Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Sexual activities of humans.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Programs in which participation is not required.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.
The status of health in rural populations.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
The status of health in urban populations.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.

Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. (1/23412)

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

Structural basis for the specificity of the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. (2/23412)

Initiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription requires specific recognition of the viral genome, tRNA3Lys, which acts as primer, and reverse transcriptase (RT). The specificity of this ternary complex is mediated by intricate interactions between HIV-1 RNA and tRNA3Lys, but remains poorly understood at the three-dimensional level. We used chemical probing to gain insight into the three-dimensional structure of the viral RNA-tRNA3Lys complex, and enzymatic footprinting to delineate regions interacting with RT. These and previous experimental data were used to derive a three-dimensional model of the initiation complex. The viral RNA and tRNA3Lys form a compact structure in which the two RNAs fold into distinct structural domains. The extended interactions between these molecules are not directly recognized by RT. Rather, they favor RT binding by preventing steric clashes between the nucleic acids and the polymerase and inducing a viral RNA-tRNA3Lys conformation which fits perfectly into the nucleic acid binding cleft of RT. Recognition of the 3' end of tRNA3Lys and of the first template nucleotides by RT is favored by a kink in the template strand promoted by the short junctions present in the previously established secondary structure.  (+info)

High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (3/23412)

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (4/23412)

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

Dysregulated production of interleukin-8 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (5/23412)

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in vivo was monitored in four study groups: normal blood donors, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and dually infected (HIV/TB) patients. We show that whereas there was evidence of detectable levels of cell-associated IL-8 (mRNA and protein) in peripheral cells of healthy individuals, this was largely lost in the disease states studied. Coupled with this finding was significantly increased circulating levels of IL-8 in HIV-1-infected individuals with or without concomitant pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the capacity of peripheral mononuclear cells to produce IL-8 spontaneously ex vivo was enhanced in HIV-1 and TB patients (P < 0.05) and many of the HIV/TB group, but their corresponding capacities to respond to various stimuli, in particular phytohemagglutinin, were significantly diminished compared to those of normal donors (P < 0.05). Circulating levels of IL-8 in a group of HIV/TB patients were significantly positively correlated with the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the peripheral circulation (r = 0.65; P = 0.01), the proportions of IL-8 receptor A (IL-8RA)-expressing (r = 0.86; P < 0.01) and IL-8RB-expressing (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) PMN, and the capacity of PMN to migrate in response to IL-8 as chemoattractant (r = 0.68; P < 0. 01). IL-8RB fluorescence intensity, however, was negatively correlated with plasma IL-8 levels (r = -0.73; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that altered regulation of IL-8 in HIV-1 may have important implications for antimicrobial defenses and for normal immune processes.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (6/23412)

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain. (7/23412)

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (8/23412)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicenter evaluation of quantification methods for plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rna. AU - Lin, Hsiang Ju. AU - Myers, Lawrence E.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Blaine Hollinger, F.. AU - Henrard, Denis. AU - Hooper, Carol J.. AU - Kokka, Robert. AU - Kwok, Shirley. AU - Rasheed, Suraiya. AU - Vahey, Maryanne. AU - Winters, Mark A.. AU - Mc Quay, Lisa J.. AU - Nara, Peter L.. AU - Reichelderfer, Patricia. AU - Coombs, Robert W.. AU - Brooks Jackson, J.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Six procedures for quantifying plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA were evaluated by nine laboratories. The procedures differed in their sample volume and preparation of samples and methods of amplification and detection. Coded samples in a IO-folddilution series of HIV-L-spiked plasma were correctly ranked by all six procedures. Subsequently, coded duplicate plasma samples from 16 HIV-I-infected patients were tested using a common set of standards. Several HIV-1 ...
This is an open-label (all people know the identity of the intervention), multi-center (study conducted at multiple sites), uncontrolled (all the patients receiving darunavir) clinical and observational study (study in which the investigators/physicians observe the patients and measure their outcomes) to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of darunavir for the treatment human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection among adult Filipino patients. The study will enroll 10 percentage of patient who would use the product, as a requirement of the Philippine Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Patients will be monitored from baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter for a period of 24 weeks. Safety evaluations for adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, physical examination, concomitant medications, and co-morbid conditions will be monitored throughout the study. The duration of treatment will be for 24 weeks and the total study will be conducted for 3 years ...
This is an open-label (all people know the identity of the intervention), multi-center (study conducted at multiple sites), uncontrolled (all the patients receiving darunavir) clinical and observational study (study in which the investigators/physicians observe the patients and measure their outcomes) to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of darunavir for the treatment human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection among adult Filipino patients. The study will enroll 10 percentage of patient who would use the product, as a requirement of the Philippine Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Patients will be monitored from baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter for a period of 24 weeks. Safety evaluations for adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, physical examination, concomitant medications, and co-morbid conditions will be monitored throughout the study. The duration of treatment will be for 24 weeks and the total study will be conducted for 3 years ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of T lymphocytes requires cellular proliferation and DNA synthesis. Human monocytes were shown to have low DNA synthesis rates, yet the monocytotropic BaL isolate of HIV-1 was able to infect these cells efficiently. Monocytes that were irradiated to assure no DNA synthesis could also be readily infected with HIV-1BaL. Such infections were associated with the integration of HIV-1BaL DNA into the high molecular weight, chromosomal DNA of monocytes. Thus, normal, nonproliferating monocytes differ from T lymphocytes in that a productive HIV-1 infection can occur independently of cellular DNA synthesis. These results suggest that normal nonproliferating mononuclear phagocytes, which are relatively resistant to the destructive effects of this virus, may serve as persistent and productive reservoirs for HIV-1 in vivo. ...
Vpr and vpu are important for efficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and CD4(+) T-cell depletion in human lymphoid tissue ex ...
We have examined cell-free viral populations in the blood plasma and seminal plasma compartments of men infected with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using the V3-specific heteroduplex tracking assay (V3-HTA). We studied two cohorts of subjects who had visited either a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic for genital tract inflammation in the form of urethritis (n = 43) or a dermatology clinic (controls, n = 14) in Malawi.
Five hepatoma cell lines, including CZHC/8571, PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B, HepG2, and HUH7, were inoculated with three diverse isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Productive infection was noted in all hepatoma cell lines, and expression of viral p24 antigen lasted for over 3 months, but its level decreased in proportion to the number of viable cells. HIV-1 antigens were also found in the cells by immunohistochemical staining and radioimmunoprecipitation assay, as were viral RNA by in situ hybridization and HIV-1-like particles by electron microscopy. Virus yield assays were also positive on supernatant fluids collected from hepatoma cultures inoculated with HIV-1. Despite their susceptibility to infection, all five hepatoma cell lines were negative for CD4 by immunofluorescence and for CD4 mRNA by slot-blot hybridization. In addition, HIV-1 infection of hepatoma cell lines was not blocked by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody or soluble CD4. Together, these findings clearly demonstrate that ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory genes including nef, vif, and vpr are important factors that determine the replication and pathogenesis of HIV-1. The state of activation is also important for the replication of HIV-1. We evaluated the properties of nef-, vif-, and vpr-minus macrophage-tropic HIV-1(JR) CSF in primary CD4+ Th1- or Th2-like cell cultures which had been activated through CD3 molecules in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 (Th1-like culture) or IL-4 (Th2-like culture), respectively. In activated Th1- or Th2-like cultures, replication of nef-minus HIV-1(JR-CSF) was markedly lower than that of wild-type HIV-1. Subsequent analysis by site-directed mutagenesis showed that (i) the presence of an acidic amino acid-rich domain (amino acid residues 72 to 75) in the Nef protein was critical for the enhancement of viral DNA synthesis, resulting in increased virus growth rate, and (ii) prolines that form part of Src homology 3 binding domain were not essential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chimeric toxins targeted to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein augment the in vivo activity of combination antiretroviral therapy in thy/liv-SCID-Hu mice. AU - Goldstein, Harris. AU - Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo. AU - Bera, Tapan K.. AU - Pastan, Ira H.. AU - Berger, Edward A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which combines multiple inhibitors of essential human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HiV-1) enzymes, induces dramatic and sustained viral load reductions in many people infected with HIV-1. However, reservoirs of infected cells capable of producing replication-competent virus persist even after years of HAART, preventing elimination of infection. CD4-PE40 and 3B3(Fv)-PE38, chimeric toxins designed to target the HIV envelope (Env), represent a complementary class of agents that selectively kill productively infected cells. To investigate whether these Env-targeted toxins might serve as adjuncts to HAART for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal studies of viral sequence, viral phenotype, immunologic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in perinatally infected twins with discordant disease courses. AU - Hutto, Cecelia. AU - Zhou, Y. I.. AU - Jun, H. E.. AU - Geffin, Rebeca. AU - Hill, Martin. AU - Scott, Walter. AU - Wood, Charles. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - Perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease and are variable in both the age of the patient at onset of serious disease and the progression of the clinical course. Heterozygotic perinatally infected twins with a marked difference in their clinical courses were monitored during the first 2 years of life. Twin B, the second-born twin, developed AIDS by 6 months of age and died at 22 months of age, while twin A remained minimally symptomatic through the first 2 years. Sequential blood specimens were obtained from the twins in order to characterize the ...
The occurrence of clinical manifestations associated with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated in a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Among 103 women who seroconverted to HIV-1, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, extrainguinal lymphadenopathy, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and vaginal candidiasis were noted significantly more frequently at visits in which seroconversion first became evident. Eighty-one percent of seroconverting women had ≥1 of these 11 symptoms or signs. Among 44% of the women, the acute illness was severe enough to prevent them from working. Having ≥2 of 6 selected symptoms and signs yielded a sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 83%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.2, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 for acute HIV-1 infection. The recognition of primary HIV-1-infection illness in high-risk populations and subsequent risk-reduction counseling could ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternofetal Transmission of AIDS. T2 - Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleic Acid Sequences in Human Fetal DNA. AU - Soeiro, Ruy. AU - Rubinstein, Arye. AU - Rashbaum, William K.. AU - Lyman, William D.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - Pediatric AIDS is increasing in frequency due to a rise in the number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l)-infected women of childbearing age. Because outcome studies reveal that most children infected peripartum manifest HIV-1-related disease in the first year of life, intrauterine infection has been suspected. Fetal tissues from 23 second-trimester abortuses were examined. The presence of HIV-1 nucleic acid sequences was determined by the polymerase chain reaction and used to define infection of the fetus. By analysis of available tissues, 7 of 23 fetuses were infected, while control fetal tissue was negative. In situ hybridization for HIV-1 DNA showed that only 1 of 8 infected abortuses was positive, while all ...
Genetic polymorphisms in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes influence susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disease progression, but little is known regarding the association between these allelic variations and the ability of the host to transmit virus. In this study, we show that the maternal heterozygous SDF1 genotype (SDF1 3A/wt) is associated with perinatal transmission of HIV-1 (risk ratio [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 3.3) and particularly postnatal breastmilk transmission (RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 8.6). In contrast, the infant SDF1 genotype had no effect on mother-to-infant transmission. These data suggest that SDF1, which is a ligand for the T-tropic HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4, may affect the ability of a mother to transmit the virus to her infant. This suggests that a genetic polymorphism in a gene encoding a chemokine receptor ligand may be associated with increased infectivity of the index case and highlights the importance of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a family of related cellular transcription factors which can modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription in vitro. AU - Yoon, Jong-Bok. AU - Li, Gen. AU - Roeder, Robert G.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - LBP-1 is a cellular protein which binds strongly to sequences around the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initiation site and weakly over the TATA box. We have previously shown that LBP-1 represses HIV-1 transcription by inhibiting the binding of TFIID to the TATA box. Four similar but distinct cDNAs encoding LBP-1 (LBP-1a, -b, -c, and -d) have been isolated. These are products of two related genes, and each gene encodes two alternatively spliced products. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of LBP- 1 with entries in the available protein data bases revealed the identity of LBP-1c to α-CP2, an α-globin transcription factor. These proteins are also homologous to Drosophila melanogaster Elf-1/NTF-1, an essential transcriptional ...
709C.1 Criminal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.. 1. A person commits criminal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus if the person, knowing that the person s human immunodeficiency virus status is positive, does any of the following:. a. Engages in intimate contact with another person.. b. Transfers, donates, or provides the person s blood, tissue, semen, organs, or other potentially infectious bodily fluids for transfusion, transplantation, insemination, or other administration to another person.. c. Dispenses, delivers, exchanges, sells, or in any other way transfers to another person any nonsterile intravenous or intramuscular drug paraphernalia previously used by the person infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.. 2. For the purposes of this section:. a. Human immunodeficiency virus means the human immunodeficiency virus identified as the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.. b. Intimate contact means the intentional exposure of the body of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased Mortality Associated With Vitamin A Deficiency During Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection. AU - Semba, Richard David. AU - Graham, Neil M H. AU - Caiaffa, Waleska T.. AU - Margolick, Joseph Bernard. AU - Clement, Liliana. AU - Vlahov, David. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Objective: To determine whether plasma vitamin A levels are associated with immunologic status and clinical outcome during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Patients and Patients and Methods: Analysis of vitamin A levels, CD4 T cells, complete blood cell count, and serologic markers for liver disease in a random subsample of 179 subjects from a cohort of more than 2000 intravenous drug users with longitudinal follow-up to determine survival. Results: Mean (±SE) follow-up time was 22.8±1.1 months, and 15 subjects died during follow-up. More than 15% of the HIV-l-seropositive individuals had plasma vitamin A levels less than 1.05 μmol/L, a level consistent with vitamin A ...
Unlike HIV-1-infected people, most HIV-2-infected subjects maintain a healthy CD4+ T cell count and a strong HIV-specific CD4+ T cell response. To define the cellular immunological correlates of good prognosis in HIV-2 infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV Gag-specific T cell function in HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected Gambians. Using cytokine flow cytometry and lymphoproliferation assays, we show that HIV-specific CD4+ T cells from HIV-2-infected individuals maintained proliferative capacity, were not terminally differentiated (CD57-), and more frequently produced IFN-gamma or IL-2 than CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected donors. Polyfunctional (IFN-gamma+/IL-2+) HIV-specific CD4+ T cells were found exclusively in HIV-2+ donors. The disparity in CD4+ T cell responses between asymptomatic HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected subjects was not associated with differences in the proliferative capacity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. This study demonstrates that HIV-2-infected donors have a well-preserved and
An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data ...
A panel of anti-gp120 human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), CD4-IgG, and sera from people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was tested for neutralization of nine primary HIV-1 isolates, one molecularly cloned primary strain (JR-CSF), and two strains (IIIB and MN) adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines. All the viruses were grown in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and were tested for their ability to infect these cells in the presence and absence of the reagents mentioned above. In general, the primary isolates were relatively resistant to neutralization by the MAbs tested, compared with the T-cell line-adapted strains. However, one HuMAb, IgG1b12, was able to neutralize most of the primary isolates at concentrations of | or = 1 microgram/ml. Usually, the inability of a HuMAb to neutralize a primary isolate was not due merely to the absence of the antibody epitope from the virus; the majority of the HuMAbs bound with high affinity to monomeric gp120
Three examples of human plasma-derived concentrates, intermediate-purity factors VIII and IX, and fibrinogen were spiked with tissue culture-grown human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain RF. All examples were freeze-dried and heated at 80 degrees C for 72 hours by using validated production process models. HIV-1 infectivity was measured by a syncytial infectivity assay in C8166 cells and then compared with levels determined by nested HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The infectivity assay demonstrated a reduction index of at least 4.5 log10, while PCR showed an average 1.7 log10. Large amounts of HIV-1 RNA (10(5)) were still detectable by PCR in samples in which infectivity assays failed to detect any HIV-1. These data suggest that HIV-1 PCR levels do not parallel HIV-1 infectivity levels during virus-inactivation procedures involved in coagulation factor concentrate production. PCR was able to detect the RNA associated with inactivated HIV-1 particles in the factor concentrates, which
article{ff4f8a23-6ca4-4f67-9971-6842888c6b56, abstract = {Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at a lower rate as compared to HIV-1 infected. Conceivably, comparative studies on immune responsiveness of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected hosts may help to explain differences in pathogenesis and transmission between the two types of infection. Previous studies have shown that the neutralizing antibody response is more potent and broader in HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection. In the present study we have further examined the function of the humoral immune response and studied the potentiating effect of complement (C) on antiviral activity of plasma from singly HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected, as well as HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. Neutralization and antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells. Results ...
Interactions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with hematopoietic stem cells may define restrictions on immune reconstitution following effective antiretroviral therapy and affect stem cell gene therapy strategies for AIDS. In the present study, we demonstrated mRNA and cell surface expression of HIV-1 receptors CD4 and the chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 in fractionated cells representing multiple stages of hematopoietic development. Chemokine receptor function was documented in subsets of cells by calcium flux in response to a cognate ligand. Productive infection by HIV-1 via these receptors was observed with the notable exception of stem cells, in which case the presence of CD4, CXCR-4, and CCR-5, as documented by single-cell analysis for expression and function, was insufficient for infection. Neither productive infection, transgene expression, nor virus entry was detectable following exposure of stem cells to either wild-type HIV-1 or lentivirus constructs pseudotyped in HIV-1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of full-length HIV-1 genomes directly from plasma viral RNA. AU - Fang, Guowei. AU - Weiser, Barbara. AU - Visosky, Aloise A.. AU - Townsend, Laura. AU - Burger, Harold. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in plasma reflects the replicating virus population at any point in time in vivo. Studies of the relationship of the complete HIV-1 genome to pathogenesis therefore need to focus on plasma virions. Since dual infections and recombination can occur in vivo, cloning an intact plasma virus genome as a single full-length molecule is desirable. For these reasons, we developed an efficient method to clone full-length HIV-1 genomes directly from plasma viral RNA. This method used reverse transcription and long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Virion-associated RNA was isolated from plasma samples and then reverse- transcribed to make cDNA for PCR amplification. Two different strategies were employed to amplify the ...
