HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).HIV Seroprevalence: Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).HIV Seronegativity: Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.HIV Antigens: Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Risk-Taking: Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.HIV Envelope Protein gp120: External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Receptors, HIV: Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Sexual Partners: Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.Unsafe Sex: Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.HIV Enteropathy: A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.HIV Envelope Protein gp41: Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.Safe Sex: Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Epidemics: Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Circumcision, Male: Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.HIV Fusion Inhibitors: Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.HIV Wasting Syndrome: Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.HIV Integrase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.Social Stigma: A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.Stereotyping: An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.United StatesVirus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Sex Workers: People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.HIV Serosorting: The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.Homosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.IndiaTuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Risk Reduction Behavior: Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Drug Users: People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.HIV Integrase: Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.PrisonersSocioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Bisexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Anonymous Testing: Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.New York CityCenters for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.): An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.Needle Sharing: Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Ethiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Namibia: A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.Prejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.Sentinel Surveillance: Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.AfricaChild, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.San FranciscoOrganophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Swaziland: A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Transients and Migrants: People who frequently change their place of residence.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Los AngelesPrenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Transgendered Persons: Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Needle-Exchange Programs: Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.AIDS-Related Complex: A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Harm Reduction: The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Receptors, CXCR4: CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Gene Products, tat: Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Delayed Diagnosis: Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Transsexualism: Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Directive Counseling: Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Lesotho: A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.nef Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Sexuality: The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Indinavir: A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.Christianity: The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Condoms, Female: A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Nelfinavir: A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.BrazilComorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Crack Cocaine: The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.AIDS-Associated Nephropathy: Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.FloridaSexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.Rhode IslandHaiti: A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.

Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. (1/23412)

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

Structural basis for the specificity of the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. (2/23412)

Initiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription requires specific recognition of the viral genome, tRNA3Lys, which acts as primer, and reverse transcriptase (RT). The specificity of this ternary complex is mediated by intricate interactions between HIV-1 RNA and tRNA3Lys, but remains poorly understood at the three-dimensional level. We used chemical probing to gain insight into the three-dimensional structure of the viral RNA-tRNA3Lys complex, and enzymatic footprinting to delineate regions interacting with RT. These and previous experimental data were used to derive a three-dimensional model of the initiation complex. The viral RNA and tRNA3Lys form a compact structure in which the two RNAs fold into distinct structural domains. The extended interactions between these molecules are not directly recognized by RT. Rather, they favor RT binding by preventing steric clashes between the nucleic acids and the polymerase and inducing a viral RNA-tRNA3Lys conformation which fits perfectly into the nucleic acid binding cleft of RT. Recognition of the 3' end of tRNA3Lys and of the first template nucleotides by RT is favored by a kink in the template strand promoted by the short junctions present in the previously established secondary structure.  (+info)

