HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.United StatesHIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Sexually Transmitted Diseases: Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.HIV Enteropathy: A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.PrisonersIndiaKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.New York CityLogistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.AfricaTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Lymphoma, AIDS-Related: B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.San FranciscoAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.British Columbia: A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Anonymous Testing: Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Blood DonorsNamibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Puerto Rico: An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is San Juan. It is a self-governing commonwealth in union with the United States. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493 but no colonization was attempted until 1508. It belonged to Spain until ceded to the United States in 1898. It became a commonwealth with autonomy in internal affairs in 1952. Columbus named the island San Juan for St. John's Day, the Monday he arrived, and the bay Puerto Rico, rich harbor. The island became Puerto Rico officially in 1932. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p987 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p436)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Ulcer: A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.BrazilHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mouth DiseasesDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Contraceptive Devices, Male: Contraceptive devices used by males.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.LondonHealth Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Los AngelesLymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Rape: Unlawful sexual intercourse without consent of the victim.

Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. (1/30267)

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (2/30267)

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

Tuberculosis outbreaks in prison housing units for HIV-infected inmates--California, 1995-1996. (3/30267)

During 1995-1996, staff from the California departments of corrections and health services and local health departments investigated two outbreaks of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB). The outbreaks occurred in two state correctional institutions with dedicated HIV housing units. In each outbreak, all cases were linked by IS6110-based DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. This report describes the investigations of both outbreaks; the findings indicated that M. tuberculosis can spread rapidly among HIV-infected inmates and be transmitted to their visitors and prison employees, with secondary spread to the community.  (+info)

A review of statistical methods for estimating the risk of vertical human immunodeficiency virus transmission. (4/30267)

BACKGROUND: Estimation of the risk of vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been complicated by the lack of a reliable diagnostic test for paediatric HIV infection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted to identify all statistical methods that have been used to estimate HIV vertical transmission risk. Although the focus of this article is the analysis of birth cohort studies, ad hoc studies are also reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: The standard method for estimating HIV vertical transmission risk is biased and inefficient. Various alternative analytical approaches have been proposed but all involve simplifying assumptions and some are difficult to implement. However, early diagnosis/exclusion of infection is now possible because of improvements in polymerase chain reaction technology and complex estimation methods should no longer be required. The best way to analyse studies conducted in breastfeeding populations is still unclear and deserves attention in view of the many intervention studies being planned or conducted in developing countries.  (+info)

Demographic, clinical and social factors associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and other sexually transmitted diseases in a cohort of women from the United Kingdom and Ireland. MRC Collaborative Study of women with HIV. (5/30267)

BACKGROUND: Clinical experience suggests many women with HIV infection have experienced no other sexually transmitted diseases (STD). Our objective was to test the hypothesis that a substantial proportion of women with HIV infection in the United Kingdom and Ireland have experienced no other diagnosed STD and to describe the demographic, clinical and social factors associated with the occurrence of other STD in a cohort of HIV infected women. METHOD: Analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a prospective study of 505 women with diagnosed HIV infection. The setting was 15 HIV treatment centres in the United Kingdom and Ireland. The main outcome measures were occurrence of other STD diagnosed for the first time before and after HIV diagnosis. Data were obtained from interview with women and clinic notes. We particularly focused on occurrence of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis after HIV diagnosis, as these are the STD most likely to reflect recent unprotected sexual intercourse. RESULTS: The women were mainly infected via heterosexual sex (n = 304), and injection drug use (n = 174). 151 were black Africans. A total of 250 (49.5%) women reported never having been diagnosed with an STD apart from HIV, 255 (50.5%) women had ever experienced an STD besides HIV, including 109 (21.6%) who had their first other STD diagnosed after HIV. Twenty-five (5%) women reported having had chlamydia, gonorrhoea or trichomoniasis diagnosed for the first time after HIV diagnosis, possibly reflecting unprotected sexual intercourse since HIV diagnosis. In all 301 (60%) women reported having had sex with a man in the 6 months prior to entry to the study. Of these, 168 (58%) reported using condoms 'always', 66(23%) 'sometimes' and 56 (19%) 'never'. CONCLUSIONS: Half the women in this study reported having never experienced any other diagnosed STD besides HIV. However, after HIV diagnosis most women remain sexually active and at least 5% had an STD diagnosed which reflect unprotected sexual intercourse.  (+info)

Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (6/30267)

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

Short course antiretroviral regimens to reduce maternal transmission of HIV.(7/30267)

 (+info)

Clinical experience and choice of drug therapy for human immunodeficiency virus disease. (8/30267)

To determine if providers experienced in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease preferred different treatment regimens than providers with less experience, we analyzed data from a national survey of primary care providers' preferred regimens for the management of 30 HIV-related medical conditions. We mailed questionnaires to 999 correct addresses of providers in > 20 cities in the United States in May 1996. We received 524 responses (response rate, 52%). We found a statistically significant association between the number of HIV-infected patients cared for by the provider and the likelihood that the provider would report prescribing highly active antiretroviral therapy and multidrug combinations for treatment of opportunistic infections. Providers with few HIV-infected patients were substantially less likely to report using new therapeutic regimens or new diagnostic tools. We concluded that the preferred regimens of experienced providers are more likely to be consistent with the latest information on treatment for HIV disease than are those of less experienced providers.  (+info)