Four glycoproteins of apparent molecular weights 300,000, 140,000, 125,000, and 36,000 (gp300, gp140, gp125, and gp36) are detectable in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infected cells. The gp125 and gp36 are the external and transmembrane components, respectively, of the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-2 mature virions. The gp300, which is a dimeric form of gp140, the precursor of HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein, is probably formed by a pH dependent fusion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Such a doublet is also observed in cells infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus closely related to HIV-2. On the other hand, the envelope glycoprotein precursor of HIV-1 does not form a dimer during its processing. Experiments carried out with various inhibitors of oligosaccharide trimming enzymes suggest that transient dimerization of the glycoprotein precursor is required for its efficient transport to the Golgi apparatus and for its processing. The gp300 is useful for detecting antibodies to
Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) entry requires fusion cofactors on the CD4+ target cell. Fusin, a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, serves as a cofactor for T cell line-tropic isolates. The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β, which suppress infection by macrophage-tropic isolates, selectively inhibited cell fusion mediated by the corresponding envelope glycoproteins (Envs). Recombinant CC CKR5, a G protein-coupled receptor for these chemokines, rendered CD4-expressing nonhuman cells fusion-competent preferentially with macrophage-tropic Envs. CC CKR5 messenger RNA was detected selectively in cell types susceptible to macrophage-tropic isolates. CC CKR5 is thus a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains. ...
Existing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) effectively controls viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals but cannot completely eradicate the infection, at least in part due to the persistence of latently infected cells. One strategy that is being actively pursued to eliminate the latent aspect of HIV-1 infection involves therapies combining latency antagonists with HAART. However, discordant pharmacokinetics between these types of drugs can potentially create sites of active viral replication within certain tissues that might be impervious to HAART. A preliminary reverse genetic screen indicated that the proteasome might be involved in the maintenance of the latent state. This prompted testing to determine the effects of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) on latently infected cells. Experiments demonstrated that PIs effectively activated latent HIV-1 in several model systems, including primary T cell models, thereby defining PIs as a new class of HIV-1
Combinations of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are currently used in anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapy in order to prevent or delay the emergence of resistant virus and to improve the efficacy against viral enzymes carrying resistance mutations. Drug-drug interactions can result in ei …
Clinical trial for Human Immunodeficiency Virus | Infection | HIV infection , Switch Study to Evaluate Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine in Virologically Suppressed Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Positive Adults (TANGO)
This invention is directed toward the isolation of a novel retrovirus, the human immune deficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2, previously named LAV-2), from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) originating from West Africa. This virus is related to HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, both by its morphology and by its tropism and in vitro cytopathic effect on CD4 (T4) positive cell lines and lymphocytes. However, preliminary hybridization experiments indicated that there are substantiated differences between the sequences of the two genomes. Furthermore, the proteins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have different sizes and their serological cross-reactivity is restricted to the major core protein, as the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-2 are not immunoprecipitated by HIV-1 positive sera. Overlapping molecular clones were obtained and the complete nucleotide sequence of the gag and env genes was ascertained. An antigenic envelope polypeptide having the following amino acid sequence was identified: NH2
Both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) lead to chronic infection in a high percentage of persons, and an expanding epidemic of HIV-1-HCV coinfection has recently been identified. These individuals provide an opportunity for simultaneous assessment of immune responses to two viral infections associated with chronic plasma viremia. In this study we analyzed the breadth and magnitude of the CD8(+)- and CD4(+)-T-lymphocyte responses in 22 individuals infected with both HIV-1 and HCV. A CD8(+)-T-lymphocyte response against HIV-1 was readily detected in all subjects over a broad range of viral loads. In marked contrast, HCV-specific CD8(+)-T-lymphocyte responses were rarely detected, despite viral loads in plasma that were on average 1,000-fold higher. The few HCV-specific responses that were observed were relatively weak and limited in breadth. CD4-proliferative responses against HIV-1 were detected in about half of the coinfected subjects tested, but no proliferative
Cervical and vaginal secretions from 17 women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were evaluated daily through the course of one menstrual cycle for HIV-1 DNA (21-31 visits per woman). HIV-1-infected cells were detected in 207 (46%) of 450 endocervical swabs and 74 (16%) of 449 vaginal swabs. There was considerable variability in the percentage of positive swabs from each woman, ranging from 4% to 100% of endocervical swabs and from 0 to 71% of vaginal swabs. In multivariate analyses, plasma HIV-1 RNA was significantly associated with shedding of HIV-1-infected cells; each 1-unit increase in the log of plasma virus load was associated with a 5.6-fold increase in the odds of cervical shedding (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-14.8) and a 3.9-fold increase in the odds of vaginal shedding (95% CI, 2.1-7.2). There was no discernible pattern of genital tract shedding with phase of the menstrual cycle and no significant association with serum estradiol or progesterone levels ...
The cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was studied using MOLT-4 cells chronically infected with a variant strain of HIV-1SF-2 (MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H) and CD4+ human lymphoid MT-4 cells. MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H cells produced less than 1 TCID50 infectious particles per 105 cells per day as determined by the cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. However, the expression of envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 on the MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H cell membrane was satisfactory for syncytium formation with the uninfected MOLT-4 cells. When MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H and MT-4 cells were co-cultured, severe cytopathogenicity was observed in MT-4 cells without being accompanied by the formation of multi-nucleated cells. Thus, the system consisting of MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H and MT-4 cells is convenient for exclusive study of the mechanism of cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. Using various compounds, it was confirmed that cell-to-cell transmission required both gp120/gp41-CD4 binding and de novo DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors associated with nucleic acids related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cervico-vaginal secretions. AU - Spinillo, Arsenio. AU - Debiaggi, Maurizia. AU - Zara, Francesca. AU - Maserati, Renato. AU - Polatti, Franco. AU - De Santolo, Antonella. PY - 2001/6. Y1 - 2001/6. N2 - Objective: To assess HIV-related nucleic acids in cervico-vaginal secretions and the factors associated with them. Design: Observational study. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pavia, Italy. Population: HIV-positive patients attending a cytology service. Methods: Paired blood and cervico-vaginal lavage samples were obtained from 122 known HIV-seropositive patients during periodic visits for cytologic screening for lower genital tract neoplasia. Vaginal specimens for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis and candida infection were also obtained. HIV-1-RNA in plasma, proviral HIV-1-DNA, cell associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in ...
There is increasing evidence that CD8 lymphocytes may represent targets for infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vivo whose destruction may contribute to the loss of immune function underlying AIDS. HIV-1 may infect thymic precursor cells destined to become CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and contribute to the numerical decline in both subsets on disease progression. There is also evidence for the induction of CD4 expression and susceptibility to infection by HIV-1 of CD8 lymphocytes activated in vitro. To investigate the relationship between CD8 activation and infection by HIV-1 in vivo, activated subsets of CD8 lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-seropositive individuals were investigated for CD4 expression and HIV infection. Activated CD8 lymphocytes were identified by expression of CD69, CD71, and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II, the beta-chain of CD8, and the RO isoform of CD45. CD4(+) and CD4(-) CD8 lymphocytes, CD4 lymphocytes, other T cells,
HIV-2 was first described in 19851 and was isolated in 1986 in West Africa,2 where it is currently endemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that, from 1988 to June 2010, 166 cases had met the CDC case definition of HIV-2 infection in the United States.3 The largest number of cases were from the Northeast, including 77 from New York City.3 The majority of cases had a West African origin or connection.3 However, a report from New York City suggests that HIV-2 may be underreported because antibody cross-reactivity between HIV-1 and HIV-2 is common and frequently results in misdiagnosis of HIV-2 as HIV-1 or dual infection.4 Incorporating a type-differentiating immunoassay into the HIV screening protocol can assist in identifying the type. ...
Abstract. Objective: To evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on HIV-1 transmission rates among HIV-1 discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda.. Design: Observational cohort study.. Methods: HIV-1 discordant couples were retrospectively identified between 2004 and 2009. Study participants underwent annual screening for HIV-1 and were interviewed to evaluate risk behaviors. Participants were offered voluntary counseling and testing and provided with risk reduction counseling. Free ART was offered to participants with a CD4 cell count of 250 cells/μl or less or WHO stage IV disease. HIV-1 incidence and sexual risk behaviors were compared before and after the HIV-1-positive index partners started ART.. Results: Two hundred and fifty HIV-1 discordant couples were followed between 2004 and 2009 and 32 HIV-1-positive partners initiated ART. Forty-two HIV-1 transmissions occurred over 459.4 person-years prior to ART initiation, incidence 9.2/100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) ...
The HIV-1 regulatory proteins Rev and Tat are expressed early in the virus life cycle and thus may be important targets for the immune control of HIV-1-infection and for effective vaccines. However, the extent to which these proteins are targeted in natural HIV-1 infection as well as precise epitopes targeted by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) remain to be defined. In the present study, 57 HIV-1-infected individuals were screened for responses against Tat and Rev by using overlapping peptides spanning the entire Tat and Rev proteins. CD8+ T cell responses against Tat and Rev were found in up to 19 and 37% of HIV-1-infected individuals, respectively, indicating that these regulatory proteins are important targets for HIV-1-specific CTL. Despite the small size of these proteins, multiple CTL epitopes were identified in each. These data indicate that Tat and Rev are frequently targeted by CTL in natural HIV-1 infection and may be important targets for HIV vaccines.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in residual viremia during recombinant HIV-1 poxvirus immunizations in patients with clinically undetectable viral loads on durable suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. AU - Shiu, Carlum. AU - Cunningham, Coleen K.. AU - Greenough, Thomas. AU - Muresan, Petronella. AU - Sanchez-Merino, Victor. AU - Carey, Vincent. AU - Jackson, Brooks. AU - Ziemniak, Carrie. AU - Fox, Lawrence. AU - Belzer, Marvin. AU - Ray, Stuart C.. AU - Luzuriaga, Katherine. AU - Persaud, Deborah. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - In most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who achieve viral loads of ,50 copies/ml during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), low levels of plasma virus remain detectable for years by ultrasensitive methods. The relative contributions of ongoing virus replication and virus production ...
Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Reactivity during Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Patients with Advanced Immunodeficiency. Charles R. Rinaldo Jr.,1,2,* Xiao-Li Huang,1 Zheng Fan,1 Joseph B. Margolick,3 Luann Borowski,1 Aki Hoji,1 Christine Kalinyak,1 Deborah K. McMahon,1,2 Sharon A. Riddler,1,2 William H. Hildebrand,4 Richard B. Day,1 and John W. Mellors1,2,5. Graduate School of Public Health1 and School of Medicine,2 University of Pittsburgh, and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center,5 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261; Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 212053; and University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 731904. Received 17 December 1999/Accepted 29 January 2000. Journal of Virology, May 2000, p. 4127-4138, Vol. 74, No. 9. The long-term efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy may relate to augmentation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CD8+ T-cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enters brain microvascular endothelia by macropinocytosis dependent on lipid rafts and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. AU - Liu, Nancy Q.. AU - Lossinsky, Albert S.. AU - Popik, Waldemar. AU - Li, Xia. AU - Gujuluva, Chandrasekhar. AU - Kriederman, Benjamin. AU - Roberts, Jaclyn. AU - Pushkarsky, Tatania. AU - Bukrinsky, Michael. AU - Witte, Marlys. AU - Weinand, Martin. AU - Fiala, Milan. PY - 2002/6/25. Y1 - 2002/6/25. N2 - Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) present an incomplete barrier to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neuroinvasion. In order to clarify the mechanisms of HIV-1 invasion, we have examined HIV-1 uptake and transcellular penetration in an in vitro BMVEC model. No evidence of productive infection was observed by luciferase, PCR, and reverse transcriptase assays. Approximately 1% of viral RNA and 1% of infectious virus penetrated the BMVEC barrier without disruption of tight ...
Virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are critical in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and will play an important part in therapeutic and prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines. The identification of virus-specific epitopes that are efficiently recognized by CTL is the first step in the development of future vaccines. Here we describe the immunological characterization of a number of novel HIV-1-specific, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes that share a high degree of conservation within HIV-1 and a strong binding to different alleles of the HLA-A2 superfamily. These novel epitopes include the first reported CTL epitope in the Vpr protein. Two of the novel epitopes were immunodominant among the HLA-A2-restricted CTL responses of individuals with acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. The novel CTL epitopes identified here should be included in future vaccines designed to induce HIV-1-specific CTL responses restricted by the HLA-A2 superfamily and will be important to
Virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are critical in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and will play an important part in therapeutic and prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines. The identification of virus-specific epitopes that are efficiently recognized by CTL is the first step in the development of future vaccines. Here we describe the immunological characterization of a number of novel HIV-1-specific, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes that share a high degree of conservation within HIV-1 and a strong binding to different alleles of the HLA-A2 superfamily. These novel epitopes include the first reported CTL epitope in the Vpr protein. Two of the novel epitopes were immunodominant among the HLA-A2-restricted CTL responses of individuals with acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. The novel CTL epitopes identified here should be included in future vaccines designed to induce HIV-1-specific CTL responses restricted by the HLA-A2 superfamily and will be important to
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Influence of filgrastim (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal viral genotypic zidovudine resistance and infrequent failure of zidovudine therapy to prevent perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076. AU - Eastman, P. Scott. AU - Shapiro, David E.. AU - Coombs, Robert W.. AU - Frenkel, Lisa M.. AU - McSherry, George D.. AU - Britto, Paula. AU - Herman, Steven A.. AU - Sperling, Rhoda S.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Maternal samples were assessed from 96 women enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic zidovudine resistance at entry, if zidovudine resistance developed on study, and the role of zidovudine resistance in vertical transmission of HIV-1 despite zidovudine therapy. Low and high levels of genotypic resistance were assessed by differential hybridization, oligoligation, or direct sequencing of plasma HIV-1 RNA for codons K70R and T215Y/F. None of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity is inversely correlated with HIV type 1 viral load in HIV type 1- infected long-term survivors. AU - Betts, Michael R.. AU - Krowka, John F.. AU - Kepler, Thomas B.. AU - Davidian, Marie. AU - Christopherson, Cindy. AU - Kwok, Shirley. AU - Louie, Leslie. AU - Eron, Joseph. AU - Sheppard, Haynes. AU - Frelinger, Jeffrey A.. PY - 1999/9/1. Y1 - 1999/9/1. N2 - HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) activity has been suggested to correlate with protection from progression to AIDS. We have examined the relationship between HIV-specific CTL activity and maintenance of peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and control of viral load in 17 long-term survivors (LTSs) of HIV-1 infection. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the LTS cohort demonstrated a decreased rate of CD4+ T cell loss (18 cells/mm3/year) compared with typical normal progressors (approximately 60 cells/mm3/year). The majority of the LTSs had ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 co-infection in human cervical tissue. AU - Fox-Canale, Andrea M.. AU - Hope, Thomas J.. AU - Martinson, Jeffrey. AU - Lurain, John R.. AU - Rademaker, Alfred W.. AU - Bremer, James W.. AU - Landay, Alan. AU - Spear, Gregory T.. AU - Lurain, Nell S.. PY - 2007/12/5. Y1 - 2007/12/5. N2 - Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infect the female genital tract. A human cervical explant model was developed to study single and dual infection by these viruses in the genital compartment. An HCMV strain expressing green fluorescent protein, and two clinical HCMV strains produced peak viral DNA copies at 14 to 21 days post-infection. Peak levels of HIV-1Ba-L p24 antigen occurred at 7 days post-infection. HIV-1Ba-L appeared to enhance HCMV in co-infected tissues. Singly and dually infected explants produced increased levels of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GRO-α in culture supernatants. ...
Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is an important metabolic resource for proliferating tissues by acting as a proteinogenic amino acid, a nitrogen donor for biosynthetic reactions and as a substrate for the citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects activated CD4(+) T cells that are known to require glutamine for proliferation and for carrying out effector functions. As a virus, HIV-1 is furthermore entirely dependent on host metabolism to support its replication. In this study, we compared HIV-1 infected with uninfected activated primary human CD4(+) T cells with regard to glutamine metabolism. We report that glutamine concentrations are elevated in HIV-1-infected cells and that glutamine is important to support HIV-1 replication, although the latter is closely linked to the glutamine dependency of cell survival. Metabolic tracer experiments showed that entry of glutamine-derived carbon into the citric acid ...
