Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special disposal procedures.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Carbohydrate antigens expressed by malignant tissue. They are useful as tumor markers and are measured in the serum by means of a radioimmunoassay employing monoclonal antibodies.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Molecules on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with specific antigens.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.

Evolution and biological characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype E gp120 V3 sequences following horizontal and vertical virus transmission in a single family. (1/787)

It has been suggested that immune-pressure-mediated positive selection operates to maintain the antigenic polymorphism on the third variable (V3) loop of the gp120 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Here we present evidence, on the basis of sequencing 147 independently cloned env C2/V3 segments from a single family (father, mother, and their child), that the intensity of positive selection is related to the V3 lineage. Phylogenetic analysis and amino acid comparison of env C2/V3 and gag p17/24 regions indicated that a single HIV-1 subtype E source had infected the family. The analyses of unique env C2/V3 clones revealed that two V3 lineage groups had evolved in the parents. Group 1 was maintained with low variation in all three family members regardless of the clinical state or the length of infection, whereas group 2 was only present in symptomatic individuals and was more positively charged and diverse than group 1. Only virus isolates carrying the group 2 V3 sequences infected and induced syncytia in MT2 cells, a transformed CD4(+)-T-cell line. A statistically significant excess of nonsynonymous substitutions versus synonymous substitutions was demonstrated only for the group 2 V3 region. The data suggest that HIV-1 variants, possessing the more homogeneous group 1 V3 element and exhibiting the non-syncytium-inducing phenotype, persist in infected individuals independent of clinical status and appear to be more resistant to positive selection pressure.  (+info)

Binding of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag to membrane: role of the matrix amino terminus. (2/787)

Binding of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag protein precursor, Pr55(Gag), to membrane is an indispensable step in virus assembly. Previously, we reported that a matrix (MA) residue 6 substitution (6VR) imposed a virus assembly defect similar to that observed with myristylation-defective mutants, suggesting that the 6VR change impaired membrane binding. Intriguingly, the 6VR mutation had no effect on Gag myristylation. The defective phenotype imposed by 6VR was reversed by changes at other positions in MA, including residue 97. In this study, we use several biochemical methods to demonstrate that the residue 6 mutation, as well as additional substitutions in MA amino acids 7 and 8, reduce membrane binding without affecting N-terminal myristylation. This effect is observed in the context of Pr55(Gag), a truncated Gag containing only MA and CA, and in MA itself. The membrane binding defect imposed by the 6VR mutation is reversed by second-site changes in MA residues 20 and 97, both of which, when present alone, increase membrane binding to levels greater than those for the wild type. Both reduced and enhanced membrane binding imposed by the MA substitutions depend upon the presence of the N-terminal myristate. The results support the myristyl switch model recently proposed for the regulation of Gag membrane binding, according to which membrane binding is determined by the degree of exposure or sequestration of the N-terminal myristate moiety. Alternatively, insertion of the myristate into the lipid bilayer might be a prerequisite event for the function of other distinct MA-encoded membrane binding domains.  (+info)

Engineering of noninfectious HIV-1-like particles containing mutant gp41 glycoproteins as vaccine candidates that allow vaccinees to be distinguished from HIV-1 infectees. (3/787)

Many AIDS vaccine candidates under development may elicit immune responses similar to those observed in and used to screen human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals. Therefore, it is important to develop vaccine candidates that incorporate antigenic markers and allow vaccinees to be distinguished from HIV-1 infectees. To this end, we introduced a series of mutations into and in the vicinity of the major immunodominant region (MIR) of gp41 (residues 598-609), a domain recognized by almost all HIV-1 infectees, and evaluated whether HIV-1-like particles incorporating such mutant glycoproteins could be expressed in mammalian cells. Results indicated that although up to three consecutive amino acids could be replaced within MIR without significantly affecting particle formation or gp160 processing, deletions within MIR impaired envelope processing. Replacement of HIV-1 MIR by part or most of the corresponding domain from other lentiviruses markedly decreased or abolished gp160 processing. Synthetic peptides corresponding to a mutated MIR incorporating three amino acid replacements were not recognized by a panel of sera from HIV-1 infectees, suggesting that HIV-1-like particles with this type of mutation represent potential candidate vaccines that could allow vaccinees to be distinguished from HIV-1 infectees.  (+info)

Translation elongation factor 1-alpha interacts specifically with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag polyprotein. (4/787)

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gag-encoded proteins play key functions at almost all stages of the viral life cycle. Since these functions may require association with cellular factors, the HIV-1 matrix protein (MA) was used as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify MA-interacting proteins. MA was found to interact with elongation factor 1-alpha (EF1alpha), an essential component of the translation machinery that delivers aminoacyl-tRNA to ribosomes. EF1alpha was then shown to bind the entire HIV-1 Gag polyprotein. This interaction is mediated not only by MA, but also by the nucleocapsid domain, which provides a second, independent EF1alpha-binding site on the Gag polyprotein. EF1alpha is incorporated within HIV-1 virion membranes, where it is cleaved by the viral protease and protected from digestion by exogenously added subtilisin. The specificity of the interaction is demonstrated by the fact that EF1alpha does not bind to nonlentiviral MAs and does not associate with Moloney murine leukemia virus virions. The Gag-EF1alpha interaction appears to be mediated by RNA, in that basic residues in MA and NC are required for binding to EF1alpha, RNase disrupts the interaction, and a Gag mutant with undetectable EF1alpha-binding activity is impaired in its ability to associate with tRNA in cells. Finally, the interaction between MA and EF1alpha impairs translation in vitro, a result consistent with a previously proposed model in which inhibition of translation by the accumulation of Gag serves to release viral RNA from polysomes, permitting the RNA to be packaged into nascent virions.  (+info)

Reappearance of founder virus sequence in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients. (5/787)

Different patterns of temporal evolution in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 V3 and p17 regions are described for eight patients studied during the first years following primary infection. In samples from three patients, a rapid replacement of the major sequence occurred but the original sequence reappeared later simultaneously with clinical deterioration and increased plasma viral load.  (+info)

Changes in and discrepancies between cell tropisms and coreceptor uses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 induced by single point mutations at the V3 tip of the env protein. (6/787)

We examined the effect of amino acid substitutions of the GPGR (glycine-proline-glycine-arginine) tip sequence at the V3 domain of the Env protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on its cell tropism and coreceptor use. We changed the GPGR sequence of a T-cell line (T)- and macrophage (M)-tropic (R5-R3-X4) HIV-1 strain, GUN-1wt, to GA(alanine)GR (the resulting mutant was designated GUN-1/A), GL(leucine)GR (GUN-1/L), GP(proline)GR (GUN-1/P), GR(arginine)GR (GUN-1/R), GS(serine)GR (GUN-1/S), or GT(threonine)GR (GUN-1/T). GUN-1/A, GUN-1/S, and GUN-1/T mutants infected brain-derived cells such as a CD4-transduced glioma cell line, U87/CD4, and a brain-derived primary cell strain, BT-20/N, as well as T-cell lines in a CD4-dependent manner, although the plating of these mutants onto macrophages was inhibited. GUN-1/L, GUN-1/P, and GUN-1/R mutants showed both T- and M-tropism, but did not plate onto the brain-derived cells. A CCR3, CCR5, CCR8, or CXCR4 gene was introduced into a CD4-positive glioma cell line, NP-2/CD4, which demonstrated complete resistance to various HIV-1 strains. Not only HIV-1 strains, which were infectious to macrophages, such as GUN-1wt, GUN-1v, GUN-1/L, and GUN-1/P, but also an HIV-1 strain, GUN-1v, which was hardly infectious to macrophages, grew well in NP-2/CD4 cells expressing CCR3 or CCR5. However, the M-tropic GUN-1/R mutant could not efficiently use CCR5 nor CCR3. No point mutants, except GUN-1/L, grew well in NP-2/CD4 cells expressing CCR8. These findings indicate that the cell tropism of HIV-1 to macrophages and brain-derived cells and their use of the coreceptors were markedly, though not always concomitantly, affected by the tip sequence of the V3 domain.  (+info)

The antiviral activity of HIV-specific CD8+ CTL clones is limited by elimination due to encounter with HIV-infected targets. (7/787)

Adoptive immunotherapy of virus infection with viral-specific CTL has shown promise in animal models and human virus infections and is being evaluated as a therapy for established HIV-1 infection. Defining the individual obstacles for success is difficult in human trials. We have therefore examined the localization, persistence, and antiviral activity of HIV-1 gag-specific CTL clones in both HIV-1-infected and uninfected haplotype-matched human (hu)-PBL-SCID mice. Injection of gag-specific clones but not control CTL into HIV-1-infected hosts reduced plasma viremia by >10-fold but failed to eliminate the virus infection from most treated animals. The failure to eradicate virus did not reflect selection of escape variants because the gag epitope remained unmutated in virus isolates obtained after CTL therapy. Injection of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimide ester-labeled CTL demonstrated markedly different fates for gag-specific CTL in the presence or absence of HIV-1 infection. HIV-1-specific CTL rapidly disappeared in infected recipients, whereas they were maintained at high numbers in uninfected mice. By contrast, control CTL were long lived in both infected and uninfected recipients. Thus, interaction of CTL with virus-infected target cells in vivo leads not only to target destruction but also to the rapid disappearance of the infused CTL, and it limits the capacity of CTL therapy to eliminate HIV-1 infection.  (+info)

Cloning and characterization of hIF2, a human homologue of bacterial translation initiation factor 2, and its interaction with HIV-1 matrix. (8/787)

The cDNA for a human homologue (hIF2) of bacterial (bIF2) and yeast (yIF2) translation initiation factor two (IF2) has been identified during a screen for proteins which interact with HIV-1 matrix. The hIF2 cDNA encodes a 1220-amino-acid protein with a predicted relative molecular mass of 139 kDa, though endogeneous hIF2 migrates anomalously on SDS/PAGE at 180 kDa. hIF2 has an extended N-terminus compared with its homologues, although its central GTP-binding domain and C-terminus are highly conserved, with 58% sequence identity with yIF2. We have confirmed that hIF2 is required for general translation in human cells by generation of a point mutation in the P-loop of the GTP-binding domain. This mutant protein behaves in a transdominant manner in transient transfections and leads to a significant decrease in the translation of a reporter gene. hIF2 interacts directly with HIV-1 matrix and Gag in vitro, and the protein complex can be immunoprecipitated from human cells. This interaction appears to block hIF2 function, since purified matrix protein inhibits translation in a reticulocyte lysate. hIF2 does not correspond to any of the previously characterized translation initiation factors identified in mammals, but its essential role in translation appears to have been conserved from bacteria to humans.  (+info)

HIV antigens refer to the proteins present on the surface or within the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can stimulate an immune response in the infected individual. These antigens are recognized by the host's immune system, specifically by CD4+ T cells and antibodies, leading to their activation and production. Two significant HIV antigens are the HIV-1 p24 antigen and the gp120/gp41 envelope proteins. The p24 antigen is a capsid protein found within the viral particle, while the gp120/gp41 complex forms the viral envelope and facilitates viral entry into host cells. Detection of HIV antigens in clinical settings, such as in the ELISA or Western blot tests, helps diagnose HIV infection and monitor disease progression.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

Medical waste, also known as healthcare waste, is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as any waste generated within the healthcare system that may pose a risk to human health and the environment. This includes waste produced by hospitals, clinics, laboratories, research centers, and other healthcare-related facilities, as well as waste generated by individuals during the course of receiving medical treatment at home.

Medical waste can take many forms, including sharps (such as needles, syringes, and scalpels), infectious waste (such as used bandages, gloves, and surgical instruments), pharmaceutical waste (such as expired or unused medications), chemical waste (such as disinfectants and solvents), and radioactive waste (such as materials used in medical imaging and cancer treatments). Proper management of medical waste is essential to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, protect healthcare workers from injury and infection, and minimize the environmental impact of these wastes.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a species of lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time, HIV infection can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). This virus attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, also known as T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that helps coordinate the body's immune response. As HIV destroys these cells, the body becomes more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is primarily spread through bodily fluids like blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk.

It's important to note that while there is no cure for HIV, with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Treatment for HIV is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). If taken as prescribed, this medicine reduces the amount of HIV in the body to a very low level, which keeps the immune system working and prevents illness. This treatment also greatly reduces the risk of transmission.

HIV antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) in the body. These antibodies are designed to recognize and bind to specific parts of the virus, known as antigens, in order to neutralize or eliminate it.