  • 3 Consequently, the disclosure of a diagnosis of HIV infection/AIDS to a child is becoming an increasingly common clinical issue. (aappublications.org)
  • Data from several centers indicate that between 25% and 90% of school-age children with HIV infection/AIDS have not been told they are infected. (aappublications.org)
  • 7-9 Some of the reasons given by family members for not disclosing HIV infection/AIDS status are similar to reasons expressed by parents of children with other serious diseases, which include concerns about the impact that disclosure may have on a child's emotional health and fear by the parents that the knowledge will negatively affect a child's will to live. (aappublications.org)
  • MSM in the United States are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, and rates of viral suppression among MSM are quite low. (nih.gov)
  • The U.S. National HIV/AIDS Strategy calls for 90 percent of people living with HIV to be diagnosed, 90 percent of those diagnosed to be on antiretroviral treatment, and 90 percent of those in treatment to be virally suppressed by 2020. (nih.gov)
  • Turning the tide on HIV will require a combination of evidence-based approaches," said Dianne Rausch, Ph.D., director of the Division of AIDS Research at NIMH. (nih.gov)
  • HIV Infection and AIDS The incidence of HIV/AIDS in Minnesota remains moderately low. (mn.us)
  • As of December 31, 2015, a cumulative total of 11,007 cases of HIV infection (6,499 AIDS cases and 4,508 HIV [non- AIDS] cases) had been reported among Minnesota residents. (mn.us)
  • By the end of 2015, an estimated 8,215 persons with HIV/AIDS were assumed to be living in Minnesota. (mn.us)
  • In 2015, 141 new AIDS cases (Figure 4), and 89 deaths among persons living with HIV infection, were reported. (mn.us)
  • The number of HIV (non-AIDS) diagnoses has remained fairly constant over the past decade from 2005 through 2015, at approximately 247 cases per year. (mn.us)
  • With a peak of 282 newly diagnosed HIV (non-AIDS) cases in 2009, 228 new HIV (non-AIDS) cases were reported in 2015 (a decrease of 4% from 2014). (mn.us)
  • Historically, and in 2015, over 80% (255/294) of new HIV diagnoses (both HIV [non-AIDS] and AIDS at first diagnosis) occurred in the metropolitan area. (mn.us)
  • However, HIV or AIDS cases have been diagnosed in residents of 86 counties statewide. (mn.us)
  • Despite relatively small numbers of cases, persons of color are disproportionately affected by HIV/ AIDS in Minnesota. (mn.us)
  • The ongoing HIV prevention program - in Uganda's rural Rakai District on the shore of Lake Victoria - has been funded by the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), set up in 2004 by the George W. Bush administration. (aspph.org)
  • More still needs to be done to end the AIDS epidemic by addressing challenges in financing, tools and their accessibility to those who need them, community knowledge through increased number of advocates at the local and regional level in HIV Prevention Research Advocacy. (wacihealth.org)
  • The Biomedical HIV Prevention Forum held on 3rd December 2017 as a pre- conference of the international Conference on AIDS and STIs in Africa ICASA in Abidjan Cote D'Ivoire. (wacihealth.org)
  • Achieving moderate reduction of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) will depend on significantly increasing the percentage of HIV-infected MSM whose viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels, according to a new mathematical model based on data from Baltimore. (nih.gov)
  • To reduce HIV incidence by 20 percent after 10 years, a smaller increase in viral suppression-8 percentage points over that period-would be needed. (nih.gov)
  • The new model predicts that meeting these "90-90-90" targets would require 75 percent of all HIV-infected MSM to be virally suppressed by 2020 and would lead to a 50 percent reduction in HIV incidence. (nih.gov)
  • A steep drop in the local incidence of new HIV infections accompanied the rollout of a U.S.-funded anti-HIV program in a large East African population, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. (aspph.org)
  • Each different medication attacks the HIV at a different level with the aim that this stops the virus from spreading amongst the cells of your immune system. (healthshare.com.au)
  • BOSTON - The HIV infection rate has doubled among blacks in the United States over a decade while holding steady among whites - stark evidence of a widening racial gap in the epidemic, government scientists said Friday. (amren.com)
  • Achieving and maintaining viral suppression is essential both for individual health and to reduce HIV transmission within the community," said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D. "Developing and validating strategies to enhance the engagement of men who have sex with men living with HIV in care and treatment is essential for controlling the HIV epidemic in this critical population in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Facilitate and coordinate African led advocacy for HIV Prevention Research towards ending the HIV epidemic in Africa. (wacihealth.org)
  • Conclusions: Early in HIV infection, increases of Cho/Cr and MI/Cr in treatment-naive participants suggest progressive inflammation and gliosis in the frontal white matter and parietal gray matter, which is attenuated after initiation of ART. (elsevier.com)
  • Additional reasons often given by parents of HIV-infected children include a sense of guilt about having transmitted infection to the child, anger from the child related to knowledge of perinatal transmission, and fear of inadvertent disclosure by the child. (aappublications.org)
  • These measures are known to reduce HIV transmission and acquisition at an individual level, but their population-wide impact over time in a real-world context has been less clear. (aspph.org)
  • Results: Fifty-three participants recruited at median 3.7 months post HIV transmission were followed a median 6.0 months. (elsevier.com)
  • Researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) will present their results on Oct. 19 at the HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2016 conference in Chicago. (nih.gov)
  • The African region also accounts for almost two-thirds of the global total of new HIV infections, according to the World Health Organization, with 25.6 million people in the region living with HIV in 2016. (aspph.org)
  • The landscape of HIV response has changed over the years with the development of rapid response and user-friendly HIV test kits, affordable and effective antiretroviral drugs, and impactful prevention tools such as voluntary medical male circumcision and oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). (wacihealth.org)
  • The program provides multiple free services, including anti-HIV drugs for infected people, voluntary safe male circumcision, condoms and promotion of risk-reduction sexual practices. (aspph.org)
  • Access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are key to sustained HIV suppression, which dramatically reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to others. (nih.gov)
  • It bears noting that race is not considered a biological cause of disparities in the occurrence of HIV, but instead race can be used as a proxy for other risk factors, including lower socioeconomic status and education. (mn.us)
  • HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The harsh reality is that many Black men, especially in the age range most severely affected by HIV (13 yrs - 29yrs), are also at risk of not completing a high school education. (joltleft.com)