Background. the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) raises the question of whether vaccines that include a component to elicit antiviral T cell immunity based on a single viral genetic clade could provide cellular immune protection against divergent HIV-1 clades. Therefore, we quantified the cross-clade reactivity, among unvaccinated individuals, of anti-HIV-1 T cell responses to the infecting HIV-1 clade relative to other major circulating clades.Methods. Cellular immune responses to HIV-1 clades A, B, and C were compared by standardized interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays among 250 unvaccinated individuals, infected with diverse HIV-1 clades, from Brazil, Malawi, South Africa, Thailand, and the United States. Cross-clade reactivity was evaluated by use of the ratio of responses to heterologous versus homologous ( infecting) clades of HIV-1.Results. Cellular immune responses were predominantly focused on viral Gag and Nef proteins. Cross-clade ...
A human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected woman experienced asymptomatic superinfection with HIV-1 subtype AG. She did not have cross-neutralizing autologous HIV-1 antibodies before and shortly after HIV-1 superinfection. This evidence supports a mechanism other than cross-neutralizing antibodies for the mild course of HIV-1 infection in this woman.. ...
HIV-1-particular antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies within HIV-1-positive (HIV-1+) individuals predominantly target CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). various stages of downregulating CD4, were all susceptible to NK cell-mediated ADCC. Importantly, we PCDH9 observed that this cytolysis of bystander cells and early infected cells in this culture system was driven by sensitization of target cells by inoculum-derived HIV-1 Env or virions. This phenomenon provided Env to target cells prior to Env expression, resulting in artifactual ADCC measurements. Future studies should take into consideration the inherent caveats of contamination systems and develop improved models to address the potential role for ADCC against cells with nascent HIV-1 contamination. IMPORTANCE An increasing body of evidence suggests that ADCC contributes to protection against HIV-1 acquisition and slower HIV-1 disease progression. Targeting cells early through the infection ...
HIV-2 was first described in 1985 in West Africa on the basis of its antigenic relationship to HIV-1 and the SIV [1,2]. Since that time, several international research collaborations have sought to understand the pathogenicity of this closely related HIV virus and the impact of its interaction with the prototype HIV-1 infection in vivo. Coexisting in West Africa with HIV-1, HIV-2, by contrast generally demonstrates an attenuated phenotype for transmission and disease [3,4]. In rural Guinea Bissau, a more bimodal outcome has been described with HIV-2 progressors indistinguishable from HIV-1 progressors, and HIV-2 controllers (35-40%) maintaining undetectable viral load for 10-15 years, with a normal life expectancy [5]. In 1995, the concept that HIV-2 might protect from HIV-1 infection was raised from long-term studies of the registered sex worker cohort in Dakar, Senegal [6,7]. The generalizability of these findings was questioned by studies from Ivory Coast, Guinea Bissau and the Gambia [8-10]. ...
The vertical transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV -1) is defined as the transmission of the virus from infected mother to fetus. In order to infect the fetal blood supply in utero, the virus must pass through the placenta. The virus collects in the placental trophoblast, and only certain strains are able to pass from that point into the fetal blood supply, because the placental trophoblast is not a strong host for HIV replication. This report analyzes transcription factors present in placental trophoblast which may be critically important to HIV replication in trophoblast. This is done through the use of a set of 27 linker-scanning mutants created by Dr. Steven L. Zeichner in Philadelphia. These mutants replace 18 bp at a time in subsequent order along the U3 and R regions of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). The U3 and R regions of the LTR are primarily regions of viral transcriptional control. By transfecting the mutated LTRs into human placental trophoblasts, it ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to the small molecule maturation inhibitor 3-O-(3,3-dimethylsuccinyl)-betulinic acid is conferred by a variety of single amino acid substitutions at the CA-SP1 cleavage site in Gag.
We have investigated the molecular basis of biological differences observed among cell line-adapted isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in response to receptor binding by using a soluble form of CD4 (sCD4) as a receptor mimic. We find that sCD4 binds to the envelope glycoproteins of all of the HIV-1 isolates tested with affinities within a threefold range, whereas those of the HIV-2 and SIV isolates have relative affinities for sCD4 two- to eightfold lower than those of HIV-1. Treatment of infected cells with sCD4 induced the dissociation of gp120 from gp41 and increased the exposure of a cryptic gp41 epitope on all of the HIV-1 isolates. By contrast, neither dissociation of the outer envelope glycoprotein nor increased exposure of the transmembrane glycoprotein was observed when sCD4 bound to HIV-2- or SIV-infected cells. Moreover, immunoprecipitation with sCD4 resulted in the coprecipitation of the surface and
In Guinea-Bissau HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I are prevalent in the general population. The natural history of HIV/HTLV-I single and dual infections has not been fully elucidated in this population. Previous studies have shown that combinations of these infections are more common in older women than in men. The present study compares mortality associated with HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I single and dual infections in individuals over 35 years of age within an urban community-based cohort in Guinea-Bissau. A total of 2,839 and 1,075 individuals were included in the HIV and HTLV-I mortality analyses respectively. Compared with HIV-negative individuals, adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were 4.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3, 10.4) for HIV-1, 1.8 (95%CI: 1.5, 2.3) for HIV-2, and 5.9 (2.4, 14.3) for HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. MRR for HTLV-I-positive compared with HTLV-I-negative individuals was 1.7 (1.1, 2.7). Excluding all HIV-positive individuals from the analysis, the HTLV-I MRR was 2.3 (1.3, 3.8). The
During HIV type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, altered iron balance correlates with morbidity. The liver-produced hormone hepcidin dictates systemic iron homeostasis. We measured hepcidin, iron parameters, cytokines, and inflammatory markers in three cohorts: plasma donors who developed acute HIV-1, HBV, or HCV viremia during the course of donations; HIV-1-positive individuals progressing from early to chronic infection; and chronically HIV-1-infected individuals (receiving antiretroviral therapy or untreated). Hepcidin increased and plasma iron decreased during acute HIV-1 infection, as viremia was initially detected. In patients transitioning from early to chronic HIV-1 infection, hepcidin in the first 60 d of infection positively correlated with the later plasma viral load set-point. Hepcidin remained elevated in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection and in subjects on ART. In contrast to HIV-1, there was no evidence of hepcidin ...
Objectives: Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests, routinely used for diagnosis in adults and older children in resource-limited settings (RLS), do not detect early HIV infections prior to seroconversion or when antibody levels are still low. Nucleic acid amplification to detect HIV-1 RNA is the most sensitive method for acute HIV infection diagnosis, but is costly. We therefore investigated HIV- 1 RNA testing of pooled dried blood spots (DBS) to diagnose acute HIV infection. Design: Laboratory-based investigation. Methods: DBS were collected from HIV-1 Voluntary Counselling and Testing (HVCT) clients who tested negative on the Advanced QualityTM HIV antibody rapid test. DBS samples from five participants were pooled and tested on the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 (CAP/CTM) Test v2. Individual DBS were tested when pools tested positive (, 200 RNA copies/ml). Acute infection was confirmed by HIV viral load testing, two fourth-generation HIV serological assays, and ...
Background The CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a novel family of proteins linking chemokines and TM4SF. Different members exhibit diverse biological functions. In this study, the effect of intracellular CMTM2 on regulating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) transcription was evaluated.. Methods The effects of CMTM2 on regulating full-length HIV-1 provirus and the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed transcription were assessed by luciferase assay. Transcription factor assays, using the luciferase reporter plasmids of AP-1, CRE, and NF-kB were conducted to explore the signaling pathway(s) that may be regulated by CMTM2. The potential relationship between CMTM2 and the transcription factor AP-1 was further analyzed by Western blotting analyses to investigate the effect of CMTM2 on PMA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation.. Results The results from the current study revealed that CMTM2 acts as a negative regulator of HIV-1 transcription. CMTM2 exerted a ...
CONTEXT: Presence of low-frequency, or minority, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutations may adversely affect response to antiretroviral treatment (ART), but evidence regarding the effects of such mutations on the effectiveness of first-line ART is conflicting.. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of preexisting drug-resistant HIV-1 minority variants with risk of first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral virologic failure.. DATA SOURCES: Systematic review of published and unpublished studies in PubMed (1966 through December 2010), EMBASE (1974 through December 2010), conference abstracts, and article references. Authors of all studies were contacted for detailed laboratory, ART, and adherence data.. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA ABSTRACTION: Studies involving ART-naive participants initiating NNRTI-based regimens were included. Participants were included if all drugs in their ART regimen were fully active by standard HIV ...
Other Development of an effective low-cost anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) drugs is needed for treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries. Host cell lipid raft microdomains, which are enriched with cholesterol, glycolipids, ceramide, and gangliosides, are important for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Retinoid analogs have been shown to modulate ceramide levels in the cell membrane, while cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) specifically binds to the ganglioside GM1. In this study, we found that the acyclic retinoid analogs geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) and NIK-333 as well as CT-B efficiently attenuate CXCR4-tropic, but not CCR5-tropic, HIV-1 vector infection. We also found that GGA and NIK-333 suppress CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 infection by attenuating CXCR4 expression. CT-B also attenuated CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 infection, but did not suppress CXCR4 expression. These results suggest a distinct role for lipid raft microdomains in CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infections and ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 15218022. J. Biol. Chem. 2004 Aug;279(35):36625-32. By frequently rearranging large regions of the genome, genetic recombination is a major determinant in the plasticity of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) population. In retroviruses, recombination mostly occurs by template switching during reverse transcription. The generation of retroviral vectors provides a means to study this process after a single cycle of infection of cells in culture. Using HIV-1-derived vectors, we present here the first characterization and estimate of the strength of a recombination hot spot in HIV-1 in vivo. In the hot spot region, located within the C2 portion of the gp120 envelope gene, the rate of recombination is up to ten times higher than in the surrounding regions. The hot region corresponds to a previously identified RNA hairpin structure. Although recombination breakpoints in vivo cluster in the top portion of the hairpin, the bias for template switching in this same ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of HIV-1 Tat on Secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β by U87 Cells in AIDS Patients with or without AIDS Dementia Complex. AU - Zhao, Li. AU - Pu, Shuang Shuang. AU - Gao, Wen Hua. AU - Chi, Yuan Yuan. AU - Wen, Hong Ling. AU - Wang, Zhi Yu. AU - Song, Yan Yan. AU - Yu, Xue Jie. PY - 2014/2. Y1 - 2014/2. N2 - Objective To explore the role of HIV-1 tat gene variations in AIDS dementia complex (ADC) pathogenesis. Methods HIV-1 tat genes derived from peripheral spleen and central basal ganglia of an AIDS patient with ADC and an AIDS patient without ADC were cloned for sequence analysis. HIV-1 tat gene sequence alignment was performed by using CLUSTAL W and the phylogentic analysis was conducted by using Neighbor-joining with MEGA4 software. All tat genes were used to construct recombinant retroviral expressing vector MSCV-IRES-GFP/tat. The MSCV-IRES-GFP/tat was cotransfected into 293T cells with pCMV-VSV-G and pUMVC vectors to assemble the recombinant retrovirus. After infection of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I Infection in High-Risk Groups in Brazil. AU - Cortes, Eduardo. AU - Detels, Roger. AU - Aboulafia, David. AU - li, Xi Ling. AU - Moudgil, Tarsem. AU - Alam, Masud. AU - Bonecker, Carlos. AU - Gonzaga, Augusto. AU - Oyafuso, Luiza. AU - Tondo, Michele. AU - Boite, Carlos. AU - Hammershlak, Nelson. AU - Capitani, Carlos. AU - Slamon, Dennis J.. AU - ho, David D.. PY - 1989/4/13. Y1 - 1989/4/13. N2 - We conducted a serologic survey for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-I) in 704 Brazilians with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or at risk for it. The study population included 70 homosexual men (11 of whom were prostitutes), 58 bisexual men (19 of whom were prostitutes), 101 female prostitutes from three socioeconomic groups, 13 wives of men with hemophilia who were seropositive for HIV-1 antibodies, and 47 blood donors with positive Venereal Disease Research ...
21948 there is some evidence that infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be a factor in the development or worsening of the condition under consideration.. 2464 the veteran has been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).. 28120 the veteran has established the causal connection between the infection with HIV and VEA service for the condition under consideration.. 28121 the veteran was infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the time of the clinical onset of the condition under consideration.. 28122 the veteran has established the causal connection between the infection with HIV and VEA service for the clinical onset of the condition under consideration.. 28125 the veteran has established the causal connection between the infection with HIV and operational service for the clinical onset of the condition under consideration.. or. 28126 the veteran has established the causal connection between the infection with HIV and eligible service for the clinical ...
Cell-cell interactions through direct contact are very important for cellular communication and coordination especially for immune cells. The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) induces immune cell interactions between CD4(+) cells to shuttle between T cells via a virological synapse. A goal to understand the process of cell-cell transmission through virological synapses is to determine the cellular states that allow a chance encounter between cells to become a stable cell-cell adhesion. We demonstrate the use of optical tweezers to manipulate uninfected primary CD4(+) T cells near HIV Gag-iGFP transfected Jurkat T cells to probe the determinants that induce stable adhesion. When combined with fast 4D confocal fluorescence microscopy, optical tweezers can be utilized not only to facilitate cell-cell contact, but also to simultaneously track the formation of a virological synapse, and ultimately to probe the events that precede virus transfer. [GRAPHICS] HIV-1 infected T cell (green) ...
Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging
Gag-Pol polyprotein and Gag polyprotein may regulate their own translation, by the binding genomic RNA in the 5-UTR. At low concentration, Gag-Pol and Gag would promote translation, whereas at high concentration, the polyproteins encapsidate genomic RNA and then shutt off translation (By similarity).
The prevalence of the CCR2b-V64I mutation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and -seronegative female workers and the potential effect of heterozygosity of this mutation on HIV-1 plasma RNA viral load and markers of immune activation were assessed. CCR2b-V64I was detected by polymerase chain reaction, followed by restriction enzymes analysis; plasma viral load was measured by the Amplicor HIV-1 monitor assay and CD4(+) T-cell counts and markers of immune activation by standard three-color FACscan flow cytometry. Of the 260 female workers, 56 (21.5%) were heterozygous for CCR2b-V64I, and 8 (3%) were homozygous. Of the 99 HIV-seronegative female workers, 19 (19.2%) were heterozygous for the CCR2b-V64I mutation compared with 37 (23%) of the 161 HIV-seropositive FSW (P = 0.47). In a univariate analysis of viral load among HIV-seropositive FSW, no difference was noted between those heterozygous for or without the mutation; both groups had plasma viral loads of 5.0 log(10) ...
Despite great progress in the treatment of AIDS, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type I (HIV-1) remains one of the major concerns as a human pathogen. One of the therapeutic strategies against viral infections is the application of catalytic ribonucleic acids (ribozymes) that can significantly reduce expression of a target gene by site-specific hydrolysis of its mRNA. In this paper we report a study on the activity of several variants of hammerhead ribozymes targeting a conserved region within mRNA encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. Based on the data from in vitro assays and gene silencing in the cultured cells, we propose a new hammerhead ribozyme targeting the gp41-encoding sequence that can be potentially used as a therapeutic agent in AIDS treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that the hydrolytic activity of the ribozyme in the intracellular environment can not be inferred solely from the results of the in vitro experiments. ...
The design of a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) immunogen that can induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. Although rare human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exist that broadly neutralize HIV-1, HIV-1 envelope immunogens do not induce these antibody specificities. Here we demonstrate that the two most broadly reactive HIV-1 envelope gp41 human mAbs, 2F5 and 4E10, are polyspecific autoantibodies reactive with the phospholipid cardiolipin. Thus, current HIV-1 vaccines may not induce these types of antibodies because of autoantigen mimicry of the conserved membrane-proximal epitopes of the virus. These results may have important implications for generating effective neutralizing antibody responses by using HIV-1 vaccines.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV-1 Vpr Accelerates Viral Replication during Acute Infection by Exploitation of Proliferating CD4+ T Cells In Vivo. AU - Sato, Kei. AU - Misawa, Naoko. AU - Iwami, Shingo. AU - Satou, Yorifumi. AU - Matsuoka, Masao. AU - Ishizaka, Yukihito. AU - Ito, Mamoru. AU - Aihara, Kazuyuki. AU - An, Dong Sung. AU - Koyanagi, Yoshio. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The precise role of viral protein R (Vpr), an HIV-1-encoded protein, during HIV-1 infection and its contribution to the development of AIDS remain unclear. Previous reports have shown that Vpr has the ability to cause G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In addition, vpr is highly conserved in transmitted/founder HIV-1s and in all primate lentiviruses, which are evolutionarily related to HIV-1. Although these findings suggest an important role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenesis, its direct evidence in vivo has not been shown. Here, by using ...
Three types of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are now used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections, but only reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are readily available to the vast majority of HIV-1-infected individuals in the developing world. The treatment regimen of choice is a combination of a nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (almost exclusively nevirapine [NVP]) and two nucleoside RT inhibitors, i.e., zidovudine (AZT) or stavudine plus lamivudine or didanosine.. In addition to being the backbone of most treatment regimens, NVP is provided as a single dose to block the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in developing countries. In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the frequency of MTCT is approximately 25 to 48% (2, 36, 38), whereas the administration of a short course of AZT therapy near the end of gestation (7, 8, 49) or the administration of a single dose of NVP at labor can reduce the rate of perinatal transmission to less than 20% (22, 25, 32, ...