There are several types of HIV antibodies that can be produced, including:

1. Anti-HIV-1 and anti-HIV-2 antibodies: These are antibodies that specifically target the HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses, respectively.
2. Antibodies to HIV envelope proteins: These antibodies recognize and bind to the outer envelope of the virus, which is covered in glycoprotein spikes that allow the virus to attach to and enter host cells.
3. Antibodies to HIV core proteins: These antibodies recognize and bind to the interior of the viral particle, where the genetic material of the virus is housed.

The presence of HIV antibodies in the blood can be detected through a variety of tests, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. A positive test result for HIV antibodies indicates that an individual has been infected with the virus, although it may take several weeks or months after infection for the antibodies to become detectable.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

HIV seropositivity is a term used to describe a positive result on an HIV antibody test. This means that the individual has developed antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), indicating that they have been infected with the virus. However, it's important to note that this does not necessarily mean that the person has AIDS, as there can be a long period between HIV infection and the development of AIDS.

HIV Core Protein p24 is a structural protein that forms the cone-shaped core of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is one of the earliest and most abundant viral proteins produced during the replication cycle of HIV. The p24 antigen is often used as a marker for HIV infection in diagnostic tests, as its levels in the blood tend to correlate with the amount of virus present.

The core protein p24 plays a critical role in the assembly and infectivity of the virus. It helps to package the viral RNA and enzymes into the virion, and is also involved in the fusion of the viral and host cell membranes during infection. The p24 protein is produced by cleavage of a larger precursor protein called Gag, which is encoded by the HIV genome.

In addition to its role in the viral life cycle, p24 has also been the target of HIV vaccine development efforts, as antibodies against this protein can neutralize the virus and prevent infection. However, developing an effective HIV vaccine has proven to be a significant challenge due to the virus's ability to mutate and evade the immune system.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) is a term that was used to describe a group of symptoms and conditions that occurred in people who were infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), but had not yet developed full-blown AIDS. It was characterized by the presence of certain opportunistic infections or malignancies, as well as constitutional symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

The term ARC is no longer commonly used in clinical practice, since it has been largely replaced by the concept of "stages of HIV infection" based on CD4+ T-cell count and viral load. However, historically, the diagnosis of ARC required the presence of certain clinical conditions, such as:

* A CD4+ T-cell count between 200 and 500 cells/mm3
* The presence of constitutional symptoms (such as fever, night sweats, or weight loss)
* The presence of one or more opportunistic infections or malignancies (such as Pneumocystis pneumonia, oral candidiasis, or Kaposi's sarcoma)

It is important to note that the diagnosis and management of HIV infection have evolved significantly over time, and people with HIV can now live long and healthy lives with appropriate medical care. If you have any concerns about HIV or AIDS, it is important to speak with a healthcare provider for accurate information and guidance.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a chronic, life-threatening condition caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by the significant weakening of the immune system, making the person more susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers.

The medical definition of AIDS includes specific criteria based on CD4+ T-cell count or the presence of certain opportunistic infections and diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person with HIV is diagnosed with AIDS when:

1. The CD4+ T-cell count falls below 200 cells per cubic millimeter of blood (mm3) - a normal range is typically between 500 and 1,600 cells/mm3.
2. They develop one or more opportunistic infections or cancers that are indicative of advanced HIV disease, regardless of their CD4+ T-cell count.

Some examples of these opportunistic infections and cancers include:

* Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
* Candidiasis (thrush) affecting the esophagus, trachea, or lungs
* Cryptococcal meningitis
* Toxoplasmosis of the brain
* Cytomegalovirus disease
* Kaposi's sarcoma
* Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
* Invasive cervical cancer

It is important to note that with appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART), people living with HIV can maintain their CD4+ T-cell counts, suppress viral replication, and prevent the progression to AIDS. Early diagnosis and consistent treatment are crucial for managing HIV and improving life expectancy and quality of life.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Humoral immunity is a type of immune response in which the body produces proteins called antibodies that circulate in bodily fluids such as blood and help to protect against infection. This form of immunity involves the interaction between antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) and soluble factors, including antibodies, complement proteins, and cytokines.

When a pathogen enters the body, it is recognized as foreign by the immune system, which triggers the production of specific antibodies to bind to and neutralize or destroy the pathogen. These antibodies are produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell that is part of the adaptive immune system.

Humoral immunity provides protection against extracellular pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, that exist outside of host cells. It is an important component of the body's defense mechanisms and plays a critical role in preventing and fighting off infections.

Reagent kits, diagnostic are prepackaged sets of chemical reagents and other components designed for performing specific diagnostic tests or assays. These kits are often used in clinical laboratories to detect and measure the presence or absence of various biomarkers, such as proteins, antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, or small molecules, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues.

Diagnostic reagent kits typically contain detailed instructions for their use, along with the necessary reagents, controls, and sometimes specialized equipment or supplies. They are designed to simplify the testing process, reduce human error, and increase standardization, ensuring accurate and reliable results. Examples of diagnostic reagent kits include those used for pregnancy tests, infectious disease screening, drug testing, genetic testing, and cancer biomarker detection.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens refer to specific proteins expressed by polyomaviruses that can induce cellular transformation and lead to the development of cancer. These antigens are called large T antigen (T-Ag) and small t antigen (t-Ag). They manipulate key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

The large T antigen is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in viral replication and transformation. It has several domains with different functions:

1. Origin binding domain (OBD): Binds to the viral origin of replication, initiating DNA synthesis.
2. Helicase domain: Unwinds double-stranded DNA during replication.
3. DNA binding domain: Binds to specific DNA sequences and acts as a transcriptional regulator.
4. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding domain: Recruits PP1 to promote viral DNA replication and inhibit host cell defense mechanisms.
5. p53-binding domain: Binds and inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53, promoting cell cycle progression and preventing apoptosis.
6. Rb-binding domain: Binds to and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to deregulation of the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth.

The small t antigen shares a common N-terminal region with large T antigen but lacks some functional domains, such as the OBD and helicase domain. Small t antigen can also bind to and inactivate PP1 and pRb, contributing to transformation. However, its primary role is to stabilize large T antigen by preventing its proteasomal degradation.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens are associated with various human cancers, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus) and some forms of brain tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas (associated with simian virus 40).

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in our body. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are three types of HLA antigens: HLA class I, HLA class II, and HLA class III. HLA class I antigens are found on the surface of almost all cells in the body and help the immune system recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells. They consist of three components: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C.

HLA class II antigens are primarily found on the surface of immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. They assist in the presentation of foreign particles (like bacteria and viruses) to CD4+ T cells, which then activate other parts of the immune system. HLA class II antigens include HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

HLA class III antigens consist of various molecules involved in immune responses, such as cytokines and complement components. They are not directly related to antigen presentation.

The genetic diversity of HLA antigens is extensive, with thousands of variations or alleles. This diversity allows for a better ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens. However, this variation can also lead to compatibility issues in organ transplantation, as the recipient's immune system may recognize the donor's HLA antigens as foreign and attack the transplanted organ.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

H-2 antigens are a group of cell surface proteins found in mice that play a critical role in the immune system. They are similar to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex in humans and are involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to T cells, which is a crucial step in the adaptive immune response.

The H-2 antigens are encoded by a cluster of genes located on chromosome 17 in mice. They are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these proteins circulating in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented to T cells, thereby enhancing the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to a variety of pathogens.

The H-2 antigens are divided into two classes based on their function and structure. Class I H-2 antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells and consist of a heavy chain, a light chain, and a peptide fragment. They present endogenous peptides, such as those derived from viruses that infect the cell, to CD8+ T cells.

Class II H-2 antigens, on the other hand, are found primarily on professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. They consist of an alpha chain and a beta chain and present exogenous peptides, such as those derived from bacteria that have been engulfed by the cell, to CD4+ T cells.

Overall, H-2 antigens are essential components of the mouse immune system, allowing for the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein that is normally produced in small amounts during fetal development. In adults, low levels of CEA can be found in the blood, but elevated levels are typically associated with various types of cancer, particularly colon, rectal, and breast cancer.

Measurement of CEA levels in the blood is sometimes used as a tumor marker to monitor response to treatment, detect recurrence, or screen for secondary cancers in patients with a history of certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that CEA is not a specific or sensitive indicator of cancer and can be elevated in various benign conditions such as inflammation, smoking, and some gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings.

Antigens are substances that trigger an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules found on the surface of cells or viruses.

Viral antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of viruses. When a virus infects a cell, it may display viral antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This can alert the immune system to the presence of the virus and trigger an immune response.

Tumor antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens may be unique to the cancer cells, or they may be similar to antigens found on normal cells. Tumor antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign, leading to an immune response against the cancer cells.

It is important to note that not all viral infections lead to cancer, and not all tumors are caused by viruses. However, some viruses have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increased risk of cervical, anal, and oral cancers. In these cases, the virus may introduce viral antigens into the cells it infects, leading to an altered presentation of tumor antigens on the surface of the infected cells. This can potentially trigger an immune response against both the viral antigens and the tumor antigens, which may help to prevent or slow the growth of the cancer.

HIV seroprevalence refers to the proportion or percentage of a population that has antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in their blood, indicating current or previous HIV infection. It is often determined through serological testing methods that detect the presence of HIV antibodies in blood samples. The data from HIV seroprevalence studies are essential for understanding the spread and distribution of HIV within a specific population or geographic area, helping to inform public health policies and interventions aimed at controlling and preventing HIV transmission.

HIV seronegativity is a term used to describe a person who has tested negative for HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) antibodies in their blood. This means that the individual does not show evidence of current or past infection with HIV, which can cause AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). However, it's important to note that there is a window period after initial infection during which a person may test negative for HIV antibodies, even though they are indeed infected. This window period typically lasts between 2-6 weeks but can extend up to 3 months in some cases. Therefore, if someone believes they have been exposed to HIV, they should consider getting tested again after this window period has passed.

HLA-DR antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes. HLA-DR molecules present peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells, thereby initiating an immune response.

HLA-DR antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variants of these molecules in the human population. This diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented and recognized by the immune system. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.

In transplantation, HLA-DR compatibility between donor and recipient is an important factor in determining the success of the transplant. Incompatibility can lead to a heightened immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue, resulting in rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-DR types have been associated with increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a range of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling pathway or changing the cell's behavior. There are various types of receptors, including ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies or T-cells, as foreign and potentially harmful. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or even non-living substances like pollen, chemicals, or toxins. An antigen typically contains epitopes, which are the specific regions that antibodies or T-cell receptors recognize and bind to.

3. T-Cell: Also known as T lymphocytes, T-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity, a part of the adaptive immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs). T-cells recognize antigens presented to them by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via their surface receptors called the T-cell receptor (TCR). Once activated, T-cells can proliferate and differentiate into various effector cells that help eliminate infected or damaged cells.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Histocompatibility antigens, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells. Histocompatibility antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are two main types of histocompatibility antigens: class I and class II. Class I antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells, while class II antigens are primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These antigens present pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

When foreign peptides are presented to T-cells by histocompatibility antigens, it triggers an immune response aimed at eliminating the threat. This is why histocompatibility antigens are so important in organ transplantation - if the donor's and recipient's antigens do not match closely enough, the recipient's immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and attack it.

Understanding the role of histocompatibility antigens has been crucial in developing techniques for matching donors and recipients in organ transplantation, as well as in diagnosing and treating various autoimmune diseases and cancers.

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Histocompatibility antigens Class II are a group of cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to foreign substances. They are expressed on the surface of various cells, including immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated T lymphocytes.

Class II histocompatibility antigens are encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes, which are located on chromosome 6 in humans. These antigens are composed of two non-covalently associated polypeptide chains, an alpha (α) and a beta (β) chain, which form a heterodimer. There are three main types of Class II histocompatibility antigens, known as HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

Class II histocompatibility antigens present peptide antigens to CD4+ T helper cells, which then activate other immune cells, such as B cells and macrophages, to mount an immune response against the presented antigen. Because of their role in initiating an immune response, Class II histocompatibility antigens are important in transplantation medicine, where mismatches between donor and recipient can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein enzyme produced by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. It is primarily involved in liquefying semen after ejaculation, allowing sperm mobility.

In clinical medicine, PSA is used as a tumor marker, mainly for monitoring the treatment and recurrence of prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSA can indicate inflammation, infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer. However, it's important to note that an elevated PSA level does not necessarily confirm cancer; further diagnostic tests like digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostate biopsy are often required for definitive diagnosis.