High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (3/23412)

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (4/23412)

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

Dysregulated production of interleukin-8 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (5/23412)

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in vivo was monitored in four study groups: normal blood donors, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and dually infected (HIV/TB) patients. We show that whereas there was evidence of detectable levels of cell-associated IL-8 (mRNA and protein) in peripheral cells of healthy individuals, this was largely lost in the disease states studied. Coupled with this finding was significantly increased circulating levels of IL-8 in HIV-1-infected individuals with or without concomitant pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the capacity of peripheral mononuclear cells to produce IL-8 spontaneously ex vivo was enhanced in HIV-1 and TB patients (P < 0.05) and many of the HIV/TB group, but their corresponding capacities to respond to various stimuli, in particular phytohemagglutinin, were significantly diminished compared to those of normal donors (P < 0.05). Circulating levels of IL-8 in a group of HIV/TB patients were significantly positively correlated with the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the peripheral circulation (r = 0.65; P = 0.01), the proportions of IL-8 receptor A (IL-8RA)-expressing (r = 0.86; P < 0.01) and IL-8RB-expressing (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) PMN, and the capacity of PMN to migrate in response to IL-8 as chemoattractant (r = 0.68; P < 0. 01). IL-8RB fluorescence intensity, however, was negatively correlated with plasma IL-8 levels (r = -0.73; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that altered regulation of IL-8 in HIV-1 may have important implications for antimicrobial defenses and for normal immune processes.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (6/23412)

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain. (7/23412)

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (8/23412)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

  • abstract = "Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in plasma reflects the replicating virus population at any point in time in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies of the relationship of the complete HIV-1 genome to pathogenesis therefore need to focus on plasma virions. (elsevier.com)
  • Different HIV-1 molecular species were cloned from a single clinical sample, as demonstrated by restriction site polymorphism. (elsevier.com)
  • For these reasons, we developed an efficient method to clone full-length HIV-1 genomes directly from plasma viral RNA. (elsevier.com)
  • Although both strategies were successful, the second was preferable for amplifying HIV-1 genomes from samples with low viral titers. (elsevier.com)
  • By directly ligating the PCR- derived fragments into a phagemid vector, we constructed clones that comprised full-length HIV-1 RNA genomes. (elsevier.com)
  • Using this technique, we have constructed hundreds of clones containing full-length HIV-1 genomes derived from the plasma of HIV-1-infected individuals, some of whom had low HIV-1 titers. (elsevier.com)
  • This method provides a tool for studying complete HIV-1 genomes in relation to pathogenic processes. (elsevier.com)
  • sigh* Okay, there are two potential targets for an HIV-1 vaccine: 1-- The envelope protein. (scienceblogs.com)
  • By virtue of its particular capsid and Vif protein sequences, HIV-1 avoids and antagonizes the human forms of TRIM5α and APOBEC3 proteins. (pnas.org)
  • Loss of important protein-inhibitor interactions may account for the reduced potency of HBY 097 against the Tyr188Leu HIV-1 RT mutant. (rcsb.org)
  • HIV protease cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins (namely, Gag and Gag-Pol) at the appropriate places to create the mature protein components of an infectious HIV virion. (wikipedia.org)
  • HIV protease's protein structure has been investigated using X-ray crystallography. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the mechanism for HIV protease protein cleavage proposed by Mariusz Jaskolski and colleagues, water acts as a nucleophile, which acts in simultaneous conjunction with a well-placed aspartic acid to hydrolyze the scissile peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) negative factor (Nef protein) accelerates virulent progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by its interaction with specific cellular proteins involved in signal transduction and host cell activation. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The crystal structure of HIV-1 Nef protein bound to the Fyn kinase SH3 domain suggests a role for this complex in altered T cell receptor signaling. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Stability and proteolytic domains of Nef protein from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the anchor-domain of myristoylated and non-myristoylated HIV-1 Nef protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, the Gottlinger laboratory investigates the function of an accessory HIV-1 protein called Nef, which is not essential for the virus to multiply, but for unknown reasons is crucial for its ability to cause disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • HIV type 1 is a retrovirus that predominantly infects lymphocytes that bear the CD4 surface protein, as well as coreceptors belonging to the chemokine receptor family (CCR5 or CXCR4), and causes AIDS. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TNV/p28 tev , p18 6Drev , Tat1-Rev2, Tat^8c, p17 tev , or Ref) are the result of alternative splicing events, Tat-T/Vpt is produced upon programmed ribosomal frameshifting, and a Rev1-Vpu fusion protein is expressed due to a nucleotide polymorphism that is unique to certain HIV-1 clade A and C strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • The paragon of such a multitasking or moonlighting protein is HIV-1 Nef, which has been described to downmodulate a variety of surface receptors including CD4, MHC class I, CD28, and CXCR4, counteracts the host restriction factors SERINC3/5, and upregulates the invariant chain/CD74 to suppress antigen presentation ( Pereira and daSilva, 2016 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • By attaching to host protein CD4, BiIA-SG strategically ambushes invading HIV-1 particles to protect CD4 positive T cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • These findings, which come from analyzing the DNA of 1,955 people whose HIV status has been tracked for many years, provides the strongest evidence to date that treatments targeting CKR5 and/or its protein could help people infected with HIV-1 keep the virus in check. (nih.gov)
  • They determined that HIV anchors to not only the well-known CD4 protein that sits on the cell surface, but it also attaches to the CKR5 protein. (nih.gov)
  • They hypothesized that these typographical errors in the gene lead to changes in the shape of the CKR5 protein that, like changing the shape of a lock, blocks HIV from binding to the CKR5 protein that it uses to enter macrophages. (nih.gov)
  • While the scientists don't know yet why this is so, Dean speculated, "It may be that people with one normal and one altered copy of the gene produce a smaller amount of protein that is able to serve as a doorway for HIV-1 to enter certain cells. (nih.gov)
  • What Stampede2 allowed us to do is establish what the molecular interactions are between the HIV proteins and this small molecule and to test the hypothesis that it was stabilizing a particular part of the protein using molecular dynamics," said Juan Perilla. (hpcwire.com)
  • Mosaic vaccines are computationally designed from protein sequence data that were extracted from this wealth of sequences, and the computer code used to design them was inspired by the way HIV-1 itself naturally evolves. (lanl.gov)
  • The HIV Gag protein contains a specific sequence of amino acids which it uses to recruit the human tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101). (innovations-report.com)
  • The full-length HIV-1 Env protein can be presented on the surface of VLPs composed of Gag protein and cellular membrane components. (sbir.gov)
  • Protein-Protein Interaction between Surfactant Protein D and DC-SIGNviaC-Type Lectin Domain Can Suppress HIV-1 Transfer. (abcam.com)
  • Osel scientists have previously demonstrated that Lactobacillus could be engineered to secrete another anti-HIV-1 protein. (eurekalert.org)
  • Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we constructed simian-tropic (st)HIV-1 strains that differ from HIV-1 only in the vif gene. (pnas.org)
  • CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. (nih.gov)
  • Naturally occurring HIV-1 resistant strains, however, are readily found against these so-called bnAbs and result in the failure of durable viral suppression in bnAb-based monotherapy. (scienceblog.com)
  • BiIA-SG not only displays a potent activity against all three panels of 124 genetically divergent global HIV-1 strains tested, but also prevents diverse live viral challenges completely in humanized mice. (scienceblog.com)
  • HIV-1 has an ability to mutate rapidly, which results in great global genetic diversity with multiple strains and subtypes prevalent in different parts of the world. (lanl.gov)
  • 2013 Oct 24;155(3):531-9) and if the immune responses to mosaic vaccines elicited responses that could cross-react with highly diverse HIV strains. (lanl.gov)
  • and nef -deleted HIV strains have been utilized as vaccine candidates (for a review see L evy 1998 ). (genetics.org)
  • existing models generally employ simian viruses that are divergent from HIV-1, reducing their usefulness in preclinical investigations. (pnas.org)
  • The divergence between human and simian viruses necessitates a 2-stage process for evaluation of candidate vaccines in macaques, with proof of concept-challenge studies using SIV followed by immunogenicity studies using the corresponding HIV-1 immunogens, which often cannot be directly evaluated for indications of efficacy before human trials. (pnas.org)
  • Julia Kazmierski, co-author of the current study, combined T cells and HIV-1 viruses in a petri dish. (innovations-report.com)
  • HIV-1 and HIV-2 are closely related, but distinct viruses. (news-medical.net)