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, the proportion of circulating mononuclear cells (PBMCs) which carry HIV provirus and the number of HIV proviral sequences per infected PBMC have been matters for conjecture. Using a double polymerase chain reaction which allows the detection of single molecules of provirus and a method of quantifying the provirus molecules, we have measured provirus frequencies in infected individuals down to a level of one molecule per 10(6) PBMCs. As a general rule, only a small proportion of PBMCs contain provirus (median value of samples from 12 patients, one per 8,000 cells), and most if not all of the infected cells carry a single provirus molecule. The frequency of provirus-carrying cells correlated positively both with the progression of the disease and with the success with which virus could be isolated from the same patients by cocultivation methods. Of seven asymptomatic (Centers for Disease Control stage II) patients, all but one contained one
Residual viral replication persists in a significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. To determine the source of this virus, levels of HIV RNA and DNA from lymphoid tissues and levels of viral RNA in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and genital secretions in 28 patients treated for ⩽2.5 years with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine were examined. Both HIV RNA and DNA remained detectable in all lymph nodes. In contrast, HIV RNA was not detected in 20 of 23 genital secretions or in any of 13 CSF samples after 2 years of treatment. HIV envelope sequence data from plasma and lymph nodes from 4 patients demonstrated sequence divergence, which suggests varying degrees of residual viral replication in 3 and absence in 1 patient. In patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy, the greatest virus burden may continue to be in lymphoid tissues rather than in central nervous system or genitourinary compartments ...
Without effective HIV protease, HIV virions remain uninfectious. Mature HIV protease exists as a 22 kDa homodimer, with each ... With its integral role in HIV replication, HIV protease has been a prime target for drug therapy. HIV protease inhibitors work ... When viral HIV-RNA enters the cell, it is accompanied by a reverse transcriptase, an integrase, and a mature HIV-1 PR. The ... Management of HIV/AIDS Discovery and development of HIV-protease inhibitors The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their ...
... of 162 divergent HIV strains from establishing an infection. Since 2009, researchers have identified more than 50 HIV bNAbs. ... Indeed HIV-1 patients who develop bNAbs have been shown to have high germinal center activity as exhibited by their ... Low levels of bNAbs are now found in up to 25% of HIV patients. bNAbs evolve over years, accumulating some three times as many ... The discovery of bNAbs has led to an important area of research, namely, discovery of a vaccine, not only limited to HIV, but ...
The HIV-1 Rev response element (RRE) is a highly structured, ~350 nucleotide RNA segment present in the Env coding region of ... Ahmed, Y F; Hanly, S M; Malim, M H; Cullen, B R; Greene, W C (1990). "Structure-function analyses of the HTLV-I Rex and HIV-1 ... In the presence of the HIV-1 accessory protein Rev, HIV-1 mRNAs that contain the RRE can be exported from the nucleus to the ... The HIV-1 genome contains a single promoter and uses multiple reading frames and alternative splicing to encode 15 proteins ...
The company's HIV vaccine candidate is not toxic to 48 HIV-positive patients enrolled in a double-blind study taking place in ... April 2016). "Intradermal injection of a Tat Oyi-based therapeutic HIV vaccine reduces of 1.5 log copies/mL the HIV RNA rebound ... It can be absorbed by cells that are not infected with HIV, and can act directly as a toxin producing cell death via apoptosis ... In molecular biology, Tat is a protein that is encoded for by the tat gene in HIV-1. Tat is a regulatory protein that ...
HIV is considered resistant when it no longer respond to known treatments. Because currently there is no known cure for HIV, ... HIV drug resistance poses an issue because it reduces the possible HIV medications a person can take due to cross resistance. ... "HIV and drug resistance". Retrieved 30 October 2018. HIV drug resistance report 2017. Geneva: World Health ... If current trends continue, infection rates will rise, as will government spending on HIV/AIDS. HIV drug resistance also has ...
... is a secondary structural component of the Retroviral Psi packaging element, also known as the psi ... Advances in Hiv-1 Assembly and Release. Springer Verlag. ISBN 978-1-4614-7728-0. Morellet N, Jullian N, De Rocquigny H, Maigret ... GSL3 is known to direct specific packaging of HIV-1 genomic RNA. While deletion of GSL3 leads to decreases in both viral RNA ... This implies that if released in a cell targeted by HIV, it would block the stem-loop and thus limit productive interaction ...
HIV enters the brain early on in the infection. It is thought that HIV uses a "Trojan horse" mechanism to enter the brain. ... HIV protein gp120 inhibits the stem cells in the brain from producing new nerve cells. In the neuronal cells, the HIV gp120 ... HIV-associated dementia (HAD) is not a true opportunistic infection; it is one of the few conditions caused directly by HIV ... HIV patients in early stages show mild difficulties in concentration and attention. In advanced cases of HIV-associated ...
... refers to the cell type in which the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects and replicates. HIV tropism of a ... HIV can infect a variety of cells such as CD4+ helper T-cells and macrophages that express the CD4 molecule on their surface. ... HIV-1 entry to macrophages and T helper cells is mediated not only through interaction of the virion envelope glycoproteins ( ... The Trofile assay is a blood test that identifies the tropism of a patient's HIV. A molecular assay, Trofile was developed by ...
... and HIV-2 from SIVsm, the genetic sequence of HIV-2 is only partially homologous to HIV-1 and more closely resembles that of ... HIV-2 (+): HIV-2 antibodies detected 3. HIV-1 (+) & HIV-2 (+): both HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies detected 4. HIV-1 (−) or ... and is the cause of the majority of HIV infections globally. The lower infectivity of HIV-2, compared to HIV-1, implies that ... Two types of HIV have been characterized: HIV-1 and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the virus that was initially discovered and termed both ...
... is the insertion of HIV genetic material into the genome of the infected cell. The process of HIV integration ... First is the 3' processing of the HIV DNA, followed by strand transfer of the HIV DNA into the host DNA. The integration of HIV ... The integration of HIV DNA into the host DNA is a critical step in the HIV life cycle. Understanding the integration process ... HIV's enzyme for inserting the DNA version of its genome into the host cell DNA is called its "integrase". HIV-1 integrase ...
The Stanford HIV RT and Protease Sequence Database (also called the "HIV Drug Resistance Database") was formed in 1998 with HIV ... HIV infects T cells that carry the CD4 antigen on their surface. When HIV infects its target cell it requires fusion of the ... HIV-2 carries a slightly lower risk of transmission than HIV-1 and infection tends to progress more slowly to AIDS. In common ... HIV infection was first described in 1981 in San Francisco and New York City. In 1985, HIV was identified as the causative ...
The Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise (the Enterprise) is an alliance of organizations formed to accelerate the search for an HIV ... "The Need for a Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise", Nature Medicine . 2010. IAVI. "Nipping HIV In the Bud", IAVI Report Volume 14 No ... Coordinating Committee of the Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise (2005) The Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise: Scientific ... 18 January 2005 Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise (2005). "The Global HIV/AIDS Vaccine Enterprise: Scientific Strategic Plan ...
The epidemic is the largest documented outbreak of HIV within a hospital in history, and it was the first time HIV/AIDS became ... According to the document: The mothers of the HIV-infected children do not carry the virus Unnaturally high levels of HIV in ... "May retrial for Libya HIV medics". BBC News. 22 April 2006. Archived from the original on 23 April 2006. "Libya to execute HIV ... HIV/AIDS in Africa, HIV/AIDS by country, Law of Libya, 1999 in Libya, Foreign relations of Libya, Foreign relations of Bulgaria ...
Because of this, drugs that specifically inhibit the HIV capsid are being developed in order to reduce the replication of HIV, ... In the management of HIV/AIDS, HIV capsid inhibitors are antiretroviral medicines that target the capsid shell of the virus. ... Management of HIV/AIDS Thenin-Houssier S, de Vera IM, Pedro-Rosa L, Brady A, Richard A, Konnick B, et al. (April 2016). " ... The mechanism of HIV infection involves the transport and integration of the viral genome into the DNA of the host cell. This ...
HIV/AIDS organizations in the United States, HIV/AIDS in South Africa, HIV vaccine research, Vaccination-related organizations ... The vaccine contained no HIV and no one could have contracted HIV from the vaccine, but there was intense discussion as to ... could prevent HIV. The vaccines were developed for HIV subtypes A, B and C by the Vaccine Research Center at the National ... The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) is a non-profit organization which connects physicians and scientists with activists and ...
... , seropositive people or people who live with HIV are people who have the human immunodeficiency virus HIV, ... List of HIV-positive people People With AIDS (PWA) Serostatus "HIV and Language". POZ. Retrieved 2021-03-18. "Hiv/Aids". ... HIV-positive realities include husbands or partners who have not or are unwilling to be tested for HIV forcing their HIV- ... Infection with HIV is determined by an HIV test. Diagnosis and gender play corresponding roles in recognizing the lives of ...
Mortality in HIV-infected patients with cardiomyopathy is increased independently of CD4 count, age, sex, and HIV risk group. ... Circ Res 1994;74:344-8. Barbaro, Incidence of Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Detection of HIV in Myocardial Cells of HIV- ... Signs and symptoms such as malabsorption and diarrhea respectively, may occur with HIV infection causing many HIV patients to ... Barbaro, Incidence of Dilated Cardiomyopathy and Detection of HIV in Myocardial Cells of HIV-positive patients, NEJM ...
"HIV and Adolescents: Guidance for HIV Testing and Counselling and Care for Adolescents Living with HIV: Recommendations for a ... "Walgreens HIV testing". "Free Testing at Select Walgreens for National HIV Testing Day". "NATIONAL HIV TESTING DAY". ... "HIV Testing in the United States". Kaiser Family Foundation. May 2, 2014. "HIV Testing in the United States" (PDF). CDC. "HIV ... HIV screening in the United States is the use of tests to determine HIV status of individuals, as a part of general public ...
... the FDA approved the first diagnostic test capable of detecting HIV antigens and HIV antibodies. The Abbott ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab ... An HIV antibody test usually detects the HIV antibodies within two to eight weeks, but can have a valid negative result for a ... Viral load monitoring is used by HIV-positive people to develop a plan for their personal treatment of HIV/AIDS. A count of the ... Viral load monitoring for HIV is the regular measurement of the viral load of individual HIV-positive people as part of their ...
Therapeutic HIV vaccines No therapeutic HIV vaccine candidates have reached phase 3 testing yet. A July 2012 report of the HIV ... Military HIV Research Program (MHRP) Investigation of first candidate vaccine - The U.S. Federal Domestic HIV/AIDS ... Preventive HIV vaccines There have been no passive preventive HIV vaccines to reach Phase III yet, but some active preventive ... Theoretically, any possible HIV vaccine must inhibit or stop the HIV virion replication cycle. The targets of a vaccine could ...
"Opportunistic Infections , Living with HIV , HIV Basics , HIV/AIDS , CDC". 2018-07-23. Retrieved 2018-11-10. "ACT ... "HIV drug resistance". AVERT. 2017-07-19. Retrieved 2018-11-10. "HIV drug resistance report 2017". World Health Organization. ... The first line therapy of HIV, or the initial antiretroviral drug regimen for an HIV-infected patient, is generally cheaper ... of children who followed an HIV treatment regimen. With suboptimal adherence to treatment, there is an increased risk of HIV ...
HIV-1 genes are expressed from either completely spliced RNA or from intron-containing RNA. The export of fully spliced mRNAs ( ... Surendran R, Herman P, Cheng Z, Daly TJ, Ching Lee J (March 2004). "HIV Rev self-assembly is linked to a molten-globule to ... Surendran R, Herman P, Cheng Z, Daly TJ, Ching Lee J (March 2004). "HIV Rev self-assembly is linked to a molten-globule to ... Kubota S, Siomi H, Satoh T, Endo S, Maki M, Hatanaka M (August 1989). "Functional similarity of HIV-I rev and HTLV-I rex ...
1995). "HIV-specific cytotoxic T-cells in HIV-exposed but uninfected Gambian women". Nature Medicine. 1 (1): 59-64. doi:10.1038 ... 1994). "Reduced rate of disease development after HIV-2 infection as compared to HIV-1". Science. 265 (5178): 1587-1590. ... thus preventing HIV entry; two copies of this gene provide strong protection against HIV infection, although the protection is ... Some LTNPs are infected with HIV that inefficiently replicates whilst others are infected with HIV that is virally fit and ...
"HIV vax testers react to Thai trial". "HIV Vaccine Study First to Show Some Effectiveness in Preventing HIV". US Military HIV ... MHRP also conducts therapeutic research, tracks the HIV epidemic in active-duty forces, assesses the risk of HIV exposure to ... "Sanofi Pasteur Commends Results of First HIV Vaccine Study to Show Some Effectiveness in Preventing HIV" (PDF). Sanofi Pasteur ... "MVA Vaccine". MHRP , Military HIV Research Program. Retrieved 2018-10-26. Reilly L (July 2010). "U.S. Military HIV Research ...
"Preventing HIV Through Safe Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision For Adolescent Boys And Men In Generalized HIV Epidemics". ... Male circumcision reduces the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from HIV positive women to men in high ... Newly-circumcised HIV infected men who are not taking antiretroviral therapy can shed the HIV virus from the circumcision wound ... although in the long-term it is possible the circumcision of HIV-infected men helps lessen heterosexual HIV transmission ...
HIV in pregnancy is the presence of an HIV/AIDS infection in a woman while she is pregnant. There is a risk of HIV transmission ... Any positive HIV testing should be repeated as soon as possible. HIV cannot be excluded as a diagnosis in an HIV-exposed, non- ... The WHO's 2010 HIV and Infant Feeding Recommendations intend to increase the rate of HIV-survival and reduce non-HIV related ... "Maternal HIV Testing and Identification of Perinatal HIV Exposure". Clinical Info HIV gov. Office of AIDS Research (OAR), ...
Quinones-Mateu ME, Mas A, Lain de Lera T, Soriano V, Alcami J, Lederman MM, Domingo E (1998). "LTR and tat variability of HIV-1 ... This is the interim African Region version for persons aged 15 years or more who have had a positive HIV antibody test or other ... HIV wasting syndrome: weight loss of > 10% of body weight, plus either unexplained chronic diarrhoea (> 1 month) or chronic ... Morgan D, Mahe C, Mayanja B, Okongo JM, Lubega R, Whitworth JA (2002). "HIV-1 infection in rural Africa: is there a difference ...
... is a condition characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat associated with infection with HIV.: 497 ... There is evidence indicating both that it can be caused by anti-retroviral medications and that it can be caused by HIV ... 2006). "HIV-1 infection alters gene expression in adipose tissue, which contributes to HIV- 1/HAART-associated lipodystrophy". ... On the other hand, there is evidence that HIV-1 infection on its own contributes to the development of the lipodystrophic ...
Because latent proviral HIV DNA resident in resting memory CD4 cells forms the major barrier to the eradication of HIV by ... Wayengera, M (2003). "HIV and Gene Therapy: The proposed [R-M enzymatic] model for a gene therapy against HIV". Makerere Med J ... Wayengera, M. "Proviral HIV-genome-wide and pol-gene specific zinc finger nucleases: usability for targeted HIV gene therapy. ... Conceptually, targeting and editing could focus on host cellular co-receptors for HIV or on proviral HIV DNA. It has also been ...
HIV is different in structure from other retroviruses. The HIV virion is ~100 nm in diameter. Its innermost region consists of ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Structure and genome of HIV. Rfam entry for HIV pol-1 stem loop 3D model of the complete ... The HIV genome encodes a small number of viral proteins, invariably establishing cooperative associations among HIV proteins ... RNA secondary structures have been proposed to affect the HIV life cycle by altering the function of HIV protease and reverse ...
In 1992 Leo worked as a clinical fellow in Los Angeles, where over half of her workload was HIV cases. When she returned to ... Retrieved 1 December 2020. "Why Singapore will overcome Covid-19 even though outbreak could get worse before it gets better". ... Retrieved 1 December 2020. "Lee Hsien Loong & Leo Yee-Sin". Fortune. Retrieved 30 November 2020. "BBC 100 Women 2020: Who is on ... Singapore she established the country's first HIV programme and patient care centre. Her first frontline experience with ...
"Working Conditions, HIV, STIs and Hep. C Among Female Sex Workers in San Francisco" SWEAT Study data prepared by Alix Lutnick ... Some medical clinicians assume that the primary health concern of sex workers must be sexually transmitted infections or HIV ... Can the Decriminalization of Sex Work Assist HIV Prevention? Female Sex Workers in San Francisco, California Give Their ... "Can the Decriminalization of Sex Work Assist HIV Prevention?" Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team(SWEAT) Study data ...
"CDR walking mutagenesis for the affinity maturation of a potent human anti-HIV-1 antibody into the picomolar range". Journal of ... "Efficient neutralization of primary isolates of HIV-1 by a recombinant human monoclonal antibody". Science. 266 (5187): 1024-7 ... 16 (1): 694-709. doi:10.3390/molecules16010694. PMC 6259106. PMID 21245805. Huang J, Ru B, Zhu P, Nie F, Yang J, Wang X, Dai P ... 300 (1): 213-9. doi:10.1006/jmbi.2000.3845. PMID 10864510. Jespers LS, Messens JH, De Keyser A, Eeckhout D, Van den Brande I, ...
... antagonist to treat hypertension Sustiva Efavirenz reverse transcriptase inhibitor for human immunodeficiency virus HIV ... Building 1 Alkyd resins for automotive finishes Building 228 Nylon polyamide synthetic polymers Polyvinyl chloride development ... for information about the Grand Canyon Skywalk and "Archived copy". Archived ...