  • HPTN 078 began enrolling participants earlier this year to assess an HIV prevention strategy that includes identifying MSM living with HIV who are not virally suppressed, getting them into care, and helping them achieve and maintain viral suppression. (nih.gov)
  • HPTN 078 is enrolling HIV-infected MSM in Baltimore and three other U.S. cities with a high HIV burden-Atlanta, Birmingham and Boston. (nih.gov)
  • We anticipate that the HPTN 078 study will provide important data to advance the evidence base on how to strengthen viral suppression in this community to save lives and prevent HIV infections. (nih.gov)
  • HPTN 078 is testing a new strategy to find, engage, treat and retain MSM who are living with HIV and not virally suppressed. (nih.gov)
  • While the decline in new infections is welcome, 'if we do a better job of getting resources and programs to where they will make most impact, quicker progress can be made and more lives saved,' said Michael Sidibe, executive director of UNAIDS in Geneva, Switzerland. (cnn.com)
  • The UNAIDS report notes that 26 states saw the annual number of new HIV infections among adults and adolescents fall by 50% or more between 2001 and 2012, but many others have not had similar success, underscoring "the importance of intensifying prevention efforts. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The statistics suggest that Swaziland has reached the UNAIDS 90-90-90 Fast-Track Goals of getting 73% of all people living with HIV virally suppressed. (avert.org)
  • Not only can we meet the 2015 target of 15 million people on HIV treatment-we must also go beyond and have the vision and commitment to ensure no one is left behind," said Michel Sidibé, Executive Director of UNAIDS. (unric.org)
  • The dramatic reductions - in Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa and Zambia - mean tens of thousands more babies are now being born free of HIV, UNAIDS said in a report on its Global Plan to tackle the disease in around 20 of the worst affected countries. (newsmax.com)
  • The progress in the majority of countries is a strong signal that with focused efforts every child can be born free from HIV,' said Michel Sidibé, UNAIDS' executive director. (newsmax.com)
  • Among places causing concern, UNAIDS said, are Angola and Nigeria, where new infections in children have increased and remained unchanged respectively since 2009. (newsmax.com)
  • Botswana and South Africa have reduced mother to child HIV transmission rates to 5 percent or less, according to UNAIDS. (newsmax.com)
  • The combination antigen/antibody assay becomes reactive approximately 2-3 weeks after HIV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • It is estimated that 99% of people will develop a reactive combination antigen/antibody result within 6 weeks of infection, but in rare cases, it can take up to 6 months to develop a reactive test result. (cdc.gov)
  • Emtricitabine and lamivudine show efficacy against HBV infection in both hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive and HBeAg-negative patients, but these medications are associated with greater development of resistance. (medscape.com)
  • Recent progress in diagnostic test development includes the availabilily of reliable HIV p-24 antigen capture assays with improved sensitivity due lo the elimination of immune complexes of antibody and p-24 antigen and enhanced specificity due lo the availabilily of confirmatory (neutralizing) reagents. (hindawi.com)
  • HIV-1 infection as documented by ELISA and confirmed by either Western blot, HIV-1 culture, HIV-1 antigen, plasma HIV-1 RNA by RT-PCR or bDNA at any time prior to study entry. (pfizer.com)
  • Standard anti-HIV IgG antibody tests cannot be used to reliably indicate a child's infection status before 18 months of age, so viral antigen tests are used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our trial examined whether large scale, targeted and rapid introduction of PrEP in a big population would reduce the incidence of HIV in the whole population," said lead author Andrew Grulich, head of the HIV Epidemiology and Prevention Program at the Kirby Institute at the University of New South Wales. (reuters.com)
  • New HIV infections ("HIV incidence") refers to the estimated number of people who are newly infected with HIV during a year, which is different from the number of people diagnosed with HIV during a year. (thebody.com)
  • The findings come from the second Population HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey (SHIMS 2), and are the first to show the impact of the scale-up to 'Treat All' in a high-burden setting. (avert.org)
  • Dr. Greenberg said the new figures were calculated using a mix of HIV surveillance data and statistical modeling procedures to update estimates that last suggested HIV incidence, at the end of 2000, ranging between 850,000 and 950,000. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The first trial to assess whether preventative treatment with HIV drugs could affect rates of HIV infection in people who inject drugs has found that daily tablets of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir), an antiretroviral drug, reduced HIV incidence by nearly half compared to placebo, according to new results published Online First in The Lancet . (elsevier.com)
  • The organization based its recommendation on three randomized clinical trials in Africa that found the incidence of HIV was 60 percent lower in men who were circumcised. (scientificamerican.com)
  • According to epidemiological animal health data, cryptosporidiosis is a major problem in cattle, where the majority of infections occur in fattening units, in multiple suckler beef herds and in dairy farms with multiple-cow maternity facilities (Reynolds et al. (fao.org)
  • It has been shown that a prepatent and a patent period ranging from 3-6 days and 4-13 days respectively, occur following an experimental C. parvum infection in neonatal calves (Fayer et al. (fao.org)
  • And in Swaziland in southern Africa, more than two-thirds of adult infections occur in people 25 and older, but few programs are aimed at those adults, the report said. (cnn.com)
  • This can all occur before a person tests positive for HIV. (thebody.com)
  • If you feel like you have the flu and you had a potential HIV medicines to prevent or treat HIV . This can also occur when sharing needles or works, including cottons, cookers, or rinse water.">exposure in the past month, talk to your health care provider about what Enter your ZIP code here to find free, fast, and confidential testing near you. Click here to find contact information for your local health department. Call 1-800-458-5231 to find a confidential HIV testing site near you. Send a text message from your mobile phone with your ZIP code to KnowIt (566948) and receive a return text with an HIV testing site near you. Some sites may offer free tests. ">type of HIV test you should take and what its window period is. (cdc.gov)
  • But it's not yet clear, according to Hardy, whether antibody infusions could be realistically adopted in the low-income countries where most HIV infections occur. (medicinenet.com)
  • Some of the opportunistic infections that can occur are cytomegalovirus infection, cryptococcal meningitis , Cryptosporidium diarrhea, Pneumocystic jiroveci pneumonia (previously called Pneumocystic carinii pneumonia or PCP), Toxoplasma encephalitis , tuberculosis , and herpesvirus infections. (rxlist.com)
