External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
A numerical system of measuring the rate of BLOOD GLUCOSE generation from a particular food item as compared to a reference item, such as glucose = 100. Foods with higher glycemic index numbers create greater blood sugar swings.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
Proteins encoded by the ENV GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The membrane system of the CELL NUCLEUS that surrounds the nucleoplasm. It consists of two concentric membranes separated by the perinuclear space. The structures of the envelope where it opens to the cytoplasm are called the nuclear pores (NUCLEAR PORE).
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Virulent bacteriophage and type species of the genus T4-like phages, in the family MYOVIRIDAE. It infects E. coli and is the best known of the T-even phages. Its virion contains linear double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant and circularly permuted.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Specific molecular components of the cell capable of recognizing and interacting with a virus, and which, after binding it, are capable of generating some signal that initiates the chain of events leading to the biological response.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

A functional, discontinuous HIV-1 gp120 C3/C4 domain-derived, branched, synthetic peptide that binds to CD4 and inhibits MIP-1alpha chemokine binding. (1/2856)

This paper describes a branched synthetic peptide [3.7] that incorporates sequence discontinuous residues of HIV-1 gp120 constant regions. The approach was to bring together residues of gp120 known to interact with human cell membranes such that the peptide could fold to mimic the native molecule. The peptide incorporates elements of both the conserved CD4 and CCR5 binding sites. The 3.7 peptide, which cannot be produced by conventional genetic engineering methods, is recognized by antiserum raised to native gp120. The peptide also binds to CD4 and competitively inhibits binding of QS4120 an antibody directed against the CDR2 region of CD4. When preincubated with the CD4+ve MM6 macrophage cell line, which expresses mRNA for the CCR3 and CCR5 chemokine receptors, both 3.7 and gp120 inhibit binding of the chemokine MIP-1alpha. The peptide also inhibits infection of primary macrophages by M-tropic HIV-1. Thus, 3.7 is a prototype candidate peptide for a vaccine against HIV-1 and represents a novel approach to the rational design of peptides that can mimic complex sequence discontinuous ligand binding sites of clinically relevant proteins.  (+info)

Proliferative responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 peptides in HIV-1-infected individuals immunized with HIV-1 rgp120 or rgp160 compared with nonimmunized and uninfected controls. (2/2856)

The proliferative responses to a series of peptides constituting the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 sequence were evaluated in 19 HIV-1-infected rgp160 vaccine recipients, 17 HIV-1-infected rgp120 vaccine recipients, 15 HIV-1-infected placebo recipients, and 18 HIV-1-uninfected controls. Many regions of the gp120 molecule were found to contribute proliferative epitopes, although there were clearly regions of relative dominance and silence. Vaccine recipients tended to have broader, more robust, and more frequent peptide recognition than the placebo recipients. Despite the considerable variability in the pattern of peptide recognition among individuals, there was a striking similarity between the rgp160 and rgp120 vaccinee groups as a whole. Low-risk HIV-1-uninfected individuals may react to a few peptides within the gp120 sequence as well, despite a lack of significant response to the whole gp120 protein.  (+info)

Soluble class I MHC with beta2-microglobulin covalently linked peptides: specific binding to a T cell hybridoma. (3/2856)

Soluble forms of the mouse MHC class I molecule, Dd, were produced in which the peptide binding groove was uniformly occupied by peptides attached via a covalent flexible peptide linker to the N terminus of the associated beta2-microglobulin. The MHC heavy chain and beta2-microglobulin were firmly associated, and the molecules displayed an Ab epitope requiring proper occupancy of the peptide binding groove. Soluble Dd containing a covalent version of a well-characterized Dd-binding peptide from HIV stimulated a T cell hybridoma specific for this combination. Furthermore, a tetravalent version of this molecule bound specifically with apparent high avidity to this hybridoma.  (+info)

Identification of CXCR4 domains that support coreceptor and chemokine receptor functions. (4/2856)

The interaction of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) with its receptor CXCR4 is vital for cell trafficking during development, is capable of inhibiting human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) utilization of CXCR4 as a coreceptor, and has been implicated in delaying disease progression to AIDS in vivo. Because of the importance of this chemokine-chemokine receptor pair to both development and disease, we investigated the molecular basis of the interaction between CXCR4 and its ligands SDF-1 and HIV-1 envelope. Using CXCR4 chimeras and mutants, we determined that SDF-1 requires the CXCR4 amino terminus for binding and activates downstream signaling pathways by interacting with the second extracellular loop of CXCR4. SDF-1-mediated activation of CXCR4 required the Asp-Arg-Tyr motif in the second intracellular loop of CXCR4, was pertussis toxin sensitive, and did not require the distal C-terminal tail of CXCR4. Several CXCR4 mutants that were not capable of binding SDF-1 or signaling still supported HIV-1 infection, indicating that the ability of CXCR4 to function as a coreceptor is independent of its ability to signal. Direct binding studies using the X4 gp120s HXB, BH8, and MN demonstrated the ability of HIV-1 gp120 to bind directly and specifically to the chemokine receptor CXCR4 in a CD4-dependent manner, using a conformationally complex structure on CXCR4. Several CXCR4 variants that did not support binding of soluble gp120 could still function as viral coreceptors, indicating that detectable binding of monomeric gp120 is not always predictive of coreceptor function.  (+info)

Comparison of immunity generated by nucleic acid-, MF59-, and ISCOM-formulated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vaccines in Rhesus macaques: evidence for viral clearance. (5/2856)

The kinetics of T-helper immune responses generated in 16 mature outbred rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) within a 10-month period by three different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine strategies were compared. Immune responses to monomeric recombinant gp120SF2 (rgp120) when the protein was expressed in vivo by DNA immunization or when it was delivered as a subunit protein vaccine formulated either with the MF59 adjuvant or by incorporation into immune-stimulating complexes (ISCOMs) were compared. Virus-neutralizing antibodies (NA) against HIV-1SF2 reached similar titers in the two rgp120SF2 protein-immunized groups, but the responses showed different kinetics, while NA were delayed and their levels were low in the DNA-immunized animals. Antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) T-helper (type 1-like) responses were detected in the DNA-immunized group, but only after the fourth immunization, and the rgp120/MF59 group generated both IFN-gamma and interleukin-4 (IL-4) (type 2-like) responses that appeared after the third immunization. In contrast, rgp120/ISCOM-immunized animals rapidly developed marked IL-2, IFN-gamma (type 1-like), and IL-4 responses that peaked after the second immunization. To determine which type of immune responses correlated with protection from infection, all animals were challenged intravenously with 50 50% infective doses of a rhesus cell-propagated, in vivo-titrated stock of a chimeric simian immunodeficiency virus-HIVSF13 construct. Protection was observed in the two groups receiving the rgp120 subunit vaccines. Half of the animals in the ISCOM group were completely protected from infection. In other subunit vaccinees there was evidence by multiple assays that virus detected at 2 weeks postchallenge was effectively cleared. Early induction of potent type 1- as well as type 2-like T-helper responses induced the most-effective immunity.  (+info)

Distinct human immunodeficiency virus strains in the bone marrow are associated with the development of thrombocytopenia. (6/2856)

We analyzed bone marrow and blood from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals and described the HIV-1 quasispecies in these cellular compartments. HIV-1 isolates from the bone marrow of thrombocytopenic patients contained distinct amino acids in the V3 loop and infected T-cell lines, implicating this virus in the development of thrombocytopenia.  (+info)

Tyrosine sulfation of the amino terminus of CCR5 facilitates HIV-1 entry. (7/2856)

Chemokine receptors and related seven-transmembrane-segment (7TMS) receptors serve as coreceptors for entry of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV) into target cells. Each of these otherwise diverse coreceptors contains an N-terminal region that is acidic and tyrosine rich. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR5, a principal HIV-1 coreceptor, is posttranslationally modified by O-linked glycosylation and by sulfation of its N-terminal tyrosines. Sulfated tyrosines contribute to the binding of CCR5 to MIP-1 alpha, MIP-1 beta, and HIV-1 gp120/CD4 complexes and to the ability of HIV-1 to enter cells expressing CCR5 and CD4. CXCR4, another important HIV-1 coreceptor, is also sulfated. Tyrosine sulfation may contribute to the natural function of many 7TMS receptors and may be a modification common to primate immunodeficiency virus coreceptors.  (+info)

Mucosal events in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. (8/2856)

The interaction between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and primary mucosal cells isolated from normal human small intestine was investigated. Purified primary intestinal epithelial cells could transport cell-free HIV-1 to mononuclear cells, although the epithelial cells did not support viral replication. An unexpected finding was that primary intestinal macrophages were markedly less permissive to HIV-1 than were blood monocytes. The reduced permissiveness appeared to be due to the near absence of surface CCR5 on resident intestinal macrophages. Surface CCR5 could be up-regulated on the monocytes but not the intestinal macrophages by HIV-1 and gp120. Impaired permissiveness of intestinal macrophages to HIV-1 may play an important role in the low prevalence of HIV-1 mRNA-expressing macrophages in the lamina propria during HIV-1 infection in vivo. Characterization of the biologic properties of HIV-1 transport and infection in primary mucosal cells will be key to elucidating the pivotal role of mucosal surfaces in HIV-1 disease.  (+info)