HIV infection is also a risk factor. Not all of the causes of cervical cancer are known, however, and several other ... They also provide protection against other sexually transmitted infections, such as HIV and Chlamydia, which are associated ... 4 (18): 1-73. doi:10.3310/hta4180. PMID 10932023. Karnon J, Peters J, Platt J, Chilcott J, McGoogan E, Brewer N (May 2004). " ... Retrieved 1 October 2010. Arbyn M, Anttila A, Jordan J, Ronco G, Schenck U, Segnan N, et al. (March 2010). "European Guidelines ...
... and anxiety-reduction intervention for HIV-positive patients. All but one of the eight volunteer participants in the study ... "The HR/IH psychoeducational approach deserves further study as a brief intervention for stress-reduction in HIV-positive ... The effect of a Health Realization/Innate Health psychoeducational seminar on stress and anxiety in HIV-positive patients. ... ISBN 1-55105-020-X, ISBN 978-1-55105-020-1 J. Pransky, Modello: A Story of Hope for the Inner City and Beyond: An Inside-Out ...
under paragraph § 210 of the penal code (Strafgesetzbuch). A major reason for legalization was to reduce the spread of HIV ... LEFÖ is the Austrian partner of the pan-European network TAMPEP that provides HIV/STI prevention and health promotion among ( ... 1 July 2020: Adult entertainment businesses in Austria have been allowed to open again with minor restrictions to opening hours ... 1. Band Die Geschichte der Prostitution in Wien, Selbstverlag, Wien 1886 (Online US-only at Google Books) Maxim Wien " ...
Nie Z, Phenix BN, Lum JJ, Alam A, Lynch DH, Beckett B, Krammer PH, Sekaly RP, Badley AD (November 2002). "HIV-1 protease ... 264 (1): 181-5. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1498. PMID 10527861. Lugovskoy AA, Zhou P, Chou JJ, McCarty JS, Li P, Wagner G (December ... 3 (1): 89. doi:10.1038/msb4100134. PMC 1847948. PMID 17353931. McCarty JS, Toh SY, Li P (October 1999). "Study of DFF45 in its ... 21 (1): 8-17. doi:10.1096/fj.06-5912hyp. PMID 17093139. S2CID 11933880. Fernando P, Kelly JF, Balazsi K, Slack RS, Megeney LA ( ...
Disabilities with a negative stigma and that are perceived as resulting from the actions of the person (e.g., HIV-Positive, ... 69 (1): 9-30. doi:10.1006/obhd.1996.2669. Weiss, Brent; Feldman, Robert S. (12 April 2006). "Looking Good and Lying to Do It: ... 2 (1). doi:10.25035/pad.2016.002. Sears, J. Greg; Zhang, Haiyan; Wiesner, H. Willi; Hackett, D. Rick; Yuan, Yufei (1 January ... 13 (1): 29-37. doi:10.1027/1015-5759.13.1.29. Lim, Doo H.; Woehr, David J.; You, Yeong Mahn; Allen Gorman, C. (September 2007 ...
... tenofovir gel for HIV prevention. Rees is a lead researcher on a pan African study on HIV acquisition and contraception (ECHO ... Helen Rees OBE GCOB is a medical researcher and the founder and Executive Director of the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV ... She is a board member of AVAC (a global HIV Prevention research advocacy organization) and serves on the US National Institute ... She has led many HIV prevention and sexual and reproductive health studies and advised on vaccination strategies to help ...
HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS is considered by many in the scientific and medical community to be the most lethal infectious disease in the ... "ARCA Seeks Volunteers for Historic HIV Vaccine Trial." GA Voice. June 11, 2010. GeoVax Labs, Inc. "New Progress for HIV/AIDS ... more than 70 million people have been infected with the HIV virus and about 35 million have died of HIV. The United States ... The MVA expresses the HIV virus-like-particles, but does not express GM-CSF. The regimen builds on the GeoVax DNA/MVA vaccine ...
He has also lobbied for increased resources for HIV prevention and AIDS treatment and care in Mexico. He has criticized the U.S ... During his time in CENSIDA he also developed an HIV care model called CAPASITS (Centro Ambulatorio de Prevencion y Atencion en ... Two years later he was appointed director of CENSIDA, a government agency that works to prevent HIV transmission, to reduce the ... As an openly gay, HIV-positive man, Saavedra has campaigned against homophobia and other forms of discrimination. ...
"Identifying and Describing Feelings and Psychological Flexibility Predict Mental Health in Men with HIV". British Journal of ... 1, ISBN 9780122270758 Miyake, A; Friedman, N P; Emerson, M J.; Witzki, A H; Howerter, A; Wagner, T (2000). "The unity and ... 41 (1): 3-34. doi:10.1007/s11013-016-9493-8. PMID 27142641. In this paper, we argue that many forms of healing and ... 26 (1-2): 113-130. doi:10.1300/J075v26n01_05. Bond, F.W.; P.E. Flaxman; D. Bunce (2008). "The Influence of Psychological ...
Gruters RA, Neefjes JJ, Tersmette M, de Goede RE, Tulp A, Huisman HG, Miedema F, Ploegh HL (1987). "Interference with HIV- ... Murphy CI, Lennick M, Lehar SM, Beltz GA, Young E (Oct 1990). "Temporal expression of HIV-1 envelope proteins in baculovirus- ... Ratner L, vander Heyden N, Dedera D (Mar 1991). "Inhibition of HIV and SIV infectivity by blockade of alpha-glucosidase ... HIV-1) pathogenesis". AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses. 3 (3): 265-82. doi:10.1089/aid.1987.3.265. PMID 2829950. ...
AIDS and HIV infection in Sudanese children: a clinical and epidemiological study. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 1997 Oct;11(5):331-7 ... Ann Trop Paediatr 1981; 1: 97-101. PMID 6185059 [4] Abdalla BA, Salih MAM, Yousif EA, Omer MIA. Whooping cough in Sudanese ... PMID 11361814 [1] Mohammed Osman Swar. Building Gaafar Ibnauf Children's Hospital: Unprecedented story. Sudan J Paediatr 2015; ...
... the Tuvaluan representative to the Pacific Society for Reproductive Health and the Oceania Society for Sexual Health and HIV ... Medicine (OSSHHM). On 1 March 2014 she was appointed to the board of the Tuvalu National Provident Fund, which is a ...
"Combatting HIV/AIDS and other diseases in Bahrain" (PDF). United Nations Development Program. Archived from the original (PDF) ... Compared to many countries in the region, the prevalence of AIDS and HIV is relatively low. Malaria and tuberculosis (TB) do ... 15 (1): 7. doi:10.1186/s12971-017-0115-1. PMC 5251216. PMID 28127273. Guide to Driving in Bahrain: Rules, Laws and Regulations ... 18 (1): 199. doi:10.1186/s12889-018-5104-7. PMC 5789601. PMID 29378543. Bahrain issues strict anti-smoking laws. Retrieved from ...
HIV/AIDS in American films, Films directed by Dirk Shafer, 1990s mockumentary films, 1990s English-language films, 1990s ... Man of the Year was released on Region 1 DVD on February 23, 1999. "Man of the Year". Levy, Emmanuel (1995-07-17). "Man of the ... Template film date with 1 release date, 1995 LGBT-related films, American LGBT-related films, American mockumentary films, ...
... particularly in regard to HIV/AIDS. He held positions on the editorial boards of several social science journals including the ... Patrick, Jeremy (September 1, 2001), "Stephen O. Murray's Homosexualities (Review)", The Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide John ... ISBN 978-1-55619-532-7 (Rev. ed. of Theory groups and the study of language in North America: a social history (1994). Murray, ...
All About Eve, a documentary about the HIV-infected child Eve van Grafhorst was released in 1994. In 1995, Cinema of Unease was ... Episode 1: The last place on Earth, prehistory to c. 1300 ; Episode 3 : When worlds collide, 1642-1839., N.Z.: TVNZ, OCLC ... "Flatmates - 1, First Episode , Television , NZ On Screen". Retrieved 5 March 2022. "NEW ZEALAND FILM ... Episode 1: The last place on Earth, prehistory to c. 1300 ; Episode 3 : When worlds collide, 1642-1839. ...
... a short docudrama about an HIV-positive teenager; and Your Mother Should Know (2008), a documentary film about mother-daughter ... Her latest focus is an educational film about AIDS". The Globe and Mail, December 1, 1990. "Genie promises skits both dramatic ...
... has established HIV & AIDS Action Clubs (AACs) in all 32 primary schools and 6 secondary schools in the Nkhata Bay North ... HIV/AIDs awareness group Purple Field productions worked with Temwa on a project to raise AIDs awareness throughout the region ... through film.HIV/AIDs awareness group Purple Field productions worked with Temwa on a project to raise AIDs awareness ... TemPlates Volume 1: This is Bristol' Fundraising CD - Bristol Indymedia". Archived from the original on 2008-09-17. Retrieved ...
There are many possible causes of facial nerve palsy, including Lyme disease, HIV, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, schwannoma, ... 91 (1-2): 53-68. doi:10.1111/j.0954-6820.1937.tb16029.x. (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1. Evanchan, Jason; Barreiro, Timothy J.; Gemmel, David (May 2010). "Uveitis, salivary gland swelling, and ... 12 (1): 134-7. doi:10.1007/s003300100879. PMID 11868089. S2CID 1088521. Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Teirstein, ...
Many viruses have an RNA genome, such as HIV, which uses reverse transcription to create a DNA template from its viral RNA ... Sierra S, Kupfer B, Kaiser R (December 2005). "Basics of the virology of HIV-1 and its replication". Journal of Clinical ... "Lipid nomenclature Lip-1 & Lip-2". Archived from the original on 6 June 2020. Retrieved 6 June 2020. Berg JM, ... ISBN 978-1-4200-0769-5. OCLC 607553259. Heymsfield SB, Waki M, Kehayias J, Lichtman S, Dilmanian FA, Kamen Y, et al. (August ...
Mahalingam S, Ayyavoo V, Patel M, Kieber-Emmons T, Kao GD, Muschel RJ, Weiner DB (Mar 1998). "HIV-1 Vpr interacts with a human ... Seeger M, Ferrell K, Frank R, Dubiel W (Mar 1997). "HIV-1 tat inhibits the 20 S proteasome and its 11 S regulator-mediated ... Sheehy AM, Gaddis NC, Choi JD, Malim MH (Aug 2002). "Isolation of a human gene that inhibits HIV-1 infection and is suppressed ... Ramanathan MP, Curley E, Su M, Chambers JA, Weiner DB (Dec 2002). "Carboxyl terminus of hVIP/mov34 is critical for HIV-1-Vpr ...
They were able to show that indinavir, when used with two other anti-HIV drugs, could significantly reduce the HIV viral load. ... Indinavir does not cure HIV/AIDS, but it can extend the length of a person's life for several years by slowing the progression ... Consequently, HIV viruses cannot reproduce, causing a decrease in the viral load. Commercially sold indinavir is indinavir ... Currently, it is not recommended for use in HIV/AIDS treatment due to its side effects. Furthermore, it is controversial for ...
These events, along with being diagnosed with HIV, drove Lavoe to attempt suicide by jumping off a Condado hotel room balcony ... The $60,000 statue is 2 meters (6 1/2 feet) tall, weighs 1 ton and portrays Lavoe with a microphone in his right hand and a ... 1 (1975) song: "Mi Gente" recorded live at the inauguration concert of Roberto Clemente Coliseum, San Juan Puerto Rico 1974. ... 1 (1972) song: "Quítate Tu" with: Adalberto Santiago, Ismael Miranda, Pete "El Conde" Rodriguez, Santos Colon and Johnny ...
... excluding Group B Streptococcal and HIV)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD004070. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... 58 (24): 1-85. PMID 21254725. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 August 2013. "The U.S. rate of C-section births continues ... An assisted delivery is used in about 1 in 8 births, and may be needed if either mother or infant appears to be at risk during ... 25 (1): 67-72. doi:10.1111/j.1552-6909.1996.tb02515.x. PMID 8627405. Callister LC, Khalaf I, Semenic S, Kartchner R, et al. ( ...
Wynn, Ralph (1994). "In memoriam: Elizabeth M. Ramsey (1906-1993)". In Miller, Richard Kermit; Thiede, Henry A. (eds.). HIV, ... ISBN 978-1-139-48868-6. Loke, Y. W. (2013). Life's Vital Link: The astonishing role of the placenta. Oxford: Oxford University ...
And within our own community, helping gay men - physically and emotionally scarred from the ravages of HIV and homophobia - to ... Jacobs, Cathy (1 April 2016). "Victims of family violence form 'No Excuses choir' to inspire others". ABC News. "Rosie Batty to ... McGuire has been in a relationship with Audrie Sexton since May 1, 2014. They were married in 2019. 1982: Dux of the School ( ...
Flexner discuss the mechanisms of drug-drug interactions and the promise and limitations of longer-acting HIV therapeutics for ... Our group, the HIV providers, have a much better handle on this, as you pointed out earlier, than do the non-HIV providers. I ... Flexner: HIV has given us a very unique and important opportunity for learning about the role that drug interactions play in ... HIV protease inhibitors turn them up and turn them down at the same time. To put that all together and tell a healthcare ...
Report of an international collaborative study to evaluate a WHO HIV-1 RNA genotype reference panel / HC Holmes, CL Davis, and ... Informal meeting to discuss the establishment of a surveillance network for HIV-1 group of O viruses, Geneva, 20 September 1994 ... Report of the Technical Advisory Meeting on Implications of the Newly Identified HIV-1 Subtype 0 Viruses for HIV Diagnosis, ... Report on an international collaborative study to establish the 2nd WHO international subtype reference panel for HIV-1 NAT ...
Interpretive Criteria Used to Report Western Blot Results for HIV-1-Antibody Testing -- United States ... Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): Biotech/Du Pont HIV Western blot kit for detection of antibodies to HIV. Wilmington, ... Diagnostic tests for HIV infection. In: DeVita VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, eds. AIDS: etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and ... Interpretive Criteria Used to Report Western Blot Results for HIV-1-Antibody Testing -- United States MMWR 40(40);692-695 ...
... ... 2023)‎. In vitro diagnostic medical devices used for the quantitative detection of HIV-1 nucleic acid. World Health ...
Despite that, both sides in the HIV battle agree that Russia has made some progress. The fact that a national strategy exists ... At the same time, the Russian Orthodox Church and some politicians promote "conservative values" as the best way to combat HIV. ... About 850,000 Russians carry HIV and an additional 220,000 have died since the late 1980s, said Vadim Pokrovsky, the longtime ... Experts criticized a new, rather vague Russian government strategy on fighting HIV that was released in October for lacking a ...
in Dakar (5). The role of K. pneumoniae in HIV-infected adults is not well documented. As no other known enteric pathogens were ... Enteropathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae HIV-Infected Adults, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(1):135-137. doi: ... In Bangui, the rate of isolation of pure cultures of K. pneumoniae from the stools of immunocompromised HIV-infected adults ... These findings suggest that not only is K. pneumoniae associated with chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected persons but also that ...
Report on the global HIV/AIDS epidemic. Geneva: Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS); 2004 June. Report No.: ... Joint WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF statement on use of cotrimoxazole as prophylaxis in HIV exposed and HIV infected children. 2004 Nov 22 ... Taha TET, Canner JK, Dallabetta GA, Chiphangwi JD, Liomba G, Wangel A-M, Childhood malaria parasitaemia and HIV in Malawi. ... Cohen C, Karstaedt A, Govender N, Thomas J, Hlatshwayo D, Dini L, Increase in severe malaria in HIV-positive adults in South ...
OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test Questions and Answers ... For more information about HIV counseling, see CDCs HIV/AIDS ... Does this test detect antibodies to HIV-2?. This test is approved to detect antibodies to HIV-1. Because HIV-2 is very rare in ... The OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test (OraQuick) is a screening test for HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS. It is a single-use ... As with all HIV screening tests, a reactive test result needs to be confirmed by an additional, more specific test. ...
Successful treatment of acute HIV-1 infection leads to augmentation of these responses, but whether this enhances immune ... Immune control of HIV-1 after early treatment of acute infection Nature. 2000 Sep 28;407(6803):523-6. doi: 10.1038/35035103. ... E S Rosenberg 1 , M Altfeld, S H Poon, M N Phillips, B M Wilkes, R L Eldridge, G K Robbins, R T DAquila, P J Goulder, B D ... Successful treatment of acute HIV-1 infection leads to augmentation of these responses, but whether this enhances immune ...
HIV TAT specific factor 1provided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:1919709 See related. Ensembl:ENSMUSG00000067873 ... Effects of chronic HIV-1 Tat exposure in the CNS: heightened vulnerability of males versus females to changes in cell numbers, ... Htatsf1 HIV TAT specific factor 1 [ Mus musculus (house mouse) ] Gene ID: 72459, updated on 26-Sep-2022 ... NM_028242.2 → NP_082518.1 HIV Tat-specific factor 1 homolog. See identical proteins and their annotated locations for NP_ ...
Mycoplasma genitalium Is Associated With Increased Genital HIV Type 1 RNA in Zimbabwean Women.. ... Mycoplasma genitalium Is Associated With Increased Genital HIV Type 1 RNA in Zimbabwean Women. ... Mycoplasma genitalium Is Associated With Increased Genital HIV Type 1 RNA in Zimbabwean Women. The Journal of Infectious ...