  • Each of these viruses is thought to have arisen as a result of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) being introduced into the human population, although the origin for HIV-2 was the sooty mangabey (SIVsm), while for HIV-1, it was the chimpanzee (SIVcpz). (news-medical.net)
  • The type of ART used to treat people with HIV-2 differs from that used to treat HIV-1, meaning it is essential to differentiate between the two viruses when testing people who are at risk of having HIV-2. (news-medical.net)
  • Any samples that are submitted for HIV diagnostic testing should be screened using an enzyme immunoassay that is able to detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2 and any laboratory performing this screening should include algorithms for differentiating between the two viruses in repeatedly reactive samples. (news-medical.net)
  • Most HIV-1 quasispecies infect cells expressing CCR5 and are thus defined as CCR5- or R5-tropic, while a smaller proportion of viruses bind to CXCR4 and are defined as CXCR4- or X4-tropic. (hindawi.com)
  • If the RNA polymerase mutation rate is 1 out of every 10,000 bases synthesized, then each base in the viral genome is substituted in a collection of 10,000 viruses. (virology.ws)
  • An HIV-1 infected person can make as many as 10,000,000,000 virus particles each day, so 10 10 /10 4 = one million viruses will be produced each day with resistance to one drug. (virology.ws)
  • Most viruses enter the human body through muscosal surfaces, and in women, the vagina and cervix are the major sites of entry for HIV-1 during sexual intercourse," said Laurel Lagenaur, Ph.D, senior author and Director of Research at Osel. (eurekalert.org)
  • HIV is a lentivirus within the Retroviridae family of RNA viruses. (kenyon.edu)
  • Blick G et al (2007) The probable source of both the primary multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 strain found in a patient with rapid progression to AIDS and a second recombinant MDR strain found in a chronically HIV-1-infected patient. (springer.com)
  • Because their CTLs get so worked up, HIV-1 infected cells are slaughtered, lowering viral loads, thus slowing progression to AIDS. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Moreover, the strong associations between certain HLA class molecules, such as HLA-B*57, HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*51, and slow disease progression may decline as the epidemic continues, particularly where these HLA alleles are highly prevalent, and where HIV transmission rates are high. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Taking these medications daily as they instruct can slow progression of HIV, prevent transmission, and help protect the immune system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Furthermore, no controlled clinical trials of ART for HIV-2 have been carried out and no recommendations exist to guide decision making in the management of the immunosuppression and disease progression that can occur as a result of this condition. (news-medical.net)
  • To monitor the status of HIV 1 disease in conjunction with other lab tests and physical disease progression and to guide therapy. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • AIDS research has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that utilizes HIV-1 as the challenge virus, the central problem being the absence of a practical host species in which HIV-1 replicates efficiently ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Langerhans cells (LC) are believed to one of the first cells in which HIV-1 replicates after sexual exposure. (virology.ws)
  • When a person is infected with HIV 1, the virus replicates-it produces more and more copies of itself-and moves into the lymph nodes, spleen, and other parts of the body. (labtestsonline.org.uk)
  • Aug. 9, 2018 - HIV-1 replicates in ninja-like ways. (hpcwire.com)
  • HIV 1/O/2 tests for HIV-1, HIV-2 and group O. Your EIA HIV-2 is also an HIV-2 -specific assay. (thebody.com)
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Hologic said today that it has received two CE marks for its Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay for use in testing dried blood spots and the early diagnosis of the disease in infants. (genomeweb.com)
  • Hologic said that as a result of receiving the CE marks, the assay can be used in European and African countries to qualitatively detect HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in infants that are less than 18 months old. (genomeweb.com)
  • The study, published ahead of print in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes , was conducted in five clinics in Maputo, Mozambique, with the prototype of Alere's new POC nucleic acid test, the Alere q HIV-1/2 Detect assay, which provides results in less than 60 minutes. (genomeweb.com)
  • HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • HIV-1 virus is known to cause extensive intestinal tract damage, allowing whole bacteria and tiny pieces of microbes living in the intestines to enter the bloodstream and activate the immune system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Nonetheless, the findings could improve our understanding of how HIV-1 undermines the immune system and inform research into potential new treatments. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This study's purpose is to learn how dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) affects the HIV virus, the immune system, hormone levels, body composition and quality of life. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Scientists don't understand many of the details of how HIV-1 can fool our immune system cells so effectively. (hpcwire.com)
