HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.United StatesHIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.HIV Enteropathy: A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.PrisonersIndiaKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.New York CityLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.AfricaTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.San FranciscoAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Anonymous Testing: Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Blood DonorsNamibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.BrazilHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mouth DiseasesDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.LondonHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Los AngelesLymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Rape: Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.
Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. (1/30267)A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy. (+info)
High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (2/30267)Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV. (+info)
Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996. (3/30267)During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community. (+info)
A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. (4/30267)BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries. (+info)
Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (5/30267)BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse. (+info)
Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (6/30267)OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women. (+info)
Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(7/30267)(+info)
Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (8/30267)To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers. (+info)
Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Flayhart, Diane C.. AU - Zahurak, Marianna L.. AU - Dick, James D.. AU - Willoughby, Rodney E.. PY - 2000/7. Y1 - 2000/7. N2 - Objective. Children with HIV infection are particularly susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease, yet the effect of HIV infection and its medical management on colonization and resistance to antibiotics are poorly described. To provide a basis for medical practice, we determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with HIV infection. Methods. Cross- sectional prevalence sample of children attending the pediatric HIV and pulmonary clinics to examine nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance to beta-lactams and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (T/S). Subjects were matched by age and date of clinic visit. Results. The colonization ...
Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Starr, Stuart E.. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Spector, Stephen A.. AU - Brundage, Richard C.. AU - Yong, Florence H.. AU - Douglas, Steven D.. AU - Flynn, Patrizia M.. AU - Kline, Mark W.. PY - 2002/7/23. Y1 - 2002/7/23. N2 - Background. This study determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, antiviral activity and immunologic effects of efavirenz liquid formulation, nelfinavir and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-infected children, 3 to 9 years of age. Methods. Plasma HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets were measured at various intervals after initiation of therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed at Week 2, and doses of efavirenz and nelfinavir were adjusted if area under the curve values fell outside specified target ranges. Results. This combination of antiretrovirals was well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic values were similar to those observed in a previous study ...
Adenovirus viremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. - Semantic Scholar
Are HIV-infected patients with rapid CD4 cell decline a subgroup who benefit from early antiretroviral therapy? - University of...
We have developed a model to determine whether asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals who have a rapid CD4 cell decline are a subgroup who might benefit from early antiretroviral therapy. Data were obtained from a subgroup of participants in the Concorde and EACG020 trials, two randomized, double-blind, comparative trials of immediate (IMM) versus deferred (DEF) zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. The subgroup comprised 297 patients (IMM = 154, DEF = 143) who had at least one CD4 cell count before and after randomization. The median CD4 cell count at randomization was 491 x 10(6)/L, and the median follow-up was 61 months. The rate of CD4 decline before and after randomization was estimated using multi-level linear regression analysis, and patients were stratified into quartiles according to the rate of CD4 cell decline before randomization. Outcome measures were the development of AIDS, a 50% drop in CD4 count from the baseline, and death. A Cox proportional hazards model was
Africa free of New HIV Infections - WACI Health
AfNHi is an Africa based network of HIV Prevention Research advocates whose vision is an Africa Free of New HIV Infections hence the name AfNHi. The network began after extended conversations on the need to champion Africans led advocacy in biomedical HIV Prevention Research among partners. AfNHi is seeking to influence and fast-track the biomedical HIV Prevention Research agenda on the continent through local ownership and use of indigenous strategies to enhance Africas contribution to the global goals. The network will not only advocate for use of the tools available for preventing new HIV infections but also advocate for the development of New Tools and Technology (NTP). Why We Exist. Africa has less than 20% of the global population and is home to approximately 70% of people living with HIV (PLWH). The landscape of HIV response has changed over the years with the development of rapid response and user-friendly HIV test kits, affordable and effective antiretroviral drugs, and impactful ...
HIV-1 RNA testing of pooled dried blood spots is feasible to diagnose acute HIV infection in resource limited settings
Objectives: Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests, routinely used for diagnosis in adults and older children in resource-limited settings (RLS), do not detect early HIV infections prior to seroconversion or when antibody levels are still low. Nucleic acid amplification to detect HIV-1 RNA is the most sensitive method for acute HIV infection diagnosis, but is costly. We therefore investigated HIV- 1 RNA testing of pooled dried blood spots (DBS) to diagnose acute HIV infection. Design: Laboratory-based investigation. Methods: DBS were collected from HIV-1 Voluntary Counselling and Testing (HVCT) clients who tested negative on the Advanced QualityTM HIV antibody rapid test. DBS samples from five participants were pooled and tested on the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 (CAP/CTM) Test v2. Individual DBS were tested when pools tested positive (, 200 RNA copies/ml). Acute infection was confirmed by HIV viral load testing, two fourth-generation HIV serological assays, and ...
High cellular monocyte activation in people living with human immunodeficiency virus on combination antiretroviral therapy and...
Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from ...
Effects of Two Anti-HIV Drug Regimens on HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among SMART Study Participants - Full Text View -...
It is important to consider the role that HIV infected individuals play in ongoing HIV transmission. Different anti-HIV treatment regimens may lead to variations in HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV infected individuals. HIV infected people with viral loads of less than 1,000 copies/ml are less likely to transmit HIV through heterosexual sex. However, condom use sometimes decreases after individuals start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART); also, some studies have shown an increased rate in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) following initiation of ART, and those on ART may transmit a drug-resistant strain of HIV. In the SMART study, participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups:. ...
Effects of Two Anti-HIV Drug Regimens on HIV Transmission Risk Behavior Among SMART Study Participants - Full Text View -...
It is important to consider the role that HIV infected individuals play in ongoing HIV transmission. Different anti-HIV treatment regimens may lead to variations in HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV infected individuals. HIV infected people with viral loads of less than 1,000 copies/ml are less likely to transmit HIV through heterosexual sex. However, condom use sometimes decreases after individuals start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART); also, some studies have shown an increased rate in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) following initiation of ART, and those on ART may transmit a drug-resistant strain of HIV. In the SMART study, participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups:. ...
HIV Prevention Trials Network: Network Laboratory - Susan Eshleman
Two-Year Clinical and Immune Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Children Who Reconstitute CD4 T Cells Without...
By several parameters known to be associated with HIV disease progression, children who are treated with protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy and reconstitute their CD4 T cells despite viral rebound have similar outcomes to those who optimally suppress viral replication. In our study, discordant viral and immune response outcome groups showed sustained increases in CD4 T-cell counts and displayed growth parameters, prevalence of HIV-associated illnesses, and levels of functional immunity that were equivalent to VS/IS children. The substantial restoration of CD4 T-cell counts in the VS/IS and VF/IS response groups during the initial 24 weeks of treatment was sustained over the subsequent 72 weeks in both outcome groups. The durability of CD4 reconstitution in VF/IS children who were enrolled in our study is in contrast to previous examinations of CD4 T-cell reconstitution in HIV-infected adults in which 30% to 40% of patients who displayed discordant viral and immune responses ...
Surveillance of pediatric HIV infection<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surveillance of pediatric HIV infection. AU - Wilfert, C.. AU - Beck, D. T.. AU - Fleischman, A. R.. AU - Mofenson, L. M.. AU - Pantell, R. H.. AU - Schonberg, S. Kenneth. AU - Scott, G. B.. AU - Sklaire, M. W.. AU - Whitley-Williams, P. N.. AU - Rogers, M. F.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance should expand to include perinatal HIV exposure and HIV infection as well as AIDS to delineate completely the extent and impact of HIV infection on children and families, accurately assess the resources necessary to provide services to this population, evaluate the efficacy of public health recommendations, and determine any potential long- term consequences of interventions to prevent perinatal transmission to children ultimately determined to be uninfected as well as for those who become infected. Ensuring the confidentiality of information collected in the process of surveillance is ...
Black, Male and Endangered: HIV infections double among Black men (Part I)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released new data regarding the HIV infection rate in the USA. The data, covering the years 2003 through 2009 showed that the HIV infection rate is holding steady at about 50,000 new cases per year. However a breakdown of the numbers revealed a shocking disparity in the HIV infection rate among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). During this period, the infection rate for Black MSM nearly doubled! Within Palm Beach County, similar trends have been evident since 2006. A 2007 Care Council of West Palm Beach Bulletin indicated that gay, Black men had one of the highest infection rates, not just in the county, but in the country.. There are no doubt a myriad of interconnected factors contributing to the staggering HIV infection rates among Black males. Even the CDC acknowledges that there is no clear explanation as to why Black men are being decimated by HIV infections in ways that arent quite as prominent among other groups.. One of ...
CD4 cell count and the risk of AIDS or death in HIV-Infected adults on combination antiretroviral therapy with a suppressed...
BACKGROUND. Most adults infected with HIV achieve viral suppression within a year of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is important to understand the risk of AIDS events or death for patients with a suppressed viral load.. METHODS AND FINDINGS. Using data from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (2010 merger), we assessed the risk of a new AIDS-defining event or death in successfully treated patients. We accumulated episodes of viral suppression for each patient while on cART, each episode beginning with the second of two consecutive plasma viral load measurements ,50 copies/µl and ending with either a measurement ,500 copies/µl, the first of two consecutive measurements between 50-500 copies/µl, cART interruption or administrative censoring. We used stratified multivariate Cox models to estimate the association between time updated CD4 cell count and a new AIDS event or death or death alone. 75,336 patients contributed 104,265 ...
Increased HAART Coverage Associated With 50% Drop in New HIV Diagnoses Among Injection Drug Users | BC Centre for Excellence in...
Improved Uptake of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Also Leads to Decrease in Community HIV Plasma Viral LoadVancouver - A comprehensive population-based study, conducted by the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) and presented at the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in San Francisco, shows that expanded highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage was associated with a 50% decrease in new yearly HIV infections among injection drug users.
UCD School of Medicine & Medical Science : December 2012
World AIDS day on December 1st is marked this year by UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, with the theme "Getting to Zero - Zero new HIV infections. Zero discrimination. Zero AIDS-related deaths.". The latest estimates conducted by UNAIDS, show that there are 700,000 fewer new HIV infections across the world in 2011 compared to 2001. Although the numbers are still high - 2.5 million new HIV infections detected in 2011 - this shows a dramatic decrease, some by as much as 50%, in low and middle income sub-Saharan African countries like Malawi, Botswana and Namibia. The overall number detected as living with HIV/AIDS remains stubbornly high at 34 million people.. The scaling up of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries has transformed national HIV/AIDS responses and has contributed to an overall reduction in global AIDS related deaths by 24% in the last 6 years alone.. In Ireland the number of new HIV infections reflects the global trend of declining numbers, ...
The International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017) in Paris last week brought together over 6,000 scientists, clinicians, public health practitioners and officials to review the state of the science intended to control and eventually end the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The central thrust of the global effort to control the epidemic is achieving the 90-90-90 targets set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). These targets state that, by 2020, 90% of those living with HIV know their status, 90% of known HIV-positive individuals receive sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of individuals on ART have durable viral suppression. We know that HIV-infected persons with viral suppression, while not cured, do not transmit HIV infection - hence the focus on treatment, which is prevention. While some countries have made encouraging progress, we are far short of the global 90-90-90 targets, and worse, there were 1.8 million new HIV infections in 2016. We need ...
The role of immune-genetic factors in modelling longitudinally measured HIV bio-markers including the handling of missing data.
Since the discovery of AIDS among the gay men in 1981 in the United States of America, it has become a major world pandemic with over 40 million individuals infected world wide. According to the Joint United Nations Programme against HIV/AIDS epidermic updates in 2012, 28.3 million individuals are living with HIV world wide, 23.5 million among them coming from sub-saharan Africa and 4.8 million individuals residing in Asia. The report showed that approximately 1.7 million individuals have died from AIDS related deaths, 34 million ± 50% know their HIV status, a total of 2:5 million individuals are newly infected, 14:8 million individuals are eligible for HIV treatment and only 8 million are on HIV treatment (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and health sector progress towards universal access: progress report, 2011). Numerous studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis and the dynamics of this deadly disease (AIDS) but, still its pathogenesis is poorly understood. More ...
The impact of alcohol on HIV prevention and treatment for South Africans in primary healthcare
Introduction. Despite HIV prevalence reaching a plateau in South Africa, rates of new infection are still unacceptably high (Department of Health 2012:37). The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that there were 5.6 million HIV-infected people living in South Africa in 2011. This figure, around 11% of the South African population (Doyle & Dorrington 2011), makes up about 17% of the total global number of people living with HIV. Largely as a result of the expanded antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme, the biggest in the world (Shisana et al. 2009:viii), there has been a substantial reduction in AIDS-related mortality in South Africa. There were, however, still an estimated 194 000 HIV-related deaths in 2008, down from 388 000 in 2003 (Actuarial Society 2011:1).. South Africans are heavy drinkers, with amongst the highest per capita consumption rates for alcohol in the world, namely, 9.46 litres of pure alcohol per person annually (World Health Organization 2011:276). ...
Large Increases in HIV Suppression Needed to Reduce New Infections in Critical Population | News | AIDSinfo
NIH-Funded Study Aims to Identify and Treat HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men. Achieving moderate reduction of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) will depend on significantly increasing the percentage of HIV-infected MSM whose viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels, according to a new mathematical model based on data from Baltimore. Access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are key to sustained HIV suppression, which dramatically reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to others. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) will present their results on Oct. 19 at the HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2016 conference in Chicago. Scientists performed the modeling as part of a large clinical research study called HPTN 078, which is funded by NIHs National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). HPTN 078 began enrolling participants ...
Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV-1-infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Thailand - fdi...
Delory T., Ngo-Giang-Huong Nicole, Rangdaeng S., Chotivanich N., Limtrakul A., Putiyanun C., Suriyachai P., Matanasarawut W., Jarupanich T., Liampongsabuddhi P., Heard I., Jourdain Gonzague, Lallemant Marc, Le Coeur S., PapilloV study group (collab.). (2017). Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV-1-infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Thailand. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 20 (Suppl. 5), 92-93. IAS Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017) , 9., Paris (FRA), 2017/07/23-26. ISSN 1758-2652. ...
Phase III Data Show Emtricitabine Maintains Viral Load Suppression as Part of Once-Daily, Protease-Sparing Anti-HIV Regimen |...
BOSTON, Feb 11, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) --. 48-Week Data from Alize Trial Presented Today at 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. French researchers presented new 48-week data from a Phase III clinical trial today. These data demonstrate that emtricitabine (FTC), an investigational once-daily nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), suppresses HIV when taken as part of a once-daily, protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimen. Emtricitabine is being developed by Triangle Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by Gilead Sciences (Nasdaq:GILD) in January 2003. Dr. Jean-Michel Molina presented the 48-week results of the ANRS 099 Alize trial (Abstract #551) at the 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Massachusetts. The ANRS 099 Alize trial is an ongoing three-year, open-label, multicenter study involving 355 patients who at baseline had to have HIV RNA less than 400 copies/mL while receiving PI-based antiretroviral therapy. ...
Comorbidity Rates Higher in Over-49 HIV Group Than in Matched HIV Negatives
The study included 34,766 HIV-infected people who were 50 or older, 104,298 HIV-negative 50-or-older people, and 74,476 HIV-infected people between 18 and 49. In the 50-and-older HIV group, 78% were men and 74% were between 50 and 59. Only 55% of the 50-and-older HIV group had ever taken antiretrovirals, compared with 44% of the younger HIV group. The younger HIV group had a higher proportion of women than the older HIV group (31% versus 22%). The older and younger age groups were similar in proportions with a CD4 count below 200 (16% and 15%), a viral load below 400 copies (53% and 50.5%), and a viral load above 100,000 copies (6% versus 8 ...
Activated B lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals induce virus expression in infected T cells and...
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19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections Report: prevention/PrEP, eradication, the brain, new HIV...
Several studies intensively evaluated the effect of antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV infection has on the size of the cellular reservoir. One such study compared the reservoir as measured by HIV DNA as total, integrated and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) in those treated during acute infection (n=9), chronic infection (n=26) and amongst elite controllers (n=37) (15). It was not surprising that HIV DNA was detectable regardless of how early therapy was initiated and amongst the elite controllers. Nevertheless, they did find that the levels were significantly lower in those treated during acute infection than during chronic. Moreover, the levels in the early treatment group were similar to the elite controller. While early treatment did not eliminate the reservoir, even amongst those with 10 years of follow-up, it is conceivable that the success of any future strategies to target the reservoir may be more successful in those with a smaller reservoir, such as those initiating therapy ...
ASPPH | Johns Hopkins: Male Circumcision, Antiviral Drugs Appear to Sharply Reduce HIV Infection Rate
A steep drop in the local incidence of new HIV infections accompanied the rollout of a U.S.-funded anti-HIV program in a large East African population, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.. The study, published Nov. 29 in the New England Journal of Medicine, is the first to track a large group of people before, during and after the start of an HIV prevention program and show that the program is likely working on a large scale. The researchers found that as the program began and matured from the early 2000s until 2016, there was a 42 percent decline in the rate of new HIV infections.. The ongoing HIV prevention program - in Ugandas rural Rakai District on the shore of Lake Victoria - has been funded by the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), set up in 2004 by the George W. Bush administration. The program provides multiple free services, including anti-HIV drugs for infected people, ...