Doctors may also use PSA isoforms or derivatives, such as free PSA, total PSA, and PSA density, to help improve the specificity of cancer detection and differentiate between malignant and benign conditions.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a variety of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling cascade or changing the cell's metabolism. Receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including communication between cells, regulation of immune responses, and perception of senses.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the adaptive immune system, specifically by B-cells and T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as microorganisms (like bacteria, viruses, or fungi), pollen, dust mites, or even components of our own cells (for instance, in autoimmune diseases). An antigen's ability to stimulate an immune response is determined by its molecular structure and whether it can be recognized by the receptors on immune cells.

3. B-Cell: B-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system, particularly in humoral immunity. They originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens. Each B-cell has receptors on its surface called B-cell receptors (BCRs) that can recognize a unique antigen. When a B-cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated, undergoes proliferation, and differentiates into plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

CD15 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain types of white blood cells called neutrophils and monocytes. It is also expressed on some types of cancer cells, including myeloid leukemia cells and some lymphomas. CD15 antigens are part of a group of molecules known as carbohydrate antigens because they contain sugar-like substances called carbohydrates.

CD15 antigens play a role in the immune system's response to infection and disease. They can be recognized by certain types of immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells, which can then target and destroy cells that express CD15 antigens. In cancer, the presence of CD15 antigens on the surface of cancer cells can make them more visible to the immune system, potentially triggering an immune response against the cancer.

CD15 antigens are also used as a marker in laboratory tests to help identify and classify different types of white blood cells and cancer cells. For example, CD15 staining is often used in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to distinguish it from other types of leukemia.

CD8 antigens are a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes or cytotoxic T cells. These cells play a critical role in the adaptive immune response, which is the specific and targeted response of the immune system to foreign substances (antigens) that invade the body.

CD8 antigens help cytotoxic T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells, such as those that have been infected by a virus or have become cancerous. When a cytotoxic T cell encounters a cell displaying a specific antigen bound to a CD8 molecule, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances that can kill the target cell.

CD8 antigens are also known as cluster of differentiation 8 antigens or CD8 receptors. They belong to a larger family of proteins called major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) molecules, which present antigens to T cells and play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to distinguish between self and non-self.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are a type of tumor antigen that are expressed on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens are abnormal forms of carbohydrates, also known as glycans, which are attached to proteins and lipids on the cell surface.

TACAs are often overexpressed or expressed in a different form on cancer cells compared to normal cells. This makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy because they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and elicit an immune response. Some examples of TACAs include gangliosides, fucosylated glycans, and sialylated glycans.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens have been studied as potential targets for cancer vaccines, antibody therapies, and other immunotherapeutic approaches. However, their use as targets for cancer therapy is still in the early stages of research and development.

HLA-A2 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule, which is found on the surface of cells in our body. HLA molecules are responsible for presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from inside the cell to the immune system's T-cells, helping them distinguish between "self" and "non-self" proteins.

HLA-A2 is one of the most common HLA class I antigens in the Caucasian population, with an estimated frequency of around 50%. It presents a variety of peptides to T-cells, including those derived from viruses and tumor cells. The presentation of these peptides can trigger an immune response, leading to the destruction of infected or malignant cells.

It is important to note that HLA typing is crucial in organ transplantation, as a mismatch between donor and recipient HLA antigens can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. Additionally, HLA-A2 has been associated with certain autoimmune diseases and cancer types, making it an area of interest for researchers studying these conditions.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis B virus. They are present in the blood of individuals infected with the Hepatitis B virus and are used as a marker for the presence of a current Hepatitis B infection. The detection of HBsAg in the blood indicates that an individual is infectious and can transmit the virus to others. It is typically used in diagnostic tests to detect and diagnose Hepatitis B infections, monitor treatment response, and assess the risk of transmission.

CD3 antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The CD3 antigens are composed of several different subunits (ε, δ, γ, and α) that associate to form the CD3 complex, which is involved in T-cell activation and signal transduction.

The CD3 complex is associated with the T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. When the TCR binds to an antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to T-cell activation and the initiation of an immune response.

CD3 antigens are important targets for immunotherapy in some diseases, such as certain types of cancer. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target CD3 have been developed to activate T-cells and enhance their ability to recognize and destroy tumor cells. However, CD3-targeted therapies can also cause side effects, such as cytokine release syndrome, which can be serious or life-threatening in some cases.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 proteins or CD4 molecules, are a type of cell surface receptor found on certain immune cells, including T-helper cells and monocytes. They play a critical role in the immune response by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and helping to activate T-cells. CD4 antigens are also the primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, leading to the destruction of CD4-positive T-cells and a weakened immune system.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Blood group antigens are molecular markers found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and sometimes other types of cells in the body. These antigens are proteins, carbohydrates, or glycoproteins that can stimulate an immune response when foreign antigens are introduced into the body.

There are several different blood group systems, but the most well-known is the ABO system, which includes A, B, AB, and O blood groups. The antigens in this system are called ABO antigens. Individuals with type A blood have A antigens on their RBCs, those with type B blood have B antigens, those with type AB blood have both A and B antigens, and those with type O blood have neither A nor B antigens.

Another important blood group system is the Rh system, which includes the D antigen. Individuals who have this antigen are considered Rh-positive, while those who do not have it are considered Rh-negative.

Blood group antigens can cause complications during blood transfusions and pregnancy if there is a mismatch between the donor's or fetus's antigens and the recipient's antibodies. For example, if a person with type A blood receives type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack the foreign B antigens on the donated RBCs, causing a potentially life-threatening transfusion reaction. Similarly, if an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus, her immune system may produce anti-D antibodies that can cross the placenta and attack the fetal RBCs, leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn.

It is important for medical professionals to determine a patient's blood group before performing a transfusion or pregnancy-related procedures to avoid these complications.

HLA-A antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in our body. They are proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and distinguish its own cells from foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria, and transplanted organs.

The HLA-A antigens are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The CTLs then recognize and destroy any cells that display foreign or abnormal peptides on their HLA-A antigens.

Each person has a unique set of HLA-A antigens, which are inherited from their parents. These antigens can vary widely between individuals, making it important to match HLA types in organ transplantation to reduce the risk of rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-A antigens have been associated with increased susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

Histocompatibility antigens, class I are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." These antigens are composed of three polypeptides - two heavy chains and one light chain - and are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 in humans.

Class I MHC molecules present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T cells. This presentation allows the immune system to detect and destroy cells that have been infected by viruses or other intracellular pathogens, or that have become cancerous.

There are three main types of class I MHC molecules in humans: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. The term "HLA" stands for human leukocyte antigen, which reflects the original identification of these proteins on white blood cells (leukocytes). The genes encoding these molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variants in the population, and matching HLA types is essential for successful organ transplantation to minimize the risk of rejection.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

AIDS serodiagnosis refers to the detection and confirmation of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection through the identification of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the virus. These antibodies are typically detected in blood samples using various testing methods, such as ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Western blot. A positive result in both tests indicates a high probability of HIV infection and progression to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), provided the individual has not been recently infected, as it may take several weeks for the antibodies to develop and become detectable. Regular testing and early diagnosis are crucial for timely medical intervention, treatment, and prevention of further transmission.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

CD45 is a protein that is found on the surface of many types of white blood cells, including T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. It is also known as leukocyte common antigen because it is present on almost all leukocytes. CD45 is a tyrosine phosphatase that plays a role in regulating the activity of various proteins involved in cell signaling pathways.

As an antigen, CD45 is used as a marker to identify and distinguish different types of white blood cells. It has several isoforms that are generated by alternative splicing of its mRNA, resulting in different molecular weights. The size of the CD45 isoform can be used to distinguish between different subsets of T-cells and B-cells.

CD45 is an important molecule in the immune system, and abnormalities in its expression or function have been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

HLA-D antigens, also known as HLA class II antigens, are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the immune system. "HLA" stands for Human Leukocyte Antigen, which is a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans.

HLA-D antigens are primarily expressed by immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but they can also be found on other cell types under certain conditions. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" by presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that is crucial for mounting an immune response.

HLA-D antigens are divided into three subtypes: HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR. Each subtype has a specific function in presenting peptides to T lymphocytes. The genes that encode HLA-D antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variations of these genes in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a better match between an individual's immune system and the wide variety of pathogens they may encounter.

Abnormalities in HLA-D antigens have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, certain variations in HLA-D genes can influence the severity of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Antigen receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells, particularly B cells and T cells. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances such as proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids that stimulate an immune response.

B cell receptors (BCRs) are membrane-bound antibodies that recognize and bind to native antigens. When a BCR binds to its specific antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signals that lead to the activation and differentiation of the B cell into an antibody-secreting plasma cell.

T cell receptors (TCRs) are membrane-bound proteins found on T cells that recognize and bind to antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. TCRs can distinguish between self and non-self antigens, allowing T cells to mount an immune response against infected or cancerous cells while sparing healthy cells.

Overall, antigen receptors play a critical role in the adaptive immune system's ability to recognize and respond to a wide variety of foreign substances.

Anti-HIV agents are a class of medications specifically designed to treat HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. These drugs work by interfering with various stages of the HIV replication cycle, preventing the virus from infecting and killing CD4+ T cells, which are crucial for maintaining a healthy immune system.

There are several classes of anti-HIV agents, including:

1. Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs): These drugs act as faulty building blocks that the virus incorporates into its genetic material, causing the replication process to halt. Examples include zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and tenofovir.
2. Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs): These medications bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, altering its shape and preventing it from functioning properly. Examples include efavirenz, nevirapine, and rilpivirine.
3. Protease Inhibitors (PIs): These drugs target the protease enzyme, which is responsible for cleaving viral polyproteins into functional components. By inhibiting this enzyme, PIs prevent the formation of mature, infectious virus particles. Examples include atazanavir, darunavir, and lopinavir.
4. Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs): These medications block the integrase enzyme, which is responsible for inserting the viral genetic material into the host cell's DNA. By inhibiting this step, INSTIs prevent the virus from establishing a permanent infection within the host cell. Examples include raltegravir, dolutegravir, and bictegravir.
5. Fusion/Entry Inhibitors: These drugs target different steps of the viral entry process, preventing HIV from infecting CD4+ T cells. Examples include enfuvirtide (T-20), maraviroc, and ibalizumab.
6. Post-Attachment Inhibitors: This class of medications prevents the virus from attaching to the host cell's receptors, thereby inhibiting infection. Currently, there is only one approved post-attachment inhibitor, fostemsavir.

Combination therapy using multiple classes of antiretroviral drugs has been shown to effectively suppress viral replication and improve clinical outcomes in people living with HIV. Regular adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen is crucial for maintaining an undetectable viral load and reducing the risk of transmission.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

HLA-B antigens are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the body's immune system. They are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present pieces of proteins from inside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell involved in immune responses.

HLA-B antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations or alleles of this gene in the human population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential HLA-B proteins to be expressed, which can help recognize and respond to a variety of foreign substances, such as viruses and cancer cells.

The HLA-B antigens are inherited from both parents, and an individual may express one or two different HLA-B antigens depending on their genetic makeup. The specific combination of HLA-B antigens that a person expresses can have implications for their susceptibility to certain diseases, as well as their compatibility with organ transplants.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

CD1 antigens are a group of molecules found on the surface of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells and B cells. They play a role in the immune system by presenting lipid antigens to T cells, which helps initiate an immune response against foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses. CD1 molecules are distinct from other antigen-presenting molecules like HLA because they present lipids rather than peptides. There are five different types of CD1 molecules (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, and CD1e) that differ in their tissue distribution and the types of lipid antigens they present.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria that can be recognized by the immune system and provoke an immune response. In the context of differentiation, antigens refer to specific markers that identify the developmental stage or lineage of a cell.

Differentiation antigens are proteins or carbohydrates expressed on the surface of cells during various stages of differentiation, which can be used to distinguish between cells at different maturation stages or of different cell types. These antigens play an essential role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to abnormal or infected cells while sparing healthy cells.

Examples of differentiation antigens include:

1. CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules: A group of membrane proteins used to identify and define various cell types, such as T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes, and granulocytes.
2. Lineage-specific antigens: Antigens that are specific to certain cell lineages, such as CD3 for T cells or CD19 for B cells.
3. Maturation markers: Antigens that indicate the maturation stage of a cell, like CD34 and CD38 on hematopoietic stem cells.

Understanding differentiation antigens is crucial in immunology, cancer research, transplantation medicine, and vaccine development.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

HIV Protease Inhibitors are a class of antiretroviral medications used in the treatment of HIV infection. They work by blocking the activity of the HIV protease enzyme, which is necessary for the virus to replicate and infect new cells. By inhibiting this enzyme, the medication prevents the virus from maturing and assembling into new infectious particles.