  • THE nature of the evolutionary interaction between the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the human immune system has been the source of much debate, and increasingly so given the desire to understand how and why resistance appears to combinations of antiviral drugs ( L eigh B rown and R ichman 1997 ). (genetics.org)
  • The AIDS virus HIV-1, which is a retrovirus, has an RNA genome that it temporarily converts into DNA in infected cells. (innovations-report.com)
  • Another area of interest are cellular factors that are potentially involved in the organization of the viral RNA genome and its uptake into HIV-1 particles. (umassmed.edu)
  • The work continued a previous proof-of-concept study in which they used transgenic rat and mouse models with HIV-1 DNA incorporated into the genome of every tissue of the animals' bodies. (upi.com)
  • Despite its small genome size, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is one of the most successful pathogens and has infected more than 70 million people worldwide within the last decades. (frontiersin.org)
  • The HIV-1 viral genome, like that of HCV, is slightly less than 10,000 bases long. (virology.ws)
  • The HIV life cycle consists of viral entry, integration of viral genome into host DNA, transcription and translation of viral genome, virion assembly, and the budding of virions. (kenyon.edu)
  • Moreover, a key feature of the HIV-1 virus is its ability to integrate its genome into the genome of host cells. (kenyon.edu)
  • The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report is published by the Surveillance Branch of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention - Surveillance and Epidemiology, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (cdc.gov)
  • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Publication of this report would not have been possible without the contributions of the State and territorial health departments and the HIV/AIDS surveillance programs that provided surveillance data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the development of animal models that use HIV-1 as the challenge virus would undoubtedly facilitate the evaluation of candidate prevention and treatment strategies. (pnas.org)
  • It is a part of the publication CDC HIV/Hepatitis/STD/TB Prevention News Update . (thebody.com)
  • The need for effective HIV-1 prevention has never been greater. (nih.gov)
  • The reports said the growing number of people living with HIV underscores the critical need to reach infected individuals with testing, treatment, and prevention services to reduce the impact of the disease. (redorbit.com)
  • The results were positive and point to a new platform for further studies in HIV self-care and prevention. (eurekalert.org)
  • Understanding the interplay between HIV-1 and CD1a+ VEDCs is important for future prevention and cure strategies. (jci.org)
  • Out of the total funding, $426 million will focus on ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services, with an emphasis on eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV and ensuring prevention programmes are serving adolescents, youth and key populations at higher risk of HIV. (undp.org)
  • Some 50,000 people are infected with HIV each year in the United States, the agency said, citing statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (medicinenet.com)
  • Using the deuterated (2H) glucose method for endogenous labeling, we have analyzed host factors that influence T-cell turnover in HIV-1-uninfected and -infected humans. (jci.org)
  • HIV has been in humans for maybe 70 years, but the gene has been around a lot longer and is conserved down to mouse. (the-scientist.com)
  • The study, "Inositol phosphates are assembly cofactors for HIV-1," was published in the journal Nature on August 1, 2018. (hpcwire.com)
  • CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, even if gp120s can bind both CCR5 monomers and oligomers, impairment of CCR5 oligomerization improved viral entry, suggesting that HIV-1 prefers monomers for entry. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, our results support a role for CCR5 heterogeneity in diversifying the phenotypic properties of HIV-1 isolates and provide new clues for development of CCR5-targeting drugs. (nih.gov)
  • CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokines receptors are critical coreceptors for the binding of HIV to specific host cells. (hindawi.com)
  • American Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents (2013) (as discussed elsewhere [ 11 ]) recommend the use of tropism testing whenever a CCR5 inhibitor is considered for use (AI) or in case of virologic failure in patients treated with CCR5 inhibitor (BIII). (hindawi.com)
  • Individuals primarily acquire HIV-1 that utilizes the CCR5 receptor (termed either R5 or R5X4) during heterosexual transmission, and the mechanism for the block against variants that only use the CXCR4 receptor (classified as X4) remains unclear. (jci.org)
  • On episode #278 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent, Dickson, Alan, and Kathy discuss disruption of the ccr5 gene in lymphocytes of patients infected with HIV-1. (virology.ws)