The impact of HAART on the respiratory complications of HIV infection: longitudinal trends in the MACS and WIHS cohorts.
Author(s): Gingo, Matthew R; Balasubramani, GK; Kingsley, Lawrence; Rinaldo, Charles R; Alden, Christine B; Detels, Roger; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Hessol, Nancy A; Holman, Susan; Huang, Laurence; Kleerup, Eric C; Phair, John; Sutton, Sarah H; Seaberg, Eric C; Margolick, Joseph B; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Morris, Alison | Abstract: OBJECTIVE:To review the incidence of respiratory conditions and their effect on mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals prior to and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN:Two large observational cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study [MACS]) and women (Womens Interagency HIV Study [WIHS]), followed since 1984 and 1994, respectively. METHODS:Adjusted odds or hazards ratios for incident respiratory infections or non-infectious respiratory diagnoses, respectively, in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals in both the pre-HAART (MACS only) and HAART eras; and adjusted Cox proportional
Interleukin-12 (IL-12) production in whole blood cultures from human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals studied in ...
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Increases in CD4<sup>+</sup> T-cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive illicit drug users during a...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increases in CD4+ T-cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive illicit drug users during a treatment-as-prevention initiative in Canada. AU - Tran, Mimi. AU - Wood, Evan. AU - Kerr, Thomas. AU - Patterson, Sophie. AU - Bangsberg, David. AU - Dong, Huiru. AU - Guillemi, Silvia. AU - Montaner, Julio S.G.. AU - Milloy, M. J.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Background: Although treatment-as-prevention (TasP) efforts are a new cornerstone of efforts to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, their effects among people who use drugs (PWUD) have not been fully evaluated. This study characterizes temporal trends in CD4+ T-cell (CD4) count at ART initiation and rates of virological response among HIV-positive PWUD during a TasP initiative. Methods: We used data on individuals initiating ART within a prospective cohort of PWUD linked to comprehensive clinical records. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between CD4 count prior to ART ...
What medications are used to treat HIV infection? | HealthShare
The medications used to treat HIV infection are known as anti-retroviral medications. Your doctor caring for you will in conjunction with you make a decision about the best time to commence you on medications for HIV. This decision will be based on your health and blood test results. Once you have the virus, it cannot be cured however using medications can manage the disease and stop it damging your immune system. In most instances you will need to take a combination of medications, this is known as HAART therapy, which stands for Highly active anti-retroviral treatment. Each different medication attacks the HIV at a different level with the aim that this stops the virus from spreading amongst the cells of your immune system. ...
Nutritional status and CD4 cell counts in patients with HIV/AIDS receiving antiretroviral therapy
DISCUSSION. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reports the feminization of HIV, and in sub-Saharan Africa, six in 10 adults living with HIV are currently woman18. However, this characteristic was not supported by the findings of the present study, which may be explained by the advanced degree of infection in the patients analyzed, as women are generally more concerned with their health and consequently more likely to adhere to HAART. Moreover, with the introduction of erectile dysfunction medications and the aging of the population worldwide, there has been an increase in the incidence of AIDS among elderly individuals. However, the present sample was composed mainly of young, sexually active, promiscuous individuals.. The findings revealed a malnourished sample with important clinical and biochemical alterations. Despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, these characteristics have also been reported by other studies2,3,19. The mean BMI in the present ...
Maternal HIV infection influences the microbiome of HIV-uninfected infants | Science Translational Medicine
More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infants microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. ...
Impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on mortality among young men and women in Spain. | Base documentaire | BDSP
Background. This paper describes the impact of human immunodeficiency virus HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS mortality among young adults in Spain with specific reference to other causes of death. Methods. Based on death registration data for the period 1980-1993, HIV/AIDS was compared against all other causes of death by gender,...
HIV testing and burden of HIV infection in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross-sectional study | BMC...
HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. We did a cross-sectional analysis to identify predictors of prior HIV testing and to quantify the burden of HIV in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Johannesburg Cancer Case-control Study (JCCCS) recruits newly-diagnosed black cancer patients attending public referral hospitals for oncology and radiation therapy in Johannesburg . All adult cancer patients enrolled into the JCCCS from November 2004 to December 2009 and interviewed on previous HIV testing were included in the analysis. Patients were independently tested for HIV-1 using a single ELISA test . The prevalence of prior HIV testing, of HIV infection and of undiagnosed HIV infection was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with prior HIV testing. A total of 5436 cancer patients were tested for HIV of whom 1833[33.7%
Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers predict cerebral injury in HIV-infected individuals on stable combination...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers predict cerebral injury in HIV-infected individuals on stable combination antiretroviral therapy. AU - HIV Neuroimaging Consortium. AU - Anderson, Albert M.. AU - Harezlak, Jaroslaw. AU - Bharti, Ajay. AU - Mi, Deming. AU - Taylor, Michael J.. AU - Daar, Eric S.. AU - Schifitto, Giovanni. AU - Zhong, Jianhui. AU - Alger, Jeffry R.. AU - Brown, Mark S.. AU - Singer, Elyse J.. AU - Campbell, Thomas B.. AU - McMahon, Deborah D.. AU - Buchthal, Steven. AU - Cohen, Ronald. AU - Yiannoutsos, Constantin. AU - Letendre, Scott L.. AU - Navia, Bradford A.. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Objectives: HIV-associated brain injury persists despite combination antiretroviral therapy, but contributing factors remain poorly understood. We postulated that inflammation-associated biomarkers will be associated with cerebral injury on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in chronically HIV-infected subjects. Methods: Five biomarkers were measured in 197 ...
Frontiers | B and T Cell Phenotypic Profiles of African HIV-Infected and HIV-Exposed Uninfected Infants: Associations with...
We examined associations between B and T cell phenotypic profiles and antibody responses to the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in perinatally HIV-infected infants (PHIV) on antiretroviral therapy and in HIV-exposed uninfected infants (PHEU) enrolled in IMPAACT P1072 study (NCT00880698). Of 17 B and T cell subsets analyzed, PHIV and PHEU differed only in the number of CD4+ T cells and frequency of naive B cells, which were higher in PHEU than in PHIV. In contrast, the B and T cell phenotypic profiles of PHIV and PHEU markedly differed from those of geographically-matched contemporary HIV-unexposed infants. The frequency of regulatory T and B cells (Treg, Breg) of PHIV and PHEU displayed two patterns of associations: FOXP3+CD25+ Treg positively correlated with CD4+ T cell numbers; while TGF-b+ Treg and IL10+ Treg and Breg positively correlated with the frequencies of inflammatory and activated T cells. Moreover, the frequencies of activated and inflammatory T cells of PHIV and PHEU positively
HIV persistence in tissue macrophages of humanized myeloid-only mice during antiretroviral therapy (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES
Despite years of fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV persists in its hosts and is never eradicated. One major barrier to eradication is that the virus infects multiple cell types that may individually contribute to HIV persistence. Tissue macrophages are critical contributors to HIV pathogenesis; however, their specific role in HIV persistence during long-term suppressive ART has not been established. Using humanized myeloid-only mice (MoM), we demonstrate that HIV infection of tissue macrophages is rapidly suppressed by ART, as reflected by a rapid drop in plasma viral load and a dramatic decrease in the levels of cell-associated viral RNA and DNA. No viral rebound was observed in the plasma of 67% of the ART-treated animals at 7 weeks after ART interruption, and no replication-competent virus was rescued from the tissue macrophages obtained from these animals. In contrast, in a subset of animals (~33%), a delayed viral rebound was observed that is consistent with the ...
Immunogenicity of hepatitis b vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunogenicity of hepatitis b vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Diamant, Esther P.. AU - Schechter, Clyde. AU - Hodes, David S.. AU - Peters, Vicki B.. PY - 1993/10. Y1 - 1993/10. KW - Hepatitis B vaccine. KW - Human immunodeficiency virusinfected children. KW - Immunogenicity. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0027369756&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0027369756&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/00006454-199310000-00014. DO - 10.1097/00006454-199310000-00014. M3 - Article. C2 - 7904336. AN - SCOPUS:0027369756. VL - 12. SP - 877. EP - 878. JO - Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. JF - Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. SN - 0891-3668. IS - 10. ER - ...
The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on albuminuria in HIV-infected persons: Results from a randomized trial<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on albuminuria in HIV-infected persons. T2 - Results from a randomized trial. AU - Gupta, Samir K.. AU - Parker, Robert A.. AU - Robbins, Gregory K.. AU - Dubé, Michael P.. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those containing protease inhibitors (PIs), are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Albuminuria is a known independent predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease and may potentially increase in patients receiving PIs. Alternatively, albuminuria may improve with HAART as a result of treating renal parenchymal HIV infection. Longitudinal studies have not been performed previously addressing the effects of HAART on albuminuria. Methods. We evaluated the effects of HAART on albumin to creatinine ratios (ACRs) during the initial 64 weeks of therapy in 68 previously ...
Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection | Bentham Science
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
Renal Function Impairment and Associated Risk Factors among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Individuals at Flege Hiwot...
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (who didnt take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean ( SD) age of the participants was 34.69 ( 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment ...
Impact of the highly active antiretroviral therapy era on the epidemiology of primary HIV-associated thrombocytopenia | BMC...
Primary HIV-associated thrombocytopenia (PHAT) typically improves with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, cases continue to occur. Data comparing the epidemiology of PHAT between the pre-HAART and HAART eras are limited. We retrospectively examined the incidence of PHAT over 28 years in the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) from 1986 to 2013. Subjects had a nadir platelet count |100 × 109/l with no other identifiable cause. Time periods were categorized as pre-HAART (1986-1995), early HAART (1996-2001), and later HAART (2002-2013). Incidence, demographic data, and CD4 count were compared across the three eras. A generalized estimating equations model was used to assess any association of platelet count and HIV viral load in cases diagnosed during the HAART eras. 218 participants met the case definition. 86.2 % of cases occurred prior to 2002. The incidence of PHAT per 1000 person-years of follow-up was 16.3, 4.6, and 1.9 during pre-HAART, early HAART and later HAART eras
Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models. AU - Cole, Stephen R.. AU - Hernán, Miguel A.. AU - Robins, James M.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Chmiel, Joan. AU - Detels, Roger. AU - Ervin, Carolyn. AU - Feldman, Joseph. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth. AU - Kingsley, Lawrence. AU - Lai, Shenghan. AU - Young, Mary. AU - Cohen, Mardge. AU - Muñoz, Alvaro. N1 - Funding Information: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute (grants UO1-AI-35042, 5-MO1-RR-00722 (General Clinical Research Center), UO1-AI-35043, UO1-AI-37984, UO1-AI-35039, UO1-AI-35040, UO1-AI-37613, and UO1-AI-35041). The Womens Interagency HIV Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National ...
Racial/Ethnic Disparities Among Children with Diagnoses of Perinatal HIV Infection --- 34 States, 2004--2007
Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among children have been documented since 1981--1986, when 78% of children with AIDS were black or Hispanic (1). These racial/ethnic disparities have been reflected in rates of perinatal HIV infection. Although the total number of annual perinatal HIV infections in the United States has decreased approximately 90% since 1991 (3) and the findings in this report indicate a continued decrease during 2004--2007, racial/ethnic disparities persist. Of all reported diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection during 2004--2007, 85% were in children who were black or Hispanic, and rates were several-fold higher among black and Hispanic children than among white children. To eliminate perinatal transmission and racial/ethnic disparities, continued measures are needed, including primary HIV prevention for women, reproductive health and family planning for women with HIV infection, and prenatal care and early treatment with antiretroviral medications for ...
Alleles of the gene encoding IL-1?? may predict control of plasma viraemia in HIV-1 patients on highly active antiretroviral...
Objective: Some HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) do not resolve their plasma viraemia or HIV RNA can reappear after a period of virological control. We investigate whether polymorphisms in cytokine genes affect the control of plasma HIV RNA over 5 years on HAART. Design: The study utilized adult HIV-infected patients in Western Australia. Plasma HIV-RNA levels were assessed from commencement of HAART in patients who had a CD4 T-cell count less than 100 cells/μl before HAART and achieved immune reconstitution assessed by CD4 T-cell counts. Results: Control of plasma viraemia could be predicted from carriage of allele 2 at position -889 in the IL1A gene (IL1A-889*2). This was significant when assessed by the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-RNA level of 400 copies/ml or less (P = 0.002). At 48 months post-HAART, proportions were approximately 0.76, 0.51 and 0.32 for IL1A (1,1), (1,2) and (2,2) patients, respectively. The outcome was independent of the ...
Barriers to use of free antiretroviral therapy in injection drug users | BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS
CONTEXT: In British Columbia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons eligible for antiretroviral therapy may receive it free but the extent to which HIV-infected injection drug users access it is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify patient and physician characteristics associated with antiretroviral therapy utilization in HIV-infected injection drug users. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage between survey data and data from a provincial HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) drug treatment program.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and hospital mortality in acute lung injury patients<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus infection and hospital mortality in acute lung injury patients. AU - Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.. AU - Damluji, Abdulla. AU - Ammerman, Douglas. AU - Colantuoni, Elizabeth. AU - Fan, Eddy. AU - Sevransky, Jonathan E.. AU - Shanholtz, Carl. AU - Gallant, Joel E.. AU - Pronovost, Peter J.. AU - Needham, Dale M.. PY - 2010/7. Y1 - 2010/7. N2 - Objective: To evaluate the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on hospital mortality in patients with acute lung injury and to evaluate predictors of mortality among acute lung injury patients with human immunodeficiency virus. Design, setting, and patients: Retrospective study of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study of acute lung injury patients conducted at 13 intensive care units in four teaching hospitals in Baltimore, Maryland. Measurements and main results: Of 520 consecutive acute lung injury patients, 66 (13%) were human immunodeficiency ...
Oral lesions and immune reconstitution syndrome in HIV+/AIDS patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. :...
Objective: To determine whether opportunistic oral infections associated to HIV infection (OOI-HIV) are found in HIV+/AIDS patients with immune reconstitution related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. From among 1100 HIV+/AIDS patients (Service of Internal Medicine, Carlos Haya Hospital, Malaga, Spain) subjected to review of the oral cavity between January 1996 and May 2007, we identified those examined in 1996 and which were again examined between 1997 and 2007, and were moreover receiving HAART. The following data were collected: age, gender, form of contagion, antiretroviral therapy at the time of review, number of CD4+ lymphocytes/ml, and viral load (from 1997 onwards). We identified those subjects with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes/ml associated to HAART, and classified them as subjects with quantitative evidence of immune reconstitution (QEIR). Among these individuals with QEIR we moreover identified those with undetectable viral loads (QEIR+VL), and ...
Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the molecular epidemiology of newly diagnosed HIV infections
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
Lack of Detectable HIV-1 Molecular Evolution during Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy | proLékaře.cz
1. PalmerS, MaldarelliF, WiegandA, BernsteinB, HannaGJ, et al. (2008) Low-level viremia persists for at least 7 years in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 3879-3884.. 2. MaldarelliF, PalmerS, KingMS, WiegandA, PolisMA, et al. (2007) ART suppresses plasma HIV-1 RNA to a stable set point predicted by pretherapy viremia. PLoS Pathog 3: e46.. 3. CoffinJM (1995) HIV population dynamics in vivo: implications for genetic variation, pathogenesis, and therapy. Science 267: 483-489.. 4. CoffinJM (1996) HIV viral dynamics. Aids 10(Suppl 3): S75-84.. 5. PerelsonAS, EssungerP, CaoY, VesanenM, HurleyA, et al. (1997) Decay characteristics of HIV-1-infected compartments during combination therapy. Nature 387: 188-191.. 6. DinosoJB, KimSY, WiegandAM, PalmerSE, GangeSJ, et al. (2009) Treatment intensification does not reduce residual HIV-1 viremia in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106: 9403-9408.. 7. GandhiRT, ZhengL, BoschRJ, ...
The distribution of new HIV infections by mode of exposure in Morocco<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The distribution of new HIV infections by mode of exposure in Morocco. AU - Mumtaz, Ghina R.. AU - Kouyoumjian, Silva. AU - Hilmi, Nahla. AU - Zidouh, Ahmed. AU - Rhilani, Houssine El. AU - Alami, Kamal. AU - Bennani, Aziza. AU - Gouws, Eleanor. AU - Ghys, Peter Denis. AU - Aburaddad, Laith. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Objectives Building on a wealth of new empirical data, the objective of this study was to estimate the distribution of new HIV infections in Morocco by mode of exposure using the modes of transmission (MoT) mathematical model. Methods The MoT model was implemented within a collaboration with the Morocco Ministry of Health and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. The model was parameterised through a comprehensive review and synthesis of HIV and risk behaviour data in Morocco, mainly through the Middle East and North Africa HIV/AIDS Synthesis Project. Uncertainty analyses were used to assess the reliability of and uncertainty around our calculated ...