In this study, we have investigated the effect of specific mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) on antibody production in an effort to improve humoral immune responses to this glycoprotein by DNA vaccination. Mice were injected with plasmid expression vectors encoding HIV Env with modifications in regions that might affect this response. Elimination of conserved glycosylation sites did not substantially enhance humoral or cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) immunity. In contrast, a modified gp140 with different COOH-terminal mutations intended to mimic a fusion intermediate and stabilize trimer formation enhanced humoral immunity without reducing the efficacy of the CTL response. This mutant, with deletions in the cleavage site, fusogenic domain, and spacing of heptad repeats 1 and 2, retained native antigenic conformational determinants as defined by binding to known monoclonal antibodies or CD4, oligomer formation, and virus neutralization in vitro. Importantly, ...
The main aim of this project involves characterizing the role of the HIV envelope protein (gp120/41) in the pathogenesis of HIV disease. This effort has include...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attachment to host cells is a multi-step process that involves interaction of the viral envelope gp120 with the primary receptor CD4 and coreceptors. HIV gp120 also binds to other cell surface components, including heparan sulfate (HS), a sulfated polysaccharide whose wide interactive properties are exploited by many pathogens for attachment and concentration at the cell surface. To analyze the structural features of gp120 binding to HS, we used soluble CD4 to constrain gp120 in a specific conformation. We first found that CD4 induced conformational change of gp120, dramatically increasing binding to HS. We then showed that HS binding interface on gp120 comprised, in addition to the well characterized V3 loop, a CD4-induced epitope. This epitope is efficiently targeted by nanomolar concentrations of size-defined heparin/HS-derived oligosaccharides. Because this domain of the protein also constitutes the binding site for the viral coreceptors, these results support an
Chronic pain is increasingly recognized as an important comorbidity of HIV-infected patients, however, the exact molecular mechanisms of HIV-related pain are still elusive. CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are expressed in various tissues, including the central nervous system. C/EBPβ, one of C/EBPs is involved in the progression of HIV/AIDS, but the exact role of C/EBPβ and its upstream factors are not clear in HIV pain state. Here, we used a neuropathic pain model of perineural HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 application onto the rat sciatic nerve to test the role of phosphorylated C/EBPβ (pC/EBPβ) and its upstream pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH ...
To evaluate the safety and immune response to 160 mcg HIV-1 recombinant envelope glycoprotein gp160. To evaluate the duration of antibody response and its relationship to dose and frequency of inoculation.. Evaluation of previous patients who received doses of 40 or 80 mcg gp160 vaccine indicate that, although serum anti-gp160 antibody responses were detected, the level and duration of those responses were limited. A preliminary observation suggests that weak functional antibody responses may develop following the 18 month booster of 40 or 80 mcg; therefore, a dose of gp160 vaccine having potentially greater immunogenicity is of particular interest. ...
Other approaches in addition to existing treatment of HIV infection need to be evaluated. One approach may be to block HIV infection by interrupting the assembly of the virus within the cell or the budding of virus from the membrane of the infected cell. In addition, blocking the attachment of HIV to its cellular receptor may offer another point of attack. HIV binds to the CD4 receptor on the target T4 lymphocyte and the envelope glycoprotein of the virus (gp120) is capable of high affinity binding to CD4. Any agent that prevents the attachment of gp120 to the CD4 receptor should be able to block virus transmission and spread. Recently, scientists have succeeded in producing highly purified recombinant soluble human CD4. Recombinant CD4 is capable of binding to HIV envelope protein (gp120) and inhibiting HIV infectivity in test tube studies. Potential therapeutic benefit in patients with HIV infection could be derived from either or both of these biologic effects. In order to extend the length ...
Author Summary In the first days following sexual transmission, HIV replication occurs initially at relatively low levels in mucosal tissues because of a paucity of CD4+ T cell targets for the virus to infect. After a period of days, virus accesses specific gut tissues that are enriched in activated CD4+ T cells, where near-exponential replication ensues. The period of time before HIV accesses gut tissues represents a window of opportunity where a microbicide, pre-exposure and/or post-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis or a vaccine-induced immune response could block infection. We previously reported that the HIV envelope protein gp120 binds to integrin α4β7 on the surface of CD4+ T cells. α4β7 mediates the homing of CD4+ T cells into the gut tissues where HIV can replicate exponentially. Here we report that the genotypic features that distinguish viruses isolated within the first month after infection, termed early-transmitting isolates, promote increased steady-state reactivity with α4β7. This
The high-affinity in vivo interaction between soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) immunogens and primate CD4 results in conformational changes that alter the immunogenicity of the gp120 subunit. Because the conserved binding site on gp120 that directly interacts with CD4 is a major vaccine target, we sought to better understand the impact of in vivo Env-CD4 interactions during vaccination. Rhesus macaques were immunized with soluble wild-type (WT) Env trimers, and two trimer immunogens rendered CD4 binding defective through distinct mechanisms. In one variant, we introduced a mutation that directly disrupts CD4 binding (368D/R). In the second variant, we introduced three mutations (423I/M, 425N/K, and 431G/E) that disrupt CD4 binding indirectly by altering a gp120 subdomain known as the bridging sheet, which is required for locking Env into a stable interaction with CD4. Following immunization, Env-specific binding antibody titers and frequencies of Env-specific memory B cells were ...
CD4 Antigens: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
1RZG: Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120
1RZ8: Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120
1rzf: Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on gp120.
HIV uses its cover protein complicated, gp120 as well as gp41, in order to selectively hole along with higher affinity in order to its cell receptor protein, CD4, located on the exterior of T cells. This binding in between gp120/gp41 and CD4 is responsible for mediating the procedure regarding virus-like as well as cellular membrane layer fusion as well as eventually facilitating the entry involving HIV into the host cell (Lu et al ). While CD4 is necessary for virus-like entry in to host target cellular material, its not sufficient (Kieny et al ). Lu et s demonstrated that even though interaction among gp120/gp140 and CD4 induces conformational modifications within gp120 that increase the publicity of the third variable loop of env (V3 loop ), it is not sufficient within permitting the membrane layer blend a reaction to happen. The V3 cycle is really a particular amino acid sequence within gp120 thats highly subject to genetic mutation and is critical in order to virus-like admittance. ...
Post-Doctoral Fellow, *Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, *Lunenfeld Tanenbaum Research Institute, Mt. Sinai Hospital, Toronto, *Department of Laboratory Medicine & Pathobiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto ...
gp120 is a subunit of the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1. The third variable loop region of gp120 (V3 loop) contains multiple immunodominant epitopes and is also functionally important for deciding cell-tropism of the virus. 447-52D is a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the conserved tip of the V3 loop in a β-turn conformation. This antibody has previously been shown to neutralize diverse strains of the virus. In an attempt to generate an immunogen competent to generate 447-52D-like antibodies, the known epitope of 447-52D was inserted at three different surface loop locations in the small, stable protein Escherichia coli Trx (thioredoxin). At one of the three locations (between residues 74 and 75), the insertion was tolerated, the resulting protein was stable and soluble, and bound 447-52D with an affinity similar to that of intact gp120. Upon immunization, the V3 peptide-inserted Trx scaffold was able to generate anti-V3 antibodies that could compete out 447-52D binding to gp120. Epitope ...
It is estimated that around 37 million people are living with an HIV infection. The molecule on the surface of HIV that recognises host cells and enables the virus to get inside them is depicted in our calendar image for January.. The env gene of HIV encodes a protein called gp160. Gp160 associates with two other copies of itself to form trimers on the surface of the viral membrane, a location in which it can interact with the outside world. Gp160 is cleaved as the virus is produced to form two mature proteins, gp120 and gp41. These remain together and enable to virus to find and stick to the cells it infects, and to get inside them. This is the first stage in the virus replicating itself- because HIV, like all viruses, needs to get inside a cell and hijack its machinery to reproduce. Gp120 is responsible for binding to a specific receptor on human cell surfaces (a protein called CD4). Gp41 on the other hand drives the huge changes in shape needed to fuse the viral and host membranes. Ebola ...
Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is an antiviral lectin with potent activity against enveloped viruses, including HIV. The mechanism of action involves high affinity binding to mannose-rich glycans that decorate the surface of enveloped viruses. In the case of HIV, antiviral activity of CV-N is postulated to require multivalent interactions with envelope protein gp120, achieved through a pseudo-repeat of sequence that adopts two near-identical glycan-binding sites, and possibly involves a 3D-domain-swapped dimeric form of CV-N. Here, we present a covalent dimer of CV-N that increases the number of active glycan-binding sites, and we characterize its ability to recognize four glycans in solution. A CV-N variant was designed in which two native repeats were separated by the
In this first year we have made considerable progress in achieving our goals. The grant was based on two fundamental observations that led to testable hypotheses. The first was that HIV envelope gp140 trimer, the envelope spike required for infectivity, had a life span in vivo measured in minutes. Additional experiments suggested that Env was progressively metabolized into smaller fragments. We hypothesized that rapid proteolysis destroyed critical antigens. Our experiments were indirect and we turned to direct experimental observations. The Duke Mass Spectroscopy group finds that gp140 is one of the most rapidly proteolized proteins that they have studied. It is broken down into a series of fragments that are then quite stable. We suggest that the observed non-neutralizing antibody response to Env, recognizes these stable fragments. Importantly we find that the membrane proximal segment of gp140 (MPER) is rapidly cleaved from gp140, contributing to the poor response to the MPER. Most ...
Purified Recombinant HIV2 gp120 Protein, His-tagged from Creative Biomart. Recombinant HIV2 gp120 Protein, His-tagged can be used for research.
FIV is a lentivirus that resembles the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The lentiviral envelope glycoproteins (gp41 in HIV and gp36 in FIV) mediate virus entry by interacting with specific receptors present at the cell ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
BOUVIN-PLEY M, MORGAND M, MEYER L, GOUJARD C, MOREAU A, MOUQUET H, NUSSENZWEIG M, PACE C, HO D, BJORKMAN PJ, BATY D, CHAMES P, PANCERA M, KWONG PD, POIGNARD P, BARIN F, BRAIBANT M. Drift of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 toward increased neutralization resistance over the course of the epidemic: a comprehensive study using the most potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. Braibant M. J Virol 2014, 88, 13910-13917 ...
Ovojnični glikoprotein gp41 ali samo gp41 je del beljakovinskega kompleksa na ovojnici virusa HIV in tudi na primer virusa opičje-humane imunske pomankljivosti (SHIV), ki je laboratorijsko pripravljen virus, ki vsebuje komponente virusa HIV in virusa SIV. Glikoprotein gp41 je nekovalentno vezan na ovojnični glikoprotein gp120 in je pomemben pri vstopu virusa v gostiteljevo celico.[1] Nahaja se v virusni ovojnici, vendar ko se gp120 veže na receptor CD4, se gp120 konformacijsko spremeni, kar povzroči, da postane gp41 izpostavljen na površini, kjer potem lahko sodeluje pri zlitju z membrano gostiteljeve celice.. Glikoprotein gp41 je zapisan v genu Env, vendar ta gen nima zapisa posebej za gp41 in za gp120, temveč za skupno predhodniško beljakovino gp160, ki se nato tekom reprodukcije virusa razcepi s pomočjo gostiteljevih encimov na gp120 in gp41.. ...
HIV gp160山羊多克隆抗体(ab117122)经WB, ELISA实验严格验证。中国75%以上现货,所有产品均提供质保服务,可通过电话、电邮或微信获得本地专属技术支持。
RNA (5-R(*UP*UP*GP*CP*GP*UP*CP*AP*CP*AP*CP*CP*GP*GP*UP*GP*AP*AP*GP*UP*CP*GP*C)-3), RNA (5-R(*UP*UP*GP*CP*GP*UP*CP*AP*CP*AP*CP*CP*GP*GP*UP*GP*AP*AP*GP*UP*CP*GP*C)-3 ...
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目的:制备抗人血小板膜糖蛋白Ⅵ(glycoprotein Ⅵ,GPⅥ)多克隆抗体,用于建立流式细胞术(FCM)检测人血小板膜GPⅥ的方法,并观察健康人血小板表面GPⅥ表达情况.方法:以重组融合蛋白为抗原,制备抗人血小板膜GPⅥ多克隆抗体并鉴定其特异性,运用该抗体结合FCM检测101名健康受试者血小板膜GPⅥ.结果:所制备的多克隆抗体BJ010经免疫沉淀技术、ELISA双抗夹心法证实能与血小板裂解液中变性及天然血小板膜GPⅥ结合;经FCM检测证实可识别血小板膜GPⅥ.101名健康受试者血小板膜GPⅥ的平均几何荧光强度的中位数为57.7(28.8~98.0),最大值是最小值的3.5倍,性别间表达无差异.该法日内和日间变异系数分别为6.3%和8.8%.结论:成功制备获得抗人血小板膜GPⅥ多克隆抗体BJ010,并建立了FCM检测血小板膜GPⅥ的方法,该方法简单、快速,为临床研究提供了工具 ...
The Bridging Sheet domain of HIV-1 gp120 is highly conserved among the HIV-1 strains and allows HIV-1 binding to host cells via the HIV-1 coreceptors. Further, the bridging sheet domain is a major target to neutralize HIV-1 infection. We rationally designed four linear peptide epitopes that mimic the three-dimensional structure of bridging sheet by using molecular modeling. Chemically synthesized peptides BS3 and BS4 showed a fair degree of antigenicity when tested in ELISA with IgG purified from HIV+ broadly neutralizing sera while the production of synthetic peptides BS1 and BS2 failed due to their high degree of hydrophobicity. To overcome this limitation, we linked all four BS peptides to the COOH-terminus of GST protein to test both their antigenicity and immunogenicity. Only the BS1 peptide showed good antigenicity; however, no envelope specific antibodies were elicited upon mice immunization. Therefore we performed further analyses by linking BS1 peptide to the NH2-terminus of the E2 scaffold
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein subunits, such as the gp120 exterior glycoprotein, typically elicit antibodies that neutralize T-cell-line-adapted (TCLA), but not primary, clinical isolates of HIV-1. Here we compare the immunogenicity of gp120 and soluble stabilized trimers, which were designed to resemble the functional envelope glycoprotein oligomers of primary and TCLA HIV-1 strains. For both primary and TCLA virus proteins, soluble stabilized trimers generated neutralizing antibody responses more efficiently than gp120 did. Trimers derived from a primary isolate elicited antibodies that neutralized primary and TCLA HIV-1 strains. By contrast, trimers derived from a TCLA isolate generated antibodies that neutralized only the homologous TCLA virus. Thus, soluble stabilized envelope glycoprotein trimers derived from primary HIV-1 isolates represent defined immunogens capable of eliciting neutralizing antibodies that are active against clinically relevant HIV-1 strains.
Molecularly cloned PI and TCLA envelope genes.To understand better the changes that accompany adaptation and those that determine coreceptor utilization and neutralization sensitivity, we molecularly cloned the envelope genes of the 168P and 168C viruses. High-fidelity XL PCR (rTth and Vent DNA polymerases; PE Applied Biosystems) and primers envA and envN (15) were used to amplify a 3.1-kb region of proviral DNA encoding the rev and envelope genes. PCR products were isolated by unidirectional T/A cloning in the eucaryotic expression vector pCR3.1-Uni (Invitrogen). Expression in pCR3.1-Uni is driven by the cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter. Multiple clones were isolated from each virus, and transient transfection studies in COS-7 cells confirmed the surface expression and fusion competence of all clones tested (data not presented).. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that all 168C molecular clones analyzed encoded the three adaptation-associated amino acid changes previously identified by ...
...Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of Te...The weak spot is hidden in the HIV envelope protein gp120. This protei...The Achilles heel a tiny stretch of amino acids numbered 421-433 on g...Paul is the senior author on a paper about this theory in a June issue...,UT,pathologists,believe,they,have,pinpointed,Achilles,heel,of,HIV,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry into target cells is a multistep process initiated by envelope protein gp120 binding to cell surface CD4.
The coexpression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins and receptors leads to the lysis of single cells by a process that is dependent upon membrane fusion. This cell lysis was inhibited by low-molecular-weight compounds that interfere with receptor binding or with receptor-induced conformational transitions in the envelope glycoproteins. A peptide, T20, potently inhibited cell-cell fusion but had no effect on single cell lysis mediated by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins. Thus, critical events in the lysis of single cells by the HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins occur in intracellular compartments accessible only to small inhibitory compounds.
Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. It was discovered by Professors Tun-Hou Lee and Myron Max Essex of the Harvard School of Public Health in 1988. The 120 in its name comes from its molecular weight of 120 kDa. Gp120 is essential for virus entry into cells as it plays a vital role in attachment to specific cell surface receptors. These receptors are DC-SIGN, Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan and a specific interaction with the CD4 receptor, particularly on helper T-cells. Binding to CD4 induces the start of a cascade of conformational changes in gp120 and gp41 that lead to the fusion of the viral with the host cell membrane. Binding to CD4 is mainly electrostatic although there are van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonds[citation needed]. Gp120 is coded by the HIV env gene, which is around 2.5 kb long and codes for around 850 amino acids. The primary env product is the protein gp160, which gets cleaved to gp120 (~480 amino ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Strategies for the Improvement of HIV Envelope Protein Expression and Yield (R41/R42) PA-16-182. NIAID
Figure 1. Above is a Jmol image of the consensus V3 loop of gp120. The partially-hidden nature of the conserved region of gp120 makes it difficult for our bodies to develope effective neutralizing antibodies. The image is from the RCSB Protein Data Bank. PDB 1CE4. Antibodies specific to gp120 and the gp41 envelope proteins (Janeway et al, 2005) can be found in plasma of infected patients within weeks of initial infection (Paul, 2003), and may play a role in minimizing viral impact during the asymptomatic period, but are unable to clear an infection. Despite the early presence of HIV-specific antibodies, the high levels of antibodies with the ability to neutralize viruses are generally only found in long-term nonprogressors (Paul, 2003). Two trimers of gp120 and gp41 create the envelope protein gp160, which is heavily glycosylated. CD4 T cells bind gp120 on a depression in the protein (Paul, 2003). The virus also binds chemokine receptors on another depressed site on gp120 as co-receptors. Both ...
immunoglobulin G1-kappa, anti-[human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein gp120 third variable loop V3], humanized monoclonal antibody