HIV protease inhibitors are often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. This approach has been shown to effectively suppress viral replication, reduce the amount of virus in the bloodstream (viral load), and improve the health and longevity of people living with HIV.

Examples of HIV protease inhibitors include saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir, fosamprenavir, atazanavir, darunavir, and tipranavir. These medications are usually taken orally in the form of tablets or capsules, and may be prescribed alone or in combination with other antiretroviral drugs.

It is important to note that HIV protease inhibitors can have significant side effects, including gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, diarrhea, and abdominal pain, as well as metabolic changes such as increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Therefore, regular monitoring of liver function, lipid levels, and other health parameters is necessary to ensure safe and effective use of these medications.

... this makes them great for HIV antigens. They are an ideal crop because they contain beta-amyloid. Even though crops seem ... In order to be effective, the antigen needs to elicit a strong and specific immune response. Once the antigen is identified and ... The M-cells (found in Peyer's patches) in the mucous membranes of the lymphoid tissues push the antigens to the antigen ... The dosage also varies due to the difficulty in standardizing the concentration of the antigen in the plant tissue; it can be ...
"The HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins: fusogens, antigens, and immunogens". Science. 280 (5371): 1884-88. Bibcode:1998Sci...280.1884 ... There is no vaccine for HIV. When the source of blood is known to be HIV positive, a 3-drug regimen is recommended by the CDC; ... "HIV Infection, Risk, Prevention, and Testing Behaviors among Persons Who Inject Drugs - National HIV Behavioral Surveillance: ... The overall risk of HIV infection after percutaneous exposure to HIV-infected material in the health care setting is 0.3%. ...
"Synthetic peptide antigens for the detection of HIV-1 infection". FreePatentsOnline.com. September 28, 1988. "VocalTec ... Virovahl SA developed the world's first HIV synthetic peptide based on diagnostic test. Under his guidance as President of ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ... 1988). "Inhibition of CD4+ T cell function by the HIV envelope protein, gp120". J. Immunol. 141 (11): 3715-7. doi:10.4049/ ...
Her work has primarily focussed on the carbohydrate antigens on HIV-1. The envelope glycoprotein GP120 of HIV-1 is covered in N ... "Hitting a Moving Target: AIDS Vaccine Could Work Against Changeable Site on HIV". News & Views. La Jolla, CA: The Scripps ... By neutralising sites such as these (the high-mannose patch), Doores hoped to protect against HIV infection. From 2013 to 2017 ... At Scripps, Doores worked alongside Dennis Burton, where she studied the "flower-like" envelope protein on HIV. These envelope ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP(W2) beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene. HLA-DPB ... 1991). "Modulation of the HLA class II antigen at a molecular level by maternal serum among cord blood cells and unrelated ... Eiermann TH, Uhl S, Fakler J, Goldmann SF (1992). "A novel HLA-DPB1 sequence, DPB1*2301". Tissue Antigens. 40 (2): 108-10. doi: ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1991). "The HIV core protein p24 inhibits interferon-gamma-induced increase of HLA-DR and cytochrome b heavy chain mRNA levels ... Gorski J, Mach B (1986). "Polymorphism of human Ia antigens: gene conversion between two DR beta loci results in a new HLA-D/DR ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB3-1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB3 gene. The ...
1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ...
1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ...
1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... Identification of these antigens has led to greater success and longevity in organ transplant. Antigens most responsible for ... 2004). "HIV/SIV escape from immune surveillance: focus on Nef". Curr. HIV Res. 2 (2): 141-51. doi:10.2174/1570162043484924. ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 1 (1): 47-53. doi: ...
1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ...
1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II ... Also known as HLA-DXA or DAAP-381D23.2, it is part of the human leucocyte antigen system. The protein encoded by this gene is ...
1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1994). "HIV-1 gp41 binding proteins and antibodies to gp41 could inhibit enhancement of human Raji cell MHC class I and II ... 1993). "HIV-1 envelope protein is expressed on the surface of infected cells before its processing and presentation to class II ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1991). "The HIV core protein p24 inhibits interferon-gamma-induced increase of HLA-DR and cytochrome b heavy chain mRNA levels ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB5 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB5 gene. The ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 2004). "HIV/SIV escape from immune surveillance: focus on Nef". Curr. HIV Res. 2 (2): 141-51. doi:10.2174/1570162043484924. ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 1 (1): 47-53. doi: ... Stove V, Verhasselt B (2006). "Modelling thymic HIV-1 Nef effects". Curr. HIV Res. 4 (1): 57-64. doi:10.2174/157016206775197583 ...
1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1991). "The HIV core protein p24 inhibits interferon-gamma-induced increase of HLA-DR and cytochrome b heavy chain mRNA levels ... Clayton LK, Sieh M, Pious DA, Reinherz EL (1989). "Identification of human CD4 residues affecting class II MHC versus HIV-1 ... Rosenstein Y, Burakoff SJ, Herrmann SH (1990). "HIV-gp120 can block CD4-class II MHC-mediated adhesion". J. Immunol. 144 (2): ...
Mann DL, Murray C, O'Donnell M, Blattner WA, Goedert JJ (1990). "HLA antigen frequencies in HIV-1-related Kaposi's sarcoma". J ... HLA-DR3 is composed of the HLA-DR17 and HLA-DR18 split 'antigens' serotypes. DR3 is a component gene-allele of the AH8.1 ... Pollack MS, Gold J, Metroka CE, Safai B, Dupont B (1984). "HLA-A,B,C and DR antigen frequencies in acquired immunodeficiency ... 2007). "Primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with extended HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR6 haplotypes". Tissue Antigens. 69 (2): ...
Achord AP, Lewis RE, Brackin MN, Henderson H, Cruse JM (1996). "HIV-1 disease association with HLA-DQ antigens in African ... 2005). "Human leukocyte antigen class II alleles in Caucasian women with primary biliary cirrhosis". Tissue Antigens. 65 (2): ... HLA-DQ6 (DQ6) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. The serotype is determined by the ... 2005). "Optic neuritis, multiple sclerosis and human leukocyte antigen: results of a 4-year follow-up study". Eur. J. Neurol. ...
All five patients had stable or increased immune response to HIV antigens and other pathogens. This was the first evaluation of ... a gene-based immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV that uses a lentiviral vector to deliver an antisense gene against the HIV ... Rosenberg T (27 May 2011). "The Man Who Was Cured of HIV and What It Means for a Cure for AIDS". New York. Retrieved 2 January ... "HIV used to cure 'bubble boy' disease". BBC News. 17 April 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2021. Pittman J, Ravitz JD. "These ...
The World Health Organization recommends cryptococcal antigen screening in HIV-infected persons entering care with CD4. < or = ... "Routine cryptococcal antigen screening for HIV-infected patients with low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts-time to implement in South ... "Integrating cryptococcal antigen screening and pre-emptive treatment into routine HIV care". Journal of Acquired Immune ... Cryptococcal antigen from cerebrospinal fluid is the best test for diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis in terms of sensitivity ...
HIV infects T cells that carry the CD4 antigen on their surface. When HIV infects its target cell it requires fusion of the ... In common usage HIV usually implies HIV-1. HIV-1 protease is one of the best known aspartic proteases, and an attractive target ... The Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database (also called the "HIV Drug Resistance Database") was formed in 1998 with HIV ... HIV infection was first described in 1981 in San Francisco and New York City. In 1985, HIV was identified as the causative ...
If antibodies to HIV are present in the serum, they may bind to these HIV antigens. The plate is then washed to remove all ... For the detection of HIV antibodies, the wells of microtiter plate are coated with the HIV antigen. Two specific antibodies are ... If antibodies are present, the antigen-antibody reaction occurs. No antigen is left for the enzyme-labelled specific HIV ... The labeled antigen competes for primary antibody binding sites with the sample antigen (unlabeled). The less antigen in the ...
"Mechanisms of hypergammaglobulinemia and impaired antigen-specific humoral immunity in HIV-1 infection". Blood. 103 (6): 2180-6 ...
HIV: the virus's antigens provoke an obstruction in the glomerular capillary's lumen that alters normal kidney function. ... certain antigens present during hepatitis can accumulate in the kidneys and damage them. Sjögren's syndrome: this autoimmune ... Hypertensive nephrosclerosis HIV Obesity Kidney loss Minimal change disease (MCD) Drugs, especially NSAIDs in the elderly ...
Out of 2,934 gorilla samples, 70 reacted with at least one HIV-1 antigen. These samples came from four field sites, all located ... The SIV or Simian immunodeficiency virus that infects them is similar to a certain strain of HIV-1. The HIV-1 virus exhibits ... Takebe, Y; Uenishi, R; Li, X (2008). "Global Molecular Epidemiology of HIV: Understanding the Genesis of AIDS Pandemic". HIV-1 ... HIV-1, is composed of four phylogenetic lineages, which at some point in time have independently gone through cross-species ...
... type 1 monomeric gp120 as novel antigens for HIV vaccine design". J. Virol. 77 (10): 5889-901. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.10.5889- ... Wolk T, Schreiber M (2006). "N-Glycans in the gp120 V1/V2 domain of the HIV-1 strain NL4-3 are indispensable for viral ... Papandreou MJ, Fenouillet E (1997). "Effect of various glycosidase treatments on the resistance of the HIV-1 envelope to ... Pantophlet R, Wilson IA, Burton DR (2003). "Hyperglycosylated mutants of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ...
Type 1 Monomeric gp120 as Novel Antigens for HIV Vaccine Design". J. Virol. 77 (10): 5889-901. doi:10.1128/JVI.77.10.5889- ... Wolk T, Schreiber M (2007). "N-Glycans in the gp120 V1/V2 domain of the HIV-1 strain NL4-3 are indispensable for viral ... Papandreou MJ, Fenouillet E (1997). "Effect of various glycosidase treatments on the resistance of the HIV-1 envelope to ... 1993). "Site-specific N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide structures of recombinant HIV-1 gp120 derived from a baculovirus ...
HIV-1 appears to be able to attach to erythrocytes via DARC. The association between the Duffy antigen and HIV infection ... "Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines Mediates trans-Infection of HIV-1 from Red Blood Cells to Target Cells and Affects HIV- ... Woolley IJ, Kalayjian R, Valdez H, Hamza N, Jacobs G, Lederman MM, Zimmerman PA (2002). "HIV nephropathy and the Duffy antigen/ ... A connection has been found between HIV susceptibility and the expression of the Duffy antigen. The absence of the DARC ...
... the FDA approved the first diagnostic test capable of detecting HIV antigens and HIV antibodies. The Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab ... An HIV antibody test usually detects the HIV antibodies within two to eight weeks, but can have a valid negative result for a ... Viral load monitoring is used by HIV-positive people to develop a plan for their personal treatment of HIV/AIDS. A count of the ... Viral load monitoring for HIV is the regular measurement of the viral load of individual HIV-positive people as part of their ...
An antigen capture assay was also reported to have identified HIV antigens in tissue samples, but not in serum. In a letter to ... The abstract reports the detection of HIV genes in Rayford's samples which were very similar to the HIV IIIB isolate which was ... Arvid Noe, the earliest known European AIDS case Index case History of HIV/AIDS Timeline of early AIDS cases Timeline of HIV/ ... A study published in 1988 reported the detection of antibodies against HIV. Results of testing for HIV genetic material were ...
The FDA said the test will extend HIV testing to outreach healthcare settings and speed up treatment. ... The HIV-1 antigen is an earlier tip-off to HIV-1 infection than HIV-1 antibodies by themselves. The new test can tell the ... The Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test, manufactured by Orgenics of Yavne, Israel, can detect HIV antibodies and the HIV- ... Cite this: FDA OKs First Rapid Test for HIV-1/2 Antibodies, HIV-1 Antigen - Medscape - Aug 08, 2013. ...
... construction and characterization of the first anti-HIV drug delivery system that is triggered to release its contents in the ... Enzymatic triggered release of an HIV-1 entry inhibitor from prostate specific antigen degradable microparticles Int J Pharm. ... The released pSS inactivated HIV-1 in the presence of HSP. The solid phase synthesis of the crosslinkers, preparation of the ... This paper describes the design, construction and characterization of the first anti-HIV drug delivery system that is triggered ...
... dual HIV-1/HIV-2, and 1.9% HIV-2. In the United States, 0.8% of new HIV-1 infections in blood donors were non-B subtype from ... HIV Variants and Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants: Diagnostic Challenges for Immunoassays HIV Variants HBsAg Mutants ... A symposium on HIV variants and hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants, sponsored by Abbott Laboratories, was ... Symposium on HIV Variants and Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Mutants On This Page ...
HIV-1 GAG Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain, encoded by the HIV gag gene, HXB2 ( ... HIV-010 Introduction. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which may lead to a immune systembegins failure and to ... HIV-1 GAG Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain, encoded by the HIV gag gene, HXB2 ( ... It is recommended to reconstitute the lyophilized HIV-1 GAG in sterile 18MΩ-cm H2O not less than 100µg/ml, which can then be ...