Retention and viral suppression in a cohort of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: Regionally representative...
WHO | UNAIDS statement on South African trial findings regarding male circumcision and HIV
26 July 2005 , Rio de Janeiro - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS notes with considerable interest the results of a trial examining the potential link between male circumcision and a lower risk of HIV acquisition that were presented today at the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The trial was carried out in Gauteng province in South Africa among men aged 18-24 years and was funded by the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS).. Although the trial shows promising protective effects of adult male circumcision in reducing HIV acquisition, UNAIDS emphasizes that more research is needed to confirm the reproducibility of the findings of this trial and whether or not the results have more general application. In particular the findings from two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya, funded by the US National Institutes of Health, will be important to clarify the relationship between male ...
Immunologic and Clinical Responses to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Patients with HIV Infection Aged >50 Years :...
We analyzed the effect of age on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and tolerance in 639 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (99 of whom were aged ,50 years, and 540 of whom were aged ,50 years). Late testing, which was more frequent in the older age group, was the only independent factor associated with immunologic and clinical evolution of infection. Age ,50 years was associated with earlier treatment discontinuation.. ...
Receptive Anal Intercourse and HIV Infection
Objective: Inform the public that receptive anal intercourse (RAI) is a key transmission route of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States. Method: The role of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) in this epidemic will be examined using the following approach: 1) Risk comparison of HIV transmission via RAI to the other major routes of transmission. 2) HIV transmission risks of RAI using some of the present risk reduction techniques. 3) HIV infection via anal intercourse among male youth. 4) HIV infection via anal intercourse among women. Results: Of the major transmission routes of HIV, receptive anal intercourse has the highest transmission risk for acquiring HIV infection. RAI is 2 times the risk of needle-sharing during injection drug use (IDU) and 17 times the risk of receptive vaginal intercourse. The estimated per act probability of acquiring HIV from an infected source by the exposure route of RAI is high in most circumstances: 1) Condoms alone only partially reduce the
Antimicrobial-Specific Cell-Mediated Immune Reconstitution in Children with Advanced Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection...
To identify virological and immunological correlates of microbial-specific immune reconstitution in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, Candida- and tetanus-specific lymphocyte proliferation was measured in 165 children initiating a new highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. During the study, the proportions of children with immunity to Candida and tetanus increased from 53% to 66% and 19% to 22%, respectively. Tetanus immunity was associated with an HIV load ⩽400 RNA copies/mL and with Candida immunity. At the end of the study, 23% of the patients with baseline negative lymphocyte proliferation had tetanus immunity, and 65% had Candida immunity. Reconstitution of tetanus immunity correlated with lower end-of-study HIV loads and activated CD8+ cell percentages and higher baseline and in-study CD4+ cell percentages, but not with a gain of CD4+ cells. Reconstitution of Candida immunity showed similar trends. In conclusion, children with advanced ...
Neurological complications of HIV infection in pre-HAART and HAART era: a retrospective study<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurological complications of HIV infection in pre-HAART and HAART era. T2 - a retrospective study. AU - Matinella, Angela. AU - Lanzafame, M.. AU - Bonometti, M. A.. AU - Gajofatto, A.. AU - Concia, E.. AU - Vento, S.. AU - Monaco, S.. AU - Ferrari, S.. PY - 2015/5/26. Y1 - 2015/5/26. N2 - The introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) led to a radical change in the natural history of HIV infection and of the associated neurological opportunistic infections. However, the mortality of central nervous system (CNS) complications and opportunistic infections is still high in untreated HIV-infected individuals or in patients unaware of their HIV infection. We describe the outcome of HIV-infected patients followed at a single center for AIDS-related neurological syndromes in the 16 years following the introduction of HAART, and compare the findings with those in patients admitted up to 1996. We have conducted a retrospective study of patients with HIV infection or ...
HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review)<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review). AU - Barbaro, Giuseppe. AU - Barbarini, Giorgio. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - The majority of cancers affecting HIV-infected subjects are those established as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining: Kaposis sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). However, other types of cancer, such as Hodgkins disease (HD), anal cancer, lung cancer and testicular germ cell tumors appear to be more common among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population. While not classified as AIDS-defining, these malignancies have been referred to as AIDS-associated malignancies. The mechanisms by which depressed immunity could increase the risk for cancer are unclear, except for in KS and most subtypes of NHL, where it is strictly associated with a low CD4 count. Although it remains unclear whether HIV-1 acts directly as an oncogenic agent, it may ...
Neuropsychological deficit in haemophiliacs with human immunodeficiency virus. | Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry
Neuropsychological impairment is widely accepted as being common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) but infrequent in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The neuropsychological function of a homogenous sample of HIV-infected haemophiliacs was investigated. Neuropsychological impairment, the nature of which is compatible with that described in the existing literature, was found in one of four AIDS cases. Eleven AIDS related complex (ARC) and 12 asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals were free of neuropsychological deficit.. ...
Identification of a Reservoir for HIV-1 in Patients on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy | Science
We next isolated highly purified populations of resting CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood of these donors. After depletion of monocytes by adherence, negative selection with monoclonal antibodies and magnetic beads was used to remove CD8+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells. In addition, activated CD4+ T cells, which represented an average of 10% of the CD4+ T cell populations in these individuals (Table 1), were removed by bead depletion with antibodies to CD25, CD69, and human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. Additional purification was achieved by flow cytometric sorting of small lymphocytes expressing CD4 but not HLA-DR, which is expressed on all activated T cells. This multistep purification gave populations of resting CD4+ HLA-DR− T cells that were, on average, 97% pure (Table 1). Most importantly, the sorted populations were typically contaminated with ,1% activated CD4+ T cells.. Specialized PCR approaches have shown that a low frequency of resting CD4+ T cells from ...
HIV infection. HIV-1 uses CD4 to gain entry into host T-cells and achieves this through its viral envelope protein known ... HIV pathology. HIV infection leads to a progressive reduction in the number of T cells expressing CD4. Medical ... Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (January 2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection". Current HIV Research. 3 ( ... If CD4 cells become depleted, for example in untreated HIV infection, or following immune suppression prior to a transplant, ...
Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk (2005). The first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect ... Controlled Intervention Trial of Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial". PLOS Medicine. 2 ... "Achieving the HIV Prevention Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision: Lessons and Challenges for Managing Programs". www. ... The trial estimated that male circumcision provided protection of 60% (95% CI: 32%-76%) for female to male HIV transmission. ...
T helper cell
In the advanced stages of HIV infection, loss of functional CD4+ T cells leads to the symptomatic stage of infection known as ... These cells undergo abortive infection with HIV. Cell death is triggered when the host cell detects HIV foreign DNA ... HIV infection. Perhaps the best example of the importance of CD4+ T cells is demonstrated with human immunodeficiency ... CD8+ T cells are not stimulated as effectively during the AIDS stage of HIV infection, making AIDS patients very susceptible to ...
... the clinical spectrum of disease associated with infection varies depending on the site of infection; for example, infection ... and infection is usually acquired during childhood. Other types cause sporadic infection and occasional outbreaks; for example ... Adenovirus infections most commonly cause illness of the respiratory system; however, depending on the infecting serotype, they ... Most infections are mild and require no therapy or only symptomatic treatment. Because there is no virus-specific therapy, ...
Selenium in biology
Opportunistic Infections of HIV: JC Virus (JCV)". Microbiology. Illustrated Reviews. 3. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 389. ... Infection and pathogenesis. The initial site of infection may be the tonsils, or possibly the gastrointestinal tract.[ ... Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy in HIV at eMedicine *^ Theodoropoulos, G., Panoussopoulos, D., Papaconstantinou, I ... JCV also appears to mediate encephalopathy, due to infection of cortical pyramidal neurons (CPN) and astrocytes. Analysis ...
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
Medicines for prevention of HIV-related opportunistic infections. *Isoniazid/pyridoxine/sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim ... Medicines for ectoparasitic infections. *Ivermectin. Antimigraine medicines. For treatment of acute attack. * ... To be used for the treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection *^ To be used for the treatment of the initial phase of ... To be used for the treatment of T. b. gambiense infection *^ Only to be used in combination with eflornithine, for the ...
... reduces CD4+ T cell counts and may worsen the clinical course of HIV infections. It is therefore contraindicated in ... Infections : In clinical studies 0.9% of patients experienced significant infections compared to 0.2% in the placebo group. ... Among the infections were serious ones such as sepsis, pneumonia, abscesses, wound infections and toxic shock syndrome. ... patients with HIV infections. Pretreatment CD4+ and/or CD8+ cell counts below the accepted lower limit History of systemic ...
Main article: Circumcision and HIV. There is strong evidence that circumcision reduces the risk of men acquiring HIV infection ... Krieger JN (May 2011). "Male circumcision and HIV infection risk". World Journal of Urology. 30 (1): 3-13. doi:10.1007/s00345- ... Evidence supports that male circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection among heterosexual men in sub-Saharan Africa.[11 ... An association between circumcision and reduced heterosexual HIV infection rates was suggested in 1986. Experimental ...
Infections: HIV-AIDS, Measles, RSV, othersEdit. The role of SP in HIV-AIDS has been well-documented. Doses of aprepitant ... and infections such as HIV/AIDS and respiratory syncytial virus, as well as in cancer. When assayed in the human, ... The symptoms of infection are diarrhea, constipation, and abdominal pain. This protozoan was found to secrete serotonin ... Ho WZ, Douglas SD (Dec 2004). "Substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor modulation of HIV". Journal of Neuroimmunology. 157 (1-2 ...
HIV infectionEdit. Macrophages also play a role in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Like T cells, macrophages can ... Macrophages are better able to resist infection by HIV-1 than CD4+ T cells, although susceptibility to HIV infection differs ... Infection of macrophages in joints is associated with local inflammation during and after the acute phase of Chikungunya ( ... HIV can enter the macrophage through binding of gp120 to CD4 and second membrane receptor, CCR5 (a chemokine receptor). Both ...
Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk (2005)Edit. The first randomized controlled trial to assess the effect of ... Controlled Intervention Trial of Male Circumcision for Reduction of HIV Infection Risk: The ANRS 1265 Trial". PLOS Medicine. 2 ... The trial estimated that male circumcision provided protection of 60% (95% CI: 32%-76%) for female to male HIV transmission. ... "WHO and UNAIDS announce recommendations from expert consultation on male circumcision for HIV prevention". WHO. 2007-03-28. ...
"Guidelines for Preventing Opportunistic Infections Among HIV-Infected Persons - 2002". Cdc.gov. Retrieved 2016-05-22.. ... or infection between the two groups. A 2005 study found no evidence that tendonectomy is less painful than onychectomy. ... persistent and severe infections and gangrene that are limited to the distal phalanx. The procedure is usually limited to the ... infection, abscess, tissue necrosis, wound dehiscence, incomplete healing, protrusion of 2nd (middle) phalanx, claw regrowth, ...
"Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD003650. doi:10.1002 ... vitamin D, providing evidence for protection against acute respiratory tract infections ... "Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: Systematic review and meta-analysis of individual ...
It does not prevent HIV infection, cannot treat the chronic HIV infection, and will not cure AIDS. ... "Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 5: CD003650. doi: ... "Micronutrient supplementation for children with HIV infection". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (10): CD010666. doi ... "Micronutrient supplementation in children and adults with HIV infection". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): ...
"Chemical 'blocks HIV infection'". BBC News Online. 2006-02-09. Retrieved 2006-03-24. Mims, Bob (2006-03-01). "Has BYU prof ... Paul B. Savage) announced that a Ceragenin compound, CSA-54, appears to inactivate HIV. This conclusion seems to still be ... "Vanderbilt University, Brigham Young University, and Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals Report Novel Drug Compound Kills Multiple HIV ... tested several CSAs in his laboratory for their ability to kill HIV directly. According to Unutmaz, "We have some preliminary ...
T helper cell
In the advanced stages of HIV infection, loss of functional CD4+ T cells leads to the symptomatic stage of infection known as ... These cells undergo abortive infection with HIV. Cell death is triggered when the host cell detects HIV foreign DNA ... HIV infectionEdit. Perhaps the best example of the importance of CD4+ T cells is demonstrated with human immunodeficiency virus ... HIV) infection. HIV mainly targets lymphoid CD4+ T cells, but can infect other cells that express CD4 such as macrophages and ...
p21, wolna encyklopedia
"Abstinence-only programs for HIV infection prevention in high-income countries". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): ... Young mothers and their babies are also at greater risk of contracting HIV. The World Health Organization estimates that the ... Ad promoting abstinence in Ghana: No Sex Ad (Anti-HIV/AIDS ― Signage) ... It has been found to be ineffective in decreasing HIV risk in the developed world, and does not decrease rates of unplanned ...
HIV progression. The progression of the human immunodeficiency virus infection into AIDS is due primarily to the ... HIV-1 expression induces tubular cell G2/M arrest and apoptosis. The progression from HIV to AIDS is not immediate or even ... Viral infection. Viral induction of apoptosis occurs when one or several cells of a living organism are infected with a ... The binding of nuclear receptors by glucocorticoids, heat, radiation, nutrient deprivation, viral infection,[19 ...
Traditional Chinese medicine
"Herbal medicines for treating HIV infection and AIDS". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD003937. doi:10.1002/ ... A 2005 Cochrane review found insufficient evidence for the use of CHM in HIV-infected people and people with AIDS. A 2010 ... The consumption of the human placenta is a potential source of infection. ...
ICD-10 Chapter XXI: Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection". Curr. HIV Res. 3 (1): 87-94. doi: ... Copeland KF (2006). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 5 (12 ... Chesler DA, Reiss CS (2003). "The role of IFN-gamma in immune responses to viral infections of the central nervous system". ... Activation of macrophages by IFNγ from Th1 helper cells in mycobacterial infections allows the macrophages to overcome the ...
"Some patterns of apoptosis mechanism during HIV-infection". Dissertation (in Russian). Retrieved February 20, 2011.. ... Some viruses (such as HIV, the cause of AIDS), have the ability to transcribe RNA into DNA. HIV has an RNA genome that is ... In HIV, subsequent to this, the host cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis of T cells. However, in other ... In the case of HIV, reverse transcriptase is responsible for synthesizing a complementary DNA strand (cDNA) to the viral RNA ...
Intercurrent disease in pregnancy
... infection. Reactivity of maternal sera with glycoprotein 120 and 41 peptides from HIV type 1". J Clin Invest. 89 (6): 1923-1930 ... Infections. Vertically transmitted infections. Main article: Vertically transmitted infection. Many infectious ... Infections in pregnancy also raise particular concerns about whether or not to use drugs in pregnancy (that is, antibiotics or ... During pregnancy, the Candida fungus is more prevalent (common), and recurrent infection is also more likely. There is no ...
"Some patterns of apoptosis mechanism during HIV-infection". Dissertation (in Russian). Archived from the original on July 10, ... Some viruses (such as HIV, the cause of AIDS), have the ability to transcribe RNA into DNA. HIV has an RNA genome that is ... In HIV, subsequent to this, the host cell undergoes programmed cell death, or apoptosis of T cells. However, in other ... In the case of HIV, reverse transcriptase is responsible for synthesizing a complementary DNA strand (cDNA) to the viral RNA ...
T细胞 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
... and HIV-1 infection. Annual Review of Immunology. 2000, 18: 529-560. ISSN 0732-0582. PMID 10837068. doi:10.1146/annurev.immunol ... Mucosal associated invariant T cells and the immune response to infection. Microbes and Infection. August 2011, 13 (8-9): 742-8 ... Infection and Immunity. 2007-05, 75 (5): 2171-2180. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 1865739. PMID 17353286. doi:10.1128/IAI.01178-06.. ... Infection : microbiology and management 3rd ed. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Pub. 2006: 435. ISBN 978-1-4443-2393-1. OCLC 592756309 ...
They were able to show that indinavir, when used with two other anti-HIV drugs, could significantly reduce the HIV viral load.[ ... The end point of the study was death or development of opportunistic infections. ... Indinavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression ... It is normally used as one of the three drugs in a triple-combination therapy for the HIV virus. ...
... and of septicemia in those infected with HIV. The organism also causes many types of pneumococcal infections other than ... Infection. Main article: Pneumococcal infection. S. pneumoniae is part of the normal upper respiratory tract flora. As ... Historically, Haemophilus influenzae has been a significant cause of infection, and both H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be ... S. pneumoniae infection stimulates polymorphonuclear leukocytes (granulocytes) to produce an oxidative burst that is ...
Peters, C. J. (December 1998). Infection Control for Viral Haemorrhagic Fevers in the African Health Care Setting (PDF). ... "African monkey meat that could be behind the next HIV". The Independent. Archived from the original on 22 June 2017. 25 people ... Simpson DI (1977). Marburg and Ebola virus infections: a guide for their diagnosis, management, and control. World Health ... Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system. EBOV proteins blunt the human ...
Health in Nepal
HIV infections are more common among men than women, as well as in urban areas and the far western region of Nepal, where ... Labor migrants make up 41 percent of the total known HIV infections in Nepal, followed by clients of sex workers (15.5 percent ... of the infections and the remaining more than one‐third (34%) of infections are in females, out of which around 92.2% are in ... As of 2007, HIV prevalence among female sex workers and their clients was less than 2 percent and 1 percent, respectively, and ...