  • These cells express the HIV-1 receptors CD4 and CCR5, but not CXCR4, and can therefore be infected with CCR5-tropic* but not CXCR4-tropic HIV-1. (virology.ws)
  • In this review, we describe the compounds, reported up to today, which inhibit the HIV-1 RNase H function, their chemical structures, the structure-activity relationships and the mechanism of action. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The public face of HIV is well-known: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus that particularly preys on gay men, African Americans, drug users, and just about all of Africa, although we re all at risk. (altheal.org)
  • Collins JA et al (2004) Competitive fitness of nevirapine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants. (springer.com)
  • There are two main types of this virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The immunodeficiency disease AIDS, which is caused by the HIV virus, can in most cases be treated very effectively with antiretroviral drugs. (innovations-report.com)
  • Nevertheless, Goffinet and her team will not give up their fight against the AIDS virus and will continue to search for promising new ways to target HIV-1 - including and especially in times of corona. (innovations-report.com)
  • Globally, HIV-1 is the most prevalent type of HIV and is generally the virus that people are talking about if they mention HIV without specifying a type. (news-medical.net)
  • Research in the Gottlinger laboratory focuses on interactions between HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS, and the host cell in which it propagates. (umassmed.edu)
  • An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), has discovered a crucial missing link in the search for the origin of HIV-1, the virus responsible for human AIDS. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes a severe population bottleneck during sexual transmission and yet adapts extremely rapidly to the earliest immune responses. (genetics.org)
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4 + T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (mdpi.com)
  • These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. (mdpi.com)
  • According to UAB post-doctoral researcher Brandon Keele, Ph.D., lead author of the report, this allowed for unprecedented genetic comparisons to be done between HIV-1 and its closest simian virus counterpart. (rxpgnews.com)
  • this allowed for unprecedented genetic comparisons to be done between HIV-1 and its closest simian virus counterpart. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART), the primary type of treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can reduce sexual transmission, prevent illness, and increase longevity and quality of life for patients. (eurekalert.org)
  • With about six million people infected with the virus - more than 10% of the population - South Africa carries the world's heaviest HIV/Aids caseload and has around 2.5 million people taking antiretroviral (ARV) drugs daily. (news24.com)
  • In the world, HIV/AIDS has resulted in estimated 40 million deaths while 36.9 million people are still living with the virus. (scienceblog.com)
  • The risk of being infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is substantially enhanced in individuals with other sexually transmitted diseases. (virology.ws)
  • In addition, the scientists report that people who have one normal and one altered copy of CKR5 do become HIV-positive, but they tend to progress slowly to full-blown AIDS and often live longer than most people infected with the virus. (nih.gov)
  • Now that we are beginning to see the benefits of attacking HIV with, not one, but a combination of different drugs, today's finding points out a different, but naturally proven, angle from which to attack the virus and make its life really rough," said Stephen O'Brien, Ph.D., leader of the AIDS genetics research group at NCI's Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center and senior author of today's paper. (nih.gov)
  • Last June, researchers made headlines when they discovered that a strain of HIV, believed to be important in person-to-person transmission of the virus, anchors to immune cells called macrophages in a very specific way. (nih.gov)
  • Following up on this new lead, two research teams reported independently last month that they had found a key piece to the long-standing puzzle of why some people exposed to HIV never become infected with the virus. (nih.gov)
  • Each group includes individuals who are HIV-positive with AIDS, those who are HIV positive but do not have AIDS, and a relatively large number of people who have been exposed to the virus but are HIV negative. (nih.gov)
  • The Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test can detect these markers for the AIDS-causing virus in human serum, plasma and blood specimens, the agency said in a news release. (medicinenet.com)
  • One of the biggest medical miracles of our generation has been the development of antiretroviral drugs to control the HIV virus, said Dr. Luban, the David L. Freelander Memorial Professor in HIV/AIDS Research, professor of molecular medicine and lead author of the study. (umassmed.edu)
  • If HIV-1 is untreated, the virus reduces the number of CD4+ T cells in the body. (umassmed.edu)
  • Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. (uva.nl)
  • By 1993, 172,000 individuals in the United States had died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and another 1,000,000 were estimated to be infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the retrovirus that causes AIDS. (acnp.org)