There are comments on PubPeer for publication: Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 Envelope Glycoprotein Complex-Induced Apoptosis Involves Mammalian Target of Rapamycin/Fkbp12-Rapamycin-Associated Protein-Mediated P53 Phosphorylation (2001)
Background: The population of HIV replicating within a host consists of independently evolving and interacting sub-populations that can be genetically distinct within anatomical compartments. HIV replicating within the brain causes neurocognitive disorders in up to 20-30% of infected individuals and is a viral sanctuary site for the development of drug resistance. The primary determinant of HIV neurotropism is macrophage tropism, which is primarily determined by the viral envelope (env) gene. However, studies of genetic aspects of HIV replicating in the brain are hindered because existing repositories of HIV sequences are not focused on neurotropic virus nor annotated with neurocognitive and neuropathological status. To address this need, we constructed the HIV Brain Sequence Database. Results: The HIV Brain Sequence Database is a public database of HIV envelope sequences, directly sequenced from brain and other tissues from the same patients. Sequences are annotated with clinical data including ...
The dependency between your primary structure of HIV envelope glycoproteins (ENV) as well as the neutralization data for given antibodies is quite complicated and depends upon a lot of factors, like the binding affinity of confirmed antibody for confirmed ENV protein, and the intrinsic infection kinetics of the viral strain. against HIV-1. = 0.99561 and dependent variable = 0.99 Target + 0.002) and for the test Gata1 collection (= 0.9674 and dependent variable = 0.99 Target + 0.016). These results are demonstrated in Number 2 which presents the related regression analysis, while Number 3 shows the error histogram. The mean squared prediction error (MSEP) was 0.015. Number 2 Regression analysis for the training and test data. Figure 3 Error histogram. 3. Conversation The difficulty of HIV-1 ENV structural biology asks for complementary information from numerous techniques such as NMR spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, cryo-electron microscopy or tomography to understand the computer virus ...
Z. Yin, Y.-F. Gong, R. Colonno, J. Robinson, N. Zhou, R. Dalterio, C.-B. Li, T. Wang, J. Matiskella, B. McAuliffe, G. Yamanaka, I. Dicker, P.-F. Lin, J. Kadow, B. Nowicka-Sans, Y. Ueda, H. Fang, L. Fan, P. Clapham, H.-T. Ho
CONFORMATIONALLY STABILIZED HIV ENVELOPE IMMUNOGENS AND TRIGGERING HIV-1 ENVELOPE TO REVEAL CRYPTIC V3-LOOP EPITOPES - diagram, schematic, and image 64 ...
CONFORMATIONALLY STABILIZED HIV ENVELOPE IMMUNOGENS AND TRIGGERING HIV-1 ENVELOPE TO REVEAL CRYPTIC V3-LOOP EPITOPES - diagram, schematic, and image 12 ...
Product Specifications: Item# 1041: Recombinant HIV-1 IIIB Glycoprotein gp120 (CHO) Concentration: See vial Diluent: PBS Purity: >95% Stabilizer: None Preservative: None Storage: -75°C Physical State: Frozen Liquid Stability: At least 6 months at -75°C. Applications: In-Vitro Diagnostics, CD4 Binding, T-Cell Act
Buy our Recombinant HIV2 gp32 protein. Ab49083 is a protein fragment produced in Escherichia coli and has been validated in WB, ELISA. Abcam provides free…
Landais, Elise, et al. HIV Envelope Glycoform Heterogeneity and Localized Diversity Govern the Initiation and Maturation of a V2 Apex Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Lineage. Immunity. 47.5 (2017): 990-1003.e9. ...
Landais, Elise, et al. HIV Envelope Glycoform Heterogeneity and Localized Diversity Govern the Initiation and Maturation of a V2 Apex Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Lineage. Immunity. 47.5 (2017): 990-1003.e9. ...
scatter plot of all variables in r ggplot2, The point geom is used to create scatterplots. The scatterplot is most useful for displaying the relationship between two continuous variables. It can be used to compare one continuous and one categorical variable, or two categorical variables, but a variation like geom_jitter(), geom_count(), or geom_bin2d() is usually more appropriate. A bubblechart is a scatterplot with a third variable ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of murine leukemia virus envelope glycoprotein gp69/71 on mouse thymocytes. Evidence for two structural variants distinguished by presence vs absence of G(ix) antigen. AU - Tung, J. S.. AU - Fleissner, E.. AU - Vitetta, E. S.. AU - Boyse, E. A.. PY - 1975. Y1 - 1975. N2 - Thymocytes of several mouse strains were tested for expression of the gp69/71 envelope component of murine leukemia virus by surface iodination (125I), followed by immunoprecipitation and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These strains included two congenic lines differing from their partner stocks with respect to expression of G(IX) antigen demonstrable in the cytotoxicity assay. It is concluded that two structural variants of gp69/71 can be expressed on mouse thymocytes, that these are distinguishable by a small difference in mobility in SDS gels, that one carries G(IX) antigen and the other not, that they are coded, or their expression is regulated, by different ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus envelope protein Gp120 induces proliferation but not apoptosis in osteoblasts at physiologic concentrations. AU - Cummins, Nathan W.. AU - Klicpera, Anna. AU - Sainski, Amy M.. AU - Bren, Gary D.. AU - Khosla, Sundeep. AU - Westendorf, Jennifer J.. AU - Badley, Andrew D.. PY - 2011/9/12. Y1 - 2011/9/12. N2 - Patients with HIV infection have decreased numbers of osteoblasts, decreased bone mineral density and increased risk of fracture compared to uninfected patients; however, the molecular mechanisms behind these associations remain unclear. We questioned whether Gp120, a component of the envelope protein of HIV capable of inducing apoptosis in many cell types, is able to induce cell death in bone-forming osteoblasts. We show that treatment of immortalized osteoblast-like cells and primary human osteoblasts with exogenous Gp120 in vitro at physiologic concentrations does not result in apoptosis. Instead, in the osteoblast-like U2OS cell line, cells ...
To test whether antibodies that are neutralizing or nonneutralizing for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) primary isolates can be distinguished by their affinities for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, we selected HIV-1(JR-FL) as a model primary virus and a panel of 13 human monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and evaluated three parameters: (i) half-maximal binding to recombinant monomeric envelope, gp120(JR-FL); (ii) half-maximal binding to oligomeric envelope of HIV-1(JR-FL) expressed on the surface of transfected 293 cells; and (iii) neutralization of HIV-1(JR-FL) in a peripheral blood mononuclear cell-based neutralization assay. Two conclusions can be drawn from these experiments. First, we confirm that antibody interactions with monomeric gp120 do not predict primary virus neutralization. Second, we show that neutralization correlates qualitatively with the relative affinity of an antibody for the oligomeric envelope glycoproteins, at least for HIV-1(JR-FL).. ...
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston believe they have uncovered the Achilles heel in the armor of the virus that continues to kill millions.. The weak spot is hidden in the HIV envelope protein gp120. This protein is essential for HIV attachment to host cells, which initiate infection and eventually lead to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS. Normally the bodys immune defenses can ward off viruses by making proteins called antibodies that bind the virus. However, HIV is a constantly changing and mutating virus, and the antibodies produced after infection do not control disease progression to AIDS. For the same reason, no HIV preventative vaccine that stimulates production of protective antibodies is available.. The Achilles heel, a tiny stretch of amino acids numbered 421-433 on gp120, is now under study as a target for therapeutic intervention. Sudhir Paul, Ph.D., pathology professor in the UT Medical School, said, Unlike ...
T cell-mediated cytotoxicity may play an important role in controlling infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In order to study the ability of rationally designed antigens to induce cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTLs) we replaced stretches of 30 to 50 amino acids at the p17-MA/p24-CA cleavage site, within the p24-CA moiety and within the p6-LI portion of the HIV type 1 p55gag precursor by the third variable domain (V3) of the external glycoprotein gp120. This site is known to be a target for CTL attack in mice and humans. The chimeric antigens were recombined into highly attenuated vaccinia viruses in order to investigate class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted presentation of antigenic V3 peptides. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of the group-specific antigen (p55gag)/V3 chimeric proteins demonstrated significant differences in the accessibility of the V3 domain for a monoclonal antibody or polyclonal V3-specific antisera, depending on the position of the V3 ...
HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Several viral envelope glycoprotein oligomers assembled into a viral fusion machine, form a molecular scaffold that brings the viral and target cell membranes into close apposition and allow the subsequent fusion events. The fusion pore formation and its sequential expansion are orchestrated by viral and cellular lipids and proteins. The HIV entry process is understood in some detail at the molecular level. It is coordinated by the HIV envelope glycoprotein complex, a trimer of three gp120 surface glycoproteins, each noncovalently attached to three gp41 ransmembrane glycoprotein subunits.%&/It is know that changes in GSLs expression in target membranes can modulate viral fusion and entry. These studies on structure-function relationship of target membrane GSLs, the gp120-gp41 and the viral receptors suggest that plasma membrane GSLs support HIV-1 entry by stabilizing the intermediate steps in the fusion cascade. These observations, led it to hypothesize that upregulation of GSLs metabolites ...
HIV-1 enters target cells by virtue of envelope glycoprotein trimers that are incorporated at low density in the viral membrane. How many trimers are required to interact with target cell receptors to mediate virus entry, the HIV entry stoichiometry, still awaits clarification. Here, we provide estimates of the HIV entry stoichiometry utilizing a combined approach of experimental analyses and mathematical modeling. We demonstrate that divergent HIV strains differ in their stoichiometry of entry and require between 1 to 7 trimers, with most strains depending on 2 to 3 trimers to complete infection. Envelope modifications that perturb trimer structure lead to an increase in the entry stoichiometry, as did naturally occurring antibody or entry inhibitor escape mutations. Highlighting the physiological relevance of our findings, a high entry stoichiometry correlated with low virus infectivity and slow virus entry kinetics. The entry stoichiometry therefore directly influences HIV transmission, as ...
Free Online Library: Katy, bar the door! HIV entry inhibitors. by Research Initiative/Treatment Action!; Health, general HIV infection Drug therapy HIV infections Virus inhibitors
Secreted gp145 is a novel subunit with the full MPER extended by three lysines. Unlike some gp140 subunits, the 4E10 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb) binds to gp145. IgG1b12 binds weakly, VRC01 binds potently, as does the V2-specific 697D mAb; the gp145 also binds to alpha4beta7 receptor, as demonstrated by flow cytometry. At week 10 post-immunization, rabbit sera showed strong binding antibody titers to several Env antigens, including the clade B V1V2gp70 scaffold protein. While neutralization of the HIV-2 MPER-scaffold pseudovirus was negative, cross-clade neutralization was observed in both rabbits and mice, against Tier 1 subtype B and C pseudoviruses, and against Tier 1 and Tier 2 IMC. Using EGS cross-linking, it appears that the majority of the gp145 multimers are trimeric; this is currently under investigation using electron microscopy techniques. ...
Folks, this coronavirus epidemic is getting more interesting and possibly scary. In this just published research, investigators found that that
The HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) is a dynamic molecule undergoing a series of stepwise conformational changes during interactions with the primary receptor CD4, and co-receptors, CCR5/CXCR4. Obtaining structural information on the intermediates during viral entry is a key focus of antiviral and vaccine research and could open doors for more effective treatment and prevention. Due to the inherent insolubility of membrane proteins, working with the intact co-receptors outside the context of the membrane is not a viable option. This project aims to develop recombinant soluble co-receptor mimetics featuring critical determinants of CCR5 using two approaches: fusing the CCR5 moieties to soluble CD4 by flexible polypeptide linkers and using a globular scaffold protein to orient the co-receptor determinants in an optimal conformation to recreate the interaction with Env. We have successfully overexpressed and purified both variants from mammalian cells and ELISAs confirmed that sulfotyrosines, ...
Kevin Wiehe, Nathan I. Nicely, Bradley Lockwood, Masayuki Kuraoka, Kara Anasti, Sabrina Arora, Cindy M. Bowman, Christina Stolarchuk, Robert Parks, Krissey E. Lloyd, Shi-Mao Xia, Ryan Duffy, Xiaoying Shen, Christos A. Kyratsous, Lynn E. Macdonald, Andrew J. Murphy, Richard M. Scearce, M. Anthony Moody, S. Munir Alam, Laurent Verkoczy, Georgia D. Tomaras, Garnett Kelsoe and Barton F. Haynes. J Immunol February 1, 2017, 198 (3) 1047-1055; DOI: https://doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1601640 This content is also available in: ...
Bennett A, Liu J, Van Ryk D, Bliss D, Arthos J, Henderson RM, Subramaniam S. Cryoelectron Tomographic Analysis of an HIV-neutralizing Protein and Its Complex with Native Viral gp120 J Biol Chem. 2007 Sep 21;282(38):27754-9. Epub 2007 Jun 28 ...
Peel And Press Envelopes found in: 3 1/4 x 3 1/4 Square Envelopes, A7 Invitation Envelopes (5 1/4 x 7 1/4), A2 (4 3/8 x 5 3/4) - Grocery Bag Envelopes..
Square Lined Envelopes found in: A7 Foil Lined Invitation Envelopes (5 1/4 x 7 1/4), 6 1/2 x 6 1/2 Square Envelopes, 6 1/2 x 6 1/2 Foil Lined Square..
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GP crossover. This figure shows a crossover eventin GP between two binary expression trees. Here, the left sub-treeof parent 1 is swapped with the left sub-tree
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GPs see an increase in cases of runners boob - but what is runners boob and how should runners be looking after their breasts?
Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It may be useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The ... is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor. Phalloidin - A very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly ... It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein ... They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, the prevent the production of mRNA and protein ...
Wu P, Price P, Du B, Hatch WC, Terwilliger EF (1996). "Direct cytotoxicity of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 on human NT neurons ... Lannuzel A, Lledo PM, Lamghitnia HO, Vincent JD, Tardieu M (1995). "HIV-1 envelope proteins gp120 and gp160 potentiate NMDA- ... Dreyer EB, Lipton SA (1995). "The coat protein gp120 of HIV-1 inhibits astrocyte uptake of excitatory amino acids via ... Raber J, Toggas SM, Lee S, Bloom FE, Epstein CJ, Mucke L (1996). "Central nervous system expression of HIV-1 Gp120 activates ...
Wu P, Price P, Du B, Hatch WC, Terwilliger EF (April 1996). "Direct cytotoxicity of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 on human NT ... Lannuzel A, Lledo PM, Lamghitnia HO, Vincent JD, Tardieu M (November 1995). "HIV-1 envelope proteins gp120 and gp160 potentiate ... Dreyer EB, Lipton SA (December 1995). "The coat protein gp120 of HIV-1 inhibits astrocyte uptake of excitatory amino acids via ... Schröder HC, Perovic S, Kavsan V, Ushijima H, Müller WE (1998). "Mechanisms of prionSc- and HIV-1 gp120 induced neuronal cell ...
1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ... The protein encoded by this gene is one of two proteins that are required to form the DQ heterodimer, a cell surface receptor ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 gp120 binding". Nature. 339 (6225): 548-51. doi: ...
1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ... 1991). "The HIV core protein p24 inhibits interferon-gamma-induced increase of HLA-DR and cytochrome b heavy chain mRNA levels ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ... 1990). "Genetic variability in HIV-1 gp120 affects interactions with HLA molecules and T cell receptor". J. Immunol. 144 (9): ...
Dürrbaum-Landmann I, Kaltenhäuser E, Flad HD, Ernst M (April 1994). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 affects phenotype and ... CD89+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... Gulle H, Samstag A, Eibl MM, Wolf HM (January 1998). "Physical and functional association of Fc alpha R with protein tyrosine ... the protein's primary structure is similar to receptors in the leukocyte receptor cluster (LRC), and the FCAR gene appears ...
1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Rowell JF, Stanhope PE, Siliciano RF (1995). "Endocytosis of endogenously synthesized HIV-1 envelope protein. Mechanism and ...
1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ... HIV Res. 2 (2): 141-51. doi:10.2174/1570162043484924. PMID 15078178. Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and ... 1991). "The HIV core protein p24 inhibits interferon-gamma-induced increase of HLA-DR and cytochrome b heavy chain mRNA levels ... 2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Res. 15 (11-12): 923-34. ...
1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Rowell JF, Stanhope PE, Siliciano RF (1995). "Endocytosis of endogenously synthesized HIV-1 envelope protein. Mechanism and ... 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II ...
"Learning impairment following intracerebral administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 or a VIP antagonist". Brain ... VIP is a peptide of 28 amino acid residues that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily, the ligand of class II G protein- ... Proteins and Proteomics. 1814 (5): 724-30. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2011.03.009. PMID 21439408. Juhász T, Helgadottir SL, Tamás A, ...
"Specific binding of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 to the structural membrane proteins ezrin and moesin". Virus Res. 49 (2): 215- ... Moesin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MSN gene. Moesin (for membrane-organizing extension spike protein) is a ... Matarrese P, Malorni W (2005). "Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 proteins and cytoskeleton: partners in viral life and host ... Lankes WT, Furthmayr H (Oct 1991). "Moesin: a member of the protein 4.1-talin-ezrin family of proteins". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ...
Dürrbaum-Landmann I, Kaltenhäuser E, Flad HD, Ernst M (1994). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 affects phenotype and function of ... IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCGRT gene. FCGRT has been shown to interact ...
"Glycosylation of the core of the HIV-1 envelope subunit protein gp120 is not required for native trimer formation or viral ... "HIV-1 Envelope Based Fragments". Patents Encyclopedia. 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016. "Summary of Achievements" (PDF). ... He is known for his researches in the fields of protein structure and protein folding and his contributions in developing ... Varadarajan's early researches were focused on the interaction of protein molecules and their sequential properties. At Steven ...
1996). "HIV-1 envelope proteins gp120 and gp160 potentiate NMDA-induced [Ca2+]i increase, alter [Ca2+]i homeostasis and induce ... 1996). "Direct cytotoxicity of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 on human NT neurons". NeuroReport. 7 (5): 1045-9. doi:10.1097/ ... Dreyer EB, Lipton SA (1996). "The coat protein gp120 of HIV-1 inhibits astrocyte uptake of excitatory amino acids via ... Toggas SM, Masliah E, Mucke L (1996). "Prevention of HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal damage in the central nervous system of ...