... and this helps prevent recurrence of candidal infections. Patients who are immunocompromised, either with HIV/AIDS or as a ... by far the most common fungal infection of the mouth, and it also represents the most common opportunistic oral infection in ... It was first observed in HIV infected individuals and termed "HIV-gingivitis", but the condition is not confined to this group ... The HIV/AIDs global pandemic has been the greatest factor in the increased incidence of oral candidiasis since the 1980s. The ...
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
This genetic trait confers resistance to HIV infection by blocking attachment of HIV to the cell. Roughly one in 1000 people of ... Lunzen, J.; Fehse, B.; Hauber, J. (2011). "Gene Therapy Strategies: Can We Eradicate HIV?". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 8 (2): 78 ... "Evidence for the cure of HIV infection by CCR5 32/ 32 stem cell transplantation". Blood. 117 (10): 2791-99. doi:10.1182/blood- ... researchers cannot detect HIV in the transplant recipient's blood or in various biopsies of his tissues. Levels of HIV- ...
Genetically modified tomato
Commercial sexual exploitation of children
Much like if they are found to have HIV or AIDS the girls are thrown out of the brothels with nowhere to go. Many of the ... Whether the children be in pornography, brothels, or trafficked they are all at risk for sexually transmitted infections, ... Research has shown that "fifty to ninety percent of children in brothels in Southeast Asia are infected with HIV." In many ... They face early pregnancy and risk sexually transmitted diseases, particularly HIV. They are often inadequately protected by ...
肥胖症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
"Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection = Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran Za Zhi. 48 (4): 351-361. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2014.06. ... D-Glucan Detection in non-HIV Immunocompromised Mechanical Ventilated Critically Ill Patients with ARDS and Suspected ... D-glucan in blood is marketed as a means of identifying invasive or disseminated fungal infections. This test ... and a negative test does not rule out infection. False positives may occur because of fungal contaminants in the antibiotics ...
a TB test in accordance with the guidelines for Testing for TB Infection ... and HIV/AIDS through needlestick injuries or contact with bodily fluids. This risk can be mitigated with vaccination ... levels of personal protective equipment created to unique standards are used in situations where the risk of infection is ...
MicroRNAs also play a role in replicating viruses such as HIV-1. Novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA have been found to enhance ... "Expression and nuclear localization of the TATA-box-binding protein during baculovirus infection". The Journal of General ... and HIV-1. The TATA-binding protein (TBP) could also be targeted by viruses as a means of viral transcription. ... "A novel HIV-1-encoded microRNA enhances its viral replication by targeting the TATA box region". Retrovirology. 11: 23. doi ...
Toxoplasma gondii - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure
Cabezón O, Cerdà-Cuéllar M, Morera V, García-Bocanegra I, et al «Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Seagull Chicks Is Related to ... Soto Hernández, JL «Toxoplasmosis cerebral en pacientes con infección por HIV-SIDA» (en castellà). Enf Infec y Microbiol, 1999 ... Sugden K, Moffitt TE, Pinto L, Poulton R, et al «Is Toxoplasma Gondii Infection Related to Brain and Behavior Impairments in ... Hartmann K, Addie D, Belák S, Boucraut-Baralon C, et al «Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats: ABCD guidelines on prevention and ...
HIV and AIDS, and treatment of infections, there is preliminary laboratory research, but no clinical studies in humans showing ... Momordica charantia has a number of purported uses including cancer prevention, treatment of diabetes, fever, HIV and AIDS, and ... infections. While it has shown some potential clinical activity in laboratory experiments, "further studies are required to ...
... to treat HIV/AIDS. It may also be used, as part of post exposure prophylaxis, to prevent HIV infection following potential ... It can be used to treat HIV-infected adults who have never taken HIV therapy (treatment-naïve) and HIV-infected adults who have ... In June 2020, dolutegravir was approved in the US with an indication to treat HIV-1 infection in children at least four weeks ... "GSK wins priority status for new HIV drug in U.S". Reuters. 16 February 2013. Retrieved 18 February 2013.. [dead link] ...
Healthcare in Cuba
new HIV infections are on the rise, and Cuba's preventive measures appear not to be keeping pace with conditions that favour ... Education in Cuba concerning issues of HIV infection and AIDS is implemented by the Cuban National Center for Sex Education. ... "WHO , WHO validates elimination of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and syphilis in Cuba". www.who.int. Retrieved 2017-12-06 ... "High HIV-1 genetic diversity in Cuba AIDS 2002". Official Journal of the International AIDS society.. ...
In Janossy G, Autran B. Miedema F (eds): Immunodefiency in HIV Infection and AIDS, Karger Publishers, Basel, 1992:185-194. D. ... Can repeated plasma donation by asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals delay the onset of AIDS? Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London. B, ... His interest in immunology has led to publications in HIV disease, cellular activation and natural killer cell function, tumor ... Enumeration of CD4+ T-cells in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected patients: interlaboratory study of the FACSCount system. ...
Artificial induction of immunity
Immunity against infections that can cause serious illness is generally beneficial. Since Pasteur provided support for a germ ... Tetanus toxin is so lethal that humans cannot develop immunity to a natural infection, as the amount of toxin and time required ... Temporary immunity to a specific infection can be induced in a subject by providing the subject with externally produced immune ... which is the controlled infection of a subject with a less lethal natural form of smallpox (known as Variola Minor) to make him ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... acute HIV infection - Acute HIV Infection and Early Diseases Research Program (AIEDRP) - ADAP - ADC - adenopathy - adherence - ... HIV disease - HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) - HIV set point - HIV vaccine trials network (HVTN) - HIV-1 - HIV-2 - HIV- ... subclinical infection - subcutaneous (SQ) - Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) - subunit HIV ... primary HIV infection - primary isolate - primaquine - proctitis - prodrome - prodrug - progressive multifocal ...
White blood cell
In HIV infection, these T cells are the main index to identify the individual's immune system integrity. ... They defend against bacterial or fungal infection. They are usually first responders to microbial infection; their activity and ... Infection. *Chronic inflammation - especially juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, Still's disease, Crohn's ... Basophils can also release chemical signals that attract eosinophils and neutrophils to an infection site. ...
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
... including HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. Respiratory infections such as pneumonia do not appear to increase the risk of COPD, at ... An acute exacerbation (a sudden worsening of symptoms) is commonly triggered by infection or environmental pollutants, or ... COPD develops as a significant and chronic inflammatory response to inhaled irritants. Chronic bacterial infections may also ... People with COPD can experience flare-ups that are often triggered by a viral or bacterial respiratory infection. The ...
"Chemical 'blocks HIV infection'". BBC News Online. 2006-02-09. Retrieved 2006-03-24.. ... Paul B. Savage) announced that a Ceragenin compound, CSA-54, appears to inactivate HIV. This conclusion seems to still be ... "Vanderbilt University, Brigham Young University, and Ceragenix Pharmaceuticals Report Novel Drug Compound Kills Multiple HIV ... tested several CSAs in his laboratory for their ability to kill HIV directly. According to Unutmaz, "We have some preliminary ...
Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of ... versus two-drug antiretroviral maintenance regimens for HIV infection". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): ... Feline leukemia virus and Feline immunodeficiency virus infections are treated with biologics, including the only ... At that point, the infection will persist indefinitely. In most viruses, DNA is transcribed into RNA, and then RNA is ...
In addition to the isolation of HIV-1 and HIV-2, in the recent past researchers at the Institut Pasteur have developed a test ... Yersin looked for the germ responsible for the infection specifically in these plague-spots, tumors caused by the inflammation ... This worldwide biomedical research organization based in Paris was the first to isolate HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, in ... Luc Montagnier, Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and colleagues discovered the two HIV viruses that cause AIDS, in 1983 and 1985, was ...
Vaccination of Adults with HIV | CDC
Learn more about which vaccines you may need if you have HIV Infection. ... Vaccinations for Adults with HIV Infectionpdf iconexternal icon. *For Adults with HIV/AIDS: Important information about a ... If you have HIV infection and your CD4 count is less than 200, talk with your doctor about:. *Influenza vaccine each year to ... If you have HIV infection and your CD4 count is 200 or greater, talk with your doctor about:. *Influenza vaccine each year ...
People living with HIV/AIDS | Fungal Infections | Fungal | CDC
... you have a greater chance of getting some types of fungal infections, like cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, ... HIV/AIDS and Fungal Infections. United States. One of the first signs that the HIV/AIDS epidemic was beginning in the United ... Thrush, an infection in the mouth and throat, is sometimes seen among people living with HIV/AIDS. This infection is not ... Since then, the numbers of fungal infections and deaths due to fungal infections in people living with HIV/AIDS have decreased ...
HIV Infection - Chapter 4 - 2020 Yellow Book | Travelers' Health | CDC
HIV infection occurs worldwide. As of June 2017, an estimated 36.7 million people were living with HIV infection. Sub-Saharan ... The risk of HIV infection for international travelers is generally low. Travelers risk of HIV exposure and infection is ... As many as 90% of people will recall experiencing symptoms during the acute phase of HIV infection. Acute HIV infection can ... HIV can be diagnosed with laboratory-based or point-of-care assays that detect anti-HIV antibodies, HIV p24 antigen, or HIV-1 ...
Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection
More in HIV/AIDS Treatment. HIV Related Therapies Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection Approved medical ... Drugs Used in the Treatment of HIV Infection. FDA-approved medicines used in the treatment of HIV can be found at [email protected] or ... HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors. FDA-approved medicines used in the treatment of HIV can be found at [email protected] or ... FDA-approved medicines used in the treatment of HIV can be found at [email protected] or DailyMed. ...
DJO | Digital Journal of Ophthalmology
HIV-1 infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003; 111:582-92. 2-UNAIDS/WHO report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Geneva: World ... The optic nerve may be affected by HIV due to direct infection. Another explanation is related to HIV viral proteins. Tat and ... Ocular opportunistic infection incidences among patients who are HIV positive compared to patients who are HIV negative: ... Orbital infections in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ophthalmology 1996; 103:1483-92.. 16-Hoare S. HIV ...
HIV/HCV Co-infection: An AETC National Curriculum | AIDS Education and Training Centers National Coordinating Resource Center ...
A team of AETC Program faculty and staff identified six core competencies for providers treating coinfected people with HIV. ... Section 5: Recommendations for Subpopulations of HIV/HCV Co-infected Persons. *Section 6: Addressing Barriers for Co-infected ... HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among people of color in the United States and its territories. Topics covered ... as a component of the Secretarys Minority AIDS Initiative-Funded Jurisdictional Approach to Curing Hepatitis C among HIV/HCV ...
An Algorithm for the Evaluation of Peripheral Neuropathy - American Family Physician
These three patterns of neuropathy occur only in the AIDS stage of HIV infection. Medications used to treat HIV infection, such ... Diabetes, HIV infection and alcoholism can cause several patterns of neuropathy. They most commonly cause a distal, symmetric ... HIV) infection account for an increasing number of cases. Peripheral neuropathy has numerous other causes, including hereditary ... HIV seroconversion rarely can be associated with an acute or chronic demyelinating neuropathy. In AIDS, polyradiculopathy or ...
HIV Infections and zoonoses
... role in the epidemiology of AIDS and to provide a practical and manageable tool for health workers involved in the care of HIV ... are truly complex and health care providers should be aware of the potential role of animals in infectious diseases of HIV ... HIV and the immune system: a complicated interplay Zoonoses and AIDS Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis Enteric infection ... Fungal infections References FAO technical papers Back cover ... HIV INFECTIONS AND ZOONOSES. P. Pasquali. Istituto Superiore di ...
HIV Infections and zoonoses
... role in the epidemiology of AIDS and to provide a practical and manageable tool for health workers involved in the care of HIV ... are truly complex and health care providers should be aware of the potential role of animals in infectious diseases of HIV ... PREVENTION OF INFECTION. In order to develop a control strategy to reduce the incidence of infection, the following features of ... parvum infection in neonatal calves (Fayer et al., 1998). This scenario suggests an age-related susceptibility to infection ...
HIV Opportunistic Infections |Health24
BBC NEWS | Health | HIV infections top 40 million
More women are now infected with HIV/Aids than men and over 40 million people are now living with the disease, latest figures ... Some 30m people in sub-Saharan Africa have HIV - 58% of these are women. There were approximately 3.5m new infections last year ... However, among the growing tally of HIV infections, there have been some success stories - in Brazil, for example, where ... HIV is spreading from these people into the wider population. Dr Piot wants to tackle stigma ...
Preventing Infections During Travel for HIV Patients
... you need to be particularly careful to avoid infections, especially when youre traveling. WebMD gives you tips on how to ... A Guide for People with HIV Infection: Preventing Infections During Travel. Last revised, November 1998. (Online) http://www. ... This is very important for HIV-infected children who are traveling.. *If you are leaving the United States, make sure you know ... These rules can include vaccinations that may not be safe for HIV-infected people to take. Your doctor or local health ...
Kyrgyzstan: Officials Investigate Accidental HIV/AIDS Infections
... were infected with the HIV/AIDS virus in the southern part of the country. A number... ... An HIV-positive Ukrainian woman and her daughter (epa) FACES OF THE EPIDEMIC: HIV-infection rates continue to soar in many ... Zuhra Nurlaminova, of Tajikistans HIV/AIDS prevention center, told RFE/RLs Tajik Service that the infections could have come ... had been reprimanded in 2005 for the HIV infections of two children at the hospital. This information was confirmed to RFE/RL ...
HIV prevention drugs could dramatically cut new infections | Reuters
... dramatically reduced new infections in a large group of high risk gay men, Australian researchers report. ... Reuters Health) - An HIV-prevention drug pill, dubbed PrEP, ... Although HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) had been shown to ... Reuters Health) - An HIV-prevention drug pill, dubbed PrEP, dramatically reduced new infections in a large group of high risk ... The men were required to be tested for HIV at one month and three months after starting the drug regimen, then every three ...
U.N. report: New HIV infections decreasing - CNN.com
New HIV infections have fallen worldwide by 17 percent over the past eight years, a testament to prevention efforts, according ... CNN) -- New HIV infections have fallen worldwide by 17 percent over the past eight years, a testament to prevention efforts, ... The prevalence of HIV continues to increase in those regions because of the new infections, the report said. ... Health officials say the decline in the number of new HIV infections could be attributed to better prevention programs. ...
Transmission dynamics of HIV infection | Nature
Study of Public Health Education Effect on Spread of HIV Infection in a Density-Dependent Transmission Model *M. H. Ostadzad ... Optimization of Public Health Education Parameters for Controlling the Spread of HIV/AIDS Infection *Mohammad Hossein Ostadzad ... May, R., Anderson, R. Transmission dynamics of HIV infection. Nature 326, 137-142 (1987). https://doi.org/10.1038/326137a0 ...
HIV Infections | ASPE
A commonly cited example is that HIV-AIDS data are much more sensitive than, say, data about wrist fracture. Whether ... Increase the Availability and Effectiveness of Services for the Treatment and Management of HIV/AID How We Will Accomplish Our ... HIV-AIDS status, or genetics. All of these will have implications for research. ...
Which ocular infections are associated with HIV infection?
Infections that can affect the eye include HSV, herpes zoster virus (HZV), syphilis, CMV retinitis (CD4 count , 100/µL), ... HIV Surveillance Report, 2016; vol. 28. Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2016. Accessed 9/6 ... Which ocular infections are associated with HIV infection?. Updated: Apr 09, 2019 ... Drugs & Diseases , Infectious Diseases , Primary Care of Patients With HIV Infection Q&A ...
What Opportunistic Infections Do You Get With HIV?
Find out which infections are more common and how you can try to prevent them. ... Immune systems weakened by HIV are targets for opportunistic infections. ... What Opportunistic Infections Do You Get With HIV?. If you have HIV, treating it early with antiretroviral medicines will help ... Certain opportunistic infections are signs that your HIV has become AIDS.. If your CD4 count stays up, opportunistic infections ...
How are coexisting HIV and HBV infections treated?
HBV infection should be treated only in conjunction with HIV infection. Treatment of HBV infection alone without addressing the ... In patients with HIV and HBV coinfection, HBV infection should be treated only in conjunction with HIV infection. Treatment of ... encoded search term (How are coexisting HIV and HBV infections treated?) and How are coexisting HIV and HBV infections treated ... HBV infection alone without addressing the HIV infection will lead to emergence of HIV strains that are resistant to nucleoside ...
HIV Infection, AIDS, and Cancer
... a small portion of cancers are thought to be linked to infections. Learn more about some of the infectious agents linked to ... HIV Infection, AIDS, and Cancer. People with HIV infection or AIDS are at higher risk for some types of cancer than people who ... How are HIV and AIDS related to cancer? * What can people with HIV or AIDS do to try to lower their risk of cancer or find it ... Here we will discuss the risks of certain cancers in people with HIV infection or AIDS, what tests these people might need to ...