  • Infection with HPV is generally believed to be required for cervical cancer to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were 2.3 million new HIV infections worldwide, down from 2.5 million in 2011 and down 33% from the 3.4 million in 2001. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The drop in new infections was observed in both adults and children but was more marked in children -- 260 000 in 2012, down 52% from the 550,000 in 2001. (medpagetoday.com)
  • On the other hand, researchers and CDC officials conceded that the 2001 goal of reducing new infections by 50% by the year 2005 had not been accomplished. (medpagetoday.com)
  • New HIV infections among adults and children were estimated at 2.3 million in 2012, a 33% reduction since 2001. (unric.org)
  • New HIV infections among children have been reduced to 260 000 in 2012, a reduction of 52% since 2001. (unric.org)
  • Through June 2001, HIV surveillance data suggest that more than one-half of all HIV-infected adolescent males are infected through sex with men. (nih.gov)
  • They are called "opportunistic" because a person may get the infection when their weakened immune system gives it the opportunity to develop. (webmd.com)
  • If you have HIV, treating it early with antiretroviral medicines will help your immune system and allow you to stay in good health. (webmd.com)
  • But untreated HIV, over the course of years, will harm your immune system and can lead to opportunistic infections. (webmd.com)
  • Opportunistic" means they take advantage of the weaker immune system of someone with HIV. (webmd.com)
  • Take your HIV medicines and see your doctor regularly to make sure that they are working and that your immune system remains strong. (webmd.com)
  • It will help you avoid the serious consequences of infection as well as preserve your immune system. (webmd.com)
  • Your doctor might also prescribe medication to prevent the infection from coming back, and if your immune system recovers, you may be able to stop taking that. (webmd.com)
  • The lining of the intestine -- an important part of the immune system -- also loses a significant number of CD4 cells within 4 to 6 weeks after infection. (thebody.com)
  • At first, the immune system produces white blood cells that recognize and kill HIV-infected cells. (thebody.com)
  • Investigating the role of the innate immune system in early viral infection, and focusing on the potential roles of natural killer (NK) cells, we have discovered complex interactions involving several cytokines that support NK activation, including IL-2, IL-18 and IL-12. (fda.gov)
  • They used a substance secreted by the immune system known as interleukin 15 (IL-15) to boost the mitochondrial activity of non-controllers' cells and increase their anti-HIV potential. (news-medical.net)
  • HIV entry into mature T-helper cells (cells essential to the immune system) proceeds by attachment of the virus to specific targets on T-helper cells, uptake of the virus, fusion of its envelope with the cell membranes, and release of the virus into the cells. (redorbit.com)
  • HIV kills immune system cells. (scientificamerican.com)
  • I am only HIV positive I have no symptom, but I would like to keep my condition as present, what can I do for my immune system? (bio.net)
  • The goal of blocking the toxin with maraviroc or other agents is to enable the immune system to better control the infection. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) infection is caused by a virus that attacks the T-cells of the human immune system. (medicinenet.com)
  • Scientists at Johns Hopkins report that compounds they hoped would "wake up" dormant reservoirs of HIV inside immune system T cells -- a strategy designed to reverse latency and make the cells vulnerable to destruction -- have failed to do so in laboratory tests of such white blood cells taken directly from patients infected with HIV. (eurekalert.org)
  • While inactive, the dormant HIV lurks in the cells but does not replicate in the amounts needed to produce proteins that can be recognized by the immune system. (eurekalert.org)
  • Without that recognition, the immune system cannot eliminate the last remaining HIV from the body. (eurekalert.org)
  • HIV, an enveloped positive-strand RNA virus in the Retroviridae family. (cdc.gov)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has spread worldwide, with various adverse health and economic implications, particularly in the developing world. (harvard.edu)
  • The goal of this curriculum is to provide an evidence-based online curriculum for healthcare providers and trainers of healthcare providers to increase their knowledge on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection among people of color in the United States and its territories. (aidsetc.org)
  • 1 Neuropathies associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection account for an increasing number of cases. (aafp.org)
  • In the first few days after becoming infected with HIV a person has extremely high amounts of HIV in the blood, meaning he or she can transmit the virus to others much more readily, Morris and his team note. (reuters.com)
  • However, that area remains the region hardest-hit by the virus, accounting for 67 percent of infections worldwide, the report said. (cnn.com)
  • Clinical manifestations of acute infection with human immunodeficiency virus in a cohort of gay men. (medscape.com)
  • Current Practices of Screening for Incident Hepatitis C Virus Infection among HIV- Infected, HCV-Uninfected Individuals in Primary Care. (medscape.com)
  • Disparities in the Magnitude of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related Opportunistic Infections Between High and Low/Middle-income Countries: Is Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Changing the Trend? (medscape.com)
  • How long this stage lasts depends on how quickly the HIV virus copies itself, and how the person's genes affect the way the body handles the virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Peripheral nerve complications in patients infected with HIV usually result from the virus itself, or are due to some of the antiretroviral drugs (zalcitabine, didanosine or stavudine). (nih.gov)
  • We study blood-borne viruses belonging to two classes: retroviruses (including simple retroviruses as well as complex retrovirus such as Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV) and flaviviruses (West Nile Virus - WNV - and dengue virus - DV). (fda.gov)
  • We study blood-borne and/or bioterrorism viral agents belonging to two classes: retroviruses (primarily Human Immunodeficiency Virus - HIV, but also simple retroviruses) and flaviviruses (primarily West Nile Virus - WNV - and dengue virus - DV). (fda.gov)
  • Also searched for Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome , HIV , and Human Immunodeficiency Virus . (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • During the acute period of infection, the level of virus in a person's blood is very high as their body is not yet able to mount an immune response. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Most people contract HIV after coming into contact with body fluids that contain the virus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The virus is usually spread from person to person as a result of having sex or sharing needles with someone who has HIV. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • During the five-year period 1984-1988 we received 192 specimens from 180 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) for investigation of Legionella infection. (springer.com)