... recommend screening for cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) in HIV+ persons with CD4<100 cells/μL, followed by pre-emptive ... HIV Med, 2015;16(8):468-76. * Longley N, Jarvis JN, Meintjes G, Boulle A, Cross A, Kelly N, et al. Cryptococcal Antigen ... Utility of Cryptococcal Antigen Screening and Evolution of Asymptomatic Cryptococcal Antigenemia among HIV-Infected Women ... Cost-effectiveness of serum cryptococcal antigen screening to prevent deaths among HIV-infected persons with a CD4+ cell count ...
HIV positive. Advocate. Professional. Donate. Feedback. Advice and information. Q and A. Phoneline. Pocket info. Guides. HIV ... Simon Collins, HIV i-Base. Routine monitoring for viral hepatitis, at least annually, is recommended for HIV positive people in ... Assessing HIV testing in hepatitis: an audit of HIV testing uptake in a specialist hepatology clinic in an area of high ... P236, Viral hepatitis testing patterns among HIV-positive individuals in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UKCHIC) study. 3rd ...
Vaccination with an HIV-1 subtype C DNA prime protein boost vaccine Elicits Long-lasting antigen-specific immune responses in ... Vaccination with an HIV-1 subtype C DNA prime protein boost vaccine Elicits Long-lasting antigen-specific immune responses in ...
"HIV Antigens" by people in this website by year, and whether "HIV Antigens" was a major or minor topic of these publications. ... Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III- ... "HIV Antigens" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... Below are the most recent publications written about "HIV Antigens" by people in Profiles. ...
HIV was associated with a reduced breadth of responses to individual merozoite antigens (P = 0.02). HIV strongly modified the ... Results Point estimates of the responses to all antigens were lower amongst HIV-infected children, but this was only ... HIV infection is associated with a lower magnitude and narrower breadth of IgG responses to merozoite antigens and stunting of ... were compared between 115 HIV-infected and 115 age-matched, HIV-uninfected children who presented with severe malaria. The ...
HIV assays : operational characteristics (Phase 1). Report 15, Antigen/antibody ELISAs. by World Health Organization. Dept. of ... HIV assays : operational characteristics. Report 16, Rapid assays. by World Health Organization , UNAIDS. ...
... diagnostics for HIV and present the viruss cellular mechanism to illustrate our new range of HIV antigens and antibodies. HIV ... Sep 3, 2019Disease trends, HIV, Immunoassays, Research. Diagnosing HIV in resource-limited settings. In this blog, we discuss ... The Native Antigen Company is part of LGC Clinical Diagnostics - Learn More ... The Native Antigen Company , Copyright 2023 , Registration Number: 7386339 , VAT Number: 102038475 ...
Antigen processing influences HIV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte immunodominance Share Share Share ...
The Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen-Avidity Dried Blood Spot (DBS) EIA is an in-vitro quantitative limiting antigen (LAg) avidity ... The Maxim HIV-1 LAg-Avidity DBS EIA uses US CDC developed technology and is designed for surveillance purposes such as ... estimating HIV-1 incidence in a population, monitoring and evaluating HIV intervention programs, and recognizing those high- ... enzyme immunoassay for distinguishing recent HIV-1 infections from those which are long-term. ...
2 Antigen kit. We are First Company in india to be granted Drug manufacturing licence for HIV Antigen Rapid Test Kit. ... Our HIV Tri dot + Ag test kit is the best HIV 1, ... If p24 antigens and/or HIV-1 & HIV-2 antibodies are present in ... HIV-2 antibodies or p24 antigen (from serum sample) is sandwiched between the antigens (HIV-1 & HIV-2) & p24 antibodies linked ... The test is a screening test for p24 antigen (HIV-1), anti-HIV-1 & anti-HIV-2 and is for in vitro diagnostic use only. It is ...
... ign. Recent findings with a rhesus monkey cytomegalovirus ... Here we explore the antigen processing pathways involved in these atypical T cell responses. ...
Home / Products / Products tagged "Mouse Anti HIV-1 p24". Mouse Anti HIV-1 p24. ... Mouse Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) p24 (1947). $376.65. - $917.21. excl. VAT ... The Native Antigen Company is part of LGC Clinical Diagnostics - Learn More ... The Native Antigen Company , Copyright 2023 , Registration Number: 7386339 , VAT Number: 102038475 ...
The HIV-p24 antigen test is a blood test that looks for proteins produced by the HIV virus to detect early infection. ... HIV-p24 Antigen Test in Pune Price, Symptoms, Normal Range. The HIV-p24 antigen test is a blood test that looks for proteins ... What is HIV-p24 Antigen Test. HIV-p24 antigen test is a diagnostic test used to detect the presence of p24 protein, which is a ... Details about cost price of HIV-p24 Antigen Test *Free home visit for sample collection for HIV-p24 Antigen Test in all parts ...
HIV p24 antigen is an HIV test for early HIV infection. ... Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 p24 Antigen The presence of HIV- ... During a three-year study, only 15% of HIV antigen negative homosexual males progressed to AIDS, compared to 59% of antigen ... Subsequently, p24 antibody is produced and complexes with soluble p24 antigen, rendering it undetectable. Antigen reappears ... 1 viral antigens provides direct evidence of infection. The p24 viral core antigen, a protein that surrounds viral nucleic acid ...
It checks for HIV 1 (which is found world wide) and HIV 2 (which is predominantly found in West Africa). Because there is a ... About the test The HIV antibody tests checks for the immune response to an HIV infection. ... HIV. - HIV Antibodies 1. - HIV Antibodies 2. - P24 Antigen. - TURNAROUND TIME - 5 working days for this test ... The HIV antibody tests checks for the immune response to an HIV infection. It checks for HIV 1 (which is found world wide) and ...
... and anti-HIV antibody testing are required for all donors; combined HIV antigen/antibody or HIV NAT are additionally required ... Data were unavailable to determine whether HIV antibody-positive or HIV RNA-positive donations occurred as part of the HOPE Act ... HBV: HBsAg, anti-HBc, and NAT; HCV: anti-HCV and NAT; HIV: anti-HIV, Ag/Ab and/or NAT. ... Time until emergence of HIV test reactivity following infection with HIV-1: implications for interpreting test results and ...
HIV-1 ICD p24 antigen detection in Ugandan infants: Use in early diagnosis of infection and as a marker of disease progression ... HIV-1 ICD p24 antigen detection in Ugandan infants: Use in early diagnosis of infection and as a marker of disease progression. ... T1 - HIV-1 ICD p24 antigen detection in Ugandan infants. T2 - Use in early diagnosis of infection and as a marker of disease ... HIV-1 ICD p24 antigen detection in Ugandan infants : Use in early diagnosis of infection and as a marker of disease progression ...
HIV VLPs. Plant-based vaccine. Recombinant Protein Production. Transient Expression. Virus-like Particles. ...
Buy HIV Seroconversion Panel Donor n. 6538 (Product Code:HIV9012) at best price with Helvetica Health Care. Global shipping ... Categories: HIV, Vials -veTags: HIV, Negative Test Panel Detail : HBsAg:NEG - PCR:POS - Anti-HIV 1+2:POS - HIV-1 p24 Ag:POS - ... HIV Seroconversion Panel Donor n. 61694-74. Add to Compare. Add to Wishlist. ... HIV Seroconversion Panel Donor n. 66632. Add to Compare. Add to Wishlist. ...
Antigen-sensitive CD8 T-cell clones with tough HIV-1 suppression Glanville JM., Taylor S., Baban D., Gillespie G., Easterbrook ...
The RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial results showed moderate reduction in viral infections among vaccinees as well as induction of ... cellular cytotoxicity and vaccine-specific IgG and IgG3 responses directed at variable loop regions 1 and 2 of the HIV envelope ... RV305 was designed to permit the evaluation of the immunologic impact of late boosting with either the boosting protein antigen ... The RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial results showed moderate reduction in viral infections among vaccinees as well as induction of ...
HIV-1 antigen * Antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 * Antibodies to human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) and human T-cell ... PCR testing should be used instead of antigen testing because antigen testing is associated with a high false-negative rate. ... Allogeneic transplants are further categorized by the degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match between the donor and ... especially HIV and hepatitis C) can also be a reason for denying a person eligibility for transplant donation. Anyone who ...
... this makes them great for HIV antigens. They are an ideal crop because they contain beta-amyloid. Even though crops seem ... In order to be effective, the antigen needs to elicit a strong and specific immune response. Once the antigen is identified and ... The M-cells (found in Peyers patches) in the mucous membranes of the lymphoid tissues push the antigens to the antigen ... The dosage also varies due to the difficulty in standardizing the concentration of the antigen in the plant tissue; it can be ...
Conjugation of HIV-1 envelope to hepatitis B surface antigen alters vaccine responses in rhesus macaques *Danielle Nettere ... Human in vitro modeling of adjuvant formulations demonstrates enhancement of immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigen *Simon Doss ... Enhancing anti-viral neutralization response to immunization with HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein immunogens *Shamim Ahmed ... durability of humoral immune responses in non-human primates with an adjuvanted group 1 influenza hemagglutinin stem antigen * ...
Immunohistochemical retrieval of the principal HIV antigens p24, gp41, and gp120 in formalin fixed tissue: an investigation ... Immunohistochemical retrieval of the principal HIV antigens p24, gp41, and gp120 in formalin fixed tissue: an investigation ...
HIV-1 capsid protein contains an amino-terminal domain (NTD) comprising seven α-helices and a β-hairpin4,5, a carboxy-terminal ... The complete atomic HIV-1 capsid model provides a platform for further studies of capsid function and for targeted ... Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a tubular HIV-1 capsid-protein assembly at 8 Å resolution and the ... The mature human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) capsid is best described by a fullerene cone model2,3, in which hexamers of ...
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today approved the first rapid diagnostic test to spot antibodies to both HIV types 1 and 2 as well as the HIV-1 p24 antigen. (medscape.com)
  • The Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test, manufactured by Orgenics of Yavne, Israel, can detect HIV antibodies and the HIV-1 p24 antigen in human serum, plasma, and venous or fingerstick whole-blood specimens. (medscape.com)
  • The HIV-1 antigen is an earlier tip-off to HIV-1 infection than HIV-1 antibodies by themselves. (medscape.com)
  • The new test can tell the difference between acute vs established HIV-1 infections when the blood specimen tests positive for the p24 antigen, but negative for HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • To test this hypothesis, levels of anti-merozoite and schizont extract antibodies were compared between HIV-infected and uninfected children who participated in the original study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this blog, we discuss the need for improved point-of-care (PoC) diagnostics for HIV and present the virus's cellular mechanism to illustrate our new range of HIV antigens and antibodies. (thenativeantigencompany.com)
  • The 4th Generation HIV TRI-DOT + Ag test is a visual, rapid, sensitive and accurate immunoassay for the differential detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen and HIV-1 & HIV-2 antibodies (IgM,IgG & IgA) in Human Serum or Plasma. (jmitra.co.in)
  • Rapid test for simultaneous and differential detection of p24 Antigen & antibodies for HIV on the same device. (jmitra.co.in)
  • Use of gp-41, C terminus of gp120 for HIV-1 antibodies & gp-36 for HIV -2 antibodies. (jmitra.co.in)
  • A sandwich complex is formed on membrane where HIV-1 & HIV-2 antibodies or p24 antigen (from serum sample) is sandwiched between the antigens (HIV-1 & HIV-2) & p24 antibodies linked HRPO conjugate. (jmitra.co.in)
  • If p24 antigens and/or HIV-1 & HIV-2 antibodies are present in patient's sample, a blue test dot at respective position appear with control dot. (jmitra.co.in)
  • Although previous data showed elevated levels of IgG antibodies in both boosting arms, regardless of ALVAC-HIV vector incorporation, the effect on shaping antibody effector function remains unclear. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that the addition of a late protein boost alone is sufficient to increase functionally potent vaccine-specific antibodies previously associated with reduced risk of infection with HIV. (nih.gov)
  • These results could indicate a novel approach towards improving the performance of anti-HIV antibodies. (tau.ac.il)
  • HOOKIPA's replicating and non-replicating technologies are engineered to induce robust and durable antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses and pathogen-neutralizing antibodies. (wlns.com)
  • An antibody test (also called immunoassay) checks for antibodies to HIV. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These tests can detect antibodies to HIV starting a few weeks after you're infected with the virus. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When you're first infected with HIV, and before your body has a chance to make antibodies to the virus, your blood has a high level of p24. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An antibody-antigen blood test checks for levels of both HIV antibodies and the p24 antigen. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is a period of time, called the window period, between HIV infection and the appearance of anti-HIV antibodies. (medlineplus.gov)
  • During this period, antibodies and antigens may not be measurable. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The woman was first tested for HIV in November 1986 as part of the military screening program and was found to be seropositive for HIV antibodies at that time. (cdc.gov)
  • Her first child, born in July 1985, was negative for HIV antibodies when tested in January 1987. (cdc.gov)
  • Her second child tested positive for HIV antibodies at birth, but subsequent serologic testing performed at 9 months of age was negative, reflecting the loss of passively derived maternal antibody and the absence of infection. (cdc.gov)
  • They have been found to be free of anti-HIV antibodies. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, review of the manufacturer's records for RhoGAM lot RHG 636 confirmed that all plasma used for that lot had been screened for antibodies to HIV and found negative and that all steps in its manufacture were in accordance with good manufacturing practices. (cdc.gov)