HIV Infection Laws
California enacts a new law reducing intentional HIV infection from a felony to a misdemeanor. There are a lot of issues on ... California enacts a new law reducing intentional HIV infection from a felony to a misdemeanor. There are a lot of issues on ... HIV no longer a death sentence. Much has changed since the early days of HIV, when there were no effective treatments available ... Signs of a shift in HIV attitudes. The legislative overhaul of HIV laws in California and Colorado may be a sign that the ...
HIV and Co-Infections Through the Lifecycle | Global WACh
... including HIV exposure, HIV infection, antiretroviral treatment, and other factors), the influence of HIV exposure or infection ... measure maternal HIV viral load and prevalence of TDR among 100 women with incident HIV infection during pregnancy/postpartum, ... The Effect of HIV Exposure and Infection on Immunity to TB in Children (Peds TB). ... Preventing, Detecting, and Treating Incident Maternal HIV Infection for PMTCT. Sponsor: National Institute of Health ( ...
U.S. Statistics: New HIV Infections | TheBody
... the number of annual HIV infections began to level off in 2013, t ... Approximately 38,700 people became newly infected with HIV in ... Estimated New HIV Infections. New HIV infections ("HIV incidence") refers to the estimated number of people who are newly ... HIV Surveillance Supplemental Report 2019;24(No. 1). CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, ... By HIV transmission category, between 2010-2016, the annual number of HIV infections decreased among male and female adults and ...
U.N. summit sets plan to stop HIV child infections | Reuters
AIDS summit launched a plan on Thursday to try to eliminate by 2015 most new HIV infections among children, who inherit the ... AIDS summit launched a plan on Thursday to try to eliminate by 2015 most new HIV infections among children, who inherit the ... 2.5 billion more would be needed by 2015 to achieve the campaigns target of eliminating mother-to-child HIV infections. ... But providing HIV-positive pregnant women with treatment can reduce the risk of a child being born with the virus to less than ...
Asymptomatic HIV infection: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
During this stage, there are no symptoms of HIV infection. This stage is also called chronic HIV infection or clinical latency. ... Asymptomatic HIV infection is the second stage of HIV/AIDS. ... Asymptomatic HIV infection is the second stage of HIV/AIDS. ... HIV overview: the stages of HIV infection. aidsinfo.nih.gov/understanding-hiv-aids/fact-sheets/19/46/the-stages-of-hiv- ... During this stage, there are no symptoms of HIV infection. This stage is also called chronic HIV infection or clinical latency. ...
Neuropathy in HIV infection
Peripheral nerve complications in patients infected with HIV usually result from the virus itself, or are due to some of the ... Neuropathy in HIV infection Curr Opin Neurol. 2000 Oct;13(5):589-92. doi: 10.1097/00019052-200010000-00014. ... Peripheral nerve complications in patients infected with HIV usually result from the virus itself, or are due to some of the ... including recombinant human nerve growth factor and the reduction of HIV viral load with antiretroviral drugs. ...
Acute HIV Infection | TheBody
Testing for Acute HIV Infection Risk of Immune Damage Risk of Infecting Others Treating Acute HIV Infection Pros and Cons of ... Table of Contents What Is Acute HIV Infection? ... What Is Acute HIV Infection?. *Testing for Acute HIV Infection ... What Is Acute HIV Infection?. The amount of HIV in the blood gets very high within a few days or weeks after HIV infection. ... This first stage of HIV disease is called acute HIV infection or primary HIV infection. ...
Symptoms of HIV infections - InfoBarrel
... is a disease that is important for one to know the symptoms of HIV infections in order to be able to treat it as soon as ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a disease that is important for one to know the symptoms of HIV infections in order to be ... When HIV is first contracted, it can remain dormant and take years to show the symptoms of HIV infections. When it first occurs ... When an HIV victim reaches the final stages, the symptoms of HIV infections turn into AIDS, and this happens normally in the ...
HIV Infections and the Safety of the Blood Supply | FDA
HIV Infections and the Safety of the Blood Supply Principal Investigator: Andrew I. Dayton, MD, PhD. Office / Division / Lab: ... HIV regulation of the IL-7R: a viral mechanism for enhancing HIV-1 replication in human macrophages in vitro.. Zhang M, Drenkow ... combat infection progression; how certain viruses (particularly HIV) can survive (or "hide") in immune cells such as ... Matrin 3 and HIV Rev regulation of mRNA.. Dayton AI. J Gen Virol 2011 Apr;92(Pt 4):796-806. Functional interaction between ...
AIDSViral loadIncidencePrevalencePrimary HIV infectionSexuallySouth AfricaRate of new HIV infectionsNewly DiagnosedImmuneEpidemicInflammationChronic HIV infectionTransmissionAdultsCases per 100,000 populationSyndromeHuman2016Antiretroviral drugsAnti-HIV drugsRiskHPTNOpportunistic infectionDiagnosesUNAIDS2018AntigenSymptomsIncidenceFungalOccurTuberculosisRetroviruses and Opportunistic InfectionsTreatment2001Immune systemAntibodyRecurrentVirusWeeks after HIV infectionResearchersDiseaseClinicalCondomsInfectious DiseasesAntiviralProphylaxisMillion new HIV infectionsSearchStigmaChronicDetectAdults and AdolescentsAntiretroviral DrugsHealthAdolescentsExposureHighNucleoside reverse trResult of HIV infectionCancersPopulationsInjectAmong HIV-infected
- 3 Consequently, the disclosure of a diagnosis of HIV infection/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common clinical issue. (aappublications.org)
- Data from several centers indicate that between 25% and 90% of school-age children with HIV infection/AIDS have not been told they are infected. (aappublications.org)
- 7-9 Some of the reasons given by family members for not disclosing HIV infection/AIDS status are similar to reasons expressed by parents of children with other serious diseases, which include concerns about the impact that disclosure may have on a child's emotional health and fear by the parents that the knowledge will negatively affect a child's will to live. (aappublications.org)
- MSM in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, and rates of viral suppression among MSM are quite low. (nih.gov)
- The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for 90 percent of people living with HIV to be diagnosed, 90 percent of those diagnosed to be on antiretroviral treatment, and 90 percent of those in treatment to be virally suppressed by 2020. (nih.gov)
- Turning the tide on HIV will require a combination of evidence-based approaches," said Dianne Rausch, Ph.D., director of the Division of AIDS Research at NIMH. (nih.gov)
- HIV Infection and AIDS The incidence of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota remains moderately low. (mn.us)
- As of December 31, 2015, a cumulative total of 11,007 cases of HIV infection (6,499 AIDS cases and 4,508 HIV [non- AIDS] cases) had been reported among Minnesota residents. (mn.us)
- By the end of 2015, an estimated 8,215 persons with HIV/AIDS were assumed to be living in Minnesota. (mn.us)
- In 2015, 141 new AIDS cases (Figure 4), and 89 deaths among persons living with HIV infection, were reported. (mn.us)
- The number of HIV (non-AIDS) diagnoses has remained fairly constant over the past decade from 2005 through 2015, at approximately 247 cases per year. (mn.us)
- With a peak of 282 newly diagnosed HIV (non-AIDS) cases in 2009, 228 new HIV (non-AIDS) cases were reported in 2015 (a decrease of 4% from 2014). (mn.us)
- Historically, and in 2015, over 80% (255/294) of new HIV diagnoses (both HIV [non-AIDS] and AIDS at first diagnosis) occurred in the metropolitan area. (mn.us)
- However, HIV or AIDS cases have been diagnosed in residents of 86 counties statewide. (mn.us)
- Despite relatively small numbers of cases, persons of color are disproportionately affected by HIV/ AIDS in Minnesota. (mn.us)
- The ongoing HIV prevention program - in Uganda's rural Rakai District on the shore of Lake Victoria - has been funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), set up in 2004 by the George W. Bush administration. (aspph.org)
- More still needs to be done to end the AIDS epidemic by addressing challenges in financing, tools and their accessibility to those who need them, community knowledge through increased number of advocates at the local and regional level in HIV Prevention Research Advocacy. (wacihealth.org)
- The Biomedical HIV Prevention Forum held on 3rd December 2017 as a pre- conference of the international Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa ICASA in Abidjan Cote D'Ivoire. (wacihealth.org)
- To reduce HIV incidence by 20 percent after 10 years, a smaller increase in viral suppression-8 percentage points over that period-would be needed. (nih.gov)
- The new model predicts that meeting these "90-90-90" targets would require 75 percent of all HIV-infected MSM to be virally suppressed by 2020 and would lead to a 50 percent reduction in HIV incidence. (nih.gov)
- A steep drop in the local incidence of new HIV infections accompanied the rollout of a U.S.-funded anti-HIV program in a large East African population, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. (aspph.org)
- The prevalence of prior HIV testing, of HIV infection and of undiagnosed HIV infection was calculated. (biomedcentral.com)
- The total prevalence of undiagnosed HIV infection was 11.5% (10.7-12.4) with 34% (32.0-36.3) of the 1833 patients who tested HIV-positive unaware of their infection. (biomedcentral.com)
- The World Health Organization recommends an 'opt-out' approach to PITC in generalised HIV epidemics (i.e. where antenatal HIV prevalence exceeds 1%), which not only obliges health care workers to offer HIV testing to every patient, but also incorporates the informed right of the patient to decline the recommendation of an HIV test [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
Primary HIV infection7
- However, an increasing focus of attention is the recognition and diagnosis of primary HIV infection. (orisohc.co.uk)
- One of the major barriers to the diagnosis of primary HIV infection is the nonspecific nature of the clinical presentation: it can look like mononucleosis, influenza, or other nonspecific viral illnesses. (orisohc.co.uk)
- The most common presenting symptoms of primary HIV infection are fever, maculopapular rash, and pharyngitis, or oral ulcers. (orisohc.co.uk)
- Fever is present in approximately 80% of primary HIV infection cases, and rash, oropharyngeal disease, myalgias or arthralgias, and fatigue are present in approximately 60% of cases. (orisohc.co.uk)
- These symptoms are common to a number of other illnesses, and providers should consider primary HIV infection in the differential diagnosis of syndromes such as infectious mononucleosis (particularly heterophile-negative) or streptococcal pharyngitis (particularly when rapid streptococcal testing or culture findings are negative). (orisohc.co.uk)
- Nevertheless, given the value of identification of primary HIV infection and the relative infrequency of false-positive HIV test results, providers should strongly consider testing for primary HIV infection when patients have analogous clinical syndromes with no known cause. (orisohc.co.uk)
- Objective: We examined the longitudinal effects of primary HIV infection (PHI) and responses to early antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the brain using high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: Cerebral metabolites were measured longitudinally with 4T proton MRS and assessed for ART effects in participants with PHI. (elsevier.com)
- Therefore there is still a role for targeted PITC among high risk groups, including in antenatal and post-natal clinics, tuberculosis treatment facilities, family planning clinics, sexually transmitted infections clinics and post-exposure prophylaxis centres [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
- Dr Aitken's areas of interest include HIV medicine, sexually transmissible infections, skin conditions affecting the genitals, and gender medicine. (healthshare.com.au)
Rate of new HIV infections1
- Although MSM represent approximately 2 percent of the U.S. population, they accounted for 67 percent of newly diagnosed HIV infections in 2014, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (nih.gov)
- Early in the epidemic, whites accounted for the majority of newly diagnosed infections. (mn.us)
- In a study of newly diagnosed black cancer patients in Johannesburg, over a third of HIV-positive patients were unaware of their HIV status. (biomedcentral.com)
- BOSTON - The HIV infection rate has doubled among blacks in the United States over a decade while holding steady among whites - stark evidence of a widening racial gap in the epidemic, government scientists said Friday. (amren.com)
- Achieving and maintaining viral suppression is essential both for individual health and to reduce HIV transmission within the community," said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "Developing and validating strategies to enhance the engagement of men who have sex with men living with HIV in care and treatment is essential for controlling the HIV epidemic in this critical population in the United States. (nih.gov)
- Facilitate and coordinate African led advocacy for HIV Prevention Research towards ending the HIV epidemic in Africa. (wacihealth.org)
Chronic HIV infection1
- Additional reasons often given by parents of HIV-infected children include a sense of guilt about having transmitted infection to the child, anger from the child related to knowledge of perinatal transmission, and fear of inadvertent disclosure by the child. (aappublications.org)
- These measures are known to reduce HIV transmission and acquisition at an individual level, but their population-wide impact over time in a real-world context has been less clear. (aspph.org)
- Results: Fifty-three participants recruited at median 3.7 months post HIV transmission were followed a median 6.0 months. (elsevier.com)
Cases per 100,000 population1
- Researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) will present their results on Oct. 19 at the HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2016 conference in Chicago. (nih.gov)
- The African region also accounts for almost two-thirds of the global total of new HIV infections, according to the World Health Organization, with 25.6 million people in the region living with HIV in 2016. (aspph.org)
- The landscape of HIV response has changed over the years with the development of rapid response and user-friendly HIV test kits, affordable and effective antiretroviral drugs, and impactful prevention tools such as voluntary medical male circumcision and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). (wacihealth.org)
- Access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are key to sustained HIV suppression, which dramatically reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to others. (nih.gov)
- It bears noting that race is not considered a biological cause of disparities in the occurrence of HIV, but instead race can be used as a proxy for other risk factors, including lower socioeconomic status and education. (mn.us)
- HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
- The harsh reality is that many Black men, especially in the age range most severely affected by HIV (13 yrs - 29yrs), are also at risk of not completing a high school education. (joltleft.com)
- HPTN 078 began enrolling participants earlier this year to assess an HIV prevention strategy that includes identifying MSM living with HIV who are not virally suppressed, getting them into care, and helping them achieve and maintain viral suppression. (nih.gov)
- HPTN 078 is enrolling HIV-infected MSM in Baltimore and three other U.S. cities with a high HIV burden-Atlanta, Birmingham and Boston. (nih.gov)
- We anticipate that the HPTN 078 study will provide important data to advance the evidence base on how to strengthen viral suppression in this community to save lives and prevent HIV infections. (nih.gov)
- HPTN 078 is testing a new strategy to find, engage, treat and retain MSM who are living with HIV and not virally suppressed. (nih.gov)
- If a person is diagnosed & treated for mulluscum contagiousum (an HIV opportunistic infection) does it confirm they are HIV positive. (news24.com)
- Almost any disease can become an opportunistic infection when your immune system is weak. (webmd.com)
- Because the HIV virus makes copies of itself more quickly when you have an opportunistic infection, early treatment is important. (webmd.com)
- Past or present HIV opportunistic infection of the brain, learning disability, head injury with prolonged loss of consciousness or cognitive sequelae, or other non-HIV risk factor that may impact cognitive performance. (pfizer.com)
- The annual number of new HIV diagnoses in the U.S. remained stable from 2012 to 2016. (thebody.com)
- HIV diagnoses are not evenly distributed across states and regions. (thebody.com)
- Of the 38,739 new HIV diagnoses in the U.S in 2017, 19,968 (52%) were in the South. (thebody.com)
- HIV diagnoses refers to the number of people who have received an HIV diagnosis during a year, regardless of when they were infected. (thebody.com)
- In 2017, 38,739 people received an HIV diagnosis in the U.S. The annual number of new HIV diagnoses remained stable between 2012 and 2016 in the U.S. and dependent areas. (thebody.com)
- Gay and bisexual men accounted for 66% (25,748) of all HIV diagnoses and 82% of HIV diagnoses among males. (thebody.com)
- Black/African American gay and bisexual men accounted for the largest number of HIV diagnoses (9,807), followed by Hispanic/Latinos (7,436) and whites (6,982). (thebody.com)
- HIV diagnoses among African American gay and bisexual men remained stable. (thebody.com)
- Heterosexuals accounted for 24% of HIV diagnoses. (thebody.com)
- Heterosexual men accounted for 7% (2,829) of HIV diagnoses. (thebody.com)
- Heterosexual women accounted for 16% (6,341) of HIV diagnoses. (thebody.com)
- People who inject drugs accounted for 6% of HIV diagnoses. (thebody.com)
- A journal editorial notes that since 2013, the U.S. rate of new HIV diagnoses has stabilized, not decreased. (ap.org)
- More than half of all new HIV diagnoses in 2017 were concentrated in the South. (nihcm.org)
- more than 1,700 of those diagnoses were in North Carolina, where 350 people died of HIV-related causes that year. (indyweek.com)
- However, Daskalakis said use among young black and Hispanic men - who account for a majority of new HIV diagnoses - lags behind. (voanews.com)
- While the decline in new infections is welcome, 'if we do a better job of getting resources and programs to where they will make most impact, quicker progress can be made and more lives saved,' said Michael Sidibe, executive director of UNAIDS in Geneva, Switzerland. (cnn.com)
- The UNAIDS report notes that 26 states saw the annual number of new HIV infections among adults and adolescents fall by 50% or more between 2001 and 2012, but many others have not had similar success, underscoring "the importance of intensifying prevention efforts. (medpagetoday.com)
- The statistics suggest that Swaziland has reached the UNAIDS 90-90-90 Fast-Track Goals of getting 73% of all people living with HIV virally suppressed. (avert.org)
- Not only can we meet the 2015 target of 15 million people on HIV treatment-we must also go beyond and have the vision and commitment to ensure no one is left behind," said Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS. (unric.org)
- The dramatic reductions - in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia - mean tens of thousands more babies are now being born free of HIV, UNAIDS said in a report on its Global Plan to tackle the disease in around 20 of the worst affected countries. (newsmax.com)
- The progress in the majority of countries is a strong signal that with focused efforts every child can be born free from HIV,' said Michel Sidibé, UNAIDS' executive director. (newsmax.com)
- Among places causing concern, UNAIDS said, are Angola and Nigeria, where new infections in children have increased and remained unchanged respectively since 2009. (newsmax.com)
- Botswana and South Africa have reduced mother to child HIV transmission rates to 5 percent or less, according to UNAIDS. (newsmax.com)
- bit.ly/2AfCk4g and bit.ly/2P9viGc The Lancet HIV, online October 17, 2018. (reuters.com)
- Antiretroviral Drugs for Treatment and Prevention of HIV Infection in Adults: 2018 Recommendations of the International Antiviral Society-USA Panel. (medscape.com)
- The 2018 International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection (HIV Glasgow 2018) was held in Glasgow, UK, from 28 to 31 October 2018. (aidsmap.com)
- Behind the scenes at European Testing Week 29 October 2018 European Testing Week started in 2013, as an initiative of HIV. (aidsmap.com)