  • Evidence for the importance of natural selection in HIV evolution comes from studies of both host and virus. (genetics.org)
  • Arguably the most prominent and deadly virus discovered in the twentieth century is the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) due its causative role in the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (kenyon.edu)
  • The HIV virus is able to overcome these challenges and infect non-differentiating cells . (kenyon.edu)
  • In 2002, Gen-Probe received approval of its Biologics License Application (BLA) for the first FDA-approved nucleic acid test for HIV-1 and HCV in donated human blood. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Nucleic acid sequences and methods for detecting HIV-1 nucleic acid (LTR and pol sequences) in biological samples by detecting amplified nucleic acids are disclosed. (google.es)
  • Kits comprising nucleic acid oligomers for amplifying HIV-1 nucleic acid present in a biological sample and detecting the amplified nucleic. (google.es)
  • detecting the amplified product of LTR sequences using a labeled detection probe that hybridizes specifically with LTR sequence in the amplified product, thereby indicating presence of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in the biological sample. (google.es)
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the contacting step uses a capture oligomer that hybridizes specifically to a target region in LTR sequences of HIV-1 nucleic acid complementary to SEQ ID NO:1 or complementary to LTR-specific sequence contained in SEQ ID NO:2. (google.es)
  • those tests detect HIV 1 and HIV2 simultaneously. (medhelp.org)
  • The genetic differences between HIV-1 and HIV-2 mean that if a person takes a test for HIV-1, it may not detect HIV-2. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This test requires a plasma HIV-RNA of more than 1000 cps/mL and has recently been improved, being currently able to detect with 100% sensitivity CXCR4-tropic clones representing 0.3% or more of the viral population. (hindawi.com)
  • Positive selection was also detected among 39 nef sequences from HIV-1 subtype B. In contrast, multiple pairwise comparisons of nonsynonymous and synonymous substitution rates provided no good evidence for positive selection and sliding window analyses failed to detect most positively selected sites. (genetics.org)
  • The conjugate is based on a second set of recombinant HIV antigens expressing the same epitopes as the pre-coated antigens, which is conjugated to horseradish peroxidase. (mpbio.com)
  • Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There are, however, two major scientific challenges: the tremendous HIV-1 diversity and the antiviral drug-unreachable latency. (scienceblog.com)
  • The following table shows the characteristics of various HIV-1 bNAbs Recent years have seen an increase in HIV-1 bNAb discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Online databases like bNAber and LANL constantly report and update the discovery of new HIV bNAbs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report is not copyrighted and may be used and copied without permission. (cdc.gov)
  • They tested their system in mice infected with EcoHIV, which is the mouse equivalent of human HIV-1. (upi.com)
  • Even with treatment, though, the human body can't get rid of HIV-1 completely. (umassmed.edu)
  • They also showed that VPS37B is a subunit of the human ESCRT-I complex, and that it is capable of recruiting the ESCRT-I complex to support HIV budding in vivo. (innovations-report.com)
  • The researchers suspect that the comparatively short HIV-1 DNA is present in the cytoplasm in insufficient quantities and is not long enough to be detected by cGAS. (innovations-report.com)
  • Based on this refined data set, researchers estimate HIV prevalence increased by 11 percent, or 112,000 people, since 2003. (redorbit.com)
  • Researchers genetically inactivated HIV-1 in transgenic mice, reducing the RNA expression of viral genes by roughly 60 to 95 percent. (upi.com)
  • Researchers determined the success of the strategy by measuring levels of HIV-1 RNA and used a new live bioluminescence imaging system. (upi.com)
  • We discovered, in collaboration with other researchers, that HIV uses this small molecule to complete its function," said Juan R. Perilla, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware. (hpcwire.com)
  • While HIV remains a major health challenge in Zimbabwe, with 1.3 million people living with HIV at the end of 2016, the dramatic scale up of the HIV response is remarkable. (undp.org)
  • Mountain View, CA (March 24, 2016): A normal, predominant bacterial species of the healthy vaginal microbiota can be engineered for potential use as a novel protective agent against HIV-1 transmission in women, according to a new publication from scientists at Osel, Inc. and their collaborators. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, these analyses make clear the advantages of longitudinal cohort data, which provide more complete ascertainment than household censuses, highlight possible inaccuracies in model assumptions, and allow direct quantification of the impact of HIV. (who.int)
  • Blood plasma HIV-RNA quantification was performed by the ultra-sensitive HIV-Monitor test (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Branchburg, NJ, USA). (lww.com)