  • Since late April 1985, all units of plasma for production of Rh-IG have been screened for antibodies to HIV, and all repeatedly reactive units have been discarded. (cdc.gov)
  • An antibody test uses saliva or blood to check for HIV antibodies. (healthychildren.org)
  • HIV-1-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptors Based on Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies. (ucsf.edu)
  • This test detects antibodies to HIV-1 both groups M and O or HIV type 2 (HIV-2) or both. (cdc.gov)
  • Repeatedly reactive specimens are tested with the Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Redmond, WA) which both detects and differentiates antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2. (cdc.gov)
  • Examples of qualitative examinations include microscopic examinations for cell morphology or presence of parasitic organisms, serologic procedures for presence or absence of antigens and antibodies, some microbiological procedures, and some molecular techniques. (who.int)
  • If the result is "reactive," this indicates possible presence of HIV-1 antibodies, HIV-2 antibodies and/or HIV-1 p24 antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • Anti-HIV antibodies are produced, and cytotoxic CD8 + lymphocytes destroy HIV-infected cells. (medscape.com)
  • Chronic HIV infection begins after antibodies to the virus have fully developed and the initial immune response is complete. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: Passive immunization with broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is under evaluation for HIV prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Detects both HIV-1/2 antibodies and free HIV-1 p24 antigen. (who.int)
  • This test helps diagnose HIV infection at an earlier time in outreach settings, allowing individuals to seek medical care sooner," said Karen Midthun, MD, director of the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research in a news release. (medscape.com)
  • Four patients had new HCV infection including one acute case, three with known HCV (both antigen and antibody positive) and nine were antigen negative and antibody positive (indicated cleared HCV infection). (i-base.info)
  • Hepatitis C antigen testing: a reliable alternative for diagnosing acute hepatitis C infection. (i-base.info)
  • Conclusions In children with severe malaria, HIV infection is associated with a lower magnitude and narrower breadth of IgG responses to merozoite antigens and stunting of age-related acquisition of the IgG antibody response to schizont extract. (ox.ac.uk)
  • It is intended for screening of blood donors or other individuals at risk for HIV-1 & HIV-2 infection and for clinical diagnostic testing. (jmitra.co.in)
  • The HIV-p24 antigen test is a blood test that looks for proteins produced by the HIV virus to detect early infection. (pathofast.com)
  • The presence of HIV-1 viral antigens provides direct evidence of infection. (clinlabnavigator.com)
  • The p24 viral core antigen, a protein that surrounds viral nucleic acid, can often be detected two weeks after infection. (clinlabnavigator.com)
  • The HIV antibody tests checks for the immune response to an HIV infection. (onedaytests.com)
  • The objective of this study was to determine the use of immune-complex dissociated (ICD) p24 antigen detection for the diagnosis and prognosis of HIV-1 infection in Ugandan children. (umn.edu)
  • HIV-1 infection status, disease progression, and survival of the children were determined. (umn.edu)
  • Identification of HBV, HCV, and HIV risk factors among organ donors is critical to mitigate transmission risk and ensure monitoring and appropriate treatment of recipients for posttransplant infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the brain has been demonstrated in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded post-mortem brain tissue (PM) by chromogenic immunohistochemistry for the HIV p24 antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Differential susceptibility to HIV-1 infection is associated with HIV-1 specific CD4 and CD8 T cell responses. (edu.au)
  • RESULTS: Several DQB1 alleles and DQ haplotypes were associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection. (edu.au)
  • CDC has revised the classification system for HIV infection to emphasize the clinical importance of the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count in the categorization of HIV-related clinical conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • The CD4+ T-lymphocyte is the primary target for HIV infection because of the affinity of the virus for the CD4 surface marker (3). (cdc.gov)
  • Studies of the natural history of HIV infection have documented a wide spectrum of disease manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic infection to life-threatening conditions characterized by severe immunodeficiency, serious opportunistic infections, and cancers (4-13). (cdc.gov)
  • The classification system for HIV infection among adolescents and adults has been revised to include the CD4+ T-lymphocyte count as a marker for HIV-related immunosuppression. (cdc.gov)
  • The objectives of these changes are to simplify the classification of HIV infection, to reflect current standards of medical care for HIV-infected persons, and to categorize more accurately HIV-related morbidity. (cdc.gov)
  • The revised CDC classification system for HIV-infected adolescents and adults * categorizes persons on the basis of clinical conditions associated with HIV infection and CD4+ T- lymphocyte counts. (cdc.gov)
  • This test is usually not used by itself to screen for HIV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with early HIV infection may rarely have a negative test result. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A positive result on a screening test does not confirm that the person has HIV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • More tests are needed to confirm HIV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A negative test result does not rule out HIV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If a person might have acute or primary HIV infection and is in the window period, a negative screening test doesn't rule out HIV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the case of HIV-1 infection, some peoples pirate flags REALLY piss off their CTLs. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The high prevalence of recurrent malaria, tuberculosis, chronic helminth infections, and water-borne pathogens in developing countries may play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection in persons living in such regions [ 1,2 ]. (lww.com)
  • An epidemiologic investigation determined that this woman very likely had a behavioral risk factor for infection with HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Several epidemiologic and laboratory studies have shown that recipients of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) and immune globulin (IG), including recipients of lots manufactured before April 1985, have not developed either antibody responses indicative of HIV infection or clinical illness associated with HIV infection (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Zhen's primary research interests are on gene therapy and engineered immunity to treat HIV infection, cancer and other chronic diseases. (uclahealth.org)
  • They are also actively investigating how substance abuse, particularly cannabis, alter innate and adaptive immune responses in the context of HIV infection and cancer. (uclahealth.org)
  • The study therefore aimed at determining the prevalence of syphilis in HIV positive antiretroviral therapy naive patients in Cape Coast and the associated risk factors involved in infection. (scirp.org)
  • The result showed that co-infection of Syphilis in HIV positive antiretroviral therapy naive patients persists in the Cape Coast Metropolis, which is an indication of prominence of STIs that require further study on a larger scale to ascertain the extent of co-infection and to formulate policy for treatment to help minimize the rate of infection. (scirp.org)
  • Asare-Bediako, P. , Dankwa, K. , Azumah, D. and Nuvor, S. (2018) Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Syphilis Infection among Antiretroviral Therapy Naive HIV Patients at the Cape Coast Teaching Hospital, Ghana. (scirp.org)
  • HIV infection severely weakens the immune system of infected individuals who are therefore exposed to opportunistic infections including sexually transmitted infections. (scirp.org)
  • The co-infection of sexually transmitted infections and HIV may be having a profound detrimental effect especially among the youth in developing countries. (scirp.org)
  • The development of both HIV and Syphilis infection in patients is complex and remains not well elucidated in spite of about 2 decades of clinical experience with co-infected patients. (scirp.org)
  • Two separate parcels containing HIV-antigens, which could lead to HIV infection, were found in regular packages. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • The estimated prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the United States population is an important measure of the extent of the medical and financial burden the nation faces due to this virus. (cdc.gov)
  • Multispot results that are Indeterminate or that cannot be differentiated as HIV-1 or HIV-2 are further tested using the Hologic Aptima HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay to confirm HIV-1 infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and is treated with antiretroviral medications. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection in Children and Adolescents Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and makes people more vulnerable to other infections and some cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Institute (CLSI) guideline document M53-A entitled "Criteria for Laboratory Testing and Diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection"2* and the updated version is described in CDC's "Draft Recommendations: Diagnostic Laboratory Testing for HIV Infection in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • there is no laboratory evidence of HIV infection (Table 1). (cdc.gov)
  • If a 3rd generation IA is used in step 1, the remainder of the algorithm should be followed because the HIV-1/HIV-2 antibody differentiation assay and HIV-1 NAT assay, in combination, provide fewer false negative results than the Western blot for specimens collected early after infection. (cdc.gov)
  • The clinical effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are diverse, ranging from an acute retroviral syndrome associated with primary HIV infection to a prolonged asymptomatic state to advanced HIV disease. (medscape.com)
  • Experts regard HIV disease as beginning at the time of primary (acute) HIV infection and progressing through numerous stages of chronic infection. (medscape.com)
  • Acute HIV infection is defined as the period between exposure to the virus and completion of the initial immune responses. (medscape.com)
  • In most infected individuals, active virus replication and progressive immunologic impairment occur throughout the course of HIV infection, even during the clinically latent stage. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] although some reports of symptomatic acute HIV infection are likely associated with a reporting bias, and the actual frequency may be lower. (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms associated with HIV seroconversion are nonspecific and may be attributed to a viral syndrome such as influenza virus infection. (medscape.com)
  • Unfortunately, the response is imperfect, and latent reservoirs of HIV infection become established throughout the body. (medscape.com)
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the condition that results from long-term (chronic) HIV infection and is defined by an absolute CD4 cell count of less than 200 cells/µL and specific opportunistic infections or malignancies. (medscape.com)
  • The interval between acute HIV infection and AIDS is highly variable, with a median time of approximately 10 years. (medscape.com)
  • In many infected individuals, an opportunistic disease is the first manifestation of HIV infection. (medscape.com)
  • For other discussions of HIV infection, see HIV Disease, Pediatric HIV Infection, and Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. (medscape.com)
  • Acute HIV infection (also known as seroconversion) is defined as the period between exposure to the virus and completion of the initial immune responses (when an antibody test becomes positive for HIV). (medscape.com)
  • After infection, HIV is able to replicate at an exponential rate using CD4 cells. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: In the US, one in six men who have sex with men (MSM) with HIV are unaware of their HIV infection. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSION: We identified a laboratory-based Ag/Ab EIA and three single-use rapid HIV tests that are nonreactive against a panel of bNAbs supporting some diagnostic tests can distinguish HIV-1 infection events among persons receiving bNAb immunoprophylaxis. (cdc.gov)
  • This 4th generation test has the ability to identify HIV earlier than 2nd and 3rd generation antibody-only tests.1 It enables health care providers to diagnose HIV infection earlier allowing individuals to seek medical care sooner. (who.int)
  • A symposium on HIV variants and hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) mutants, sponsored by Abbott Laboratories, was held May 22-24, 2005, in Washington, DC. (cdc.gov)
  • A hepatitis C virus core antigen assay is a cost-effective, sensitive and specific test in the detection of acute hepatitis C in HIV infected subjects. (i-base.info)
  • Additionally the assay simultaneously detects HIV-1 p24 antigen. (cdc.gov)
  • Those who are currently or were recently taking PrEP, including patients who had a cabotegravir injection in the past 12 months or who have taken oral PrEP in the past 3 months, should be assessed using both a qualitative or quantitative HIV-1 RNA assay and an HIV antibody/antigen assay. (medscape.com)
  • HIV-1/2 antigen/antibody combination immunoassay (IA) which, if reactive, is followed by supplemental testing with an HIV-1/2 antibody differentiation assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Specimens negative or indeterminate by the HIV-1/2 antibody differentiation assay undergo an HIV-1 nucleic acid test (NAT). (cdc.gov)
  • Enhanced humoral HIV-1-specific immune responses generated from recombinant rhabdoviral-based vaccine vectors co-expressing HIV-1 proteins and IL-2. (jefferson.edu)
  • The Maxim HIV-1 LAg-Avidity DBS EIA uses US CDC developed technology and is designed for surveillance purposes such as estimating HIV-1 incidence in a population, monitoring and evaluating HIV intervention programs, and recognizing those high-incidence populations so that prevention research, vaccine trials, and resources are most appropriately utilized. (maximbio.com)