1996). "HIV-1 envelope proteins gp120 and gp160 potentiate NMDA-induced [Ca2+]i increase, alter [Ca2+]i homeostasis and induce ... brain N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors regulating noradrenaline release are positively modulated by HIV-1 coat protein gp120". ... 1996). "Death of cultured human neuroblastoma cells induced by HIV-1 gp120 is prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists and ... 1998). "Mechanisms of prionSc- and HIV-1 gp120 induced neuronal cell death". Neurotoxicology. 19 (4-5): 683-8. PMID 9745929. ...
Researchers at the University of Michigan determined that BanLec bound to the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120, which is high in ... "Study: Chemical in Bananas Could Help Fight HIV", Fox News Channel, March 16, 2010 "Protein in bananas could help block spread ... The protein is highly stable, unfolding only at high temperatures All jacalin-related lectins feature type I beta-prism folding ... BanLec is one of the predominant proteins in the pulp of ripe bananas and has binding specificity for mannose and mannose- ...
... most commonly on the envelope protein gp120) that elicits antibodies with neutralizing activity. V3 loop Human Immunodeficiency ... "HIV Vaccine Glossary". NIAID Fact Sheet. AIDSinfo. Retrieved 2009-08-10. Neutralizing domain in the external envelope ... NLM Gateway Principal neutralizing domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein, PNAS v t e. ... The neutralizing domain is a specific site or section of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus(HIV) ( ...
"Learning impairment following intracerebral administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 or a VIP antagonist". Brain ... positive regulation of protein catabolic process. • regulation of protein localization. • antimicrobial humoral immune response ... G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • body fluid secretion. • prolactin secretion. • mRNA stabilization. • positive ... protein binding. • neuropeptide hormone activity. • peptide hormone receptor binding. Cellular component. • extracellular ...
Barnea A, Roberts J, Ho RH (January 1999). "Evidence for a synergistic effect of the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 and brain- ... In the stomach, somatostatin acts directly on the acid-producing parietal cells via a G-protein coupled receptor (which ... a protein coupled to adenylyl cyclase". Molecular Endocrinology. 6 (12): 2136-42. doi:10.1210/me.6.12.2136. PMID 1337145. ... hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein ...
... is a short peptide derived from the HIV envelope protein gp120 which blocks binding and infection of viral strains which use ... HIV Res. 1 (1): 51-67. doi:10.2174/1570162033352066. PMID 15043212. Villemagne VL, Phillips RL, Liu X, Gilson SF, Dannals RF, ... Peptide T has several positive effects related to HIV disease and Neuro-AIDS. A FDG-PET neuro-imaging study in an individual ... Polianova MT, Ruscetti FW, Pert CB, Ruff MR (Aug 2005). "Chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) is a receptor for the HIV entry inhibitor ...
... of the HIV envelope protein gp120, as observed in the Phase 3 RV144 clinical HIV vaccine trial, which involved 16,402 ... "Peptides Mimicking HIV-1 Viral Epitopes in the V2 Loop for the Gp120 Surface Envelope Glycoprotein" (American Inventors)". ... "Cross-clade HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies induced with V3-scaffold protein immunogens following priming with gp120 DNA". ... Pan, R; Gorny, MK; Zolla-Pazner, S; Kong, X-P (2015-08-01). "The V1V2 Region of HIV-1 gp120 Forms a Five-Stranded Beta Barrel ...
... have been designed to interfere with binding between the Gp120 envelope protein and the HIV co-receptor CCR5. These ... During HIV-1 infection, the Gp120 envelope glycoprotein subunit binds to a CD4 glycoprotein and a HIV-1 co-receptor expressed ... The Gp120 envelope protein is a chemokine mimic. Though it lacks the unique structure of a chemokine, it is still capable of ... The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structure is essential in enabling the viral entry of HIV-1 into a target host cell. The ...
1992). "Learning impairment following intracerebral administration of the HIV envelope protein gp120 or a VIP antagonist". ...
The first step is the interaction between envelope proteins of the virus (gp120, gp41) and specific host-cell surface receptors ... The Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database (also called the "HIV Drug Resistance Database") was formed in 1998 with HIV ... a b c d e f g h i j k Flexner, C. (2007) HIV drug development: the next 25 years. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 6; 959-966. ... a b HIV Disease at eMedicine *^ Kurup, Alka; Mekapati, Suresh; Garg, Rajni; Hansch, Corwin (2003). "HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors: ...
1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... 2004). "HIV-1 gp120 induces anergy in naive T lymphocytes through CD4-independent protein kinase-A-mediated signaling". J. ... "The Tat protein of HIV-1 induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Implications for HIV-1-associated neurological ... 1994). "HIV Gag p17 protein impairs proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro". AIDS. 8 (7): 1016-7. doi:10.1097/00002030- ...
1998). "Effects of [D-Ala1] peptide T-NH2 and HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 on cyclic AMP dependent protein kinases in normal ... "The cAMP-dependent protein kinase A and protein kinase C-beta pathways synergistically interact to activate HIV-1 transcription ... "The Tat protein of HIV-1 induces tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. Implications for HIV-1-associated neurological ... 1994). "HIV Gag p17 protein impairs proliferation of normal lymphocytes in vitro". AIDS. 8 (7): 1016-7. doi:10.1097/00002030- ...
1994). "The envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 gp120 and human complement protein C1q bind to the same peptides derived from three ... 1995). "HIV-1 rsgp41 depends on calcium for binding of human c1q but not for binding of gp120". Mol. Immunol. 32 (5): 371-4. ... Complement C1q subcomponent subunit A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the C1QA gene. This gene encodes a major ... of the interaction between the C1q subcomponent of human C1 and the transmembrane envelope glycoprotein gp41 of HIV-1". J. ...
The protein gp120 is necessary during the initial binding of HIV to its target cell. Consequently, anything which binds to ... Envelope glycoprotein GP120 (or gp120) is a glycoprotein exposed on the surface of the HIV envelope. It was discovered by ... gp120 was among the first targets of HIV vaccine research. Efforts to develop HIV vaccines targeting gp120, however, have been ... The HIV viral protein gp120 induces apoptosis of neuronal cells by inhibiting levels of furin and tissue plasminogen activator ...
"HIV Envelope Protein gp120" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" was a ... HIV Envelope Protein gp120*HIV Envelope Protein gp120. *Envelope Glycoprotein gp120, HIV ... "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "HIV Envelope Protein gp120" by people in Profiles. ...
However, due to its inherent heterogeneity and diversity, the comprehensive analysis of protein glycosylation remai ... Glycosylation plays an essential role in regulating protein function by modulating biological, structural, and therapeutic ... HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / chemistry, metabolism*. Humans. Mass Spectrometry. Molecular Sequence Data. Sequence Homology, ... As part of our continuing effort in the analysis of glycosylation profiles of recombinant HIV-1 envelope-based immunogens, we ...
An HIV Envelope gp120-Fc Fusion Protein Elicits Effector Antibody Responses in Rhesus Macaques. Zhanna Shubin, Weizhong Li, ... A) Schematic of Env-rFc fusion protein. An HIVBaL envelope glycoprotein gp120 (Env) is fused to each arm of the rhesus IgG1 Fc ... We designed a fusion protein containing the gp120 portion of HIV envelope glycoprotein from the BaL strain joined at the C ... An HIV Envelope gp120-Fc Fusion Protein Elicits Effector Antibody Responses in Rhesus Macaques ...
Lymph node gp120 specific B cells extract locally injected HIV-1 gp120 from SIGN-R1 positive macrophages that line the ... the glycosylation pattern of the HIV-1 recombinant envelope proteins we tested likely differ from the HIV-1 envelope proteins ... The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is captured and displayed for B cell recognition by SIGN-R1+ lymph node macrophages. ... The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is both the target of neutralizing antibodies and a major focus of vaccine efforts; however ...
In this study it is demonstrated that surfactant protein D (SP-D) binds to gp120 and inhibits HIV infectivity at significantly ... Native dodecameric SP-D bound to HIV gp120 more strongly than native trimeric SP-D. Since one common polymorphic form of SP-D ... these individuals may have less effective innate defence against HIV. A chimeric protein containing the N-terminal and collagen ... gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains highly conserved mannosylated oligosaccharides. These glycoconjugates ...
GlycoPure Glycoprotein Isolation Kit - gp120 (HIV Envelope Protein). Login to see prices. Add to Compare. Add to Wishlist. ... GlycoPure Glycoprotein Isolation Kit - gp120 (HIV Envelope Protein). Login to see prices. Add to Compare. Add to Wishlist. ...
In this study we have investigated the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV gp120 monomer immunogen a … ... suggest that both robust neutralizing antibodies and potent cellular responses play important roles in controlling primary HIV- ... HIV Antibodies / blood* * HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / administration & dosage * HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / immunology* ... In this study we have investigated the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV gp120 monomer immunogen ...
HIV Antibodies. HIV Envelope Protein gp120. Drug Carriers. Hypersensitivity, Delayed. AIDS Vaccines. CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes ... activity specific for HIV-1 gp120 or V3 peptides corresponding to the vaccine strains of HIV-1, induction of HLA-B7 and HLA-A2 ... is constructed from 4 sequences of the HIV-1 V3 gp120 loop shared by approximately 80% of North American HIV-1 strains. Because ... is constructed from 4 sequences of the HIV-1 V3 gp120 loop shared by approximately 80% of North American HIV-1 strains. Because ...
... gp120. Crystal structures of the CD4-gp120-antibody ternary complex reveal a large internal gp120 cavity formed by … ... Binding of the viral spike drives cell entry and infection by HIV-1 to the cellular CD4 and chemokine receptors with associated ... HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / chemistry* * HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / immunology * HIV Infections / immunology ... gp120. Crystal structures of the CD4-gp120-antibody ternary complex reveal a large internal gp120 cavity formed by three ...
How does CD4 binding trigger conformational changes in gp120 that allow the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate ... into cells is initiated by binding of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to the receptor, CD4. ... HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / chemistry * HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / genetics * HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / metabolism* ... The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into cells is initiated by binding of the gp120 exterior envelope ...
HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and its receptors, could contribute to the cell depletion observed in HIV-infected ... HIV Envelope Protein gp120 / physiology*. HIV Infections / pathology, virology*. HIV-1 / physiology*. Humans. Membrane ... 0/Antigens, CD95; 0/Cytochrome c Group; 0/HIV Envelope Protein gp120; 0/Receptors, CXCR4 ... envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and its receptors, could contribute to the cell depletion observed in HIV-infected individuals. ...
HIV-1. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS-Related Complex. Zidovudine. HIV Envelope Protein gp120. AIDS Vaccines. HIV ... Poor immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope vaccines with alum or MF59 aduvant in HIV-infected individuals: results of two randomized ... To examine the response of HIV-1 infected patients to vaccination with gp120/HIV-1MN antigen. To determine the effect of ... HIV-1) envelope vaccines in HIV-1-infected individuals across a spectrum of disease severity: AIDS Clinical Trials Groups 209 ...
HIV-1. Adjuvants, Immunologic. AIDS-Related Complex. HIV Envelope Protein gp120. AIDS Vaccines. HIV Therapeutic Vaccine. ... Poor immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope vaccines with alum or MF59 aduvant in HIV-infected individuals: results of two randomized ... HIV Infections Biological: Aluminum hydroxide Biological: MF59 Biological: rgp120/HIV-1IIIB Biological: rgp120/HIV-1MN ... The vaccines are: rgp 120/HIV-1IIIB, rgp 120/HIV-1MN, rgp 120/HIV-1SF, and env 2-3. The two control immunogens are aluminum ...
Role of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 in neuronal injury-induced cognitive impairment / 中华微生物学和免疫学杂志 ... [email protected]#To investigate the role of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 in cognitive impairment induced by neuronal [email protected]*Methods ... Role of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 in neuronal injury-induced cognitive impairment ... HIV-1 gp120 might cause neuronal damage through activating the release of inflammatory factor by microglia and involve in ...
HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 307 - 330) or C2 peptide (HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 254 - 274). The V3 ... HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 307 - 330) or C2 peptide (HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 254 - 274). The V3 ... HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 307 - 330) or C2 peptide (HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 254 - 274). The V3 ... HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 307 - 330) or C2 peptide (HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 254 - 274). The V3 ...
The envelope gp120 protein derived from HIV-1 JR-FL (27; gift from Paul Maddon, Progenics Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Tarrytown, NY) ... cells by T-tropic HIV-1 strains ((25)). The envelope glycoprotein gp120 of HIV-1, upon binding to CD4, interacts specifically ... The exterior envelope glycoprotein gp120 of M-tropic primary HIV-1, upon binding to CD4, can interact with CCR5 specifically ... 1997) Envelope glycoproteins from HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV can use human CCR5 as a cofactor for viral entry and make direct CD4- ...
Mechanism of Anti-HIV Activity of Negatively Charged Albumins: Biomolecular Interaction with the HIV-1 Envelope Protein gp120. ... Risk Factors for HIV-1 Infection Among Women in the Arusha Region of Tanzania. Mnyika, Kagoma S.; Klepp, Knut-Inge; Kvåle, ... Correlates of HIV-1 Seropositivity Among Young Men in Thailand. Sirisopana, Narongrid; Torugsa, Kalyanee; Mason, Carl J.; More ... Active Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Injecting Drug Users from a Low-Rate Tuberculosis Area. Rubinstien, Eytan M.; Madden, Gayle ...
Octapeptide sharing sequence homology with HIV envelope protein gp120. It may be useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The ... is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor. Phalloidin - A very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly ... It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein ... They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, the prevent the production of mRNA and protein ...
Dürrbaum-Landmann I, Kaltenhäuser E, Flad HD, Ernst M (1994). "HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 affects phenotype and function of ... IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCGRT gene. FCGRT has been shown to interact ...
1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. PMID 2846691. ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Rowell JF, Stanhope PE, Siliciano RF (1995). "Endocytosis of endogenously synthesized HIV-1 envelope protein. Mechanism and ...
HIV-1) infection mediated by CXCR4 (T. Murakami e... ... HIV Envelope Protein gp120. *HIV Envelope Protein gp120: ... By using a panel of chimeric viruses between T- and M-tropic HIV-1 strains, viral determinants for T22 susceptibility were ... 186:1389-1393, 1997). Here we demonstrate that T22 effectively inhibits replication of T-tropic HIV-1, including primary ... HIV-1) infection mediated by CXCR4 (T. Murakami et al., J. Exp. Med. ...
Signal peptide of HIV envelope protein impacts glycosylation and antigenicity of gp120 Jason Yolitz, Catherine Schwing, Julia ... Membrane protein MHZ3 stabilizes OsEIN2 in rice by interacting with its Nramp-like domain Biao Ma, Yang Zhou, Hui Chen, Si-Jie ... Gi- and Gs-coupled GPCRs show different modes of G-protein binding Ned Van Eps, Christian Altenbach, Lydia N. Caro, Naomi R. ... Light-activated protein interaction with high spatial subcellular confinement Lorena Benedetti, Andrew E. S. Barentine, Mirko ...
Wu P, Price P, Du B, Hatch WC, Terwilliger EF (1996). "Direct cytotoxicity of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 on human NT neurons ... Lannuzel A, Lledo PM, Lamghitnia HO, Vincent JD, Tardieu M (1995). "HIV-1 envelope proteins gp120 and gp160 potentiate NMDA- ... Dreyer EB, Lipton SA (1995). "The coat protein gp120 of HIV-1 inhibits astrocyte uptake of excitatory amino acids via ... Raber J, Toggas SM, Lee S, Bloom FE, Epstein CJ, Mucke L (1996). "Central nervous system expression of HIV-1 Gp120 activates ...
The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 is captured and displayed for B cell recognition by SIGN-R1(+) lymph node macrophages. ... The HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 impairs B cell proliferation by inducing TGF-β1 production and FcRL4 expression. ... Signal peptide of HIV envelope protein impacts glycosylation and antigenicity of gp120. ... HIV Envelope gp120 Alters T Cell Receptor Mobilization in the Immunological Synapse of Uninfected CD4 T Cells and Augments T ...
We use the HIV envelope protein (gp120/gp41) as a model system. Some of our studies are aimed at creating an HIV vaccine. We ... are also characterizing protein surfaces that are referred to as non-druggable. These surfaces are defined empirically based ...
We use the HIV envelope protein (gp120/gp41) as a model system. Some of our studies are aimed at creating an HIV vaccine. We ... TX where he studied chemical inhibition of a lipid signaling protein and discovered a novel heme-binding lipid transfer protein ... His research focuses on understanding the mechanism of eukaryotic protein quality control pathways. Before joining Stanford, ... are also characterizing protein surfaces that are referred to as non-druggable. These surfaces are defined empirically based ...
Use of human CD4 transgenic mice for studying immunogenicity of HIV-1 envelope protein gp120. ... Conformational transitions in CD4 due to complexation with HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120. ... Allosteric induction of the CD4-bound conformation of HIV-1 Gp120.. Roitburd-Berman A, Dela G, Kaplan G, Lewis GK, Gershoni JM. ... Humoral immune response to immunocomplexed HIV envelope glycoprotein 120.. Denisova G, Stern B, Raviv D, Zwickel J, Smorodinsky ...
The weak spot is hidden in the HIV envelope protein gp120. This protei...The Achilles heel a tiny stretch of amino acids ... HIV,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of Te... ... The weak spot is hidden in the HIV envelope protein gp120. This protein is essential for HIV attachment to host cells, which ...
HIV Envelope Protein gp120/*physiology; HIV-1/*pathogenicity/*physiology; Virion/immunology/*physiology ... The quantity of envelope glycoprotein molecules (Env) on HIV-1 particles is still an issue of debate and, depending on the ... Effects of virion surface gp120 density on infection by HIV-1 and viral production by infected cells. Bachrach, E.; Dreja, H.; ... Effects of virion surface gp120 density on infection by HIV-1 and viral production by infected cells. ...
Categories: HIV Envelope Protein gp120 Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
  • Binding of the viral spike drives cell entry and infection by HIV-1 to the cellular CD4 and chemokine receptors with associated conformational change of the viral glycoprotein envelope, gp120. (nih.gov)