... about 36.9 million people around the world were living with HIV-- 1 in 4 were unaware of their HIV status. ... HIV, HIV-1, Imaging, Infectious Diseases, Laboratory, Malaria, Medicine, Microfluidics, Molecular Biology, Neuroscience, ... yet it is only used by 59 percent of those infected with HIV. Unfortunately, HIV testing is expensive ($50 to $200 per test), ... and low-cost HIV viral load assay to increase timely access to HIV care and to improve treatment outcomes. ...
Apart from surveillance, many other population groups are being tested for HIV, mainly for case-finding. As HIV surveillance ... HIV surveillance was initiated with ad hoc serological surveys of selected groups of population. However, these surveys ... HIV infection among injecting-drug users has been recognized in over 50 countries [14]. The HIV prevalence in this group is ... HIV surveillance. HIV surveillance is being carried out in all countries of the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Earlier ...
By targeting the HIV-1 viral conical core, also known as the capsid or core, therapies could disrupt the process of assembly ... Rotten to the core: antivirals targeting the HIV-1 capsid core. Retrovirology. 2021;18(1):41. doi:10.1186/s12977-021-00583-z ... It is essential to develop novel HIV therapies to combat these limitations and research new therapeutic targets, investigators ... This helped expand the field of HIV-1 capsid inhibitors for each of the 5 binding sites discussed. ...
HIV-1) isolates, we find in contrast to these theories strong statistical evidence for a predominance of positive epistasis in ... HIV-1) isolates, strong statistical evidence for a predominance of positive epistasis in HIV-1 is found. Reproductive ... Using amino acid sequence data and fitness values from 9466 human immunodeficiency virus 1 ( ... Using amino acid sequence data and fitness values from 9466 human immunodeficiency virus 1 ( ...
Crystal structure of Human anti-HIV-1 GP120-reactive antibody E51 ... Crystal structure of Human anti-HIV-1 GP120-reactive antibody ... Structural basis of tyrosine sulfation and VH-gene usage in antibodies that recognize the HIV type 1 coreceptor-binding site on ... The conserved surface of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds to the HIV-1 coreceptor is protected from humoral ... The conserved surface of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds to the HIV-1 coreceptor is protected from humoral ...
Clinical and radiographic presentations of HIV-1 necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, ... HIV periodontopathies. The diagnosis and therapy of HIV-associated gingivitis/periodontitis].. *[Necrotizing ulcerative ... Necrotizing periodontal diseases in HIV-seropositive subjects: pathogenic mechanisms.. *Periodontal problems related to HIV-1 ... Necrotizing UlcerativeHIV SeropositivityHIV-1HumansMaleMiddle AgedPeriodontitisRadiography, Dental ...
This is the earliest stage of HIV infection - when the virus has just gained access into your body and your immune system has ... HIV and Depression HIV and Aging HIV and Neurocognitive Disorders KASA (Kaletra Adherance and Support Assistance)Program Links ... Symptoms alone do not permit the diagnosis of HIV - the only way to diagnose and confirm an HIV infection is via a blood test. ... These symptoms MAY present in the primo-infection or early stages of HIV, but are too general to be ONLY attributable to HIV ...
New research from Duke University shows that psychological trauma predicts increased vulnerability for HIV and faster health ... "Coping with HIV/AIDS in the Southeast" study. They investigated possible links to traumatic experiences, HIV-related behaviors ... New research from Duke University shows that psychological trauma predicts increased vulnerability for HIV/AIDS and faster ... SOURCE: The full study, "Childhood Trauma and Health Outcomes in HIV-Infected Patients: An Exploration of Causal Pathways," is ...
To examine the suggested resurgence of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with m ... HIV is hyperendemic among men who have sex with men in San Francisco: 10-year trends in HIV incidence, HIV prevalence, sexually ... In Sydney, about 95% of the MSM know their HIV status [31], whereas in the Netherlands lower awareness of the HIV status was ... HIV incidence and HIV testing behavior in men who have sex with men: using three incidence sources, The Netherlands, 1984-2005 ...
The results of this analysis of 7 phase 2 and phase 3 trials of darunavir-based regimens for the treatment of patients with HIV ... Lathouwers E, Wong EY, Luo D, Seyedkazemi S, De Meyer S, Brown K. HIV-1 resistance rarely observed in patients using darunavir ... The large majority of nonvirologically suppressed patients harbored HIV-1 subtype B. Having RAMs at baseline was more common ... Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection is contingent on limiting or ...
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY [email protected] ...
... of the total funding on health R&D was allocated towards neglected diseases like HIV , tuberculosis and malaria which account ... of R&D Funds Spent for HIV, Tuberculosis and Malaria: WHO. Tuesday, January 24, 2017 ...
Specificity of two HIV screening tests detecting simultaneously HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1.... September 23, ...
However, genetically diverse HIV-1 clades have evolved, and a key question left unanswered is whether neutralizing antibodies ... We evaluated the potential of HGN194 to protect infant rhesus monkeys against a SHIV encoding a primary CCR5-tropic HIV-1 clade ... The novel human monoclonal antibody HGN194 was isolated from an individual infected with an HIV-1 clade AG recombinant ... of HIV-1 gp120 and neutralizes a range of relatively neutralization-sensitive and resistant viruses. ...
in Dakar (5). The role of K. pneumoniae in HIV-infected adults is not well documented. As no other known enteric pathogens were ... Enteropathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae HIV-Infected Adults, Africa. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2003;9(1):135-137. doi: ... In Bangui, the rate of isolation of pure cultures of K. pneumoniae from the stools of immunocompromised HIV-infected adults ... These findings suggest that not only is K. pneumoniae associated with chronic diarrhea in HIV-infected persons but also that ...
Results: An important measure in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV is to teach women in reproductive age about HIV ... VERTIKAL OVERFØRSEL AV HIV-1 : MED HOVEDVEKT PÅ FOREBYGGING I UTVIKLINGSLAND. 2013-03-12T12:32:29Z. ... ABSTRACT Background: Between 34 and 46 million people are today infected with HIV. The majority of these are living in Sub- ... The best way in these countries to prevent transmission is through information about HIV, testing and counseling, as well as ...
NIAID HIV AIDS Strategic Working Group Meeting - Day 1 ... NIAID HIV AIDS Strategic Working Group Meeting - Day 1 Your ... NIAID HIV AIDS Strategic Working Group meeting / NIAID. Author: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.). ...
  • In the early and late stages of HIV-1 infection, however, antibody titers to specific proteins may vary considerably, and the use of different sets of WB criteria may result in an incomparable interpretation (e.g., an interpretation of a WB band pattern classified as reactive using one set of WB interpretive criteria may be indeterminate using another set of criteria). (
  • It is the largest HIV epidemic in Europe and among the highest rates of infection globally. (
  • p) To continue to collaborate with research institutions and partners in order to assess the effectiveness of male circumcision in preventing HIV infection. (
  • Grimwade K , French N , Mbatha DD , Zungu DD , Dedicoat M , Gilks CF . HIV infection as a cofactor for severe falciparum malaria in adults living in a region of unstable malaria transmission in South Africa. (
  • Chirenda J , Siziya S , Tshimanga M . Association of HIV infection with the development of severe and complicated malaria cases at a rural hospital in Zimbabwe. (
  • Kalyesubula I , Musoke-Mudido P , Marum L , Bagenda D , Aceng E , Ndugwa C , Effects of malaria infection in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected Ugandan children. (
  • Delayed detection of exposure -- this test will not detect HIV-1 infection in people who were exposed within about three months prior to taking the test (since it can take that long for detectable antibodies to HIV-1 to appear in the blood). (
  • Follow-up testing - a reactive result is interpreted as preliminarily positive for HIV-1 infection. (
  • No. This test is approved to help diagnose HIV infection, not to screen blood donors. (
  • Successful treatment of acute HIV-1 infection leads to augmentation of these responses, but whether this enhances immune control has not been determined. (
  • We administered one or two supervised treatment interruptions to eight subjects with treated acute infection, with the plan to restart therapy if viral load exceeded 5,000 copies of HIV-1 RNA per millilitre of plasma (the level at which therapy has been typically recommended) for three consecutive weeks, or 50,000 RNA copies per ml at one time. (
  • Our data indicate that functional immune responses can be augmented in a chronic viral infection, and provide rationale for immunotherapy in HIV-1 infection. (
  • Currently, there is no reliable technology that can detect HIV during the early stages of the infection or measure viral rebound in antiretroviral therapy in treated patients in resource constrained point-of-care settings. (
  • The main objective of sentinel surveillance is to monitor the trend of HIV infection over time and place. (
  • A thorough analysis of a classical AZT-resistance pathway of HIV-1 variants by fitness measurements in single round infection assays covering physiological drug concentrations ex vivo suggests that epistasis might be inefficient as a buffering mechanism for fitness losses in vivo. (
  • This is the earliest stage of HIV infection - when the virus has just gained access into your body and your immune system has begun to react. (
  • These symptoms MAY present in the primo-infection or early stages of HIV, but are too general to be ONLY attributable to HIV infection alone. (
  • Symptoms alone do not permit the diagnosis of HIV - the only way to diagnose and confirm an HIV infection is via a blood test. (
  • Does child abuse increase the likelihood of HIV infection and subsequent disease mismanagement? (
  • Psychological trauma heightens the risk for HIV infection, medication lapses, and disease progression. (
  • To examine the suggested resurgence of the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), we studied trends in HIV-1 incidence rates, sexual risk behaviour, risk factors for HIV-1 seroconversion, and source of HIV-1 infection among MSM in the Amsterdam Cohort Studies from 1984 to 2009. (
  • Trends in HIV-1 incidence and risk factors for HIV-1 infection were studied using Poisson regression. (
  • Trends in the source of HIV-1 infection were modelled via logistic regression. (
  • In several high-income countries, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be an infection that disproportionately affects men who have sex with men (MSM) [1] . (
  • Successful highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV-1 infection is contingent on limiting or avoiding the development of resistance-associated mutations (RAMs). (
  • 1 The US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and the European AIDS Clinical Society recommend initial treatment of HIV-1 infection with once-daily boosted darunavir 800 mg (with ritonavir or cobicistat as additional boosters) combined with 2 nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). (
  • Once-daily darunavir dosing is indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in treatment-naïve or treatment-experienced patients, provided they do not have any darunavir RAMs. (
  • Objectives: This paper reviews interventions for reducing the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-infection in developing countries. (
  • HIV-1 seropositive, with documented HIV-1 infection by official, signed, written history (eg. (
  • While these mechanisms promote HIV-1 mRNA translation in the context of in vitro systems and subgenomic constructs, there are substantial knowledge gaps in understanding how they regulate viral protein production in the context of full-length virus infection. (
  • In this review, we will summarise the different translation mechanisms used by HIV-1 mRNAs and the challenges in understanding how they regulate protein synthesis during viral infection. (
  • and M/MΦ not only contribute to establishment and persistence of HIV-1 infection, they also activate surrounding T-cells thus favoring their infection. (
  • Background: HLA-B alleles are associated with viral control in chronic HIV-1 infection, however, their role in primary HIV-1 disease is unclear. (
  • This study sought to determine the role of HLA-B alleles in viral control during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection and establishment of the early viral load set point (VLSP). (
  • Findings: Individuals identified during primary HIV-1 infection were HLA class I typed and followed longitudinally. (
  • Associations between HLA-B alleles and HIV-1 viral replication during acute infection and VLSP were analyzed in untreated subjects. (
  • The results showed that neither HLA-B*57 nor HLA-B*27 were significantly associated with viral control during acute HIV-1 infection (Fiebig stage I-IV, n=171). (
  • Conclusions: The effect of HLA-B*57 on viral control is more pronounced during the later stages of primary HIV-1 infection, which suggests the underlying mechanism of control occurs at a critical period in the first several months after HIV-1 acquisition. (
  • The risk profile of polymorphisms at position 97 of HLA-B are more broadly associated with HIV-1 viral load during primary infection and may serve as a focal point in further studies of HLA-B function. (
  • To be used in conjunction with: Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of HIV infection : updated recommendations . (
  • University of Western Ontario investigators have found that the genetic diversity of HIV-1 during early infection is greater in the vaginal tract than in the bloodstream. (
  • These findings may help guide the development of HIV vaccines and other infection prevention strategies. (
  • however, the population is then filtered as it penetrates and infects layers of the vagina to get into the bloodstream, resulting in a systemic infection with a single genetic HIV-1 variant in the blood. (
  • The women were enrolled into a study entitled, "Hormonal Contraception and HIV-1 Genital Shedding and Disease Progression among Women with Primary HIV Infection (GS) Study" after they had been diagnosed with HIV-1 infection while they were already participating in the "Hormonal Contraception and Risk of HIV Acquisition Study. (
  • HIV-1-specific CD4+ T cells (TCD4+) play a critical role in controlling HIV-1 infection. (
  • Notably, TCD4+, which express MHCII upon activation and are HIV-1 host cells, might act as APCs during an HIV-1 infection. (
  • By the end of 2010, approximately 129,000 New Yorkers were living with HIV or AIDS, with nearly 3,950 new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2010. (
  • Notably, in the United States in 2010, the leading cause of death among people with HIV was liver disease from co-infection with HCV. (
  • National surveillance for HIV infection is coordinated by the Kirby Institute, in collaboration with state and territory health authorities and the Australian Government Department of Health. (
  • Cases of HIV infection are notified to the National HIV Registry on the first occasion of diagnosis in Australia, by either the diagnosing laboratory (Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria) or by a combination of laboratory and doctor sources (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia, Western Australia). (
  • Diagnoses of HIV infection are notified with the person's date of birth and name code, to minimise duplicate notifications while maintaining confidentiality. (
  • Newly diagnosed cases of HIV infection reported for 1 October to 31 December 2013, are shown in Tables 1 and 2). (
  • The new study builds on previous discoveries by the Farzan laboratory, which show that a co-receptor called CCR5 contains unusual modifications in its critical HIV-binding region, and that proteins based on this region can be used to prevent infection. (
  • This test is not useful as a screening test for HIV infection in symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals. (
  • We found that the directionality of transmission was consistent with infection times for 72.9% of 85 potential HIV-1 transmissions with accurate infection date estimates. (
  • HIV-1 infection remains a global health problem, with over 1.8 million new infections annually and 37.9 million individuals infected worldwide in 2018. (
  • [ 14 ] in 2016 showed that HIV-1 transmission disproportionally often occurs during acute HIV-1 infection and treatment interruption and failures. (
  • We report our experience with the use of antiretroviral therapy in children with HIV-1 infection at a tertiary care hospital in north India. (
  • Symptoms related to acute HIV infection (when a person is first infected) can be similar to the flu or other viral illnesses. (
  • Acute HIV infection (Stage 1) progresses over a few weeks to months to become chronic or asymptomatic HIV infection (Stage 2) (no symptoms). (
  • Objective: To discuss the influence of HIV-1 specific T cell on disease progression of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Methods: Thirty-seven patients with HIV-1 infection were recruited from a cohort study and their HIV-1 specific T cell responses were analyzed using overlapping peptides and ELISP0T assay. (
  • Results: 83.78% (31/37) of candidates with HIV-1 infection responded to at least one peptide (magnitude was above 50 SFU/10 6 PBMCs). (
  • Conclusion: The specific T cell responses elicited by different HIV-1 proteins are different, and the responses to HIV-1 Gag protein may play the most important role in the progression of HIV-1 infection. (
  • BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infection is associated with increased risk of tuberculosis and a safe and effective vaccine would assist control measures. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Cabenuva , an injectable formulation of cabotegravir (Vocabria) and rilpivirine (Edurant), for adults living with HIV-1 infection. (
  • Cabenuva is the first FDA-approved injectable complete regimen for adults with HIV-1 infection. (
  • Pitavastatin versus pravastatin in adults with HIV-1 infection and dyslipidaemia (INTREPID): 12 week and 52 week results of a phase 4, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, superiority trial. (
  • Response to newly prescribed lipid-lowering therapy in patients with and without HIV infection. (
  • Individuals who carry a mutation in the gene encoding CCR5, called delta 32, are resistant to HIV-1 infection. (
  • Despite enduring complications and undergoing two transplants, Brown’s treatment was a success: he was cured both of his leukemia and HIV infection. (
  • To determine whether HIV exposure without infection is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity in children admitted to PICU with pneumonia. (
  • Survival analysis was used to determine the association between HIV infection/exposure with mortality, and linear regression was used to examine the association with length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. (
  • Overal , 84% (n=90) survived to PICU discharge, with no difference in survival based on HIV infection or exposure. (
  • HIV infection was associated with prolonged length of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay but not increased mortality. (
  • HIV disease is caused by infection with HIV-1 or HIV-2, which are retroviruses in the Retroviridae family, Lentivirus genus. (
  • The patient with HIV may present with signs and symptoms of any of the stages of HIV infection. (
  • CDC guidelines recommend testing for HIV infection with a US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antigen/antibody immunoassay that detects HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and the HIV-1 p24 antigen, with supplemental testing after a reactive assay result to differentiate between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. (
  • If supplemental testing for HIV-1/HIV-2 antibodies shows nonreactive or indeterminant results (or if acute HIV infection or recent exposure is suspected or reported), an HIV-1 nucleic acid test is recommended to differentiate acute HIV-1 infection from a false-positive test result. (
  • 1 false-positive result per 100 people diagnosed with HIV infection). (
  • It is cardio protective and has also been shown to hinder CXCR4-mediated HIV infection of T cells. (
  • In the case of ciprofloxacin therapy in a Salmonella enterica subspecies 1 serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium, S. Tm) mouse infection model, this has been traced to tolerant bacterial cells surviving in lymph node monocytes (i.e., classical dendritic cells). (