  • The RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial results showed moderate reduction in viral infections among vaccinees as well as induction of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and vaccine-specific IgG and IgG3 responses directed at variable loop regions 1 and 2 of the HIV envelope protein. (nih.gov)
  • The companion vaccine trial RV305 was designed to permit the evaluation of the immunologic impact of late boosting with either the boosting protein antigen alone, the canarypox viral vector ALVAC alone, or a combination of both. (nih.gov)
  • NEW YORK and VIENNA, Austria, Nov. 20, 2023 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- HOOKIPA Pharma Inc. (NASDAQ: HOOK, 'HOOKIPA'), a company developing a new class of immunotherapeutics based on its proprietary arenavirus platform, today announced that the Company has received clearance from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for its Investigational New Drug (IND) application for HB-500, a novel arenaviral therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of HIV. (khon2.com)
  • Our novel arenaviral therapeutic vaccine offers promise in helping to address the unmet need for a functional HIV cure. (khon2.com)
  • HB-500 is an alternating, 2-vector arenaviral therapeutic vaccine for the treatment of HIV. (khon2.com)
  • The Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen-Avidity Dried Blood Spot (DBS) EIA is an in-vitro quantitative limiting antigen (LAg) avidity enzyme immunoassay for distinguishing recent HIV-1 infections from those which are long-term. (maximbio.com)
  • Most HIV infections worldwide stem from HIV-1. (medscape.com)
  • HIV-2 infections occur mostly in West Africa. (medscape.com)
  • HIV-1 is classified into 3 groups: group M, group O, and group N. Group M, representing most infections, is further subdivided into subtypes A-K. Recombination between subtypes and groups adds to the overall diversity of HIV-1. (cdc.gov)
  • Since current serologic assays are based primarily on a single HIV-1 subtype B isolate, and because subtype B strains represent only ≈12% of infections globally, reference panels are vital in ensuring that tests are robust to ever-changing genetic and antigenic polymorphisms. (cdc.gov)
  • Data on Cameroonian samples showed several new group N viruses and a high level of HIV-1 variation with 5 subtypes, 6 CRFs, numerous unique recombinant forms, and group O. Most HIV infections were recombinant HIV-1 strain, CRF02_AG, a mosaic of viral subtypes A and G. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United Kingdom, 25% of new HIV-1 infections are of the non-B subtype (mostly A and C). In France, among new infections identified in the National Virological Surveillance program, half were non-subtype B, 0.2% dual HIV-1/HIV-2, and 1.9% HIV-2. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, 0.8% of new HIV-1 infections in blood donors were non-B subtype from 1993 to 1996, rising to 1.8% from 1997 to 1998 and increasing to 3.1% from 1999 to 2000. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic diversity can affect the diagnosis and monitoring of HIV infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a retrovirus which may lead to a immune systembegins failure and to opportunistic infections. (prospecbio.com)
  • Diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections is very important considering the spread of HIV and the extensive use of highly active antiretroviral therapy worldwide. (scirp.org)
  • Yet if they're left untreated, some of these infections can cause problems like infertility and a higher risk of getting HIV. (healthychildren.org)
  • HIV destroys certain types of white blood cells, weakening the body's defenses against infections and cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • HIV medications (antiretroviral medications) can stop HIV from reproducing, allow the immune system to strengthen, and thus allow people to live without severe infections or HIV-related cancers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • HIV infections may be caused by one of two retroviruses, HIV-1 or HIV-2. (msdmanuals.com)
  • HIV-1 causes most HIV infections worldwide, but HIV-2 causes many HIV infections in West Africa. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The HIV Laboratory Diagnostic Testing Algorithm offers several advantages over the conventional algorithm of HIV antibody screening followed by Western blot confirmation of repeatedly reactive results, including earlier detection of HIV infections and the ability to accurately classify HIV-1 and HIV-2 infections. (cdc.gov)
  • Although less sensitive than 4th generation IAs, 3rd generation IAs will detect some HIV-1 infections before the Western blot becomes positive. (cdc.gov)
  • When the CD4 cell count falls to below approximately 200 cells/µL, the resulting state of immunodeficiency places the individual at high risk for opportunistic infections and neoplasms (clinically apparent HIV disease). (medscape.com)
  • The evidence presented included lack of detection of HIV variants by serologic and nucleic acid assays. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic variation also influences nucleic acid assays, e.g., nucleotide polymorphisms within primer and probe sites can affect detection or accurate quantitation of divergent HIV-1 strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Detection of Group '0' & subtype 'C' of HIV-1, which is most prevalent in India. (jmitra.co.in)
  • The data suggest that ICD p24 antigen detection is not a sensitive method for the determination of infant HIV-1 status in our cohort of HIV-1 infected Ugandan children tested in the first two years of life. (umn.edu)
  • Enhancement of immunohistochemical detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen in brain by tyramide signal amplification. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The sensitivity of antigen detection is increased significantly by tyramide signal amplification (TSA) compared to the conventional peroxidase labelled Avidin-Biotin complex (ABC) technique. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Parasite clearance following treatment with antimalarial drugs resulted in decreased detection of HIV-1 particles derived from the CD14 macrophage cell subset and correlated with a marked diminution in systemic immune activation. (lww.com)
  • The BD FastImmune™ CD8 Intracellular Cytokine Detection Kit is designed for the detection of intracellular cytokines and the activation marker CD69 in antigen-activated CD8 + T lymphocytes in whole blood. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Among pregnant and non-pregnant adults, HIV affects susceptibility to malaria, its clinical course and impairs antibody responses to malaria antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Methods IgG responses to malaria antigens that are potential targets for immunity to malaria (AMA1, MSP2, MSP3 and schizont extract) were compared between 115 HIV-infected and 115 age-matched, HIV-uninfected children who presented with severe malaria. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A predictive logistic regression model was used to test if HIV was an effect modifier on the age-related acquisition of antibody responses, with age as a continuous variable. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Results Point estimates of the responses to all antigens were lower amongst HIV-infected children, but this was only statistically significant for AMA1 (P = 0.028). (ox.ac.uk)
  • HIV was associated with a reduced breadth of responses to individual merozoite antigens (P = 0.02). (ox.ac.uk)
  • 0.0001), but did not modify the rate of age-related acquisition of responses to individual merozoite antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we explore the antigen processing pathways involved in these atypical T cell responses. (researcher-app.com)
  • Applications include studies of T-cell responses to antigens, such as herpes viruses, HIV, and tumor antigens. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • HIV-1-specific mucosol CD8+ lymphocyte responses in the cervix of HIV-1-resistant prostitues in Nairobi. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Late seroconversion in HIV-resistant Nairobi prostitutes despite pre-existing HIV-specific CD8+ responses. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • There appears to be a direct association between HIV-1 antigenemia and the likelihood of progressing to AIDS. (clinlabnavigator.com)
  • During a three-year study, only 15% of HIV antigen negative homosexual males progressed to AIDS, compared to 59% of antigen positive males. (clinlabnavigator.com)
  • Immunohistochemical retrieval of the principal HIV antigens p24, gp41, and gp120 in formalin fixed tissue: an investigation using HIV infected lymphoblasts and postmortem brain tissue from AIDS cases. (bmj.com)
  • While effective treatments have significantly extended the lives of people living with HIV and reduced the transmission of the virus, there is no cure for HIV or AIDS. (khon2.com)
  • National Center for Infectious Diseases Division of HIV/AIDS Kenneth G. Castro, M.D. (cdc.gov)
  • REVISED HIV CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM FOR ADOLESCENTS AND ADULTS The etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a retrovirus designated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • Because their CTLs get so worked up, HIV-1 infected cells are slaughtered, lowering viral loads, thus slowing progression to AIDS. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Certain MHC I types are associated with better HIV/AIDS prognosis. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The thoughts are kind of swirling, but let me see if I can sort of make sense out of the question that's formulating in my head here: if this trend continues, is there any reasonable way of estimating how quickly HIV may eventually progress to AIDS? (scienceblogs.com)
  • When it's left untreated, HIV can result in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (healthychildren.org)
  • Serum samples are processed, stored, and shipped to the Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention (DHAP) in the National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA for analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Antigen association to its corresponding binding site in the immunoglobulin molecule can elicit conformational rearrangements, generating novel epitopes termed metatopes. (tau.ac.il)
  • Binding to the epitopes was shown to require the complexation of Fab with its antigen. (tau.ac.il)
  • Denisova, G, Zwickel, J & Gershoni, JM 1995, ' Binding of HIV-1 gp120 to an anti-V3 loop antibody reveals novel antigen-induced epitopes ', FASEB Journal , vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 127-132. (tau.ac.il)
  • CD8+ lymphocytes respond to different HIV epitopes in seronegative and infected subjects. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Samples /specimen and reagents pass through membrane followed by addition of enzyme conjugate (HIV antigens & p24 antibody linked with HRPO). (jmitra.co.in)
  • The color intensity of test dot is directly proportional to the amount of HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 and/or p24 antigen present in the specimen. (jmitra.co.in)
  • HIV-p24 antigen test is a diagnostic test used to detect the presence of p24 protein, which is a component of the HIV virus. (pathofast.com)
  • The P24 test actually tests for a protein produced by the HIV virus. (onedaytests.com)
  • Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a tubular HIV-1 capsid-protein assembly at 8 Å resolution and the three-dimensional structure of a native HIV-1 core by cryo-electron tomography. (nature.com)
  • Cryo-EM structural data have been deposited in the EMDataBank under accession codesEMD-5582 andEMD-5639, and the MDFF atomic model of the CA HOH and models of HIV-1 capsid have been deposited in the Protein Data Bank under accession numbers 3J34 , 3J3Q , 3J3Y . (nature.com)
  • Structure of the amino-terminal core domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein. (nature.com)
  • Crystal structure of dimeric HIV-1 capsid protein. (nature.com)
  • Structure of the HIV-1 full-length capsid protein in a conformationally trapped unassembled state induced by small-molecule binding. (nature.com)
  • Binding of GV12 to its antigen increased the affinity of M77 for gp120. (tau.ac.il)
  • BNAbs target gp120 or gp41, two HIV envelope antigens commonly present in diagnostic tests. (cdc.gov)
  • Several groups reported on their experience from using HCV core antigen test which has been available for about a year and that has advantages of two-hour turnaround and lower cost (~20% compared to PCR), and the potential to help diagnose acute HCV. (i-base.info)
  • In the second part, the test was assessed in samples from 30 HIV positive gay men with recently diagnosed with acute HCV, detecting all acute cases. (i-base.info)
  • Plasma samples were obtained from HIV-1-infected individuals (n = 10) at diagnosis of acute malaria, 4 weeks after parasite clearance and from HIV-infected aparasitemic controls (n = 10). (lww.com)
  • Compared with controls, the detectable proportion of HIV-1 particles derived from CD14 macrophages and CD26 lymphocytes was increased in persons with acute malaria coinfection and correlated with markedly increased plasma concentrations of both proinflammatory cytokines and soluble markers of macrophage and lymphocyte activation. (lww.com)
  • Acute P. falciparum malaria coinfection impacts virus-host dynamics in HIV-1-infected persons at the cellular level, notably showing a reversible induction of HIV-1 replication in CD14 macrophages that is associated with changes in immune activation. (lww.com)
  • Routine monitoring for viral hepatitis, at least annually, is recommended for HIV positive people in BHIVA guidelines and this may be improved by use of HCV core antigen testing. (i-base.info)
  • P236, Viral hepatitis testing patterns among HIV-positive individuals in the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UKCHIC) study. (i-base.info)
  • Assessing HIV testing in hepatitis: an audit of HIV testing uptake in a specialist hepatology clinic in an area of high prevalence for hepatitis B and C. 3rd Joint BHIVA/BASHH Conference, 3-6 April 2014, Liverpool. (i-base.info)
  • Analysis of hepatitis C antigen testing in an urban sexual health clinic. (i-base.info)
  • The Public Health Service guideline for reducing unintended organ transplantation-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission describes criteria to identify increased risk donors (IRDs). (cdc.gov)
  • In 2013, the Public Health Service released a revised guideline to reduce the risk for unintended organ transplantation-associated hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • A cross-sectional study was carried out using initial HIV rapid and confirmation tests, and then Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test with the Ultra Rapid Test Kits for syphilis. (scirp.org)