  • A participant in research into HIV infections is tested for the virus. (allafrica.com)
  • 73% of all people living with HIV in Swaziland , both diagnosed and undiagnosed, now have an undetectable viral load - meaning they cannot transmit the virus to others. (avert.org)
  • A German pop singer who confessed to knowingly exposing two men to the risk of HIV after finding out she had the virus herself was convicted by a court Thursday of grievous bodily harm. (ibtimes.com)
  • When people have acute infection, they're much more likely to transmit HIV to others because the amount of virus in their blood is very high. (cdc.gov)
  • Some here to find contact information for your local health department.">health care providers may not know about the NAT, but it can detect the virus earlier than any other test, about 10 days after infection. (cdc.gov)
  • This typically happens many years after an initial infection with the virus. (rxlist.com)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus transmitted by body fluids. (rxlist.com)
  • Effect of daily aciclovir on HIV disease progression in individuals in Rakai, Uganda, co-infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. (medscape.com)
  • Lower human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 2 viral load reflects the difference in pathogenicity of HIV-1 and HIV-2. (medscape.com)
  • An early test of a new drug and method of blocking HIV infection suggests they could overcome one of the biggest obstacles to combating the virus by keeping people on their medication, according to research released Tuesday. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Newer versions of the HIV test have made this 'window' even shorter by testing for parts of the virus directly. (zocdoc.com)
  • The UK's National Physical Laboratory (NPL) with the University of Edinburgh and IBM's TJ Watson Research Center have published new research about the structure of an HIV-1 protein that could help to develop new drugs to stop the virus infecting healthy cells. (redorbit.com)
  • The research provides a new insight into how the changes in structure of a small part of an HIV protein (a membrane proximal peptide) may alter the infection of the virus into healthy cells. (redorbit.com)
  • Positive results were found in the blood tests of hundreds of people for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after a mass screening was undertaken between April 26 and June 6 in Ratodero, a small town on the outskirts of the city of Larkana. (arabnews.com)
  • Authorities in Pakistan realized there was an HIV outbreak in Ratodero when Dr. Arbani raised the alarm in April this year after 18 local children tested positive for the virus. (arabnews.com)
  • During the course of infection, HIV fuses onto a target immune cell and delivers its capsid -- a cone that holds the genetic material of the virus -- into the cell's cytoplasm. (eurekalert.org)
  • Raltegravir stops HIV late in its life cycle, just before the virus integrates into the human chromosome. (scientificamerican.com)
  • During the HIV infection, several mutants of the virus arise, which are able to use different chemokine receptors, in particular the CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors (termed R5 and X4 phenotypes, respectively). (springer.com)
  • Since the first cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were identified, the number of children infected with HIV has risen dramatically in developing countries, the result of an increased number of HIV-infected women of childbearing age in these areas. (medscape.com)
  • Genome layout of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and HIV-2. (medscape.com)
  • Scientists and engineers have identified a critical cancer-causing component for the first time in the virus that causes Kaposi's sarcoma, the most common cancer among HIV-infected people. (medindia.net)
  • It is estimated that over 15 million people are suffering from the disease and many more are harboring the dreaded Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (medindia.net)
  • EVs from HIV-infected cells are believed to form in much the same way as a new virus forms (link is external). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Under federal guidelines, prime candidates for preventive use of Truvada include some gay and bisexual men with multiple sexual partners, and anyone who does not have HIV but has an ongoing sexual relationship with someone who has the virus. (voanews.com)
  • Despite our high hopes, none of the compounds we tested in HIV-infected cells taken directly from patients activated the latent virus," says Robert F. Siliciano, M.D., Ph.D., a professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator. (eurekalert.org)
  • The dormant virus is found in roughly one of every million white blood cells in someone with HIV. (eurekalert.org)
  • Typical models have used white blood cells infected with HIV in a test tube that are then cultured until the virus becomes latent. (eurekalert.org)
  • They also created a yardstick by which to judge future successes with perhaps other compounds or combinations of therapies: If a T cell is activated in an HIV-infected person, that cell produces virus at the maximum level, essentially the equivalent of a 100-fold increase in viral RNA production. (eurekalert.org)
  • The implications of a possible link between hormonal injections and the virus alarm both HIV and birth control campaigners…" (Boseley, 1/8). (kff.org)
  • Mount Sinai School of Medicine researchers have demonstrated that a gel applied in the vagina provides protection from both the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the herpes simplex Virus. (scienceblog.com)
  • Most current drugs against viral infections target the virus itself. (news-medical.net)
  • Studying the impact of gene disruptions in pairs rather than one by one yields important information on how genes work together to mediate virus infection, highlighting processes we can target with drugs to inhibit infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Gordon, in collaboration with a student from University College Dublin, Ariane Watson, had to modify it to study virus infection. (news-medical.net)
  • Male IDUs who have sex with men in England, Wales and Northern Ireland: are they at greater risk of bloodborne virus infection and harm than those who only have sex with women? (bmj.com)
  • The number of adolescents living with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is estimated to be much higher. (nih.gov)
  • Most adolescents recently infected with HIV are exposed to the virus through sexual intercourse. (nih.gov)
  • Reuters Health) - An HIV-prevention drug pill, dubbed PrEP, dramatically reduced new infections in a large group of high risk gay men, Australian researchers report. (reuters.com)
  • Although HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) had been shown to be effective in past clinical trials, the Australian researchers write in The Lancet HIV that the current study looks at the impact of the medication in a more real-world situation. (reuters.com)
  • This complicates interpretation of tests that researchers use to predict if a specific variant of HIV will be resistant to a specific anti-viral drug. (fda.gov)
  • Other studies have tested the benefits of home HIV tests but the current one is the first internet-based effort with a mail-order advantage, the researchers said. (ap.org)