  • More than two-thirds of the participating migrants' wives were aware about the risk of HIV infection in migrant husbands and subsequent risk of transmitting themselves through sexual intercourse. (
  • The display of multiple copies of authentic HIV envelope protein on each VLP is one of the special features of our platform that closely mimics natural infection and may have played a role in eliciting the desired immune responses," said Dr. Lusso. (
  • During acute HIV infection, HIV is highly infectious because the virus is multiplying at a very rapid rate. (
  • Treating intravenous drug users with antiviral drugs may reduce their chances of HIV infection, according to a new study published Wednesday in the British medical journal The Lancet . (
  • We now know that pre-exposure prophylaxis can be a potentially vital option for HIV prevention in people at very high risk for infection, whether through sexual transmission or injecting drug use. (
  • So far, all evidence suggests PrEP is safe and effective for reducing the risk of HIV infection in high-risk populations, and there have been no concerns regarding its use daily, the CDC says. (
  • This is important as HIV prevalence among trans people in the UK may differ from global estimates given lower rates of undiagnosed HIV infection in the UK, high levels of viral suppression and access to free healthcare. (
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the vaccine efficacy (VE) of a heterologous vaccine regimen utilizing Ad26.Mos4.HIV and aluminum phosphate-adjuvanted Clade C gp140 and Mosaic gp140 for the prevention of HIV-1 infection in HIV-1 seronegative cis-gender men and transgender individuals having sex with cis-gender men and/or transgender individuals. (
  • Selection and pathogenicity of Candida albicans in HIV infection. (
  • The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report is published by the Surveillance Branch of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention - Surveillance and Epidemiology, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • Columns 1 and 2 are the II) is determined by the locality's proportion of the estimated number and the percentage distribution total estimated number of living persons with AIDS. (
  • About 850,000 Russians carry HIV and an additional 220,000 have died since the late 1980s, said Vadim Pokrovsky, the longtime head of the Moscow-based Federal AIDS Center, who estimated that at least another 500,000 cases of HIV have gone undiagnosed. (
  • Tensions heightened this year after the Justice Ministry blackballed a number of bantam NGOs involved in combating HIV/AIDS as "foreign agents" because they received grants from abroad. (
  • The Round Table on "Prevention of HIV and AIDS in the African Region" was held on 23 August 2005 under the chairmanship of Dr. Alex Kamugisha, the Honourable Minister of Health of Uganda. (
  • gave an overview of the HIV and AIDS situation in Africa. (
  • The OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test (OraQuick) is a screening test for HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS. (
  • For more information about HIV counseling, see CDC's HIV/AIDS webpage. (
  • 1 Partners AIDS Research Center and Infectious Disease Division, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston 02114, USA. (
  • As HIV surveillance has an important role in AIDS prevention and control, adequate attention should be paid to its improvement, including the use of unlinked anonymous testing and the participation of the private sector. (
  • This paper presents the status of HIV/AIDS surveillance in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. (
  • New research from Duke University shows that psychological trauma predicts increased vulnerability for HIV/AIDS and faster health decline. (
  • cART improved the quality of life of HIV-infected individuals and dramatically decreased the number of people dying of AIDS [6,7] . (
  • National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (U.S.). HIV AIDS Strategic Working Group. (
  • The world is off track from delivering on the shared commitment to end AIDS by 2030 not because of a lack of knowledge, capability or means to beat AIDS, but because of structural inequalities that obstruct proven solutions in HIV prevention and treatment. (
  • As well as being core to ending AIDS, tackling inequality will also advance the human rights of people who are living with HIV, make societies better prepared to beat COVID-19 and other pandemics and support economic recovery and stability. (
  • In this study, we evaluated the relationship between HIV DNA and cognition in subjects naïve to HAART in a neuro AIDS cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. (
  • HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and hepatitis C (HCV) are significant public health concerns. (
  • New York State (NYS) remains at the epicenter of the HIV epidemic in the country, ranking first in the number of persons living with HIV/AIDS. (
  • After 30 years of awareness campaigns, 20 percent of HIV-infected people nationally are still undiagnosed and one-third of diagnoses are made so late that people are diagnosed with AIDS concurrently or within one year. (
  • This human T cell (blue) is under attack by HIV (yellow), the virus that causes AIDS. (
  • Assembly of HIV-1, which causes AIDS, takes place on the inner plasma membrane leaflet of infected cells, a geometric building process that creates hexamers out of trimers of the viral Gag protein, as guided by Gag's N-terminal matrix domain. (
  • The aim of this literature review is to elucidate what is known about HIV / AIDS and stigma in Sub-Saharan Africa . (
  • Learn more about HIV and AIDs here. (
  • If a person does not get treatment for HIV, it can lead to AIDS. (
  • For more in-depth information and resources on HIV and AIDS, visit our dedicated hub . (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • If they are not treated, almost all people infected with HIV will develop AIDS (Stage 3). (
  • People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by HIV. (
  • The magnitude of response elicited by HIV-1 Gag protein in the patients with clinical asymptomatic stage was much higher than that in the patients with AIDS stage, although the responses to whole genome peptides between these two groups were similar. (
  • Government has embarked on a family test and treat HIV and AIDS campaign aimed at increasing the number of men and children accessing anti-retroviral drugs. (
  • Desperate times call for desperate measures, especially in the country's continuing battle against HIV/AIDS. (
  • At a media workshop on Gender Based Violence and matters relating to HIV/AIDS, it was highlighted that drastic measures need to be taken to reduce the HIV prevalence rate in the country, like distributing condoms in correctional facilities. (
  • Briefly, World AIDS Day is held on December 1 each year and is an opportunity for people worldwide to unite in the fight against HIV, show their support for people living with HIV and to commemorate people who have died. (
  • HIV prevalence is highest among women and men aged 25 and 44, statistics from the National AIDS Control Council have shown. (
  • NACC Gender Specialist Eunice Odongi, who released the numbers yesterday, said HIV-AIDS is most reported in young women aged 15 to 24. (
  • People who inject drugs (PWID) are a priority for the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and Ending the HIV Epidemic initiatives, yet pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) awareness and use among PWID remain low despite multiple injection drug use (IDU)-associated HIV outbreaks. (
  • Since the beginning of the AIDS epidemic, an estimated 75 million people have been infected with HIV. (
  • 1 million), a mobile phone app that enables self-diagnosis of HIV/AIDS. (
  • All service providers should understand the risks associated with HIV/AIDS and be able to appropriately discuss them with all clients. (
  • The risk of HIV/AIDS, while heightened by being in an abusive relationship, does not end when the relationship ends. (
  • Anyone having unprotected sex, sharing needles, or sharing drug preparation equipment and/or works is at an increased risk for HIV/AIDS. (
  • This handout helps outline the most common risk factors associated with HIV/AIDS, as well as best practices for risk reduction. (
  • A stable home is a cornerstone of basic quality of life, and for people living with HIV/AIDS, this basic need is interdependent with achieving health and success in controlling HIV. (
  • NHAHC November 2 Since 1993, the National AIDS Housing Coalition (NAHC) has secured safe, appropriate, and affordable housing for those who are at risk of and living with HIV and AIDS. (
  • Today the organization becomes the National HIV/AIDS Housing Coalition (NHAHC). (
  • We see this as a step toward ending HIV/AIDS homelessness in the United States and demonstrate a commitment to ending the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the United States. (
  • This proposal essentially flat-funds the HOPWA program, the only dedicated source of housing funds for people living with HIV/AIDS. (
  • This budget fails to meet the needs of low-income people living with HIV/AIDS by funding HOPWA at $450 million for FY22. (
  • UNAIDS , the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, called the study results a complement to other PrEP trials released over the past few years. (
  • HIV causes AIDS, a late stage of the virus characterized by serious infections, malignancies and neurologic dysfunctions. (
  • 1 Moreover, mortality from HIV/AIDS among trans women in a large cohort study was just over 30 times that of age-matched population controls. (
  • In 2017, Public Health England (PHE) presented preliminary data from the HIV and AIDS Reporting System (HARS), reporting that 199 trans adults accessed HIV care in 2016, representing 0.3% of all people accessing HIV care in England (personal communication, P Kirwan, Public Health England, 3 May 2018). (
  • Depression is the most common psychiatric problem associated with HIV/AIDS and half of all PLWHIV with depression go underdiagnosed and untreated. (
  • Psychiatric complications of HIV/AIDS signify a significant additional burden for mental health services and professionals in less affluent countries with high HIV prevalence rates [ 6 ]. (
  • In India, the prevalence of depression among the HIV/AIDS patients was 40% [ 11 ]. (
  • She highlighted the factors accounting for the increasing trends in new infections, the key challenges in addressing the epidemic, and the recommendations of the Brazzaville consultation on HIV prevention. (
  • Epidemiological data increasingly point to HIV, STDs and HCV as "syndemics", or infections which occur in similar groups of people with the same behavioral risk factors. (
  • Tabulations of newly diagnosed HIV infections are based on data available 3 months after the end of the reporting interval indicated, to allow for reporting delay and to incorporate newly available information. (
  • [ 4 ] As a complement to this, finding new medical solutions and understanding the pattern of transmission and intra-host diversity are essential to reduce the number of new HIV-1 infections. (
  • Stigma prevents the delivery of effective social and medical care (including taking antiretroviral therapy ) and also enhances the number of HIV infections . (
  • 1.Breast feeding 2.Infant nutrition 3.HIV infections - in infancy and childhood. (
  • 4.HIV infections - transmission. (
  • 2,5] Given infections when compared with their HIV-unexposed (HIV-U) the high burden of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, it is conceivable counterparts. (
  • Male migrants and their sexual partners at home are at increased risk of STIs (Sexually Transmitted Infections) including HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). (
  • Overall patients and graft [transplanted organ] survival were excellent and comparable, without evidence of increased serious adverse events of HIV-related complications such as breakthrough viremia, infectious hospitalizations, or opportunistic infections. (
  • Outcomes analysed in the research were overall survival, transplant failure, risk of infections and rebound in HIV viral load. (
  • The full potential of antiretroviral therapy in keeping people alive and well and in preventing new HIV infections is becoming apparent. (
  • Allow hospitals to continue to safely monitor their pediatric patients for possible HIV, HBV, and HCV infections. (
  • 1.HIV infections - diagnosis. (
  • 2.HIV infections - therapy. (
  • In developed countries, HIV-1 viral load is regularly used to closely monitor and assess a patient's response to antiretroviral therapy to ensure drug adherence and to gauge how the disease is progressing. (
  • The greatest challenge to reducing HIV in developing countries that have limited resources is the absence of point-of-care assays for viral load and the lack of trained technicians as well as modern laboratory infrastructure. (
  • There is therefore, an urgent need to develop a rapid, disposable, automated, and low-cost HIV viral load assay to increase timely access to HIV care and to improve treatment outcomes. (
  • They have received a $377,971 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to develop a disposable HIV-1 viral load microchip that can selectively capture HIV from whole blood/plasma. (
  • The technology is being developed to be highly sensitive to quantify clinically relevant viral load during acute phase and virus rebound as well as inexpensive (costing less than $1), and quick (results in less than 45 minutes). (
  • Moreover, this technology is highly stable, and does not require refrigeration or a regular electric supply to enable HIV viral load at point-of-care settings. (
  • 0.001, n=135) with nearly 1 log10 less median viral load. (
  • Robust HIV-1-specific TCD4+ responses are associated with decreased viral load and increased antibody neutralization breadth, and thus understanding the processes that lead to successful HIV-1-specific TCD4+ activation is crucial. (
  • Although viral load (VL) measurement has become the reference tool for monitoring antiretroviral treatment in patients living with HIV, most West African countries do not have it systematically. (
  • This is a prospective cohort study of 971 HIV-infected adults and measurement of HIV viral load and genotyping test. (
  • The number of victims constitutes about 1 percent of Russia's population of 143 million, enough to be considered an epidemic, they argued. (
  • After the earliest years of the epidemic, the HIV-1 incidence among MSM strongly declined, mainly because of decreasing levels of sexual risk behaviour [2-5] . (
  • Throughout the 1990s, the lower incidence remained relatively constant in this group, but the 1996 introduction of effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has completely changed the HIV-1 epidemic. (
  • The epidemic histories of HIV-1 group M and nonpandemic group O were similar until ~1960, after which group M underwent an epidemiological transition and outpaced regional population growth. (
  • Understanding the drivers of HIV-1 transmission is of importance for curbing the ongoing epidemic. (
  • [ 1 ] The Swiss HIV-1 epidemic started in the early 1980s, initially driven by men who have sex with men (MSM) and intravenous drug users (IDUs). (
  • Several events had a favourable impact on the Swiss HIV-1 epidemic: the open drug policy with easy access to safe injection material since the late 1980s, the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) introduced in 1996, and the Swiss statement in 2008, which led to earlier treatment of people living with HIV (PLWH). (
  • [ 2-4 ] Nowadays, the HIV-1 epidemic among Swiss IDUs is well controlled. (
  • Although all WB interpretations are based on detecting antibodies against specific viral proteins (Table 3), different organizations have promoted the use of different sets of criteria for interpreting HIV-1 band patterns in the WB test (Table 1). (
  • It is a single-use qualitative immunoassay that detects antibodies to HIV-1 in a fingerstick sample of blood. (
  • Does this test detect antibodies to HIV-2? (
  • This test is approved to detect antibodies to HIV-1. (
  • Specificity of two HIV screening tests detecting simultaneously HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies to HIV-1. (
  • A CE-Marked, rapid point-of-care test that detects antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in fingerstick whole blood, venous whole blood, serum and plasma specimens. (
  • Unlike antibodies, which fail to neutralize a large fraction of HIV-1 strains, our protein has been effective against all strains tested, raising the possibility it could offer an effective HIV vaccine alternative. (
  • When antibodies try to mimic the receptor, they touch a lot of other parts of the viral envelope that HIV can change with ease," said TSRI Research Associate Matthew Gardner, the first author of the study with Lisa M. Kattenhorn of Harvard Medical School. (
  • Data from the new study showed the drug candidate binds to the envelope of HIV-1 more potently than the best broadly neutralizing antibodies against the virus. (
  • This test is for confirmation and differentiation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. (
  • If specimens are autopsy or cadaver blood sources, the proper FDA-licensed assay is HV1CD / HIV-1 and HIV-2 Antibodies for Cadaveric or Hemolyzed Specimens, Serum. (
  • They check for antibodies to the HIV virus, HIV antigen , or both. (
  • By week 58, all vaccinated macaques had developed measurable levels of neutralizing antibodies directed against most strains in a test panel of 12 diverse HIV strains. (
  • Caputi has made important contributions to the understanding of how cellular proteins modulate the replication of the HIV-1 genome. (
  • Therapies targeting capsid proteins show promise as candidates to combat drug resistance for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that antiretroviral therapies (ARTs) can cause, according to the results of a study published in Retrovirology . (
  • Investigators reviewed different compounds that target 5 sites of the capsid proteins: apical binding site, CAP-1 binding site, central pore binding site FG binding site, and 2-fold binding site. (
  • However, the CAP-1 binding site demonstrated the potential of capsid proteins, as it was the first compound reported to target capsid proteins, investigators said. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNA translation is a complex process that uses the host translation machinery to synthesise viral proteins. (
  • The extensive glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Envs), gp120/gp41, is known to play an important role in evasion of host immune response by masking key neutralization epitopes and presenting the Env glycosylation as "self" to the host immune system. (
  • As a mature HIV-1 virus approaches a target cell, Env attaches to proteins on the outside of the uninfected cell, and then the Env protein snaps like a mousetrap to fuse the viral membrane with the cell membrane. (
  • The entry of HIV-1 into lymphocytes requires two cellular proteins, the receptor CD4, and a co-receptor, either CXCR4 or CCR5. (
  • However, instead of carrying mRNA instructions for the coronavirus spike protein, the vaccine delivers coded instructions for making two key HIV proteins, Env and Gag. (
  • The Env proteins produced in the mice from the mRNA instructions closely resembled those in the whole virus, an improvement over previous experimental HIV vaccines. (
  • Addison, Mary Margaret, "The Mhcii-Restricted Presentation Of Hiv-1 Antigens By Cd4+ T Cells" (2022). (
  • I then assessed the ability of primary monocyte-derived DCs and activated TCD4+ to present HIV-1-derived antigen. (
  • We assessed the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a candidate tuberculosis vaccine, modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A (MVA85A), in adults infected with HIV-1. (
  • It's a complex challenge for all of us in medicine, but especially vexing at times for people with HIV and the patients we take care of. (
  • Under World Health Organization guidelines, to reduce the spread of the disease, at least 90 percent of HIV-positive patients should receive antiviral drugs. (
  • Effects of HIV-1 in these studies may have been obscured by a lack of adjustment for prestudy treatment with antimalarial drugs (which might be more common in HIV-1 patients with recurrent fevers [ 27 ]) and by their inherent dependence on the relative survival of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants, given the increased case fatality of malaria among HIV-infected patients ( 6 ). (
  • It is critical to have the ability to monitor HIV patients at point-of-care settings in countries with limited resources and access to highly skilled technicians and laboratories in order to know how their treatment is progressing and whether or not a particular drug is working. (
  • Where HIV prevalence in high-risk populations such as patients with sexually transmitted diseases is less than 1-2%, surveillance of low-risk populations such as antenatal clinic attendants is not technically necessary. (