  • Apoptosis of CD4(+) T lymphocytes, induced by contact between human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein (gp120) and its receptors, could contribute to the cell depletion observed in HIV-infected individuals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Chemokine receptors also serve as coreceptors for HIV-1 entry into cells. (rupress.org)
  • Myeloid C-Type Lectin Receptors in Tuberculosis and HIV Immunity: Insights Into Co-infection? (frontiersin.org)
  • VIP is a peptide of 28 amino acid residues that belongs to a glucagon/secretin superfamily , the ligand of class II G protein-coupled receptors . (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV viral protein interactions with cellular receptors are vital to the infection process. (rsc.org)
  • It is in this context that the HIV GP120 viral envelope protein interactions with lipid bilayers and CD4 receptors have been studied. (rsc.org)
  • This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS. (curehunter.com)
  • Broad usage spectrum of G protein-coupled receptors as coreceptors by primary isolates of HIV," AIDS , vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 761-769, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • T4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Unlike the HIV entry receptors (CD4 and CCR5), α 4 β 7 is not required for viral replication in vitro. (pnas.org)
  • Professor Munro used single molecule FRET to monitor conformational changes in the HIV envelope protein gp120 as it interacted with receptors on the host cell surface. (biophysics.org)
  • As part of our continuing effort in the analysis of glycosylation profiles of recombinant HIV-1 envelope-based immunogens, we evaluated and compared the host-cell specific glycosylation pattern of recombinant HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120, derived from clade C transmitted/founder virus 1086.C expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney containing T antigen (293T) cell lines. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The mannose-dependent epitope for neutralizing antibody 2G12 on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 glycoprotein gp120. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Efficient inhibition of an M-tropic HIV-1-derived envelope glycoprotein gp120 binding to CCR5 could be achieved with mAbs recognizing either the second extracellular loop or the NH 2 -terminal region, although the former showed superior inhibition. (rupress.org)
  • CD4 is primary receptor for HIV-1 surface glycoprotein gp120). (selectscience.net)
  • Has activity toward HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120, EA2, Muc2 and Muc5. (genecards.org)
  • The RV144 Thai trial consisted of a prime-boost strategy that combined a recombinant canarypox vaccine with monomeric gp120 envelope glycoprotein (Env) and demonstrated modest efficacy in reducing the risk of HIV infection ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Attempts to improve how the immune system responds to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) have failed to control and prevent infection. (elifesciences.org)
  • Epidemiological and experimental data suggest that both robust neutralizing antibodies and potent cellular responses play important roles in controlling primary HIV-1 infection. (nih.gov)
  • HIV infection, with CD4 count of 50-500 cells/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We recently reported that a cationic peptide, T22 ([Tyr(5,12), Lys(7)]-polyphemusin II), specifically inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection mediated by CXCR4 (T. Murakami et al. (mendeley.com)
  • Select gp120 V2 domain specific antibodies derived from HIV and SIV infection and vaccination inhibit gp120 binding to α4β7. (nih.gov)
  • This protein is essential for HIV attachment to host cells, which initiate infection and eventually lead to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome or AIDS. (bio-medicine.org)
  • However, HIV is a constantly changing and mutating virus, and the antibodies produced after infection do not control disease progression to AIDS. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Additional data supporting the theory are to be presented at the XVII International AIDS Conference Aug. 3-8 in Mexico City in two studies titled "Survivors of HIV infection produce potent, broadly neutralizing IgAs directed to the superantigenic region of the gp120 CD4 binding site" and "Prospective clinical utility and evolutionary implication of broadly neutralizing antibody fragments to HIV gp120 superantigenic epitope. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Their recent work indicates that naturally occurring catalytic antibodies, particularly those of the IgA subtype, may be useful in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection," said Steven J. Norris, Ph.D., holder of the Robert Greer Professorship in the Biomedical Sciences and vice chair for research in the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at the UT Medical School at Houston. (bio-medicine.org)
  • A small minority of HIV positive people also start producing the abzymes after decades of the infection. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The majority of peptide responses mapped contained epitopes previously identified in human HIV infection , and two high-avidity HIV epitope responses were confirmed, indicating the utility of the baboon model for immunogenicity testing. (curehunter.com)
  • The vaccine will be assessed by two measures, says VaxGen President Donald Francis: infection by HIV and viral load in those infected. (sciencemag.org)
  • The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) protein contains numerous N-linked carbohydrates that shield conserved peptide epitopes and promote trans infection by dendritic cells via binding to cell surface lectins. (nih.gov)
  • Earlier studies focused on the direct infection of CD4 + cells by HIV-1 as the primary mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (springer.com)
  • Thus, our data suggest that one major effect of high Env density on the surface of HIV may not be better infection yields but rather improved viral production by newly infected cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Investigations of CLR responses to Mtb and HIV, to date, have primarily focused on single infection outcomes and do not account for the potential effects of co-infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • The potential convergence of CLR-driven responses of the innate and adaptive immune systems in the setting of Mtb and HIV co-infection will further be discussed relevant to disease pathogenesis and development of clinical interventions. (frontiersin.org)
  • The co-infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis ( Mtb) and HIV contributes to the large burden on healthcare systems of endemic areas and have increased the priority of improved co-infection therapeutic strategies ( WHO, 2019a , b ). (frontiersin.org)
  • As the primary hosts for Mtb propagation, the direct and indirect effects of HIV infection on myeloid cell innate function are an important and poorly understood factor for the outcome of co-infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • Signaling through myeloid cell PRRs dictates important innate recognition and responses to Mtb and HIV molecular patterns that may direct the progression of disease in co-infection scenarios. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, HIV does not infect neurons and thus HAND must result from mechanisms other than neuronal infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, uninfected macrophages, a preserved cell population during HIV-1 infection, do not undergo X4 or R5 Env-mediated autophagy. (cnrs.fr)
  • This expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS and classification system for HIV-1 infection also included additional clinical conditions seen in women, such as invasive cervical cancer. (acnp.org)
  • T cell-mediated cytotoxicity may play an important role in controlling infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Binding of HIV-1 to DC-SIGN also can enhance direct HIV-1 infection in cis ( 6 , 9 ), but much of the research has focused on the role of DC-SIGN as a receptor to explain the effective sequestration and transmission of HIV-1 from DCs to T cells in trans ( 4 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The report also finds tantalising signs of long-term improvements in HIV viral load and CD4 count, starting four years after infection, in HIV-positive vaccine recipients. (aidsmap.com)
  • The current analysis looked at the course of HIV infection in 114 trial participants who were infected with HIV over a period of 5.5 years, and compared what happened to the 49 vaccine recipients with what happened to the 65 placebo recipients. (aidsmap.com)
  • Our goal is to characterize the expression of ASP, both at the RNA and protein level, during the HIV infection cycle in cell culture studies. (chuv.ch)
  • The community would like to believe that this patient was just non-adherent," Hampel later told aidsmap.com, "because that's a simple reason for HIV infection. (aidsmap.com)
  • Although LCs are a target for HIV-1 infection in genital tissues, we found that immature LCs did not efficiently mediate HIV-1 transmission in an ex vivo human skin explant model. (jci.org)
  • TNF-α enhanced transmission by increasing HIV-1 replication in LCs, whereas Pam3CSK4 acted by increasing LC capture of HIV-1 and subsequent trans-infection of T cells. (jci.org)
  • A genetic variation which evolved to protect people of African descent against malaria has now been shown to increase their susceptibility to HIV infection by up to 40 percent, according to new research. (scienceagogo.com)
  • A circumcision trial conducted in Kenya, led by University of Illinois at Chicago professor of epidemiology Robert Bailey, has provided strong evidence that circumcision can indeed prevent HIV infection. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Both activated and resting CD4 + T cells in mucosal tissues play important roles in the earliest phases of infection after sexual transmission of HIV-1, a process that is inefficient. (pnas.org)
  • Yet, the explicit linkage between α 4 β 7 , Peyer's patches, mesenteric lymph nodes, lamina propria and the earliest phases of acute infection, suggests that gp120- α 4 β 7 interaction plays an important role at an early point in the HIV infection cycle in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • Sexual transmission and the establishment of HIV infection in a new host is inefficient. (pnas.org)
  • In addition, the HIV quasi-species replicating in an infected donor contracts through a "genetic bottleneck" upon transmission, and infection often appears to result from a single infectious event ( 11 ), suggesting that abortive infections following sexual transmission may occur frequently. (pnas.org)
  • CD299 also binds the gp120 protein of HIV and the E2 envelope protein of HCV, thereby playing a role in viral infection. (novusbio.com)
  • In some cases the children were diagnosed with HIV infection - in other cases infants were merely "presumed" to be HIV-infected. (ahrp.org)
  • In contrast to the 2- to 3-fold loss of binding to gp120, the single CBS point mutants of GRFT were significantly less able to inhibit viral infection, exhibiting a 26- to 1900-fold loss of potency, while the triple mutant was at least 875 fold less effective against HIV-1 infection. (ucmerced.edu)
  • Griffithsin (Grft) is a protein lectin derived from red algae that tightly binds the HIV envelope protein gp120 and potently inhibits virus infection. (ucmerced.edu)
  • Although more readily found in those with advanced HIV-1 and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND), molecular signatures distinguishing CNS-derived quasispecies can be identified early in HIV-1 infection, in the presence or absence of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), and are dynamic. (springer.com)
  • Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas. (springer.com)
  • HIV infection and AIDS death rates will continue to mount worldwide. (nih.gov)
  • To prepare for efficacy trials, PAVE investigators as well as domestic contractors are collecting baseline data on virus strains being transmitted, rates of new infections and the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and other potential co-factors of HIV transmission from various populations at high risk for HIV infection who live in the United States and abroad. (nih.gov)
  • Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. (harvard.edu)
  • Recent studies suggest that these immune functions can be augmented by vaccination with HIV-derived antigens. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The serum of these animals demonstrated antibodies that cross-reacted with heterologous serotypes of gp120 and had significant neutralizing activity against two clade-B laboratory strains of HIV (HIVBaL and HIVSF162) and five primary HIV-1 isolates. (nih.gov)
  • The test immunogen (C4-V3 peptides) is constructed from 4 sequences of the HIV-1 V3 gp120 loop shared by approximately 80% of North American HIV-1 strains. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here we demonstrate that T22 effectively inhibits replication of T-tropic HIV-1, including primary isolates, but not of non-T-tropic strains. (mendeley.com)
  • By using a panel of chimeric viruses between T- and M-tropic HIV-1 strains, viral determinants for T22 susceptibility were mapped to the V3 loop region of gp120. (mendeley.com)
  • CCR5 is a chemokine receptor expressed by T cells and macrophages, which also functions as the principal coreceptor for macrophage (M)-tropic strains of HIV-1. (rupress.org)
  • Additionally, 2D7 efficiently blocked the infectivity of several M-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1 strains in vitro. (rupress.org)
  • An obstacle to creating an effective HIV vaccine is the difficulty of getting the immune system to generate antibodies against the sugar shield of multiple HIV strains," Lai-Xi Wang, a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at UMD, said in a news release . (upi.com)
  • When tested on rabbits, the vaccine stimulated antibody responses against the sugar shield in four different strains of HIV. (upi.com)
  • The sugar shield on HIV is similar to sugars in the body so it does not create a strong immune response and secondly, there are more than 60 strains of the HIV virus currently and the virus often mutates so finding antibodies against gp120 in one strain may not work in another. (upi.com)
  • Since the 1990s, Burton, Wilson, and other researchers have been searching for such "broadly neutralizing" antibodies against HIV antibodies that work against many of the various strains of the fast-mutating virus and by now have found more than a dozen. (medindia.net)
  • PGT 128, the antibody described in the new report, can neutralize about 70 percent of globally circulating HIV strains by blocking their ability to infect cells. (medindia.net)
  • Both of these glycans appear in most HIV strains, which helps explain why PGT 128 is so broadly neutralizing," said Katie J. Doores, a research associate in the Burton lab who was one of the report's lead authors. (medindia.net)
  • When injected into rabbits, the vaccine candidate stimulated antibody responses against the sugar shield in four different HIV strains. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Second, more than 60 strains of HIV exist and the virus mutates frequently. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • As a result, antibodies against gp120 from one HIV strain will not protect against other strains or a mutant strain. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • To overcome these challenges, Wang and his collaborators focused on a small fragment of gp120 protein that is common among HIV strains. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The researchers used a synthetic chemistry method they previously developed to combine the gp120 fragment with a sugar molecule, also shared among HIV strains, to mimic the sugar shield on the HIV envelope. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Next, the researchers injected the protein-sugar vaccine candidate into rabbits and found that the rabbits' immune systems produced antibodies that physically bound to gp120 found in four dominant strains of HIV in circulation today. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Many experiments with both laboratory and clinically-derived HIV strains with a variety of ligands confirmed this result. (biophysics.org)
  • In experiments to investigate gp120 shedding, it was found that Grft has different effects on gp120 shedding for strains from subtype B and subtype C, and this might correlate with Grft function. (ucmerced.edu)
  • Human papillomavirus HPV-16, 18, 52 and 58 integration in cervical cells of HIV-1-infected women," Journal of Clinical Virology , vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 198-201, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • The entry of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) into cells is initiated by binding of the gp120 exterior envelope glycoprotein to the receptor, CD4. (nih.gov)
  • IgG receptor FcRn large subunit p51 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FCGRT gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in peptide T, is the HIV envelope sequence required for attachment to the CD4 receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the GRIN2D gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV-1 Env N-glycans shield the protein backbone and have been shown to play key roles in determining Env structure, surface exposure, and, consequently, antigenicity, infectivity, antibody neutralization, and carbohydrate and receptor binding. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The infectivity was assayed on human cells, engineered to express the HIV receptor CD4 and the co-receptor CCR5, as well as on peripheral blood lymphocytes and macrophages. (cnrs.fr)
  • Antigen receptor control of methionine transport is critical to co-ordinate protein synthesis and the production of methyl donors for nucleotide and protein methylations which are required for T cell differentiation. (elifesciences.org)
  • It is possible to distinguish individual GP120/CD4 complexes when the receptor is reconstituted into the lipid bilayer with the force required to unfold the complex greater than the force required to unfold either of the individual components. (rsc.org)
  • The removal of p75NTR alleles inhibited gp120-mediated decrease of excitatory synapses in the hippocampus, as measured by the levels of PSD95 and subunits of the N -methyl- D -Aspartate receptor in synaptosomes. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD4 is a receptor for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type I (HIV-1) envelope protein gp120. (beckman.com)
  • In these cell types, HIV-1 entry is mediated by the binding of envelope glycoproteins (gp120 and gp41, Env) to the receptor CD4 and a coreceptor, principally CCR5 or CXCR4, depending on the viral strain (R5 or X4, respectively). (cnrs.fr)
  • Inhibition of MGL decreased gp120-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production and subsequent potentiation of NMDA receptor-mediated calcium influx. (ovid.com)
  • Human papillomavirus E5 protein induces expression of the EP4 subtype of prostaglandin E2 receptor in cyclic AMP response element-dependent pathways in cervical cancer cells," Carcinogenesis , vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 141-149, 2009. (hindawi.com)
  • p110delta(-/-) B cells proliferate poorly in response to B cell receptor (BCR) or CD40 signals in vitro, fail to activate protein kinase B, and are prone to apoptosis. (jove.com)
  • Pretreating iDCs with an active fragment of the secretory glycoprotein Slit2 (Slit2N) inhibited HIV-1-gp120-mediated migration and podosome formation, by inducing the cognate receptor Roundabout 1 (Robo1) to bind to and sequester WASp and LSP1 from β-actin. (harvard.edu)
  • It attaches HIV to host lymphoid cells by binding to the primary receptor CD4. (biolegend.com)
  • Reduction of intramolecular disulfides in the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 occurs after its binding to the CD4 receptor. (kuleuven.be)
  • HIV-1 gp120 binds to integrin α 4 β 7 (α 4 β 7 ), the gut mucosal homing receptor. (pnas.org)
  • Catalyzes the initial reaction in O-linked oligosaccharide biosynthesis, the transfer of an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residue to a serine or threonine residue on the protein receptor. (genecards.org)