  • Learn more about rapid HIV testing. (medscape.com)
  • Approximately 10 to 20% of asymptomatic HIV infected homosexual males have chronic HIV antigenemia with a rapidly progressive clinical course. (clinlabnavigator.com)
  • HOOKIPA is responsible for advancing the HIV program through the completion of a Phase 1b clinical trial. (khon2.com)
  • Measures of CD4+ T-lymphocytes are used to guide clinical and therapeutic management of HIV-infected persons (22). (cdc.gov)
  • Evaluation of HIV diagnostic tests prior to clinical use may identify suitable serologic assays for persons administered bNAbs. (cdc.gov)
  • Positive antigen results were detected in 8/75 (10.7%), with one false positive and one equivocal result (both negative on HCV PCR). (i-base.info)
  • Ideal for Blood screening: detects sero-negative HIV Cases. (jmitra.co.in)
  • It is therefore often recommended that, if you believe you have been exposed to HIV but the test is negative, you repeat the test after 90 days. (onedaytests.com)
  • Specimens from 311 children born to HIV-1 infected women, including 138 HIV-1 infected children, and 113 children born to negative women were tested. (umn.edu)
  • DESIGN: Despite repeated exposure to HIV-1, a subset of women in the Pumwani Sex Worker cohort established in Nairobi, Kenya in 1985 have remained HIV-1 negative for at least 3 years and are classified as resistant. (edu.au)
  • A patient with a negative antigen/antibody test and an undetectable HIV-1 RNA test confirming no HIV may continue with PrEP. (medscape.com)
  • If laboratories using 3rd generation IAs continue to perform Western blot testing for confirmation, specimens with a negative or indeterminate Western blot result should reflex to an HIV-1 NAT as outlined in step 3 of the algorithm. (cdc.gov)
  • During this time, antibody tests may be negative for HIV, but the serum viral load (the amount of HIV virus in the blood) is detectable and can be quite high (millions of copies per milliliter). (medscape.com)
  • Geenius was HIV-1 indeterminate (gp160+) with all bNAbs except PGT121, which was HIV antibody-negative. (cdc.gov)
  • HIV-1 Western blot was indeterminate (gp41+/gp160+) with 10E8 and 10E8v4 and negative with the remaining bNAbs. (cdc.gov)
  • Eighteen speakers from 8 countries discussed the impact of HIV variants and HBsAg mutants on immunoassays. (cdc.gov)
  • Subsequently, p24 antibody is produced and complexes with soluble p24 antigen, rendering it undetectable. (clinlabnavigator.com)
  • As human leukocyte antigen-DQ antigens present viral peptides to CD4 cells, we genotyped human leukocyte antigen -DQ alleles for 978 women enrolled in the cohort and performed cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses to identify associations of human leukocyte antigen -DQ with resistance/susceptibility to HIV-1. (edu.au)
  • Immunomagnetic HIV-1 capture analysis was used to determine the cellular origin of cell-free virus particles present in all 30 plasma samples and indices of immune activation were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. (lww.com)
  • When HIV enters a human cell, it releases its RNA, and an enzyme called reverse transcriptase makes a DNA copy of the HIV RNA. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Earlier diagnosis may also help to reduce additional HIV transmission. (medscape.com)
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is produced by the prostate gland and it is an important tumor marker in the screening and diagnosis of prostate cancer because the latter is often associated with elevated PSA levels. (scirp.org)
  • Blood tests to check for HIV antibody and to measure the amount of HIV virus can confirm the diagnosis. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In a retrospective case note review from Newham Hospital (located in an area with high prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV) approximately 80% of 596 patients had a documented HIV test result (50% through the hepatology clinic). (i-base.info)
  • BACKGROUND: HIV antibody testing has been included in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, for ages 18-49 since 1999 and for ages 18-59 years since 2009 enabling estimation of trends in HIV prevalence as part of national surveillance in the U.S. household population. (cdc.gov)
  • HIV-infected children with severe malaria were older, had higher parasite density and increased mortality, raising a hypothesis that HIV interferes with naturally acquired immunity to malaria, hence with little effect at younger ages (a shorter history of exposure). (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION: The associations of DQ alleles and haplotypes with resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1 emphasize the importance of human leukocyte antigen-DQ and CD4 in anti-HIV-1 immunity. (edu.au)
  • HIV specific Immunity Derived From Chimeric Antigen Receptor-engineered Stem Cells. (uclahealth.org)
  • Abstract Background In sub-Saharan Africa, the distributions of malaria and HIV widely overlap. (ox.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of DQ antigens with resistance and susceptibility to HIV-1. (edu.au)
  • But while HIV-1 evolves ways to hide from cytotoxic T-cells, this escape comes at a fitness cost. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Moreover, the strong associations between certain HLA class molecules, such as HLA-B*57, HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*51, and slow disease progression may decline as the epidemic continues, particularly where these HLA alleles are highly prevalent, and where HIV transmission rates are high. (scienceblogs.com)
  • HIV disease with active virus replication usually progresses during this asymptomatic period, and the rate of disease progression correlates directly with HIV RNA levels. (medscape.com)
  • SPSS 13.0 was used to determine associations of DQ alleles/haplotypes with HIV-1 resistance, susceptibility, and seroconversion rates. (edu.au)
  • In which diseases is HIV-p24 Antigen Test abnormal? (pathofast.com)
  • Edible vaccines are genetically modified crops that contain antigens for specific diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • 5. For individuals with HIV: Currently being treated with dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART), or plan to initiate dolutegravir-based ART at or before study week 8. (who.int)
  • Individuals who are experiencing symptoms of HIV, such as fever, fatigue, and night sweats, as well as those who have a known HIV-positive partner or who have received a blood transfusion or organ transplant from an HIV-positive donor. (pathofast.com)
  • It also recommends universal donor testing for HBV, HCV, and HIV. (cdc.gov)
  • Participating facilities report donor data to the United Network for Organ Sharing, including donor risk type (i.e., increased or standard risk), age, sex, race, mechanism of death (further stratified by drug intoxication and history of IDU), and HBV, HCV, and HIV screening results. (cdc.gov)
  • Descriptive statistics and frequencies were calculated by year to assess trends in demographic characteristics and HBV, HCV, and HIV screening results among all donors and by donor risk type. (cdc.gov)
  • Allogeneic transplants are further categorized by the degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) match between the donor and recipient. (medscape.com)
  • In certain circumstances, access to HIV testing and viral load (VL) monitoring is challenging. (cdc.gov)
  • A patient who receives positive antigen/antibody test results and a detectable HIV-1 RNA test confirming HIV should discontinue PrEP and commence HIV care and treatment. (medscape.com)
  • The new test will enable HIV testing to expand to regions without traditional healthcare facilities and speed up treatment, according to the agency. (medscape.com)
  • The Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test is not intended to screen blood donors. (medscape.com)
  • More information on the FDA approval of the new HIV test is available on the agency's Web site . (medscape.com)
  • Core antigen testing also identified 14 people, with one indeterminate result that did not become positive by either test. (i-base.info)
  • The test is a screening test for p24 antigen (HIV-1), anti-HIV-1 & anti-HIV-2 and is for in vitro diagnostic use only. (jmitra.co.in)
  • The p24 antigen test is often used in combination with other HIV tests to confirm the presence of the virus in an individuals blood. (pathofast.com)
  • Let's find out whether you need the HIV-p24 Antigen Test test. (pathofast.com)
  • Which symptoms are related to HIV-p24 Antigen Test? (pathofast.com)
  • Seek immediate medical attention: If the result of an HIV-p24 antigen test is abnormal, it is crucial to seek medical attention immediately. (pathofast.com)
  • This is because the cost of HIV-p24 Antigen Test in Pune is already high and we do not wish to levy additional charges on patients. (pathofast.com)
  • The cost price of HIV-p24 Antigen Test is updated only in case of sudden changes in government rules. (pathofast.com)
  • You are requested to check the latest cost price of HIV-p24 Antigen Test as charged by Pathofast on this page. (pathofast.com)
  • How to book HIV-p24 Antigen Test in Pune? (pathofast.com)
  • Anti-HCV and anti-HIV screening results for the period 2010-2017, and nucleic acid test (NAT) results for the period 2014-2017 were used because implementation of the guideline recommendation for HCV and HIV testing by NAT did not begin until 2014. (cdc.gov)
  • In general, testing for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a 2-step process that involves a screening test and follow-up tests often called confirmatory tests. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An antigen test checks your blood for an HIV antigen, called p24. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The p24 antigen test is accurate 11 days to 1 month after getting infected. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In all, 150 HIV positive antiretroviral naive subjects were studied and 15 (10%) were positive for VDRL test, with females (6.00%) and males (4.00%), who were mainly within the age group of 20 - 39 years. (scirp.org)
  • A nucleic acid test (NAT) looks for HIV in the blood. (healthychildren.org)
  • For patients who are starting or restarting PrEP after a long stop, a laboratory-based HIV antigen/antibody test is preferred. (medscape.com)
  • There was no correlation between the test antigen construct(s) and bNAb reactivity. (cdc.gov)
  • Indeed, antigen-presenting cells are important reservoirs of HIV-1 [ 16,17 ] and induction of HIV-1 replication within these cells may contribute significantly to the cofactor effect of confections on HIV-1 pathogenesis. (lww.com)
  • Fast Five Quiz: PrEP in HIV - Medscape - Oct 20, 2023. (medscape.com)
  • Our results suggest that the CD4 level for initiating CrAg screening and pre-emptive therapy should now definitely be raised to 200 cells/µL in these HIV-infected individuals. (researchsquare.com)
  • Results from the use of core antigen testing from 2013 at St Georges Hospital in south London were reported from a retrospective case note review of 75 patients tested for HCV. (i-base.info)
  • Those who were positive for HIV also had normal PSA results. (scirp.org)
  • 2014. HIV-1 adaptation to antigen processing results in population-level immune evasion and affects subtype diversification. (unimedizin-mainz.de)
  • The HIV Laboratory Diagnostic Testing Algorithm is a sequence of multiple tests in which the final diagnostic interpretation relies on results from one or more tests. (cdc.gov)
  • An analysis from the UK-CHIC cohort study reported that 88% of HIV positive people have been tested for HCV, but that annual testing is still not widely incorporated in practice, increasing from 25% in 2004 to 56% in 2011, despite being recommended for all patients. (i-base.info)
  • Beijing's quarantine authority is warning against the mailing of unauthorized dangerous substances through the postal or parcel delivery service after HIV-antigens were found in two regular packages. (chinadaily.com.cn)
  • There was a strong correlation, however, between the presence and time of onset of p24 antigenemia and mortality among HIV-1 infected children. (umn.edu)
  • It checks for HIV 1 (which is found world wide) and HIV 2 (which is predominantly found in West Africa). (onedaytests.com)
  • HIV primarily infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • This paper describes the design, construction and characterization of the first anti-HIV drug delivery system that is triggered to release its contents in the presence of human semen. (nih.gov)
  • HIV is transmitted through exchange of bodily fluids (semen, vaginal fluid, blood, breast milk) with an infected person, usually through vaginal or anal sex, sharing needles, or from mother to child (during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding). (msdmanuals.com)
  • To determine the impact of Plasmodium falciparum malaria coinfection and its treatment on cellular reservoirs of viral replication in HIV-1-infected persons and to relate this to changes in systemic immune activation. (lww.com)
  • Microgel particles were synthesized with a crosslinker containing a peptide substrate for the seminal serine protease prostate specific antigen (PSA) and were loaded with the HIV-1 entry inhibitor sodium poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (pSS). (nih.gov)
  • On September 18, 1987, the Armed Forces Medical Logistical Office issued instructions to temporarily suspend from distribution and use in military hospitals one lot (RHG 636) of RhoGAM* Rho(D) Immune Globulin (human) (Rh-IG), manufactured by Ortho Diagnostic Systems, Inc. This action was taken because a woman on active duty who had received an injection from the lot was subsequently found to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cdc.gov)
  • They can be caused by bacteria such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, along with viruses such as human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ), human papillomavirus ( HPV ) and herpes simplex virus (HSV). (healthychildren.org)
  • In some regions, recombinant strains, referred to as circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), have become the predominant form of HIV-1. (cdc.gov)
  • HIV-1 GAG Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain, encoded by the HIV gag gene, HXB2 (790-2292) and having a molecular mass of 55.0kDa. (prospecbio.com)
  • Her group studies hematopoietic stem cell based chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) therapy and mechanisms of immune exhaustion. (uclahealth.org)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting laboratory-based HIV and antiretroviral (ARV) drug testing, and VL monitoring as part of two studies on self-collected dried blood spots (DBS). (cdc.gov)