in complete Behçet's syndrome affecting three sisters. (bmj.com)
  • The HLA region lies on the short arm of chromosome six at position 6p21.3. (uptodate.com)
  • CD4 + TIL showed no difference in the proliferative response to autologous parental and HLA-A2 transfected clones. (aacrjournals.org)