  • Our findings reveal a specialized LN antigen delivery system poised to deliver gp120 and likely other pathogen derived glycoproteins to B cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The inner structural Gag proteins and the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) traffic independently to the plasma membrane, where they assemble the nascent virion. (nih.gov)
  • HIV-1 carries a relatively low number of glycoproteins in its membrane, and the mechanism of Env recruitment and virus incorporation is incompletely understood. (nih.gov)
  • HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env), expressed at the cell surface, induce apoptosis of uninfected CD4+ T cells, contributing to the development of AIDS. (jci.org)
  • Thus, this gp120-mediated apoptotic pathway may contribute to CD4(+) T-cell depletion in AIDS. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The abzymes are derived from HIV negative people with the autoimmune disease lupus and a small number of HIV positive people who do not require treatment and do not get AIDS. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in HIV-1 Tat-stimulated astrocytes and elevation in AIDS dementia. (springer.com)
  • This led to our hypothesis that soluble factors such as proteins encoded by the HIV genome and shed by infected cells may also be involved in the pathogenesis of AIDS. (springer.com)
  • Approximately 37.9 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS and 1.1 million die each year ( WHO, 2019b ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Tuberculosis remains a large risk factor for people living with HIV (PLWH)/AIDS and HIV-associated TB was the cause of an additional 251,000 deaths in 2018. (frontiersin.org)
  • What's unexpected and unique about this antibody is that it not only attaches to the sugar coating of the virus but also reaches through to grab part of the virus's envelope protein," said the report's co-senior author Dennis Burton, a professor at The Scripps Research Institute and scientific director of the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative's (IAVI) Neutralizing Antibody Center, based on the Scripps Research La Jolla campus. (medindia.net)
  • By 1993, 172,000 individuals in the United States had died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and another 1,000,000 were estimated to be infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the retrovirus that causes AIDS. (acnp.org)
  • Currently, most individuals infected with HIV-1 develop AIDS after an estimated median latency period of 10 years. (acnp.org)
  • Early evidence for the neuropathogenicity of HIV-1 included (a) the presence of HIV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AIDS, (b) abnormal neuroimaging findings in neurologically impaired AIDS patients, (c) the high frequency of peripheral neuropathies in AIDS patients, and (d) the presence of HIV-1 in tissue obtained by brain biopsy. (acnp.org)
  • NAM exists to support the fight against HIV & AIDS with independent, accurate accessible and comprehensive information. (aidsmap.com)
  • We aim to create and disseminate information resources rooted in the experience of those most affected, enabling individuals and communities to take action and control in responding to HIV & AIDS. (aidsmap.com)
  • The 17th European AIDS Conference (EACS 2019) in Basel, Switzerland, last week, heard about another case of a PrEP user who caught HIV despite being apparently adherent to PrEP. (aidsmap.com)
  • Atlanta, GA / ACCESSWIRE / July 16, 2014 / GeoVax Labs, Inc. (OTCQB: GOVX), a biotechnology company developing vaccines to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS, announced today it has received a Notice of Award from the U.S. National Institutes of Health for a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grant entitled 'Enhancing Protective Antibody Responses for a GM-CSF Adjuvanted HIV Vaccine. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Both the DNA and MVA express the three major proteins of the AIDS virus: Gag, Pol, and Env, and produce non-infectious virus-like-particles. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Robert Gallo and Luc Montagnier discovered Human immunodeficiency virus to be the causative agent of Autoimmune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1984 only a few years after the initial HIV outbreak across the world. (kenyon.edu)
  • Scientists from Jefferson Medical College say they have produced viral immunity to an AIDS-like disease by using a weakened rabies virus to deliver HIV-related proteins into non-human primates. (scienceagogo.com)
  • A new gene therapy based on a disabled AIDS virus carrying genetic material that inhibits HIV replication has produced positive results in a Phase I clinical trial, say researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS--United States, 1981-2005. (springer.com)
  • Evidence for early central nervous system involvement in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and other human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. (springer.com)
  • Developing a safe and effective vaccine to curb the human and economic costs of the HIV/AIDS pandemic has become an international health priority. (nih.gov)
  • To help reach this goal, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which spearheads federal funding for biomedical research on HIV/AIDS for the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has intensified its HIV vaccine research program. (nih.gov)
  • This fact sheet summarizes NIAID's approach to developing an HIV/AIDS vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • NIAID's Division of AIDS (DAIDS) directs the HIV vaccine research program. (nih.gov)
  • Although traditional investigator-initiated research forms the foundation for HIV/AIDS vaccine research, NIAID supports several special initiatives to accomplish specific research objectives. (nih.gov)
  • The NIAID AIDS Vaccine Clinical Trials Network conducts trials in humans to determine the safety of and immune responses stimulated by experimental HIV vaccines (Phase I and Phase II trials). (nih.gov)
  • To determine the feasibility of and develop the infrastructure for conducting such trials abroad, NIAID has awarded eight Preparation for AIDS/HIV Vaccine Evaluations (PAVE) grants to U.S. researchers and their international collaborators. (nih.gov)
  • Many vaccine programs focus on the immune responses to critical epitopes in the gp120 portion of HIV envelope glycoprotein (Env) and seek to improve the quality and quantity of antibodies by altering the sequence, conformation, oligomerization, or glycosylation of gp120 to activate appropriate germ line B cells and mimic the subsequent maturation pathways seen in infected individuals. (asm.org)
  • Developing a preventive HIV vaccine remains an unmet global public health goal. (asm.org)
  • Patients are randomized to receive rgp120/HIV-1MN vaccine or alum adjuvant placebo by intramuscular injection at weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20, with or without daily oral zidovudine (AZT) or their current stable dose of antiretroviral therapy. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Some of our studies are aimed at creating an HIV vaccine. (stanford.edu)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae Cell-Wall-Localized Phosphoenolpyruvate Protein Phosphotransferase Can Function as an Adhesin: Identification of Its Host Target Molecules and Evaluation of Its Potential as a Vaccine. (nih.gov)
  • For the same reason, no HIV preventative vaccine that stimulates production of protective antibodies is available. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Candidate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine regimens based on DNA boosted with recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) have been in development for some time, and there is evidence for improved immunogenicity of newly developed constructs. (curehunter.com)
  • The development of anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) microbicides for either topical or ex vivo use is of considerable interest, mainly due to the difficulties in creating a vaccine that would be active against multiple clades of HIV. (rcsb.org)
  • University of Maryland and Duke University researchers designed a new protein-sugar vaccine against HIV. (upi.com)
  • Oct. 27 (UPI) -- A new HIV vaccine candidate is showing effectiveness in animal studies in stimulating an immune response against sugars that form a shield around HIV. (upi.com)
  • Our method addresses this problem by designing a vaccine component that mimics a protein-sugar part of this shield. (upi.com)
  • Researchers designed the vaccine candidate with an HIV protein fragment from gp120, which covers HIV like a protective envelope. (upi.com)
  • The research overcame two problems that have plagued researchers in creating an HIV vaccine that can target gp120. (upi.com)
  • The study, published Thursday in Cell Chemical Biology, could pave the way for an HIV vaccine. (upi.com)
  • The findings, published in Science Express on October 13, 2011, highlight a major vulnerability of HIV and suggest a new target for vaccine development. (medindia.net)
  • Other institutions in the United States, United Kingdom, Japan, and the Netherlands contributed to the research as part of an ongoing global HIV vaccine development effort. (medindia.net)
  • Men who received the Thai RV144 vaccine who nonetheless became infected with HIV had lower viral loads in their semen than men who received placebo, a new analysis of the vaccine study reports in the Journal of Infectious Diseases . (aidsmap.com)
  • The RV144 vaccine trial was the first-ever HIV vaccine efficacy trial to report a positive result. (aidsmap.com)
  • Firstly, vaccine recipients had higher levels of antibodies to two specific parts of the HIV gp120 envelope protein, the V2 and V3 loops. (aidsmap.com)
  • It is thought that too much igA may have interfered with a process called antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) whereby other broad-spectrum antibodies stimulated by the vaccine induce the anti-HIV activation of other parts of the immune system. (aidsmap.com)
  • This total was a 'modified intent-to-treat' group, consisting of any trial participant who was infected with HIV after receiving the first shot of vaccine or placebo, but excluding six subjects who were infected before receiving a shot. (aidsmap.com)
  • Since the beginning of HIV epidemics, HIV envelope protein gp120 has been considered the ideal target for a vaccine against HIV. (chuv.ch)
  • however the high variability of gp120 is a major obstacle to the development of fully effective vaccine strategies. (chuv.ch)
  • Researchers at the University of Maryland and Duke University have designed a novel protein-sugar vaccine candidate that, in an animal model, stimulated an immune response against sugars that form a protective shield around HIV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The molecule could one day become part of a successful HIV vaccine. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Wang and collaborators designed a vaccine candidate using an HIV protein fragment linked to a sugar group. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The protein fragment of the vaccine candidate comes from gp120, a protein that covers HIV like a protective envelope. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Researchers have tried to create an HIV vaccine targeting gp120, but had little success for two reasons. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Injecting rabbits with a vaccine candidate that contained the protein fragment without the sugar group resulted in antibodies that primarily bound to gp120 from only one HIV strain. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The researchers' next steps will be to conduct longer-term studies in combination with other vaccine candidates, hone in on what areas of gp120 the antibodies are binding to and determine how they can increase the antibodies' effectiveness at neutralizing HIV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Harriet Robinson, Ph.D., Chief Scientific Officer of GeoVax, commented, 'These studies are part of the pipeline we are creating for our GOVX-B11 Clade B HIV vaccine that we are advancing in clinical trials for the developed world. (fiercepharma.com)
  • GeoVax's unique, two component vaccine, a recombinant DNA and a recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), is designed to stimulate both anti-HIV T cell and anti-HIV antibody immune responses. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Clinical trials for GeoVax's preventive HIV vaccines have been conducted by the HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) with funding from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (NIAID). (fiercepharma.com)
  • Researchers have designed a novel experimental vaccine that spurs animals to produce antibodies against sugars that form a protective shield around human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the body. (prokerala.com)
  • Our method addresses this problem by designing a vaccine component that mimics a protein-sugar part of this shield," Wang added, in the paper published in the journal Cell Chemical Biology. (prokerala.com)
  • 1] However, unlike other viruses known to cause epidemics across the world, such as polio, no effective vaccine for HIV has been discovered through classical strategies. (kenyon.edu)
  • National Cooperative Vaccine Development Groups (NCVDGs) represent the core HIV vaccine discovery and development effort sponsored by NIAID. (nih.gov)
  • Teams of scientists from industry, academia and government collaborate to develop and test novel experimental HIV vaccine concepts in the laboratory and in animal models. (nih.gov)
  • Primate research laboratories answer HIV vaccine-related questions by testing HIV and HIV-like vaccines in chimpanzees and monkeys. (nih.gov)
  • Master Contracts for Preclinical HIV Vaccine Development provide flexible resources for the preclinical development of the most promising HIV vaccine candidates. (nih.gov)
  • The HIV Variation Project examines the rates and magnitudes of genetic and immunologic changes in HIV and related retroviruses and their consequences for vaccine design. (nih.gov)
  • This study suggests that a DNA and VLP combination vaccine with MVA is a promising strategy in enhancing the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination against HIV-1. (mdpi.com)
  • HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers concluded that the first transmission of SIV to HIV in humans took place around 1920 in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Africa. (slideshare.net)
  • These concepts became more sharply focused with the identification of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and the recognition that it can infect a critical cell involved in the regulation of the immune response of humans, namely, the CD4 + T lymphocyte. (springer.com)
  • This result did not surprise Wang, who noted that it usually takes humans up to two years to build immunity against HIV and the animal study only lasted two months. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Other strategies include modifying the conformation or glycosylation patterns of Env to expose conserved sites or multimerizing critical epitopes using scaffold proteins in order to enhance the immune response (reviewed in reference 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Previous immunization studies in mice tested recombinant proteins where HIV proteins were fused to IgG Fc and showed improved immune responses. (asm.org)
  • This revealed that gp120 is rapidly transported to nearby lymph nodes-organs that are spread throughout the body, and play an important role in maintaining the immune response. (elifesciences.org)
  • These specialized macrophages serve as a gp120 reservoir and are located in part of the lymph node that is a bit like a traffic hub, in that other immune cells constantly pass through it. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this study we have investigated the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV gp120 monomer immunogen administered intranasally in a novel, oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant. (nih.gov)
  • The analysis of gp120-specific CTL proliferation, INF-gamma induction, and prevalence of anti-gp120 IgG2 subclass antibodies indicated that nasal vaccination in NE also induced systemic, Th1-polarized cellular immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • It has been hypothesized that HIV-specific immune responses are responsible for the period of relative quiescence of viral replication. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Normally the body's immune defenses can ward off viruses by making proteins called antibodies that bind the virus. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The immune system in some people can cope with HIV after all. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This study describes immune responses to candidate DNA and MVA vaccines expressing multiple genes (gag, RT, tat, nef and env) from HIV-1 subtype C in chacma baboons (Papio ursinus). (curehunter.com)
  • Inflammation can be strongly influenced by carbohydrate binding proteins on immune cells. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. (osti.gov)
  • We describe how multiple HIV outcome measures such as acquisition, viral control, and immune decline have been studied in adults and in children, but that collectively these identify only the two replicable loci responsible for modifying HIV disease, CCR5, and HLA. (bireme.br)
  • Keeping Env molecules on the nascent virus low may be important for escape from the humoral immune response, while cell-cell contacts mediated by surrounding Env molecules could promote HIV-1 transmission through the virological synapse. (nih.gov)
  • Immune recognition through CLRs and other PRRs are important determinants of disease outcomes for both TB and HIV. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thickets of these sugars normally surround HIV's envelope protein, gp120, largely shielding it from attack by the immune system. (medindia.net)
  • It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. (wikidoc.org)
  • Vaccines such as the one in the STEP Study , which aimed to stimulate immune cells to kill cells already infected with HIV, were expected to do this, but proved disappointing. (aidsmap.com)
  • First, the sugar shield on HIV resembles sugars found in the human body and therefore does not stimulate a strong immune response. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Immune responses against HIV are primarily targeted at V3. (openwetware.org)
  • University of Michigan researchers say that a new technique for vaccinating against a variety of infectious diseases - using an oil-based emulsion placed in the nose, rather than needles - has produced a strong immune response against smallpox and HIV in two sets of experiments. (scienceagogo.com)
  • Molecular signatures of CNS-derived HIV-1 env reflect the immune characteristics and cellular constraints of the CNS compartment. (springer.com)
  • To further enhance the efficacy of DNA-rMVA vaccination, we investigated humoral and cellular immune responses in mice after three sequential immunizations with DNA, a combination of DNA and virus-like particles (VLP), and rMVA expressing HIV-1 89.6 gp120 envelope proteins (Env). (mdpi.com)
  • Gangadhara S, Kwon Y-M, Jeeva S, Quan F-S, Wang B, Moss B, Compans RW, Amara RR, Jabbar MA, Kang S-M. Vaccination with Combination DNA and Virus-Like Particles Enhances Humoral and Cellular Immune Responses upon Boost with Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Expressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Proteins. (mdpi.com)
  • The impact of the glycan shield on the uptake of gp120 by antigen presenting cells (APCs) and its subsequent delivery to B cells in lymph nodes (LNs) or the spleen is unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • For B cells to mount an antibody response to an antigen such as gp120 they must encounter intact antigen. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mice and guinea pigs intranasally immunized by the application of recombinant HIV gp120 antigen mixed in NE demonstrated robust serum anti-gp120 IgG, as well as bronchial, vaginal, and serum anti-gp120 IgA in mice. (nih.gov)
  • To examine the response of HIV-1 infected patients to vaccination with gp120/HIV-1MN antigen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To find an effective antigen for eliciting 2G12-like antibodies, we searched for endogenous yeast proteins that could bind to 2G12 in a panel of Saccharomyces cerevisiae glycosylation knockouts and discovered one protein that bound weakly in a Delta pmr1 strain deficient in hyperglycosylation. (nih.gov)
  • Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis of the group-specific antigen (p55gag)/V3 chimeric proteins demonstrated significant differences in the accessibility of the V3 domain for a monoclonal antibody or polyclonal V3-specific antisera, depending on the position of the V3 loop within the p55gag carrier protein. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Three gp120 proteins with V3 were expressed in Drosophila S2 cells, then complexed with CD4 and the Fab (antigen binding) fragment of X5, a CD4 antibody. (openwetware.org)
  • 8. The composition of any one of claims 1 to 7 wherein said antigen is a peptide, protein, recombinant peptide or protein, lipid, carbohydrate, nucleic acid or other type of molecule or a combination of any of these. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. The composition of claim 10, wherein the antigen is a recombinant peptide or protein. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A goal for HIV prevention programs is to develop safe, effective vaccines that elicit durable and broadly protective antibodies. (asm.org)
  • Current research on HIV vaccines focuses on designing Env immunogens that induce the activation and maturation of broadly neutralizing antibody (bNAb) germ line B cells ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the main components of many prospective HIV-1 vaccines is a protein called gp120, which is located on the surface of the virus. (elifesciences.org)
  • This study suggests that NE should be evaluated as a mucosal adjuvant for multivalent HIV vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Before large clinical trials of anti-HIV vaccines are undertaken, it is important to determine whether there are significant advantages to any one of the vaccines currently offered for such studies. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The vaccines are: rgp 120/HIV-1IIIB, rgp 120/HIV-1MN, rgp 120/HIV-1SF, and env 2-3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers hope to use the knowledge of these antibodies' binding sites on HIV to develop vaccines that stimulate a long-term perhaps lifetime protective antibody response against those same vulnerable sites. (medindia.net)
  • GeoVax Labs, Inc. is a biotechnology company developing vaccines to prevent and treat Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections. (fiercepharma.com)
  • GeoVax's vaccines are unique in expressing virus-like particles that display the trimeric membrane bound form of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. (fiercepharma.com)
  • In addition, NIAID's nationwide university-based and community-based clinical trials programs conduct clinical studies of candidate therapeutic HIV vaccines. (nih.gov)
  • Inevitably, promising candidate HIV vaccines suitable for testing of their effectiveness will be identified. (nih.gov)
  • Heterologous prime boost with DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA) vaccines is considered as a promising vaccination approach against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1). (mdpi.com)
  • To understand the molecular basis of the binding of chemokines and HIV-1 to CCR5, we developed a number of mAbs that inhibit the various interactions of CCR5, and mapped the binding sites of these mAbs using a panel of CCR5/CCR2b chimeras. (rupress.org)
  • We demonstrate that human milk can inhibit the DC-SIGN-mediated transfer of HIV-1 to CD4 + T lymphocytes as well as viral transfer by both immature and mature DCs. (jci.org)
  • Taken together, our results support a novel mechanism by which Slit2/Robo1 may inhibit the HIV-1-gp120-induced migration of iDCs, thereby restricting dissemination of HIV-1 from mucosal surfaces in the host. (harvard.edu)
  • We sought to generate mAbs to CCR5 to inhibit the various functions of this molecule, and to understand how different CCR5 domains bind chemokines and HIV-1. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously described anti-CCR5 mAbs that inhibit HIV-1 binding, but not chemokine binding (19). (nih.gov)
  • Purified anti-Grx1 antibodies were shown to inhibit the Grx1 activity in vitro and block HIV-1 replication in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (kuleuven.be)
  • While both constructed dimers retained the ability to bind gp120 and the viral surface, Grft-linker-Grft-OneArm was 84- to 1010-fold less able to inhibit HIV compared to wild-type Grft, while Grft-linker-Grft had near wild-type antiviral potency. (ucmerced.edu)
  • Manipulating this macrophage network may help to optimize the antibody responses to gp120 and so, in the future, could provide a way of treating or preventing HIV-1 infections. (elifesciences.org)
  • This grant will support the continuation of preclinical studies evaluating the ability of protein boosts to augment antibody responses that can block virus infections (neutralizing antibody) and cause antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC antibody). (fiercepharma.com)
  • Rather, it is the number of prostitutes in a country that determines the spread of HIV infections, says researcher John R. Talbott, in the journal PLoS ONE. (scienceagogo.com)
  • One mAb termed 2D7 completely blocked the binding and chemotaxis of the three natural chemokine ligands of CCR5, RANTES (regulated on activation normal T cell expressed and secreted), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β, to CCR5 transfectants. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, α 4 β 7 binding is mediated by a conserved tripeptide in the gp120 V2 loop that mimics tripeptides presented in MadCAM, VCAM, and fibronectin, the three natural ligands of α 4 β 7 . (pnas.org)
  • Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120 to CXCR4 induces mitochondrial transmembrane depolarization and cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis independently of Fas signaling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CXCR4 appears to play an important role in gp120-induced cell death, but the mechanisms involved in this apoptotic process remain poorly understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • To get insight into the signal transduction pathways connecting CXCR4 to apoptosis following gp120 binding, we used different cell lines expressing wild-type CXCR4 and a truncated form of CD4 that binds gp120 but lacks the ability to transduce signals. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition, following coculture with cells expressing gp120, a Fas-independent apoptosis involving mitochondria and caspase activation is also observed in primary umbilical cord blood CD4(+) T lymphocytes expressing high levels of CXCR4. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that, independently of HIV replication, transfected or HIV-infected cells that express Env induced autophagy and accumulation of Beclin 1 in uninfected CD4+ T lymphocytes via CXCR4. (jci.org)
  • The same phenomena occurred in a T cell line and in transfected HEK.293 cells that expressed both wild-type CXCR4 and a truncated form of CD4 that is unable to bind the lymphocyte-specific protein kinase Lck. (jci.org)
  • It binds to CD4 (via gp120) and then undergoes a conformational change and binds to a coreceptor (CCR5 or CXCR4) in order to enter the host cell. (openwetware.org)
  • Here, we show that following local gp120 injection lymph node (LN) SIGN-R1 + sinus macrophages located in interfollicular pockets and underlying SIGN-R1 + macrophages form a cellular network that rapidly captures gp120 from the afferent lymph. (elifesciences.org)
  • Specialized macrophages can then capture and deliver gp120 to other macrophages in the lymph node. (elifesciences.org)
  • As such, B cells that specifically recognize gp120 have a high likelihood of encountering these gp120-bearing macrophages, thereby allowing the specific B cells to extract gp120, develop into plasma cells, and produce HIV-1 specific antibodies. (elifesciences.org)
  • Lymph node gp120 specific B cells extract locally injected HIV-1 gp120 from SIGN-R1 positive macrophages that line the subcapsular sinus overlying the lymph node interfollicular channels. (elifesciences.org)
  • BACKGROUND: HIV-1 can infect and replicate in both CD4 T cells and macrophages. (cnrs.fr)
  • Autophagosomes, however, are present in macrophages exposed to infectious HIV-1 particles, independently of coreceptor use. (cnrs.fr)
  • Human CD299, which is an oligomeric type II transmembrane protein with a C-type lectin extracellular domain, the expression of which is restricted to immature DC, macrophages in the lung, and endothelial cells in the liver. (novusbio.com)
  • The quantity of envelope glycoprotein molecules (Env) on HIV-1 particles is still an issue of debate and, depending on the strain of virus and the nature of the producer cells, it can vary greatly. (cnrs.fr)
  • It also can do so much more potently in other words, in smaller concentrations of antibody molecules than any previously reported broadly neutralizing anti-HIV antibody. (medindia.net)
  • The team's analysis hints that PGT 128 may be extraordinarily potent because it also binds two separate gp120 molecules, thus tying up not one but two cell-infecting structures. (medindia.net)
  • The successful glycomimetics and glycoconjugates represent strategies for interruption of adhesion by single molecules and in multivalent systems against uropathogenic E. coli, several toxins (Shiga-like, cholera, botulinum) and well-known or emerging viruses (influenza, HIV, Ebola, and Zika). (omicsonline.org)
  • The knobs (purple) covering the virus are sugar-protein molecules, including gp120, that shield the rest of the virus (pink). (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • My work involves designing molecules that can alter protein function and hopefully 'drug' an interaction or protein conformation that is useful therapeutically. (biophysics.org)
  • Surfactant protein D binds to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein gp120 and inhibits HIV replication. (semanticscholar.org)
  • MAdCAM costimulation through Integrin-α 4 β 7 promotes HIV replication. (nih.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our data suggest that autophagy plays a complex, but essential, role in HIV pathology by regulating both viral replication and the fate of the target cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • A recent study proposed a novel role for this antisense transcript as a regulatory RNA influencing the rate of HIV replication. (chuv.ch)
  • Several groups have suggested that reverse transcriptase is the major mechanism for mutations and in particular point mutations arising during HIV replication. (chuv.ch)
  • However other enzymes involved in HIV replication cycle, such as cellular polymerases, or enzymes participating in the innate response against retroviruses (i.e. (chuv.ch)
  • Within days following sexual transmission, infected cells migrate from the genital mucosa to Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes where high-level HIV replication occurs ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • We have focused our efforts in development of model systems supportive of HCV replication, elucidating some of the many mechanisms by which viral proteins subvert innate antiviral immunity, particularly type I IFN signaling. (massgeneral.org)
  • Panel A of the figure shows the progression of mutations in the V1V2 region of the gp120 HIV spike protein over the time of the experiment. (kenyon.edu)
  • Both of these glycans are a part of the V1-V2 region of the gp120, an HIV envelope spike protein. (kenyon.edu)
  • These results suggest a complicated pattern of HIV-1 gp120 binding to different regions of CCR5, but a relatively simple pattern for chemokine binding. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that the second extracellular loop of CCR5 is an ideal target site for the development of inhibitors of either chemokine or HIV-1 binding to CCR5. (rupress.org)
  • Nevertheless, genome-wide evaluations have nicely validated the impact of HLA and CCR5 variants on HIV disease, and importantly, made clear the many false positive associations that were previously suggested by studies using the candidate gene approach. (bireme.br)
  • Here, we examine bridging sheet dynamics using a crystal structure of gp120 bound to the F105 antibody exhibiting an open bridging sheet conformation and with an added V3 loop. (nih.gov)
  • Allosteric induction of the CD4-bound conformation of HIV-1 Gp120. (nih.gov)
  • Alterations in the conformation of the glycan shield of the HIV spike can constitute an effective escape mutation [14]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Nevertheless, PGT 128 manages to bind to two closely spaced glycans, and at the same time reaches through the rest of the "glycan shield" to take hold of a small part of structure on gp120 known as the V3 loop. (medindia.net)
  • Yet it doesn't bind to gp120 many times more tightly than other anti-HIV antibodies. (medindia.net)
  • It also determines which coreceptor the envelope protein will bind to. (openwetware.org)
  • PUMA proteins bind Bcl-2, localize to the mitochondria, and induce cytochrome C release and apoptosis in response to p53. (hum-molgen.org)
  • Mutation of any individual CBS on GRFT reduced binding of the protein to mannose, and ELISA assays revealed a partial loss of ability of each GRFT point mutant to bind gp120, with a near-complete loss of binding by the triple mutant D30A/D70A/D112A GRFT. (ucmerced.edu)
  • The protein fragment comes from gp120 -- a protein that covers HIV like a protective envelope, bolstering HIV's defenses. (prokerala.com)
  • To evaluate the safety of HIV-1 gp120 C4-V3 hybrid polyvalent peptide immunogen (C4-V3 peptides) formulated in mineral oil containing mannose mono-oleate (IFA) in HIV-1 uninfected volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Because of the critical role that this region plays in generating anti-HIV sequences, it is hypothesized that the test immunogen (C4-V3 peptides) will be capable of inducing a broad range of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in the majority of recipients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Crystal structures of the CD4-gp120-antibody ternary complex reveal a large internal gp120 cavity formed by three domains-the inner domain, outer domain, and bridging sheet domain-and are capped by CD4 residue Phe43. (nih.gov)
  • Several structures of gp120 envelope in complex with various antibodies indicated that the bridging sheet adopts varied conformations. (nih.gov)
  • An Investigation of Oligopeptides Linking Domains in Protein Tertiary Structures and Possible Candidates for General Gene Fusion" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Associating HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein structures with states on the virus observed by smFRET. (nih.gov)
  • However, optimum 2G12 antigenicity was found when Pst1, a heavily N-glycosylated protein, was expressed with homogenous Man(8)GlcNAc(2) structures in Delta och1 Delta mnn1 Delta mnn4 yeast. (nih.gov)
  • GP120 can also assemble into larger structures on lipid bilayers and forms unusual micron scale aggregates when preformed complexes are deposited on mica. (rsc.org)
  • We found that gp120 enhanced the binding of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome protein (WASp) and the Actin-Related Protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex with β-actin, an interaction essential for the proper formation of podosomes, specialized adhesion structures required for the migration of iDCs through different tissues. (harvard.edu)
  • Thus, during coinfection, LCs could be directly activated by pathogenic structures and indirectly activated by inflammatory factors, thereby increasing the risk of acquiring HIV-1. (jci.org)
  • The structures shown match previously determined protein structures of gp120 (without V3), CD4, and X5. (openwetware.org)
  • Chapter 11 contains procedures to use for working with protein 3D structures. (openwetware.org)
  • This choice of coordinate was not a lucky guess, it was guided by existing low-resolution structures of the envelope protein during membrane fusion, and even so, likely was the result of many grad student/postdoc-years of trial and error. (biophysics.org)
  • HIV-1 vaccination by needle-free oral injection induces strong mucosal immunity and protects against SHIV challenge. (harvard.edu)
  • HIV-1 targets L-selectin for adhesion and induces its shedding for viral release. (nih.gov)
  • HIV infected cells shed the envelope protein gp120 which is a potent neurotoxin that induces synapse loss. (ovid.com)
  • We have focused on the actions of HCV core protein, which induces the selective degradation and inhbition of STAT1 phosphorylation. (massgeneral.org)
  • The potent and broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 binds a cluster of high-mannose-type oligosaccharides on the gp120 subunit of Env, revealing a conserved and highly exposed epitope on the glycan shield. (nih.gov)
  • The HIV envelope (Env) protein gp120 is protected from antibody recognition by a dense glycan shield. (rcsb.org)
  • Fab PGT 128 complexed with a fully glycosylated gp120 outer domain at 3.25 angstroms reveals that the antibody penetrates the glycan shield and recognizes two conserved glycans as well as a short β-strand segment of the gp120 V3 loop, accounting for its high binding affinity and broad specificity. (rcsb.org)
  • Therefore, the size and shape of an antibody may serve as a vital factor in determining an antibody's ability to continue to effectively neutralize an HIV virion in the face of shifts in the glycan shield. (kenyon.edu)
  • This figure highlights two sections of the glycan shield that are vital to antibody binding of the HIV spike. (kenyon.edu)
  • Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) binds to gp120 and plays a role in defence against the virus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The antibody binds to gp120 in a way that presumably disrupts its ability to lock onto human cells and infect them. (medindia.net)
  • Grx1 is secreted from cells and the protein has also been found within the HIV-1 virion. (kuleuven.be)
  • Only one envelope protein on each HIV virion was dually labeled, with a FRET donor at one relatively 'fixed' location, and an acceptor at one of three locations on nearby loops of gp120. (biophysics.org)
  • Lattice engineering enables definition of molecular features allowing for potent small-molecule inhibition of HIV-1 entry. (harvard.edu)
  • Before joining Stanford, Danish earned his PhD from Texas A&M University, College Station, TX where he studied chemical inhibition of a lipid signaling protein and discovered a novel heme-binding lipid transfer protein. (stanford.edu)
  • Here, we tested whether inhibition of MGL, using the selective inhibitor JZL184, would prevent synapse loss induced by gp120. (ovid.com)
  • Inhibition of MGL prevented gp120-induced synapse loss by activating CB2R resulting in decreased production of the inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. (ovid.com)
  • Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) catalyzes the disulfide reduction in vitro and inhibition of this enzyme blocks viral entry. (kuleuven.be)
  • This inhibition is due to the binding by Grft of high-mannose saccharides on the surface of gp120. (ucmerced.edu)
  • Evidence is provided that the dimer form of Grft is critical to the function of this protein in HIV inhibition. (ucmerced.edu)
  • We found that the lack of p75NTR expression significantly reduced gp120-mediated neuronal cell death. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, while the wild-type protein demonstrated the ability to alter the structure of gp120 by exposing the CD4 binding site, Grft-linker-Grft-OneArm largely lost this ability. (ucmerced.edu)
  • Site-specific glycopeptide analysis of transmitted/founder 1086.C gp120 expressed in CHO cells revealed the presence of phosphorylated glycans, while 293T cell-produced 1086.C gp120 glycans were not phosphorylated. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Intravital imaging of mouse LNs revealed persistent, but transient interactions between gp120 bearing interfollicular network cells and both trafficking and LN follicle resident gp120 specific B cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The gp120 specific, but not the control B cells repetitively extracted gp120 from the network cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, specific antibodies are only produced if naive B cells have already encountered the pathogen or its surface proteins. (elifesciences.org)
  • Specific B cells recognize this protein and can develop into plasma cells that produce antibodies against HIV-1. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, little is known about how these specific B cells initially get exposed to gp120. (elifesciences.org)