  • There is a need to overcome the fragmentation of research agendas related to the various aspects of HIV and its co-infections and co-morbidities by promoting interdisciplinary research and bringing together researchers from diverse fields together. (iasociety.org)
  • The new drug, islatravir, and the implant were developed by the drug company Merck and described at a news conference at an international gathering of HIV researchers in Mexico City. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Researchers said the dapivirine vaginal ring could have more success at controlling the spread of HIV because women can fully control its use, unlike condoms. (upi.com)
  • For the study, published in the New England Journal of Medicine , researchers in the ASPIRE study enrolled 2,629 women at 15 health clinics in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe between the ages of 18 and 45 who were at high risk for HIV infection, giving them either the dapivirine ring or a placebo. (upi.com)
  • When researchers did not count results from two sites with lower numbers of patients continuing to participate or following instructions, the infection rate among women using the ring was 37 percent lower than the placebo group. (upi.com)
  • The researchers found women older than 25 had a 61 percent lower risk of HIV infection, because younger women used the ring less consistently, based on lower levels of the drug found in blood tests. (upi.com)
  • If safe and effective, it could become a two-in-one device: researchers are developing a dapivirine ring with birth control to prevent both HIV and pregnancy. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The researchers suspect that in uncircumcised men, these bacteria may provoke inflammation in the genitalia, thereby improving the chances that immune cells will be in the vicinity for HIV viruses to infect. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Once the researchers identify the anaerobic species, the plan is to determine which can create an inflammatory environment that favors HIV infection, Gray says. (scientificamerican.com)
  • HIV appears to enlist the aid of nano-sized structures released by infected cells to infect new cells, according to a study by researchers at the National Institutes of Health. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the current study, the NICHD researchers isolated HIV and EVs from infected cultures, separated the two, and then tested the ability of HIV to infect new cultures - both in the presence of EVs and on its own. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When the researchers added the EV-depleted sample to blocks of human lymphatic tissue, HIV infections in the cultures were 55 percent lower, compared to a control sample that retained EVs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The researchers believe that the loss of the gp120 that would have been provided by the EVs (had they not been removed from the HIV cultures) was responsible for the drop in HIV infection. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While EVs lack the HIV RNA to infect a cell, the researchers theorize that the gp120 on the EV surface can interact with the host cell, allowing HIV to infect it more easily. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because cells with latent HIV are so rare and difficult to retrieve from infected people, researchers have used engineered latent HIV cell models to test HDAC inhibitors in the past, says study co-author Janet D. Siliciano, Ph.D., an associate professor of medicine at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers conducted a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study among 20 HIV-infected women to assess the antiviral activity of PRO 2000 in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid collected before and one hour after administration of a single intravaginal dose of PRO 2000 gel or a matched placebo gel. (scienceblog.com)
  • These types of laws are typically overly broad, and enforced in ways that reinforce stigma and inequality against the most marginalized people in our country," said Trevor Hoppe, a professor of sociology at the University at Albany, SUNY, and author of " Punishing Disease: HIV and the Criminalization of Sickness . (healthline.com)
  • If a person's HIV level is so low that it isn't possible to transmit the disease to a partner, are they obligated to disclose that information? (healthline.com)
  • Unless they use antiretroviral drugs (ARVs), their HIV disease will progress. (thebody.com)
  • Davis, G. S., Winn, W. C. Legionnaires' disease: Respiratory infections caused by Legionella bacteria. (springer.com)
  • The response to HIV, especially in resource-limited settings, has provided many lessons that can give orientation for the scale up of care in other disease areas, in particular HIV co-infections and co-morbidities. (iasociety.org)
  • But there is no reason for anyone to die from this curable disease, and all should commit to intensify and accelerate TB/HIV efforts to save the millions at risk. (iasociety.org)
  • Here we examine the relationship between Th17 cells and HIV disease pathogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention now estimates that by the end of 2003 between 1,039,000 to 1,185,000 HIV-infected persons are living in the United States," said Alan Greenberg, M.D., acting director for science in the Division of HIV/AID Prevention. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There were a total of 71 HIV infections in the dapivirine group and 97 in the placebo group -- a 27 percent reduction in spread of the disease. (upi.com)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evaluated the gel in macaques in March and found it highly effective in preventing infection up to three hours after exposure. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Today, two years after his transplantation, he is still without any signs of HIV disease and without antiretroviral medication. (slashdot.org)
  • The authors and contributors are all specialists on HIV and research to find alternative means of treating this disease without the use of highly toxic medicines. (bio.net)
  • SETTING: In countries with high HIV rates, diagnosis of lower respiratory disease etiology is both challenging and clinically important. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The CDC Classification System for HIV Infection is the medical classification system used by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to classify HIV disease and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • This classification system is how the United States agency, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) classifies HIV disease and infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the additional knowledge of the progression of HIV disease among children, a revised classification system for HIV infection in children was developed in 1994 that replaced the pediatric HIV classification system that was published in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the new system, HIV-infected children are classified into mutually exclusive categories according to three parameters: a) infection status b) clinical status c) immunologic status This classification system reflects the stage of the child's disease, establishes mutually exclusive classification categories, and balances simplicity and medical accuracy in the classification process. (wikipedia.org)