- Coming soon: news from HIV Glasgow 2018 25 October 2018 The International Congress on Drug Therapy in HIV Infection (HIV Glasgow). (aidsmap.com)
- Coming soon: news from HIVR4P 2018 18 October 2018 The third HIV Research for Prevention conference (HIVR4P) in Madrid next. (aidsmap.com)
- The combination antigen/antibody assay becomes reactive approximately 2-3 weeks after HIV infection. (cdc.gov)
- It is estimated that 99% of people will develop a reactive combination antigen/antibody result within 6 weeks of infection, but in rare cases, it can take up to 6 months to develop a reactive test result. (cdc.gov)
- Emtricitabine and lamivudine show efficacy against HBV infection in both hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients, but these medications are associated with greater development of resistance. (medscape.com)
- Recent progress in diagnostic test development includes the availabilily of reliable HIV p-24 antigen capture assays with improved sensitivity due lo the elimination of immune complexes of antibody and p-24 antigen and enhanced specificity due lo the availabilily of confirmatory (neutralizing) reagents. (hindawi.com)
- HIV-1 infection as documented by ELISA and confirmed by either Western blot, HIV-1 culture, HIV-1 antigen, plasma HIV-1 RNA by RT-PCR or bDNA at any time prior to study entry. (pfizer.com)
- Standard anti-HIV IgG antibody tests cannot be used to reliably indicate a child's infection status before 18 months of age, so viral antigen tests are used. (wikipedia.org)
- As many as 90% of people will recall experiencing symptoms during the acute phase of HIV infection. (cdc.gov)
- During this stage, there are no symptoms of HIV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- Others may have symptoms and worsening immune function within a few years after the original infection. (medlineplus.gov)
- If you have any of these symptoms and if there is any chance that you were recently exposed to HIV, talk to your health care provider about getting tested for HIV. (thebody.com)
- Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a disease that is important for one to know the symptoms of HIV infections in order to be able to treat it as soon as possible. (infobarrel.com)
- When HIV is first contracted, it can remain dormant and take years to show the symptoms of HIV infections. (infobarrel.com)
- Even if the affected person doesn't show more symptoms of HIV infections for the next several years, the virus is still there and multiplying. (infobarrel.com)
- Besides the previous symptoms of the first stages of the HIV virus, a victim may also have night sweats, appetite loss, swallowing pain, changes in their fingernails or toenails, cold sores, thrush, or numbness or tingling in the arms or legs. (infobarrel.com)
- Symptoms of HIV infections in women may also involve getting several yeast infections in the same year, having an abnormal PAP test, showing up with pelvic inflammatory disease or cervical cancer. (infobarrel.com)
- Whatever the case, it is very important to know the symptoms of HIV infections so that you can get treatment as soon as possible if you do indeed have HIV. (infobarrel.com)
- So, if you are suffering the symptoms of HIV infections, see your doctor immediately. (infobarrel.com)
- An acute HIV infection may have initial flu-like symptoms such as swollen glands, sore throat, and fever. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Some reports describe the initial symptoms of acute HIV infection as being like "the worst flu ever. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The signs of acute HIV infection can be easily mistaken for the symptoms of different illnesses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- If a person experiences these symptoms and they think they may have recently been exposed to HIV, they should speak to their doctor about what testing options are available. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Some people with acute infection get flu-like symptoms, but not everyone with acute infection feels sick. (cdc.gov)
- If you have these symptoms, that doesn't mean you have HIV. (cdc.gov)
- But, if you have these symptoms after a potential exposure to HIV, see a health care provider and tell them about your risk. (cdc.gov)
- Most symptoms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection do not appear until an individual has begun to experience the immune deficiency that develops after a long-term infection. (rxlist.com)
- On average, the symptoms of immune deficiency appear eight to 10 years after viral infection, but they may not appear for even longer time periods. (rxlist.com)
- The symptoms and signs of the initial HIV infection have also been compared to infectious mononucleosis . (rxlist.com)
- Typically after years of infection with the virus, symptoms begin to appear that reflect a decreasing immune function due to a decline in the number of CD4 T cells. (rxlist.com)
- These symptoms can include recurrent infections, including fungal infection of the mouth (oral thrush ) or vagina, rashes, fungal infections of the nails, fatigue , diarrhea , vomiting, leukoplakia of the tongue, and weight loss . (rxlist.com)
- If there is a further decline in immune function, more serious symptoms and signs can develop, such as dementia and cognitive changes, severe weight loss, wasting syndrome, opportunistic infections, and malignant tumors. (rxlist.com)
- Our trial examined whether large scale, targeted and rapid introduction of PrEP in a big population would reduce the incidence of HIV in the whole population," said lead author Andrew Grulich, head of the HIV Epidemiology and Prevention Program at the Kirby Institute at the University of New South Wales. (reuters.com)
- New HIV infections ("HIV incidence") refers to the estimated number of people who are newly infected with HIV during a year, which is different from the number of people diagnosed with HIV during a year. (thebody.com)
- The findings come from the second Population HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS 2), and are the first to show the impact of the scale-up to 'Treat All' in a high-burden setting. (avert.org)
- Dr. Greenberg said the new figures were calculated using a mix of HIV surveillance data and statistical modeling procedures to update estimates that last suggested HIV incidence, at the end of 2000, ranging between 850,000 and 950,000. (medpagetoday.com)
- The first trial to assess whether preventative treatment with HIV drugs could affect rates of HIV infection in people who inject drugs has found that daily tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir), an antiretroviral drug, reduced HIV incidence by nearly half compared to placebo, according to new results published Online First in The Lancet . (elsevier.com)
- The organization based its recommendation on three randomized clinical trials in Africa that found the incidence of HIV was 60 percent lower in men who were circumcised. (scientificamerican.com)
- Many fungal infections are called opportunistic infections, which means that they usually affect people with weak immune systems. (cdc.gov)
- Because HIV weakens the immune system, you have a greater chance of getting some types of fungal infections, like cryptococcosis , coccidioidomycosis , histoplasmosis , and pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) . (cdc.gov)
- You're at greatest risk for fungal infection when your CD4 count is less than 200. (cdc.gov)
- Starting ART helps slow the progress of HIV and can reduce your chances of getting a fungal infection. (cdc.gov)
- Fungal infections can range from mild to life-threatening. (cdc.gov)
- Some fungal infections are mild skin rashes, but others can be deadly, like fungal meningitis. (cdc.gov)
- Fungal infections can look like bacterial or viral infections. (cdc.gov)
- If you're taking medicine to fight an infection and you aren't getting better, ask your doctor about testing you for a fungal infection. (cdc.gov)
- Some fungal infections can interfere with taking your medications. (cdc.gov)
- However, there may be some ways for you to lower your chances of getting a serious fungal infection. (cdc.gov)
- Learn about fungal infections. (cdc.gov)
- There are different types of fungal infections. (cdc.gov)
- The danger of getting a fungal infection can change depending on your location and your CD4 count. (cdc.gov)
- Fungal infections often resemble other illnesses. (cdc.gov)
- Your healthcare provider may prescribe medication to prevent fungal infections. (cdc.gov)
- There may be some ways to lower your chances of getting a serious fungal infection by trying to avoid disease-causing fungi in the environment. (cdc.gov)
- 2 It's important to note that although these actions are recommended, they have not been proven to prevent fungal infections. (cdc.gov)
- Testing for early fungal infection. (cdc.gov)
- A few homeopathics suggested that I have Candidiasis or fungal infections. (medhelp.org)
- Does CD4 count of 405 excludes possibility of having candidiasis or any other opportunistic (fungal) infection? (medhelp.org)
- Can prior fungal infections make a person at a higher risk to contract STDs &HIV? (medhelp.org)
- According to epidemiological animal health data, cryptosporidiosis is a major problem in cattle, where the majority of infections occur in fattening units, in multiple suckler beef herds and in dairy farms with multiple-cow maternity facilities (Reynolds et al. (fao.org)
- It has been shown that a prepatent and a patent period ranging from 3-6 days and 4-13 days respectively, occur following an experimental C. parvum infection in neonatal calves (Fayer et al. (fao.org)
- And in Swaziland in southern Africa, more than two-thirds of adult infections occur in people 25 and older, but few programs are aimed at those adults, the report said. (cnn.com)
- This can all occur before a person tests positive for HIV. (thebody.com)
- If you feel like you have the flu and you had a potential HIV medicines to prevent or treat HIV . This can also occur when sharing needles or works, including cottons, cookers, or rinse water.">exposure in the past month, talk to your health care provider about what Enter your ZIP code here to find free, fast, and confidential testing near you. Click here to find contact information for your local health department. Call 1-800-458-5231 to find a confidential HIV testing site near you. Send a text message from your mobile phone with your ZIP code to KnowIt (566948) and receive a return text with an HIV testing site near you. Some sites may offer free tests. ">type of HIV test you should take and what its window period is. (cdc.gov)
- But it's not yet clear, according to Hardy, whether antibody infusions could be realistically adopted in the low-income countries where most HIV infections occur. (medicinenet.com)
- Some of the opportunistic infections that can occur are cytomegalovirus infection, cryptococcal meningitis , Cryptosporidium diarrhea, Pneumocystic jiroveci pneumonia (previously called Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia or PCP), Toxoplasma encephalitis , tuberculosis , and herpesvirus infections. (rxlist.com)
- Infection with HPV is generally believed to be required for cervical cancer to occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Tuberculosis , or "TB," is very common worldwide, and can be severe in people with HIV. (webmd.com)
- Tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection that attacks your lungs. (webmd.com)
- This puts the penalty for HIV in line with that for other infectious diseases, such as SARS, hepatitis, and tuberculosis. (healthline.com)
- Worldwide, tuberculosis (TB) is the most common co-infection among people living with HIV . (avert.org)
- Your healthcare professional should test you for tuberculosis and if you have got it, you should receive treatment which cures the infection. (avert.org)
- Address existing gaps in the response to HIV co-infections and co-morbidities, in particular at the intersection of HIV with hepatitis C, tuberculosis and non-communicable diseases. (iasociety.org)
- Among people living with HIV, morbidity and mortality is increasingly driven by co-infection with other diseases, including hepatitis C (HCV) and tuberculosis (TB), and co-morbidity with non-communicable diseases (NCDs). (iasociety.org)
- Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading killer of people living with HIV: it causes 40% of all HIV deaths worldwide. (iasociety.org)
- Tuberculosis-related deaths in people living with HIV have fallen by 36% since 2004, although TB still remains the leading killer of people with HIV. (medpagetoday.com)
- HIV co-infection is associated with low TB treatment success on tuberculosis patients. (europa.eu)
- Significant results have also been achieved towards meeting the needs of tuberculosis (TB) patients living with HIV, as TB-related deaths among people living with HIV have declined by 36% since 2004. (unric.org)
- OBJECTIVE: To determine the etiology of lower respiratory tract disease among persons with suspected tuberculosis (TB) and abnormal chest X-rays in a setting with very high HIV seroprevalence. (ingentaconnect.com)
Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections2
- Researchers today presented results from the HPTN 071 (PopART) study at the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle. (allafrica.com)
- The study, presented at the 12th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, is the first to show that a gel can retain anti-viral activity within the human vagina. (scienceblog.com)
- Because of this, it's important to seek treatment as soon as possible to try to avoid serious infection. (cdc.gov)
- If the test detects early cryptococcal infection, treatment can prevent it from becoming deadly. (cdc.gov)
- Prompt medical care and effective treatment with antiretrovirals can partially reverse HIV-induced damage to the immune system, and prolong life. (cdc.gov)
- FDA-approved medicines used in the treatment of HIV can be found at [email protected] or DailyMed . (fda.gov)
- All patients with HIV disease should undergo routine ophthalmologic examinations, since proper diagnosis and treatment may help to maintain vision and prolong life. (harvard.edu)
- Treatment of HBV infection alone without addressing the HIV infection will lead to emergence of HIV strains that are resistant to nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). (medscape.com)
- Only tenofovir is fully active for treatment in patients with known or suspected lamivudine-resistant HBV infection. (medscape.com)
- In treatment-naive patients with HIV/HBV coinfection, a regimen containing TDF plus FTC or TDF plus 3TC should be used as the backbone of HIV therapy. (medscape.com)
- Kaplan JE, Benson C, Holmes KH, Brooks JT, Pau A, Masur H. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (medscape.com)
- We now leverage expertise in HIV to commit to a vision of transforming HIV testing and treatment approaches through integrated, innovative, and impactful research. (washington.edu)
- These research efforts focus on HIV testing models, financial incentives, immunologic and virologic determinants of acquisition and disease, co-infections, HIV-exposed uninfected children adherence and disclosure within care, treatment interruption, and accelerated ART. (washington.edu)
- CDC estimates that the decline in HIV infections has plateaued because effective HIV prevention and treatment are not adequately reaching those who could most benefit from them. (thebody.com)
- United States guidelines for using HIV medications recommend treatment for all persons living with HIV. (thebody.com)
- Researchers have studied people who start treatment during acute infection and then stop taking ARVs. (thebody.com)
- Early treatment can protect the immune system from damage by HIV. (thebody.com)
- Researchers currently believe that starting treatment very early might allow a patient to stop taking ART after a period of controlling HIV, or even cure the infection (as appears to be the case of a young girl in the United States). (thebody.com)
- If you've recently been diagnosed with HIV and have a pre-existing health condition, you should talk to your healthcare professional about any medication you're currently on as it may affect antiretroviral treatment. (avert.org)
- If your HIV treatment isn't working, your immune system will get weaker and you may be at risk of opportunistic infections. (avert.org)
- When you're first diagnosed with HIV , it's likely that starting and adhering to your treatment will be your main health concern for a while. (avert.org)
- In some cases, drugs for another condition can interact with your HIV treatment , making one or both of them less effective, so it's important that your healthcare professionals know about the drugs you're taking. (avert.org)
- We end with an overview of promising new studies of bromodomain inhibitory compounds for the treatment of HIV latency. (nih.gov)
- such as the diagnosis of perinatal infections and measuring the efficacy of potential agents for the treatment of HIV disease. (hindawi.com)
- With statistics showing that five people become infected with HIV for every two entering treatment, researchers are anxious to find ways of cutting the stubbornly high infection rates in many parts of Southern Africa. (allafrica.com)
- It is a demonstration that all the efforts put into the scale-up of HIV prevention, care, and treatment services have borne fruit. (avert.org)
- Thus, the development of animal models that use HIV-1 as the challenge virus would undoubtedly facilitate the evaluation of candidate prevention and treatment strategies. (pnas.org)
- For each sex act, the risk of getting HIV from someone not on treatment is about 7 times greater if they have acute HIV than the risk of getting HIV from someone who has asymptomatic HIV. (cdc.gov)
- For each sex act, the risk of getting HIV from someone with acute infection and not on treatment is 180 times greater than the risk of getting HIV from someone who has HIV but is on treatment and virally suppressed. (cdc.gov)
- Some people have the ability to control HIV naturally, without treatment. (news-medical.net)
- In these very rare individuals (less than 1% of people living with HIV), no multiplication of the virus in the blood can be detected after more than 10 years of infection without treatment. (news-medical.net)
- She said that the advent of treatment with antiretroviral drug cocktails allow persons with HIV to control their disease. (medpagetoday.com)
- We need to incorporate testing for HIV into a patient's routine treatment," Dr. Glynn said. (medpagetoday.com)
- The government has ordered 50,000 HIV screening kits and is setting up three treatment centers. (arabnews.com)
- Few families can afford proper treatment for HIV, which usually involves regular trips to Karachi. (arabnews.com)
- There are children with HIV infection belonging to other towns who went to other doctors for treatment," he told Arab News. (arabnews.com)
- The findings could help lead to the development of novel therapies for HIV prevention and treatment by providing a deeper understanding of the mechanisms of HIV's lifecycle. (eurekalert.org)
- All trial participants were offered monthly HIV testing and risk-reduction counselling and services, plus access to drug rehabilitation treatment. (elsevier.com)
- So preventing opportunistic infections is an important part of treatment for HIV. (cardiosmart.org)
- HIV treatment is not a cure, but it is keeping millions of people well. (aidsmap.com)
- An introduction to key issues about HIV treatment and living with HIV, presented as a series of illustrated leaflets. (aidsmap.com)
- A range of interactive tools to support people living with HIV to get involved in decisions about their treatment and care. (aidsmap.com)
- In 2011, UN Member States agreed to a 2015 target of reaching 15 million people with HIV treatment. (unric.org)
- However, as countries scaled up their treatment coverage and as new evidence emerged showing the HIV prevention benefits of antiretroviral therapy, the World Health Organization set new HIV treatment guidelines, expanding the total number of people estimated to be in need of treatment by more than 10 million. (unric.org)
- New York, NY- The HIV drug maraviroc could be a potential treatment for Staphylococcus aureus infections, according to researchers at NYU School of Medicine. (uspharmacist.com)
- Overall, across 21 priority countries in Africa, there were 130,000 fewer new HIV infections among children in 2012 - a drop of 38 percent since 2009 - mostly due to increased drug treatment of pregnant women with the virus. (newsmax.com)
- Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a treatment regimen for HIV infection with a combination of three or more classes of drugs . (medicinenet.com)
- Current treatment with antiretroviral drug regimens known as HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) does not target the dormant HIV. (eurekalert.org)