  • PRIMARY: To compare the immunogenicity and safety of each of several HIV-1 derived immunogens versus control in HIV-infected individuals with CD4 counts greater than or equal to 500 cells/mm3. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Sudhir Paul, Ph.D., pathology professor in the UT Medical School, said, "Unlike the changeable regions of its envelope, HIV needs at least one region that must remain constant to attach to cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • If this region changes, HIV cannot infect cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • So, HIV uses the same constant cellular attachment site to silence B lymphocytes - the antibody producing cells. (bio-medicine.org)
  • No direct neuronotoxicity by HIV-1 virions or culture fluids from HIV-1-infected T cells or monocytes. (springer.com)
  • Vaginal myeloid dendritic cells transmit founder HIV-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Early HIV-1 target cells in human vaginal and ectocervical mucosa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We employed dual-color super-resolution microscopy visualizing Gag assembly sites and HIV-1 Env proteins in virus-producing and in Env expressing cells. (nih.gov)
  • Computational cluster analysis of HIV-1 Env membrane distribution.Global cluster analysis of Env distribution at the plasma membrane was performed based on super-resolution images of HeLa cells transfected with pCHIV/pCHIVmEos.FP, pCHIV. (nih.gov)
  • B) Differential distribution of cluster size for Env(wt) on the surface of HeLa cells in the presence and absence of other viral proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Processes being investigated include protein aggregation in cells, conformational dynamics of enzymes, formation of skeletal tissues, cell penetration by viruses, DNA recognition by proteins, and protein folding. (weizmann.ac.il)
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate here that autophagy and cell death are also induced in the uninfected CD4 T cells by HIV-1 R5 Env, while autophagy is inhibited in productively X4 or R5-infected CD4 T cells. (cnrs.fr)
  • Local conformational changes, including the V3 domain within the p55gag/V3 chimeras, did not demonstrate a significant effect on V3-specific lysis of the target cells when compared to the authentic gp120 envelope protein. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • DC-SIGN is expressed on monocyte-derived DCs in culture, and importantly, it is able to sequester HIV-1 within cells and facilitate transmission of virus to CD4 + T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • However, blockade of DC-SIGN with Abs and DC-SIGN small interfering RNA did not result in a major reduction in the capacity of these DCs to transfer HIV to T cells, confirming significant DC-SIGN-independent mechanisms. (jimmunol.org)
  • After uptake into monocyte-derived DCs and into DC-SIGN transfectants, HIV-1 remains infectious for some time ( 5 , 6 ) and is transmitted to T cells at contact zones termed virological synapses ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Nonetheless, the contribution of CD209 to HIV-1 transmission has been documented primarily with Raji cells transfected with DC-SIGN ( 4 , 5 , 6 , 14 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • More recently DC-SIGN expression has been nullified in DCs derived from CD34 + progenitor cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA), and this resulted in a reduction of transmission of X4 tropic HIV in culture ( 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • For monocyte-derived DCs, some studies have reported that HIV-1 transmission from DCs to T cells is mediated exclusively by DC-SIGN ( 4 , 5 ), whereas others report a relatively minor contribution of DC-SIGN ( 6 , 14 , 16 , 17 , 18 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. (curehunter.com)
  • The various viral proteins are synthesized from unspliced, monospliced, or multispliced forms of this major transcript and then assume their functional roles in infected cells. (chuv.ch)
  • The protein was expressed in mammalian cells and characterized as a membrane protein with polar distribution. (chuv.ch)
  • In addition, we will try to detect the presence of the antisense RNA and/or the protein in cells of HIV-1 infected patients. (chuv.ch)
  • Cell-mediated transmission and dissemination of sexually-acquired human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) in the host involves the migration of immature dendritic cells (iDCs). (harvard.edu)
  • Although the rabbits' antibodies bound to gp120, they did not prevent live HIV from infecting cells. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that Langerhans cells (LCs) are involved in the increased susceptibility to HIV-1 in the presence of genital coinfections. (jci.org)
  • I just completed my 1st quarter rotation in the Berman lab optimizing the transient expression of HIV gp120 envelope proteins using HEK293 cells. (ucsc.edu)
  • Researchers at the University of California - Los Angeles (UCLA) report that the practice of mindfulness meditation can halt the decline of CD4-T cells in HIV-positive patients. (scienceagogo.com)
  • The weak spot is hidden in the HIV envelope protein gp120, essential for HIV's attachment to host cells. (scienceagogo.com)
  • The specific affinity of gp120 for α 4 β 7 provides a mechanism for HIV-1 to target activated cells that are critical for efficient virus propagation and dissemination following sexual transmission. (pnas.org)
  • HIV also enters the lamina propria where it mediates a massive depletion of CD4 + T cells ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • It is in this context that we recently described a specific biochemical interaction between the HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 and α 4 β 7 on CD4 + T cells ( 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Protection from graft-versus-host disease by HIV-1 envelope protein gp120-mediated activation of human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. (unimedizin-mainz.de)
  • Interactions of surfactant protein A with influenza A viruses: binding and neutralization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After CD4 makes initial contact with the gp120 outer domain, layer 1-layer 2 interactions strengthen gp120-CD4 binding by reducing the off rate. (nih.gov)
  • Layer 1-layer 2 interactions also destabilize the activated state induced on HIV-1 by treatment with soluble CD4. (nih.gov)
  • Surface plasmon resonance analysis of this form of Pst1 showed high affinity for 2G12, which translated into Pst1 efficiently inhibiting gp120 interactions with 2G12 and DC-SIGN and blocking 2G12-mediated neutralization of HIV-1 pseudoviruses. (nih.gov)
  • External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. (harvard.edu)
  • The envelope protein (gp120) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) contains highly conserved mannosylated oligosaccharides. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Role of surfactant protein A and D (SP-A and SP-D) in human antiviral host defense. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) r. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of Te. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) researchers at The University of Texas Medical School at Houston believe they have uncovered the Achilles heel in the armor of the virus that continues to kill millions. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Neurologic decline associated with penetration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into the central nervous system is thought to be due, in large part, to inflammation and local secretion of neurotoxic substances. (springer.com)
  • Neuronal excitatory properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat protein. (springer.com)
  • This review aims to provide a summary of current knowledge of host genetic effects on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. (bireme.br)
  • These pathological features are also caused by the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV) envelope protein gp120, which increases the levels of proBDNF. (frontiersin.org)
  • These results indicate that DC-SIGN has the potential to contribute to macrophage function in normal human lymph node, and that DCs do not require DC-SIGN to transmit HIV or to initiate T cell responses. (jimmunol.org)
  • Protein profiling and identification of modulators regulated by human papillomavirus 16 E7 oncogene in HaCaT keratinocytes by proteomics," Gynecologic Oncology , vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 142-152, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Glycoprotein 120, or gp120, is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope protein derived from the proteolytic cleavage of gp160. (biolegend.com)
  • PDI belongs to the thioredoxin protein superfamily that also includes human glutaredoxin-1 (Grx1). (kuleuven.be)
  • Despite education and treatment advances, experts project a worsening of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) crisis through the year 2000. (nih.gov)
  • They are potent inhibitors of RNA polymerases in most eukaryotic species, the prevent the production of mRNA and protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other research is also starting to suggest that you can grab onto two glycans and a beta strand and get very potent and broad neutralizing antibodies against HIV," Wilson said. (medindia.net)
  • Developmental Pathway for Potent V1V2-Directed HIV Neutralizing Antibodies. (kenyon.edu)
  • His research focuses on understanding the mechanism of eukaryotic protein quality control pathways. (stanford.edu)
  • Host genetic variation and HIV disease: from mapping to mechanism. (bireme.br)
  • The research activity of our unit is aimed at elucidating the mechanism(s) leading to genetic variation in gp120. (chuv.ch)
  • In this study, we elucidated the mechanism of HIV-1-gp120-induced transendothelial migration of iDCs. (harvard.edu)
  • Previous attempts to show the crystal structure of the gp120 protein's viral entry mechanism left out the third variable region (V3). (openwetware.org)
  • The disparity between HIV-1 gp120 binding ability and HIV inhibitory potency for these GRFT variants indicates that gp120 binding and virus neutralization do not necessarily correlate, and suggests a mechanism that is not based on simple gp120 binding. (ucmerced.edu)
  • Neuronal damage and neurocognitive performance in gp120- transgenic mice were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and behavioral analysis, respectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with wild-type mice , gp120- transgenic mice showed significant cortical and hippocampal glial activation, neuronal loss, dendritic damage and neurocognitive disorders . (bvsalud.org)
  • Mice immunized with gp41 prehairpin fusion intermediate attached to Fc developed neutralizing antibody responses against HIV IIIb ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Immunizing mice with HIV CN54 gp120 fused to IgG Fc (gp120-Fc), but not gp120, elicited Env-specific humoral responses in the absence of adjuvant, suggesting that the Fc sequence acted as an adjuvant ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • injected gp120 into mice, and used sophisticated microscopy to track its movement through the animal. (elifesciences.org)
  • To establish whether p75NTR plays a role in gp120-mediated neurite pruning, we exposed primary cultures of cortical neurons from p75NTR -/- mice to gp120. (frontiersin.org)
  • To determine whether knocking down p75NTR is neuroprotective in vivo , we intercrossed gp120 transgenic (tg) mice with p75NTR heterozygous mice to obtain gp120tg mice lacking one or two p75NTR alleles. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Achilles heel, a tiny stretch of amino acids numbered 421-433 on gp120, is now under study as a target for therapeutic intervention. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Interaction of mannose-binding lectin with HIV type 1 is sufficient for virus opsonization but not neutralization. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Thus, despite lack of contact with CD4, the gp120 inner-domain layers govern CD4 triggering by participating in conformational transitions within gp120 and regulating the interaction with gp41. (nih.gov)
  • therefore, the interaction of HIV with the sperm is worthy of study. (elsevier.com)
  • The motile sperm head fixation method was used as an in vitro model system to demonstrate the interaction of sperm with the peptide of HIV envelope protein. (elsevier.com)
  • Both the conserved nature of this interaction and the evident molecular mimicry implies that engaging α 4 β 7 provides a selective advantage to HIV-1. (pnas.org)
  • A micropipette loaded with semen was put into phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing V3 peptide (HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 307 - 330) or C2 peptide (HIV-1 IIIB envelope protein, fragment 254 - 274). (elsevier.com)
  • Which of the procedures from Chapter 6 that you ran on the entire gp120 sequence are applicable to the V3 fragment you are working with now? (openwetware.org)
  • Find the section on 'Predicting the Secondary Structure of a Protein Sequence' and perform this on both the entire gp120 sequence and on the V3 fragment that we are now working with. (openwetware.org)
  • To examine the cellular processes that mediate neurotoxicity in vivo , the authors evaluated the ability of neurons to maintain intracellular calcium homeostasis in the presence of toxic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (CSF tox ) collected from a subset of HIV-infected individuals. (springer.com)
  • The number of synapses between rat hippocampal neurons in culture was quantified by imaging clusters of a GFP-tagged antibody-like protein that selectively binds to the postsynaptic scaffolding protein, PSD95. (ovid.com)
  • The genome of HIV-1 harbors the three common retroviral genes (gag, pol, and env), in addition to two regulatory genes (tat and rev) and four accessory genes (vif, vpr, vpu, and nef). (chuv.ch)
  • The binding of CV-N to the heavily glycosylated HIV envelope protein gp120 is carbohydrate-dependent. (rcsb.org)
  • UNLABELLED The HIV-1 envelope protein (Env) is heavily glycosylated, with approximately 50% of the Env molecular mass being contributed by N-glycans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our data suggest that activation of p75NTR is one of the mechanisms crucial for the neurotoxic effect of gp120. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, our understanding of the mechanisms of HIV-mediated synaptic degeneration is incomplete. (frontiersin.org)
  • A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying HIV neurotoxicity could lead to a new adjunct therapy for HIV positive individuals. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular mechanisms whereby gp120 promotes synaptic simplification are still under investigation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Variability in HIV has been shown to be the result of the combined action of at least three mechanisms, namely the error-prone nature of the reverse transcriptase, high virus turnover and recombination processes between different viruses within the same infected individual. (chuv.ch)
  • However, the inflammatory stimuli TNF-α and Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4), the ligand for the TLR1/TLR2 heterodimer, strongly increased HIV-1 transmission by LCs through distinct mechanisms. (jci.org)
  • How does CD4 binding trigger conformational changes in gp120 that allow the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein to mediate viral-cell membrane fusion? (nih.gov)
  • With the isolation and purification of HIV-1, it was shown that whole virions and crude extracts therefrom could induce in vitro some of the immunologic phenomena that were observed in clinical disease. (springer.com)
  • 13B8.2 monoclonal antibody antagonizes HIV effects in vitro. (beckman.com)
  • We show that Grx1 efficiently catalyzes gp120, and CD4 disulfide reduction in vitro, even at low plasma levels of glutathione. (kuleuven.be)
  • An HIV-CD4+ cell attachment inhibitor, dextran sulfate (DS, molecular weight about 5000), enhanced the sperm head agglutination induced by the V3 peptide. (elsevier.com)
  • Neuronal cell killing by the envelope protein of HIV and its prevention by vasoactive intestinal peptide. (springer.com)
  • This antibody was raised against a peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence 427-448 of the gp120 protein. (biolegend.com)
  • To investigate the role of the Grft dimer in anti-HIV function, an obligate dimer of Grft was designed by expressing the protein with a peptide linker between the two subunits. (ucmerced.edu)
  • What this study does show is that even complicated and dynamic processes like HIV membrane fusion can often be monitored and deep information gleaned from a very clever choice of one coordinate. (biophysics.org)
  • Detailed analyses of CNS-derived HIV-1 env have allowed researchers to identify a number of molecular determinants associated with neuroadaptation. (springer.com)
  • A common polymorphism in the SFTPD gene influences assembly, function, and concentration of surfactant protein D. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Recently, several data have suggested that another gene, encoding a product named HIV antisense protein (ASP), may be expressed through an antisense transcript. (chuv.ch)
  • Among these, the ASP ORF encoded by the complementary strand to the gp120/gp41 junction of the env gene, is the longest and sole ORF with a preserved ATG initiation codon. (chuv.ch)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is highly homologous to other family members, however the enzymes have different substrate specificities. (genecards.org)
  • GALNT3 (Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • The HIV-1 envelope gene ( env ) has been an intense focus of investigation in the search for genetic determinants of viral entry and persistence in the central nervous system (CNS). (springer.com)
  • Env-rFc also induced antibodies capable of neutralizing tier 1A HIV pseudotyped viruses and mediating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, outcomes not observed with monomeric gp120 in our study. (asm.org)
  • The two simulations provide a framework for understanding the conformational diversity of the bridging sheet and the propensity of the β20/β21 strand to refold between the inner and outer domains of gp120, in the absence of a bound ligand. (nih.gov)
  • The transition from the unliganded to the CD4-bound state is regulated by two potentially flexible topological layers (layers 1 and 2) in the gp120 inner domain. (nih.gov)
  • Range of CD4-Bound Conformations of HIV-1 gp120, as Defined Using Conditional CD4-Induced Antibodies. (nih.gov)
  • Figure 1 shows the protein structure of a gp120 protein with V3, bound to CD4 and X5. (openwetware.org)
  • The HIV virus's defenses are strengthened by a sugar shield that covers the gp120 envelope. (upi.com)
  • While these differences had minimal effect on envelope antigenicity, they may be important in considering immunogenicity and functional capacities of recombinant envelope proteins produced in different expression systems. (biomedsearch.com)
  • As a complement to these strategies, we developed dimeric fusion protein immunogens consisting of HIV BaL gp120 monomer attached to a Gly/Ser linker that is, in turn, fused to one half of the dimeric Fc domain from rhesus macaque IgG1 (Env-rFc). (asm.org)
  • [email protected]# HIV-1 gp120 might cause neuronal damage through activating the release of inflammatory factor by microglia and involve in neurocognitive impairment. (bvsalud.org)
  • Almost half of HIV infected individuals are afflicted with HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), a neuroinflammatory disease in which cognitive decline correlates with synapse loss. (ovid.com)
  • Updated research nosology for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. (springer.com)
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors. (springer.com)
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders: is there a hidden epidemic? (springer.com)
  • Highly conserved HIV-1 gp120 glycans proximal to CD4-binding region affect viral infectivity and neutralizing antibody induction. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The result is that the body is fooled into making abundant antibodies to the changeable regions of HIV but not to its cellular attachment site. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Antisense transcription encoding proteins involved in the modulation of transactivation potential of multiple cellular transcription activators has been shown in HTLV. (chuv.ch)