  • 9, 10, 11) The clinical presentation of HIV related diseases may be modified by HAART, which has dramatically improved the prognosis of HIV infection. (harvard.edu)
  • The infection often seems to be subclinical and according to clinical findings, it seems that Cryptosporidium has a minor pathogenic effect in healthy individuals. (fao.org)
  • The most common clinical signs of Cryptosporidium infection are profuse and watery diarrhoea. (fao.org)
  • This stage is also called chronic HIV infection or clinical latency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Assays for determining the antiviral sensitivity of HIV to specific drugs and for phenotyping viral isolates have been developed in research centres and are presently being introduced into clinical laboratories across Canada. (hindawi.com)
  • An NIAID-run clinical trial is starting in sub-Saharan Africa, looking at whether VRC01 infusions can prevent HIV infection in women at high risk. (medicinenet.com)
  • Morbidity and aging in HIV-infected persons: the swiss HIV cohort study," Clinical Infectious Diseases , vol. 53, no. 11, pp. 1130-1139, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • Gray, who is also working with one of the three randomized clinical trials on which WHO based its recommendation, adds that, 'If we can show that these anaerobic bacteria are associated with HIV, then one could develop microbicides -antiseptics or targeted antibiotics -that might provide protection. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection was quite common despite clinical suspicion of TB, and sputum induction and PCR did not significantly improve our ability to diagnose TB, although clinical presentation had some predictive value. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • They can avoid sexual encounters with people whose HIV status is unknown, and use condoms consistently and correctly with all partners who are HIV infected or whose HIV status is unknown. (cdc.gov)
  • Critics of the bill also point to cases like one in Scotland , where a man was accused of trying to intentionally infect 10 sexual partners with HIV by sabotaging condoms. (healthline.com)
  • Last week it announced that it planned to start distributing condoms in schools and was considering giving away HIV self-testing kits, triggering an angry reaction from church leaders. (gulf-times.com)
  • Using condoms Use a condom every time you have vaginal or anal sex. Put the condom on after the penis is hard and before the penis touches the vagina or anus. Take the penis out of the vagina or anus right after ejaculating. Throw out the condom right away. ">the right way every time you have sex will reduce your HIV risk. (cdc.gov)
  • The introduction of PrEP for HIV prevention in injecting drug users should be considered as an additional component to accompany other proven prevention strategies like needle exchange programmes, methadone programmes, promotion of safer sex and injecting practices, condoms, and HIV counselling and testing. (elsevier.com)
  • Preexposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) with tenofovir-emtricitabine is highly effective in preventing HIV infection and is recommended as a prevention option for adults at substantial risk of HIV acquisition (see www.cdc.gov/hiv/risk/prep ). (cdc.gov)
  • We center our research efforts for this population on pre-exposure prophylaxis (or PrEP) in pregnancy and repeat HIV testing. (washington.edu)
  • Truvada pills, initially used to treat people with HIV, are a main component of PrEP (pre-exposure prophylaxis), where the drug is used to prevent infection. (voanews.com)
  • Although long-term prophylactic therapy with fluconazole at a dose of 200 mg weekly has been effective in reducing C. albicans colonization and symptomatic VVC, it is not recommended for routine primary prophylaxis in HIV-infected women in the absence of RVVC. (emaxhealth.com)
  • If we can avert 1.1 million new HIV infections in children, we can protect every child from HIV but only if we reach every child,' UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake said. (mid-day.com)
  • Focusing on TB/HIV co-infection is urgently needed in the areas of political commitment (to strengthen political commitment to and policies for TB/HIV co-infection), operational and service integration research (to address urgent TB/HIV operational and service integration research gaps) and awareness and stigma (to raise TB awareness among the HIV community and address TB stigma). (iasociety.org)
  • Stigma is probably still one of the largest factors that impact people who are living with HIV and thinking about getting tested," McAllaster says. (indyweek.com)
  • In other studies we have adapted interferometric techniques to detect HIV-1 p24 with rapid technology suitable for point of care and battlefield use, achieving over a log better sensitivity than EIA. (fda.gov)
  • However, a screening method called nucleic acid amplification testing or detecting an HIV-viral load (the amount of HIV in the bloodstream) can help to detect HIV infection in people who have been recently infected. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • More recently, there has been a focus on treatments that improve nerve function, including recombinant human nerve growth factor and the reduction of HIV viral load with antiretroviral drugs. (nih.gov)
  • As an alternative for women, scientists are testing a new class of antiretroviral drugs, called ARV microbicides, that prevent HIV infection altogether. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Antiretroviral drugs chart A one-page reference guide to the anti-HIV drugs licensed for use in the European Union, with information on formulation, dosing, key side-effects and food restrictions. (aidsmap.com)
  • According to a release from Kyrgyzstan's Health Ministry, the head of the children's section, Tolon Shaynazarov, had been reprimanded in 2005 for the HIV infections of two children at the hospital. (rferl.org)
  • Health officials say the decline in the number of new HIV infections could be attributed to better prevention programs. (cnn.com)
  • Supporters of the reform, which included public health, civil liberties, and LGBT and HIV groups in the state, say this is an important step away from treating people living with HIV as criminals. (healthline.com)
  • It's important to take time to learn about HIV and how best to manage it, as well as thinking about other aspects of your health. (avert.org)
  • Some people have HIV and another long-term health conditions, such as diabetes or epilepsy. (avert.org)
  • As well as staying healthy and looking after your mental health , we can avoid some other infections by having vaccinations where available, or using an insecticide-treated bed net in areas where malaria is common for example. (avert.org)
  • When you're managing another health condition alongside HIV, communicating with the healthcare professionals treating you is important. (avert.org)
  • HIV programmes will represent an opportunity to address these issues, given their strength in countries where health systems are often otherwise weak. (iasociety.org)
  • The HIV Co-Infections and Co-Morbidities initiative contributes to the broader health policy environment, encouraging integration of HIV with co-infections and co-morbidities, and strengthening health and community systems. (iasociety.org)
  • This includes a need for the key concepts from the HIV differentiated service delivery movement to be applied to HIV co-infections and co-morbidities to improve the cascade of care, maximize efficiencies and reduce the burden on health systems. (iasociety.org)