- HIV is a major public health concern, with an estimated 36.7 million people living with chronic infection, and over 20.9 million people receiving continuous treatment. (news-medical.net)
- What are your HIV treatment options, and how do you choose the right one? (medhelp.org)
- However, only 67 percent of pregnant women living with HIV in all low- and middle-income countries received the most effective treatment for PMTCT in 2013. (mid-day.com)
- We must close the gap, and invest more in reaching every mother, every newborn, every child and every adolescent with HIV prevention and treatment programmes that can save and improve their lives,' Lake added. (mid-day.com)
- This belief may cause them to engage in risky behavior, to delay HIV testing, and if they test positive, to delay or refuse treatment. (nih.gov)
- Doctors report that many young people, when they learn they are HIV-positive, take several months to accept their diagnosis and return for treatment. (nih.gov)
- The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has developed documents that address the standard of care for the treatment of HIV, including information about how to treat HIV in adolescents. (nih.gov)
- Health care providers should refer to the treatment guidelines for detailed information about the treatment of HIV-infected adolescents. (nih.gov)
- There were 2.3 million new HIV infections worldwide, down from 2.5 million in 2011 and down 33% from the 3.4 million in 2001. (medpagetoday.com)
- The drop in new infections was observed in both adults and children but was more marked in children -- 260 000 in 2012, down 52% from the 550,000 in 2001. (medpagetoday.com)
- On the other hand, researchers and CDC officials conceded that the 2001 goal of reducing new infections by 50% by the year 2005 had not been accomplished. (medpagetoday.com)
- New HIV infections among adults and children were estimated at 2.3 million in 2012, a 33% reduction since 2001. (unric.org)
- New HIV infections among children have been reduced to 260 000 in 2012, a reduction of 52% since 2001. (unric.org)
- Through June 2001, HIV surveillance data suggest that more than one-half of all HIV-infected adolescent males are infected through sex with men. (nih.gov)
- They are called "opportunistic" because a person may get the infection when their weakened immune system gives it the opportunity to develop. (webmd.com)
- If you have HIV, treating it early with antiretroviral medicines will help your immune system and allow you to stay in good health. (webmd.com)
- But untreated HIV, over the course of years, will harm your immune system and can lead to opportunistic infections. (webmd.com)
- Opportunistic" means they take advantage of the weaker immune system of someone with HIV. (webmd.com)
- Take your HIV medicines and see your doctor regularly to make sure that they are working and that your immune system remains strong. (webmd.com)
- It will help you avoid the serious consequences of infection as well as preserve your immune system. (webmd.com)
- Your doctor might also prescribe medication to prevent the infection from coming back, and if your immune system recovers, you may be able to stop taking that. (webmd.com)
- The lining of the intestine -- an important part of the immune system -- also loses a significant number of CD4 cells within 4 to 6 weeks after infection. (thebody.com)
- At first, the immune system produces white blood cells that recognize and kill HIV-infected cells. (thebody.com)
- Investigating the role of the innate immune system in early viral infection, and focusing on the potential roles of natural killer (NK) cells, we have discovered complex interactions involving several cytokines that support NK activation, including IL-2, IL-18 and IL-12. (fda.gov)
- They used a substance secreted by the immune system known as interleukin 15 (IL-15) to boost the mitochondrial activity of non-controllers' cells and increase their anti-HIV potential. (news-medical.net)
- HIV entry into mature T-helper cells (cells essential to the immune system) proceeds by attachment of the virus to specific targets on T-helper cells, uptake of the virus, fusion of its envelope with the cell membranes, and release of the virus into the cells. (redorbit.com)
- HIV kills immune system cells. (scientificamerican.com)
- I am only HIV positive I have no symptom, but I would like to keep my condition as present, what can I do for my immune system? (bio.net)
- The goal of blocking the toxin with maraviroc or other agents is to enable the immune system to better control the infection. (uspharmacist.com)
- Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) infection is caused by a virus that attacks the T-cells of the human immune system. (medicinenet.com)
- Scientists at Johns Hopkins report that compounds they hoped would "wake up" dormant reservoirs of HIV inside immune system T cells -- a strategy designed to reverse latency and make the cells vulnerable to destruction -- have failed to do so in laboratory tests of such white blood cells taken directly from patients infected with HIV. (eurekalert.org)
- While inactive, the dormant HIV lurks in the cells but does not replicate in the amounts needed to produce proteins that can be recognized by the immune system. (eurekalert.org)
- Without that recognition, the immune system cannot eliminate the last remaining HIV from the body. (eurekalert.org)
- Point-of-care HIV antibody tests performed on oral fluid (instead of blood) have been associated with a lower sensitivity during early HIV infection. (cdc.gov)
- A negative HIV antibody test and a very high viral load indicate recent HIV infection, most likely within the past two months. (thebody.com)
- The laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection has progressed greatly since the introduction of the commercially prepared, HIV antibody assay in 1985. (hindawi.com)
- WEDNESDAY, April 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A single injection of a powerful HIV -fighting antibody protected monkeys from an HIV -like infection for up to six months, scientists report. (medicinenet.com)
- That antibody has already moved into early human clinical trials , said Dr. David Hardy, a spokesperson for the HIV Medicine Association. (medicinenet.com)
- Detection of antibody to HIV is the usual first step in diagnosing HIV infection. (medscape.com)
- When an infant is born to an HIV-infected mother, diagnosis of an HIV infection is complicated by the presence of maternal anti-HIV IgG antibody, which crosses the placenta to the fetus. (wikipedia.org)
- Indeed, virtually all children born to HIV-infected mothers are HIV-antibody positive at birth, although only 15%-30% are actually infected. (wikipedia.org)
- Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection should be considered in any patient with unusual or recurrent serious infections without another cause, especially in those with risk factors for HIV infection. (medscape.com)
- About your yeast infection: if you have recently had a negative HIV test (especially without recent exposure), it is VERY unlikely that your recurrent infection is because of HIV. (zocdoc.com)
- Even so, you should seek the advice of your primary care doctor if there are any questions about either HIV, recurrent yeast infections, or any other STD. (zocdoc.com)
- bilateral = one site) Hepatomegaly Splenomegaly Dermatitis Parotitis Recurrent or persistent upper respiratory infection, sinusitis, or otitis media Children who have symptomatic conditions other than those listed for Category A or C that are attributed to HIV infection. (wikipedia.org)
- HIV, an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus in the Retroviridae family. (cdc.gov)
- The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has spread worldwide, with various adverse health and economic implications, particularly in the developing world. (harvard.edu)
- The goal of this curriculum is to provide an evidence-based online curriculum for healthcare providers and trainers of healthcare providers to increase their knowledge on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among people of color in the United States and its territories. (aidsetc.org)
- 1 Neuropathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection account for an increasing number of cases. (aafp.org)
- In the first few days after becoming infected with HIV a person has extremely high amounts of HIV in the blood, meaning he or she can transmit the virus to others much more readily, Morris and his team note. (reuters.com)
- However, that area remains the region hardest-hit by the virus, accounting for 67 percent of infections worldwide, the report said. (cnn.com)
- Clinical manifestations of acute infection with human immunodeficiency virus in a cohort of gay men. (medscape.com)
- Current Practices of Screening for Incident Hepatitis C Virus Infection among HIV- Infected, HCV-Uninfected Individuals in Primary Care. (medscape.com)
- Disparities in the Magnitude of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related Opportunistic Infections Between High and Low/Middle-income Countries: Is Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Changing the Trend? (medscape.com)
- How long this stage lasts depends on how quickly the HIV virus copies itself, and how the person's genes affect the way the body handles the virus. (medlineplus.gov)
- Peripheral nerve complications in patients infected with HIV usually result from the virus itself, or are due to some of the antiretroviral drugs (zalcitabine, didanosine or stavudine). (nih.gov)
- We study blood-borne viruses belonging to two classes: retroviruses (including simple retroviruses as well as complex retrovirus such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV) and flaviviruses (West Nile Virus - WNV - and dengue virus - DV). (fda.gov)
- We study blood-borne and/or bioterrorism viral agents belonging to two classes: retroviruses (primarily Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, but also simple retroviruses) and flaviviruses (primarily West Nile Virus - WNV - and dengue virus - DV). (fda.gov)
- Also searched for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome , HIV , and Human Immunodeficiency Virus . (clinicaltrials.gov)
- During the acute period of infection, the level of virus in a person's blood is very high as their body is not yet able to mount an immune response. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Most people contract HIV after coming into contact with body fluids that contain the virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The virus is usually spread from person to person as a result of having sex or sharing needles with someone who has HIV. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. (springer.com)
- A participant in research into HIV infections is tested for the virus. (allafrica.com)
- 73% of all people living with HIV in Swaziland , both diagnosed and undiagnosed, now have an undetectable viral load - meaning they cannot transmit the virus to others. (avert.org)
- A German pop singer who confessed to knowingly exposing two men to the risk of HIV after finding out she had the virus herself was convicted by a court Thursday of grievous bodily harm. (ibtimes.com)
- When people have acute infection, they're much more likely to transmit HIV to others because the amount of virus in their blood is very high. (cdc.gov)
- Some here to find contact information for your local health department.">health care providers may not know about the NAT, but it can detect the virus earlier than any other test, about 10 days after infection. (cdc.gov)
- This typically happens many years after an initial infection with the virus. (rxlist.com)
- The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus transmitted by body fluids. (rxlist.com)
- Effect of daily aciclovir on HIV disease progression in individuals in Rakai, Uganda, co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (medscape.com)
- Lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 viral load reflects the difference in pathogenicity of HIV-1 and HIV-2. (medscape.com)
- An early test of a new drug and method of blocking HIV infection suggests they could overcome one of the biggest obstacles to combating the virus by keeping people on their medication, according to research released Tuesday. (washingtonpost.com)
- Newer versions of the HIV test have made this 'window' even shorter by testing for parts of the virus directly. (zocdoc.com)
- The UK's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) with the University of Edinburgh and IBM's TJ Watson Research Center have published new research about the structure of an HIV-1 protein that could help to develop new drugs to stop the virus infecting healthy cells. (redorbit.com)
- The research provides a new insight into how the changes in structure of a small part of an HIV protein (a membrane proximal peptide) may alter the infection of the virus into healthy cells. (redorbit.com)
- Positive results were found in the blood tests of hundreds of people for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after a mass screening was undertaken between April 26 and June 6 in Ratodero, a small town on the outskirts of the city of Larkana. (arabnews.com)
- Authorities in Pakistan realized there was an HIV outbreak in Ratodero when Dr. Arbani raised the alarm in April this year after 18 local children tested positive for the virus. (arabnews.com)
- During the course of infection, HIV fuses onto a target immune cell and delivers its capsid -- a cone that holds the genetic material of the virus -- into the cell's cytoplasm. (eurekalert.org)
- Raltegravir stops HIV late in its life cycle, just before the virus integrates into the human chromosome. (scientificamerican.com)
- During the HIV infection, several mutants of the virus arise, which are able to use different chemokine receptors, in particular the CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors (termed R5 and X4 phenotypes, respectively). (springer.com)
- Since the first cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were identified, the number of children infected with HIV has risen dramatically in developing countries, the result of an increased number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age in these areas. (medscape.com)
- Genome layout of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2. (medscape.com)
- Scientists and engineers have identified a critical cancer-causing component for the first time in the virus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma, the most common cancer among HIV-infected people. (medindia.net)
- It is estimated that over 15 million people are suffering from the disease and many more are harboring the dreaded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (medindia.net)
- EVs from HIV-infected cells are believed to form in much the same way as a new virus forms (link is external). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Under federal guidelines, prime candidates for preventive use of Truvada include some gay and bisexual men with multiple sexual partners, and anyone who does not have HIV but has an ongoing sexual relationship with someone who has the virus. (voanews.com)
- Despite our high hopes, none of the compounds we tested in HIV-infected cells taken directly from patients activated the latent virus," says Robert F. Siliciano, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. (eurekalert.org)
- The dormant virus is found in roughly one of every million white blood cells in someone with HIV. (eurekalert.org)
- Typical models have used white blood cells infected with HIV in a test tube that are then cultured until the virus becomes latent. (eurekalert.org)
- They also created a yardstick by which to judge future successes with perhaps other compounds or combinations of therapies: If a T cell is activated in an HIV-infected person, that cell produces virus at the maximum level, essentially the equivalent of a 100-fold increase in viral RNA production. (eurekalert.org)
- The implications of a possible link between hormonal injections and the virus alarm both HIV and birth control campaigners…" (Boseley, 1/8). (kff.org)
- Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers have demonstrated that a gel applied in the vagina provides protection from both the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the herpes simplex Virus. (scienceblog.com)
- Most current drugs against viral infections target the virus itself. (news-medical.net)
- Studying the impact of gene disruptions in pairs rather than one by one yields important information on how genes work together to mediate virus infection, highlighting processes we can target with drugs to inhibit infection. (news-medical.net)
- Gordon, in collaboration with a student from University College Dublin, Ariane Watson, had to modify it to study virus infection. (news-medical.net)
- Male IDUs who have sex with men in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: are they at greater risk of bloodborne virus infection and harm than those who only have sex with women? (bmj.com)
- The number of adolescents living with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is estimated to be much higher. (nih.gov)
- Most adolescents recently infected with HIV are exposed to the virus through sexual intercourse. (nih.gov)
Weeks after HIV infection2
- Reuters Health) - An HIV-prevention drug pill, dubbed PrEP, dramatically reduced new infections in a large group of high risk gay men, Australian researchers report. (reuters.com)
- Although HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) had been shown to be effective in past clinical trials, the Australian researchers write in The Lancet HIV that the current study looks at the impact of the medication in a more real-world situation. (reuters.com)
- This complicates interpretation of tests that researchers use to predict if a specific variant of HIV will be resistant to a specific anti-viral drug. (fda.gov)
- Other studies have tested the benefits of home HIV tests but the current one is the first internet-based effort with a mail-order advantage, the researchers said. (ap.org)
- There is a need to overcome the fragmentation of research agendas related to the various aspects of HIV and its co-infections and co-morbidities by promoting interdisciplinary research and bringing together researchers from diverse fields together. (iasociety.org)
- The new drug, islatravir, and the implant were developed by the drug company Merck and described at a news conference at an international gathering of HIV researchers in Mexico City. (washingtonpost.com)
- Researchers said the dapivirine vaginal ring could have more success at controlling the spread of HIV because women can fully control its use, unlike condoms. (upi.com)
- For the study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine , researchers in the ASPIRE study enrolled 2,629 women at 15 health clinics in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe between the ages of 18 and 45 who were at high risk for HIV infection, giving them either the dapivirine ring or a placebo. (upi.com)
- When researchers did not count results from two sites with lower numbers of patients continuing to participate or following instructions, the infection rate among women using the ring was 37 percent lower than the placebo group. (upi.com)
- The researchers found women older than 25 had a 61 percent lower risk of HIV infection, because younger women used the ring less consistently, based on lower levels of the drug found in blood tests. (upi.com)
- If safe and effective, it could become a two-in-one device: researchers are developing a dapivirine ring with birth control to prevent both HIV and pregnancy. (scientificamerican.com)
- The researchers suspect that in uncircumcised men, these bacteria may provoke inflammation in the genitalia, thereby improving the chances that immune cells will be in the vicinity for HIV viruses to infect. (scientificamerican.com)
- Once the researchers identify the anaerobic species, the plan is to determine which can create an inflammatory environment that favors HIV infection, Gray says. (scientificamerican.com)
- HIV appears to enlist the aid of nano-sized structures released by infected cells to infect new cells, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- In the current study, the NICHD researchers isolated HIV and EVs from infected cultures, separated the two, and then tested the ability of HIV to infect new cultures - both in the presence of EVs and on its own. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- When the researchers added the EV-depleted sample to blocks of human lymphatic tissue, HIV infections in the cultures were 55 percent lower, compared to a control sample that retained EVs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The researchers believe that the loss of the gp120 that would have been provided by the EVs (had they not been removed from the HIV cultures) was responsible for the drop in HIV infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- While EVs lack the HIV RNA to infect a cell, the researchers theorize that the gp120 on the EV surface can interact with the host cell, allowing HIV to infect it more easily. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Because cells with latent HIV are so rare and difficult to retrieve from infected people, researchers have used engineered latent HIV cell models to test HDAC inhibitors in the past, says study co-author Janet D. Siliciano, Ph.D., an associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