  • Revised recommendations for HIV testing of adults, adolescents, and pregnant women in health-care settings. (medscape.com)
  • Screening for HIV in health care settings: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians and HIV Medicine Association. (medscape.com)
  • The two authorities required local health and education agencies to improve awareness at schools and called for establishment of an infection reporting system and regular consultation mechanism to analyze the cause of infections and formulate countermeasures. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • Sindy Paul, M.D., of the New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services in Trenton, said, "The duration of survival is definitely a component of the increase in people living with HIV. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Health officials say 681 people have tested positive for HIV in Ratodero, of whom 537 are children, since April 25. (arabnews.com)
  • In addition to conducting ASPIRE in conjunction with the National Institutes of Health, the International Partnership for Microbicides also found in The Ring Study that the dapivirine ring decreased HIV infection by 31 percent over a placebo. (upi.com)
  • Since its discovery and characterization, HIV infection has attained extraordinary attention among surgeons and other health care workers (HCWs) as a potential source of occupational infection. (facs.org)
  • Patients have been concerned about their potential risk of exposure to HIV infection from blood transfusions, other patients, health care workers, and surgeons. (facs.org)
  • The World Health Organization declared three years ago that circumcision should be part of any strategy to prevent HIV infection in men. (scientificamerican.com)
  • She helps patients living with HIV in Eastern North Carolina find resources for medical care and tries to identify the obstacles that prevent patients from getting or continuing it: lack of affordable housing, mental health problems, substance abuseand especially insurance. (indyweek.com)
  • If we remove extracellular vesicles from HIV laboratory preparations, we also reduce HIV infection of human tissues in culture," said the study's senior author Leonid Margolis, Ph.D., of the Section of Intercellular Interactions at NIH's Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • From gritty neighborhoods in New York and Los Angeles to clinics in Kenya and Brazil, health workers are trying to popularize a pill that has proven highly effective in preventing HIV but which - in their view - remains woefully underused. (voanews.com)
  • We have to start thinking of it not as a luxury but as an essential public health component of this nation's response to HIV. (voanews.com)
  • Meeting the unique needs of adolescents living with HIV necessitates improvements to the quality, level of engagement, and adherence to HIV care. (washington.edu)
  • Travelers' risk of HIV exposure and infection is determined less by geographic destination and more by the behaviors in which they engage while traveling, such as unprotected sex and injection drug use. (cdc.gov)
  • The earliest time after exposure that HIV infection can be diagnosed is approximately 9 days, when HIV-1 RNA becomes detectable in blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Surgeons are at-risk for exposure to HIV and are concerned about this risk. (facs.org)
  • We believe in enforcing a high standard of infection control and universal precautions, which remain the best strategy for protecting patients and surgeons from accidental exposure. (facs.org)
  • In addition, among HIV-infected women, systemic azole exposure is associated with the isolation of non- albicans Candida species from the vagina. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Mailing free home HIV tests to high-risk men offers a potentially better strategy for detecting infections than usual care. (ap.org)
  • High levels of HIV infection within blood monocyte/macrophages (a type of white cells in the bloodstream) increases risk of dementia in HIV-infected individuals. (pfizer.com)
  • The study hypothesis is that the addition of Maraviroc to a HIV antiretroviral regimen in HIV-infected individuals with high levels of HIV-infected monocyte/macrophages will lead to a decrease in the levels of infected monocyte/macrophages and to decrease in brain inflammation as studied by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, a form of MRI study). (pfizer.com)
  • He also said the Duterte administration appeared, like other governments, not to be looking specifically at the high infection rates among men having sex with men. (gulf-times.com)
  • We demonstrate the potential utility of this HIV-1-based animal model in a chemoprophylaxis experiment, by showing that a commonly used HIV-1 therapeutic regimen can provide apparently sterilizing protection from infection following a rigorous high-dose stHIV-1 challenge. (pnas.org)
  • Right now, Hardy said, the HIV drug Truvada is approved for preventing infection in people at high risk. (medicinenet.com)
  • For example, a young adult with leukemia undergoing chemotherapy is at high risk for many opportunistic infections. (medscape.com)
  • If it is proved safe and successful in larger studies, the method could be a major improvement for people at high risk of contracting HIV who have trouble adhering to the once-a-day pill regimen and other available methods. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Overseas, young women in some African countries where HIV is prevalent also are still being infected at high rates. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The rates of infections among high-risk heterosexuals and other risk groups remained unchanged. (medpagetoday.com)
  • But progress has stalled in some countries with high numbers of new HIV infections. (newsmax.com)
  • In the U.S., there are problems related to Truvada's high cost, lingering skepticism among some doctors and low usage rates among black gays and bisexuals who have the highest rates of HIV infection. (voanews.com)
  • Vaginal Candida colonization rates in HIV-infected women are higher than among seronegative women with similar demographic characteristics and high-risk behaviors, and the colonization rates correlate with increasing severity of immunosuppression. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Malignancies that typically arise as a result of HIV infection include Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. (rxlist.com)
  • Without enough CD4 cells to fight them off, infections can lead to illnesses, cancers, and brain and nerve problems. (webmd.com)
  • Women have a greater chance of getting certain infections like HPV that can lead to cancers of the reproductive system such as cervical cancer. (webmd.com)
  • If you're a woman, get regular pelvic exams and Pap tests to spot infections, precancers, and cancers. (webmd.com)
  • Heterosexuals and people who inject drugs also continue to be affected by HIV. (thebody.com)
  • The intersection of HCV with HIV presents an opportunity to accelerate the global HCV response and to bring increased attention to those disproportionately affected by both diseases, in particular people who inject drugs. (iasociety.org)
  • Legionellosis was not found to be common among HIV-infected patients, as only six specimens (3%) from six patients were found positive by DFA, and no specimens were culture-positive for Legionella species. (springer.com)