- The researchers conducted a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study among 20 HIV-infected women to assess the antiviral activity of PRO 2000 in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid collected before and one hour after administration of a single intravaginal dose of PRO 2000 gel or a matched placebo gel. (scienceblog.com)
- These types of laws are typically overly broad, and enforced in ways that reinforce stigma and inequality against the most marginalized people in our country," said Trevor Hoppe, a professor of sociology at the University at Albany, SUNY, and author of " Punishing Disease: HIV and the Criminalization of Sickness . (healthline.com)
- If a person's HIV level is so low that it isn't possible to transmit the disease to a partner, are they obligated to disclose that information? (healthline.com)
- Unless they use antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), their HIV disease will progress. (thebody.com)
- Davis, G. S., Winn, W. C. Legionnaires' disease: Respiratory infections caused by Legionella bacteria. (springer.com)
- The response to HIV, especially in resource-limited settings, has provided many lessons that can give orientation for the scale up of care in other disease areas, in particular HIV co-infections and co-morbidities. (iasociety.org)
- But there is no reason for anyone to die from this curable disease, and all should commit to intensify and accelerate TB/HIV efforts to save the millions at risk. (iasociety.org)
- Here we examine the relationship between Th17 cells and HIV disease pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now estimates that by the end of 2003 between 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 HIV-infected persons are living in the United States," said Alan Greenberg, M.D., acting director for science in the Division of HIV/AID Prevention. (medpagetoday.com)
- There were a total of 71 HIV infections in the dapivirine group and 97 in the placebo group -- a 27 percent reduction in spread of the disease. (upi.com)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluated the gel in macaques in March and found it highly effective in preventing infection up to three hours after exposure. (scientificamerican.com)
- Today, two years after his transplantation, he is still without any signs of HIV disease and without antiretroviral medication. (slashdot.org)
- The authors and contributors are all specialists on HIV and research to find alternative means of treating this disease without the use of highly toxic medicines. (bio.net)
- SETTING: In countries with high HIV rates, diagnosis of lower respiratory disease etiology is both challenging and clinically important. (ingentaconnect.com)
- The CDC Classification System for HIV Infection is the medical classification system used by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to classify HIV disease and infection. (wikipedia.org)
- This classification system is how the United States agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classifies HIV disease and infection. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to the additional knowledge of the progression of HIV disease among children, a revised classification system for HIV infection in children was developed in 1994 that replaced the pediatric HIV classification system that was published in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
- In the new system, HIV-infected children are classified into mutually exclusive categories according to three parameters: a) infection status b) clinical status c) immunologic status This classification system reflects the stage of the child's disease, establishes mutually exclusive classification categories, and balances simplicity and medical accuracy in the classification process. (wikipedia.org)
- 9, 10, 11) The clinical presentation of HIV related diseases may be modified by HAART, which has dramatically improved the prognosis of HIV infection. (harvard.edu)
- The infection often seems to be subclinical and according to clinical findings, it seems that Cryptosporidium has a minor pathogenic effect in healthy individuals. (fao.org)
- The most common clinical signs of Cryptosporidium infection are profuse and watery diarrhoea. (fao.org)
- This stage is also called chronic HIV infection or clinical latency. (medlineplus.gov)
- Assays for determining the antiviral sensitivity of HIV to specific drugs and for phenotyping viral isolates have been developed in research centres and are presently being introduced into clinical laboratories across Canada. (hindawi.com)
- An NIAID-run clinical trial is starting in sub-Saharan Africa, looking at whether VRC01 infusions can prevent HIV infection in women at high risk. (medicinenet.com)
- Morbidity and aging in HIV-infected persons: the swiss HIV cohort study," Clinical Infectious Diseases , vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1130-1139, 2011. (hindawi.com)
- Gray, who is also working with one of the three randomized clinical trials on which WHO based its recommendation, adds that, 'If we can show that these anaerobic bacteria are associated with HIV, then one could develop microbicides -antiseptics or targeted antibiotics -that might provide protection. (scientificamerican.com)
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was quite common despite clinical suspicion of TB, and sputum induction and PCR did not significantly improve our ability to diagnose TB, although clinical presentation had some predictive value. (ingentaconnect.com)
- They can avoid sexual encounters with people whose HIV status is unknown, and use condoms consistently and correctly with all partners who are HIV infected or whose HIV status is unknown. (cdc.gov)
- Critics of the bill also point to cases like one in Scotland , where a man was accused of trying to intentionally infect 10 sexual partners with HIV by sabotaging condoms. (healthline.com)
- Last week it announced that it planned to start distributing condoms in schools and was considering giving away HIV self-testing kits, triggering an angry reaction from church leaders. (gulf-times.com)
- Using condoms Use a condom every time you have vaginal or anal sex. Put the condom on after the penis is hard and before the penis touches the vagina or anus. Take the penis out of the vagina or anus right after ejaculating. Throw out the condom right away. ">the right way every time you have sex will reduce your HIV risk. (cdc.gov)
- The introduction of PrEP for HIV prevention in injecting drug users should be considered as an additional component to accompany other proven prevention strategies like needle exchange programmes, methadone programmes, promotion of safer sex and injecting practices, condoms, and HIV counselling and testing. (elsevier.com)
- Primary care guidelines for the management of persons infected with HIV: 2013 update by the HIV medicine association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. (medscape.com)
- Women need a discreet, long-acting form of HIV prevention that they control and want to use," Dr. Anthony S. Fauci , director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, said in a press release . (upi.com)
- News outlets report on a meta-analysis published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases showing an increase in risk of HIV infection among women who use the injectable contraceptive Depo Provera. (kff.org)
- Preexposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) with tenofovir-emtricitabine is highly effective in preventing HIV infection and is recommended as a prevention option for adults at substantial risk of HIV acquisition (see www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/prep ). (cdc.gov)
- We center our research efforts for this population on pre-exposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) in pregnancy and repeat HIV testing. (washington.edu)
- Truvada pills, initially used to treat people with HIV, are a main component of PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis), where the drug is used to prevent infection. (voanews.com)
- Although long-term prophylactic therapy with fluconazole at a dose of 200 mg weekly has been effective in reducing C. albicans colonization and symptomatic VVC, it is not recommended for routine primary prophylaxis in HIV-infected women in the absence of RVVC. (emaxhealth.com)
Million new HIV infections1
- Focusing on TB/HIV co-infection is urgently needed in the areas of political commitment (to strengthen political commitment to and policies for TB/HIV co-infection), operational and service integration research (to address urgent TB/HIV operational and service integration research gaps) and awareness and stigma (to raise TB awareness among the HIV community and address TB stigma). (iasociety.org)
- Stigma is probably still one of the largest factors that impact people who are living with HIV and thinking about getting tested," McAllaster says. (indyweek.com)
- Vaccines are especially critical for people with chronic health conditions such as HIV infection. (cdc.gov)
- [ 16 ] Tenofovir is considered a first-line agent in patients with chronic HBV infection because the virologic efficacy is high and the risk of HBV resistance is low. (medscape.com)
- Worldwide, 71 million people are estimated to be living with chronic HCV infection, and approximately 700,000 die each year from HCV-related causes. (iasociety.org)
- As HIV becomes a chronic illness, the growing population of people living and aging with HIV will be confronted with an increasing burden of NCDs. (iasociety.org)
- Photosensitivity with HIV infection is a skin condition resembling polymorphous light eruption, actinic prurigo, or chronic actinic dermatitis, seen in about 5% of HIV-infected people. (wikipedia.org)
- In other studies we have adapted interferometric techniques to detect HIV-1 p24 with rapid technology suitable for point of care and battlefield use, achieving over a log better sensitivity than EIA. (fda.gov)
- However, a screening method called nucleic acid amplification testing or detecting an HIV-viral load (the amount of HIV in the bloodstream) can help to detect HIV infection in people who have been recently infected. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Adults and Adolescents1
- More recently, there has been a focus on treatments that improve nerve function, including recombinant human nerve growth factor and the reduction of HIV viral load with antiretroviral drugs. (nih.gov)
- As an alternative for women, scientists are testing a new class of antiretroviral drugs, called ARV microbicides, that prevent HIV infection altogether. (scientificamerican.com)
- Antiretroviral drugs chart A one-page reference guide to the anti-HIV drugs licensed for use in the European Union, with information on formulation, dosing, key side-effects and food restrictions. (aidsmap.com)
- According to a release from Kyrgyzstan's Health Ministry, the head of the children's section, Tolon Shaynazarov, had been reprimanded in 2005 for the HIV infections of two children at the hospital. (rferl.org)
- Health officials say the decline in the number of new HIV infections could be attributed to better prevention programs. (cnn.com)
- Supporters of the reform, which included public health, civil liberties, and LGBT and HIV groups in the state, say this is an important step away from treating people living with HIV as criminals. (healthline.com)
- It's important to take time to learn about HIV and how best to manage it, as well as thinking about other aspects of your health. (avert.org)
- Some people have HIV and another long-term health conditions, such as diabetes or epilepsy. (avert.org)
- As well as staying healthy and looking after your mental health , we can avoid some other infections by having vaccinations where available, or using an insecticide-treated bed net in areas where malaria is common for example. (avert.org)
- When you're managing another health condition alongside HIV, communicating with the healthcare professionals treating you is important. (avert.org)
- HIV programmes will represent an opportunity to address these issues, given their strength in countries where health systems are often otherwise weak. (iasociety.org)
- The HIV Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities initiative contributes to the broader health policy environment, encouraging integration of HIV with co-infections and co-morbidities, and strengthening health and community systems. (iasociety.org)
- This includes a need for the key concepts from the HIV differentiated service delivery movement to be applied to HIV co-infections and co-morbidities to improve the cascade of care, maximize efficiencies and reduce the burden on health systems. (iasociety.org)
- Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. (medscape.com)
- Screening for HIV in health care settings: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians and HIV Medicine Association. (medscape.com)
- The two authorities required local health and education agencies to improve awareness at schools and called for establishment of an infection reporting system and regular consultation mechanism to analyze the cause of infections and formulate countermeasures. (chinadaily.com.cn)
- Sindy Paul, M.D., of the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services in Trenton, said, "The duration of survival is definitely a component of the increase in people living with HIV. (medpagetoday.com)
- Health officials say 681 people have tested positive for HIV in Ratodero, of whom 537 are children, since April 25. (arabnews.com)
- In addition to conducting ASPIRE in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, the International Partnership for Microbicides also found in The Ring Study that the dapivirine ring decreased HIV infection by 31 percent over a placebo. (upi.com)
- Since its discovery and characterization, HIV infection has attained extraordinary attention among surgeons and other health care workers (HCWs) as a potential source of occupational infection. (facs.org)
- Patients have been concerned about their potential risk of exposure to HIV infection from blood transfusions, other patients, health care workers, and surgeons. (facs.org)
- The World Health Organization declared three years ago that circumcision should be part of any strategy to prevent HIV infection in men. (scientificamerican.com)
- She helps patients living with HIV in Eastern North Carolina find resources for medical care and tries to identify the obstacles that prevent patients from getting or continuing it: lack of affordable housing, mental health problems, substance abuseand especially insurance. (indyweek.com)
- If we remove extracellular vesicles from HIV laboratory preparations, we also reduce HIV infection of human tissues in culture," said the study's senior author Leonid Margolis, Ph.D., of the Section of Intercellular Interactions at NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (medicalnewstoday.com)
- From gritty neighborhoods in New York and Los Angeles to clinics in Kenya and Brazil, health workers are trying to popularize a pill that has proven highly effective in preventing HIV but which - in their view - remains woefully underused. (voanews.com)
- We have to start thinking of it not as a luxury but as an essential public health component of this nation's response to HIV. (voanews.com)
- Travelers' risk of HIV exposure and infection is determined less by geographic destination and more by the behaviors in which they engage while traveling, such as unprotected sex and injection drug use. (cdc.gov)
- The earliest time after exposure that HIV infection can be diagnosed is approximately 9 days, when HIV-1 RNA becomes detectable in blood. (cdc.gov)
- Surgeons are at-risk for exposure to HIV and are concerned about this risk. (facs.org)
- We believe in enforcing a high standard of infection control and universal precautions, which remain the best strategy for protecting patients and surgeons from accidental exposure. (facs.org)
- In addition, among HIV-infected women, systemic azole exposure is associated with the isolation of non- albicans Candida species from the vagina. (emaxhealth.com)
- Mailing free home HIV tests to high-risk men offers a potentially better strategy for detecting infections than usual care. (ap.org)
- High levels of HIV infection within blood monocyte/macrophages (a type of white cells in the bloodstream) increases risk of dementia in HIV-infected individuals. (pfizer.com)
- The study hypothesis is that the addition of Maraviroc to a HIV antiretroviral regimen in HIV-infected individuals with high levels of HIV-infected monocyte/macrophages will lead to a decrease in the levels of infected monocyte/macrophages and to decrease in brain inflammation as studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, a form of MRI study). (pfizer.com)
- He also said the Duterte administration appeared, like other governments, not to be looking specifically at the high infection rates among men having sex with men. (gulf-times.com)
- We demonstrate the potential utility of this HIV-1-based animal model in a chemoprophylaxis experiment, by showing that a commonly used HIV-1 therapeutic regimen can provide apparently sterilizing protection from infection following a rigorous high-dose stHIV-1 challenge. (pnas.org)
- Right now, Hardy said, the HIV drug Truvada is approved for preventing infection in people at high risk. (medicinenet.com)
- For example, a young adult with leukemia undergoing chemotherapy is at high risk for many opportunistic infections. (medscape.com)
- If it is proved safe and successful in larger studies, the method could be a major improvement for people at high risk of contracting HIV who have trouble adhering to the once-a-day pill regimen and other available methods. (washingtonpost.com)
- Overseas, young women in some African countries where HIV is prevalent also are still being infected at high rates. (washingtonpost.com)
- The rates of infections among high-risk heterosexuals and other risk groups remained unchanged. (medpagetoday.com)
- But progress has stalled in some countries with high numbers of new HIV infections. (newsmax.com)
- In the U.S., there are problems related to Truvada's high cost, lingering skepticism among some doctors and low usage rates among black gays and bisexuals who have the highest rates of HIV infection. (voanews.com)
- Vaginal Candida colonization rates in HIV-infected women are higher than among seronegative women with similar demographic characteristics and high-risk behaviors, and the colonization rates correlate with increasing severity of immunosuppression. (emaxhealth.com)
Nucleoside reverse tr2
- 7, 8) The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which consists of a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, HIV protease inhibitors and non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, has decreased plasma levels of HIV RNA and increased CD4+ T lymphocytes counts, improving the immune function of patients with HIV infection. (harvard.edu)
- Current nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), higher MCV and hemoglobin, and lower HIV RNA and haptoglobin were associated with greater A1C-glucose discordance. (diabetesjournals.org)
Result of HIV infection1
- Without enough CD4 cells to fight them off, infections can lead to illnesses, cancers, and brain and nerve problems. (webmd.com)
- Women have a greater chance of getting certain infections like HPV that can lead to cancers of the reproductive system such as cervical cancer. (webmd.com)
- If you're a woman, get regular pelvic exams and Pap tests to spot infections, precancers, and cancers. (webmd.com)
- In recent years, studies have documented elevated levels of infection in these populations in nearly all regions,' according to the report. (cnn.com)
- Successfully addressing the challenge of co-infections requires tackling the complexities of multiple epidemics, including reaching vulnerable populations and expanding access to new diagnostics and curative medicines. (iasociety.org)
- The IAS HIV Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities initiative focuses on a number of areas, taking advantage of overlapping populations and service delivery needs of HIV and related co-infections and co-morbidities. (iasociety.org)
- One of the things we have learned about HIV is that the infection affects diverse populations. (medpagetoday.com)
- Heterosexuals and people who inject drugs also continue to be affected by HIV. (thebody.com)
- The intersection of HCV with HIV presents an opportunity to accelerate the global HCV response and to bring increased attention to those disproportionately affected by both diseases, in particular people who inject drugs. (iasociety.org)