  • These case reports provide clinical and radiographic evidence of a type of periodontal disease with bone and soft tissue destruction which differentiates it from "conventional" periodontal diseases found in both HIV-1-infected patients and those not infected by the virus. (
  • Addressing the psychosocial barriers to effective disease management and evaluating the mental history of patients receiving HIV care are vital. (
  • Regardless of the reason," said Pence in a statement, "past trauma certainly seems to influence how HIV patients engage in their medical care and how they end up doing clinically. (
  • Lathouwers E, Wong EY, Luo D, Seyedkazemi S, De Meyer S, Brown K. HIV-1 resistance rarely observed in patients using darunavir once-daily regimens across clinical studies. (
  • 1 Lathouwers and colleagues sought to analyze the outcomes from 7 phase 2 and phase 3 clinical trials that investigated darunavir 800-mg once-daily-containing HAART regimens to determine the observed rates of post-baseline resistance in patients with HIV-1. (
  • 1 The adult populations in these 7 studies comprise both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients. (
  • 1 Three of the studies-ARTEMIS, GS-US-216-0130, and ODIN-were pivotal phase 3 trials conducted in treatment-naïve patients (ARTEMIS), treatment-experienced patients (ODIN), or both treatment-naïve and treatment-experienced patients (GS-US-216-0130) and ranged from 48 weeks to 192 weeks in duration. (
  • The large majority of nonvirologically suppressed patients harbored HIV-1 subtype B. Having RAMs at baseline was more common among treatment-experienced patients, and although all 7 studies excluded patients with darunavir RAMs, 3 darunavir-treated participants in the ODIN study experienced ≥1 darunavir RAM at baseline. (
  • Tibotec Therapeutics ) for use in combination with other antiretroviral agents in the treatment of HIV-1 in antiretroviral treatment-naive adult patients. (
  • Highly treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients with documented genotypic and/or phenotypic resistance to at least one ARV drug within three or more drug classes of antiretroviral medications and have difficulty in constructing a viable suppressive regimen. (
  • High HIV-1 DNA (HIV DNA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) correlate with HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (
  • If this relationship also exists among HAART-naïve patients, then HIV DNA may be implicated in the pathogenesis of HAD. (
  • Monocytes/macrophages (M/MΦ) are cellular sanctuaries for HIV-1, which remain present even in patients with suppressed plasma viremia on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) [ 4 , 5 ]. (
  • Here, the matter is to describe virological outcomes and resistance patterns at 5 years in HIV-1+ patients and to identify early factors associated with long-term virological outcome. (
  • This test is not suitable for follow-up testing of patients with reactive results from any rapid HIV tests, except for pregnant patients who were reactive by the Determine HIV-1/-2 Ag/Ab Combo rapid point-of-care test on serum or plasma (but not whole blood). (
  • Introduction: The disruption of neurocognitive functioning is a frequent complication in HIV-positive patients. (
  • Objectives: We proposed to study the verbal communication skills in a group of HIV-1 infected patients, by applying the Protocolo MEC. (
  • Results: The results demonstrate that some of the skills evaluated by the different MEC Protocol tests are more vulnerable in HIV-1 patients. (
  • Conclusion: The detection of communication deficit in HIV-1 patients would be the starting point for the identification of disorders and the admission of the patients to health care system. (
  • In addition, HIV-1 patients with different progression of disease expressed different T cell responses. (
  • Viral quasi species were analyzed by cloning and sequencing the highly variable region-1 in 8 patients. (
  • Currently, the standard of care for patients with HIV includes patients taking daily pills to adequately manage their condition," John Farley, MD, MPH, director of the Office of Infectious Diseases in the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, said in a news release . (
  • Also, we can ask about what else could support someone's overall HIV prevention and health goals and adapt to patients' experiences and needs. (
  • Effects of atorvastatin and pravastatin on immune activation and T-cell function in antiretroviral therapy-suppressed HIV-1-infected patients. (
  • Patients were classified as HIV-unexposed (HIV-U), HIV-EU and HIV-infected. (
  • 1. Franklin JA, McCormick J, Flynn PM. Retrospective study of the safety of caspofungin in immunocompromised pediatric patients. (
  • They also wished to expand the existing research base by comparing these outcomes with those of HIV-positive kidney transplant patients who had an HIV-negative donor. (
  • LOS ANGELES - Powered by LawFuel - A doctor who operates a medical clinic in West Hollywood where he specializes in treating HIV patients has been taken into custody pursuant to federal charges that allege he engaged in a long-running scheme to defraud health insurance companies in connection with the brand-name human growth hormone Serostim. (
  • Lee allegedly engaged in a scheme to divert Serostim - an injectable human growth hormone that is FDA-approved for HIV-positive patients - from legitimate HIV patients to other people who purchased the drug for its purported anti-aging properties. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration has approved Serostim for use only by HIV patients with wasting or cachexia who are also receiving antiretroviral therapy. (
  • According to the indictment, from at least May 2011 until February 2019, Lee wrote prescriptions for Serostim to HIV patients, who obtained the drugs and used their Medicare Part D benefits to pay for the drugs. (
  • Lee allegedly re-sold the Serostim for a significant profit to other patients who were not HIV-positive, and who used the human growth hormone to build muscle and for other cosmetic purposes. (
  • Currently, transplant patients must be tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) while in the hospital for their transplant surgery. (
  • Allow hospitals to test patients aged 10 years and younger for HIV, HBV, and HCV before they are admitted to the hospital for transplant. (
  • Change the HIV, HBV, and HCV testing requirements for patients over the age of 11. (
  • HIV has given us a very unique and important opportunity for learning about the role that drug interactions play in patient management, particularly if you think about drugs like the HIV protease inhibitors , which can block many of our most important drug-metabolizing enzymes but also induce them. (
  • HIV protease inhibitors turn them up and turn them down at the same time. (
  • But its role has really emerged as a very potent boosting agent that has been used with most all of these current HIV protease inhibitors and also, as we'll talk about in a minute, some other very important drugs, especially antivirals. (
  • Epistasis among deleterious mutations in the HIV-1 protease. (
  • CARD8 Inflammasome Activation by HIV-1 Protease. (
  • The pattern recognition receptor CARD8 is an inflammasome sensor for intracellular HIV-1 protease activity. (
  • The identification of HIV-1 protease as a target for sensing by CARD8 has opened the door for a new method of studying the underlying mechanism of CARD8 inflammasome activation. (
  • Here we describe the methods to study CARD8 sensing of HIV-1 protease activity through non- nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-mediated pyroptosis of HIV-1 -infected immune cells and through an HIV and CARD8 co- transfection model. (
  • Saquinavir An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. (
  • 8 , 1-9 (2016). (
  • The study involved 75 people with HIV who received a kidney from a deceased donor between 2016 and 2019. (
  • Edurant, a diarylpyrimidine non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), inhibits HIV-1 replication by non-competitive inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (
  • Reference: Perspectives on the molecular mechanism of inhibition and toxicity of nucleoside analogs that target HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. (
  • Similar to other dideoxy nucleosides, these analogs are metabolically activated to the triphosphate that is incorporated into DNA by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) resulting in DNA chain termination and ultimately cessation of viral replication. (
  • We developed and validated a molecular epidemiology approach using longitudinally sampled viral Sanger sequences to characterize potential HIV-1 transmitters in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. (
  • These findings were, "independent of HIV-1 subtype, hormonal contraceptive use, or the number of sex acts and partners," the authors write. (
  • Seraseq HIV-1 Reference Materials are high-titer viral isolates designed for assays that determine HIV-1 subtype, drug resistance, or assign viral tropism. (
  • American Red Cross (ARC) and Consortium for Retrovirus Serology Standardization (CRSS)) have recommended for antibody testing to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) that duplicate repeat reactive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screening results be confirmed by a supplemental test (1-6). (
  • This report examines the variation in Western blot (WB) interpretive criteria reported by laboratories enrolled in CDC's Model Performance Evaluation Program (MPEP) for HIV-1-antibody testing. (
  • Laboratories were also provided descriptions of the various WB band pattern combinations that were representative of each organization's set of WB interpretive criteria (Table 1) and were asked to choose which WB patterns their laboratory would use to classify a specimen as HIV-1-antibody reactive. (
  • All sets of WB interpretive criteria (Table 1) consider a WB test that has no bands as nonreactive for HIV antibody. (
  • What is the OraQuick Rapid HIV-1 Antibody Test and how is it performed? (
  • Their results, published in Nature Medicine , show that the novel vaccine was safe and prompted desired antibody and cellular immune responses against an HIV-like virus. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourage people to see self-testing for HIV as a first step . (
  • Using statistical approaches applied to HIV-1 sequence data from central Africa, we show that from the 1920s Kinshasa (in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo) was the focus of early transmission and the source of pre-1960 pandemic viruses elsewhere. (
  • METHODS: We did a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial of MVA85A in adults infected with HIV-1, at two clinical sites, in Cape Town, South Africa and Dakar, Senegal. (
  • Pioneering research in South Africa showed that it was possible for the kidneys of HIV-positive donors to be successfully transplanted into HIV-positive recipients. (
  • As of 2017, about 36.9 million people around the world were living with HIV-- 1 in 4 were unaware of their HIV status. (
  • People of color account for more than 75 percent of new HIV diagnoses and, for persons living with HIV, the racial/ethnic distribution is 21 percent White, 43 percent Black, 32 percent Hispanic, 1.2 percent Asian/Pacific Islander, 0.1 percent Native American and 2.8 percent more than one racial group. (
  • HIV-1 Drug Resistance and Virologic Outcomes Among Tanzanian Youth Living With HIV. (
  • Adolescents living with HIV tend to have poor adherence that often breeds HIV resistance mutations and virologic failure (VF). (
  • This study evaluated risk behavior, virologic outcomes and HIV resistance mutations in Tanzanian youth living with HIV. (
  • HIV can be a life changing condition, but early testing and effective treatment enable many people living with HIV to lead healthy, active lives. (
  • The convenience and privacy these kits offer can encourage individuals to test, meaning more people living with HIV receive treatment and take prompt precautions. (
  • Approximately 87,000 women living with HIV get pregnant annually," she said during a Nairobi forum on ensuring women living with virus can access family planning services. (
  • This has major implications for how women living with HIV might choose to feed their infants, and how health workers should counsel mothers when making these choices. (
  • n the United States, the need for safe, affordable housing remains the number one unmet need for people living with HIV. (
  • 35 means we can empower more people living with HIV to challenge stigma with our information workshops, videos and broadcasts. (
  • HIV-related stigma is among the most formidable obstacles for people living with HIV and their advocates. (
  • This HIV Policy Resource Bank category includes materials examining the magnitude and causes of HIV-related stigma and its impact on the health, rights, and well-being of people living with HIV, with a focus on those who face additional marginalization, such as women, people of color, immigrants, those living in poverty, young people, and the LGBT community. (
  • The kidneys of deceased HIV-positive donors can be safely transplanted into people living with HIV who have end-stage kidney disease, investigators report in the American Journal of Transplantation . (
  • An increasing number of people living with HIV have end-stage kidney disease and are in need of a kidney transplant. (
  • A 2013 meta-analysis of data from 39 studies conducted in 15 countries reported a global HIV prevalence among trans women of nearly 20%, with trans women estimated to be 49 times more likely than other adults to be living with HIV. (
  • Prior to 2014, HIV surveillance systems in England used binary gender identity categories, rendering trans and non-binary populations living with HIV invisible. (
  • The large meta-analysis of 10 studies found that people living with HIV had twice the risk for depression than those who were at risk for HIV but were not actually infected [ 1 ]. (
  • Many people living with HIV have depression [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • ST. PETERSBURG, Russia - Quietly, earlier this year, the number of Russians who have received a positive HIV diagnosis passed the 1 million mark, with little indication that the government will commit adequate resources to stem the acceleration of the virus from high-risk groups into the general population. (
  • The appropriate use of clinical and radiographic findings is extremely helpful in the diagnosis, particularly in the case of defining HIV-1 necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis (NUP). (
  • [ 15 ] This emphasizes the importance of early diagnosis as well as systematic testing and monitoring of drug resistance mutations in the effort to stop HIV-1 transmission. (
  • Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of the candidate tuberculosis vaccine MVA85A in healthy adults infected with HIV-1: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. (
  • An experimental HIV vaccine based on mRNA-the same platform technology used in two highly effective COVID-19 vaccines-shows promise in mice and non-human primates, according to scientists at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. (
  • Despite nearly four decades of effort by the global research community, an effective vaccine to prevent HIV remains an elusive goal," said NIAID Director Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., chief of the Laboratory and a paper co-author. (
  • This experimental mRNA vaccine combines several features that may overcome shortcomings of other experimental HIV vaccines and thus represents a promising approach. (
  • The boost vaccines contained Gag mRNA and Env mRNA from two HIV clades other than the one used in the prime vaccine. (
  • First, let me introduce my guest, Dr Charlie Flexner, a physician trained in internal medicine, infectious diseases, and pharmacology, which he blends together to create a really unique expertise that places him at the heart of all drug development in HIV, hepatitis C, and many other conditions. (
  • The same behaviors and community characteristics associated with HIV also place individuals and communities at risk for STDs and viral hepatitis. (
  • We estimated the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in cervical cytobrush samples from HCV/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-coinfected women and analyzed the HCV quasi species in both cytobrush and plasma samples. (
  • Background information on HIV, hepatitis C and STIs in Canada, including basic information, statistics (epidemiology), provincial and national strategies to address HIV, hepatitis C and STIs, and social determinants of health. (
  • Information on HIV and hepatitis C transmission and prevention, including STIs and safer sex, harm reduction, pregnancy and infant feeding, and microbicides and vaccines. (
  • Around The Kitchen Table (ATKT) trains Aboriginal women to be leaders and educators within their communities, reclaiming traditions and increasing awareness of HIV, STIs and hepatitis. (
  • Peer-led ATKT workshops combine information about HIV, STIs and hepatitis prevention and treatment with traditional cultural activities, with each community tailoring its own approach. (
  • At the specified CD4-stratum-specific relative risks, the relative risk averaged over all HIV-infected people would be 2.1 in Madagascar and 2.5 in all other countries (see Methods, CD4 distributions among HIV-infected people). (
  • At these CD4-stratum-specific relative risks, the relative risk averaged over all HIV-infected people would be 3.4 in Madagascar and 4.1 in all other countries (see Methods, CD4 distributions among HIV-infected people). (
  • Phylogenetic methods were used heavily in HIV research to identify the origin of the pandemic, understand transmission patterns, and calculate R o and the heritability of different viral traits. (
  • So far, there is no consensus on methods to define HIV-1 transmission clusters or potential HIV-1 transmitters. (
  • While HIV is not curable, people can reduce the likelihood of transmission to others through medication and by ensuring they use barrier methods of contraception when having sex. (
  • ABSTRACT Background: Between 34 and 46 million people are today infected with HIV. (
  • 2023)‎. In vitro diagnostic medical devices used for the quantitative detection of HIV-1 nucleic acid. (
  • They investigated possible links to traumatic experiences, HIV-related behaviors, and health outcomes. (
  • However, little is known about PICU outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) children with pneumonia, despite the growing size of this vulnerable population. (
  • Outcomes were every bit as good as those observed in people with HIV whose kidney donor was HIV negative. (
  • We report the first results of HIV-positive donor to HIV-positive recipient kidney transplantation in the United States, and directly compare outcomes in HIV-positive recipients of HIV-negative donor kidneys to evaluable attributable risk of HIV-positive donors," write the authors. (
  • Dr Christine Durand and her co-investigators from the Hope in Action project wanted to get a clearer understanding of outcomes among individuals with HIV who received a kidney of an HIV-positive donor. (
  • In the clinical studies by the manufacturer, OraQuick correctly identified 99.6% of people who were infected with HIV-1 (sensitivity) and 100% of people who were not infected with HIV-1 (specificity). (
  • False Positives - although none were found in the clinical trial, a statistical analysis of the data indicates that a very small number of people who are not infected with HIV-1 will have reactive test results. (
  • Another notable finding of the study was that the CAP-1 binding site did not have a lot of clinical success because of low binding affinity. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Clinical and radiographic presentations of HIV-1 necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis. (
  • This study was a multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy, randomised clinical trial comparing the safety and lipid lowering effects of pitavastatin (4 mg daily) and pravastatin (40 mg daily) in 252 people with HIV and dyslipidaemia. (
  • High dose atorvastatin decreases cellular markers of immune activation without affecting HIV-1 RNA levels: results of a double-blind randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. (
  • This study completes the picture of PrEP efficacy for all major HIV risk groups,' said Dr. Michael Martin, chief of clinical research for the Thailand Ministry of Public Health-CDC collaboration. (
  • When HIV infects a cell, it targets the CD4 lymphocyte, an integral part of the body's immune system. (
  • HIV is a virus that attacks the body's immune system. (
  • When a person becomes infected with HIV, the virus attacks and weakens the immune system. (
  • Effects of pitavastatin and pravastatin on markers of immune activation and arterial inflammation in HIV. (
  • Thirty years after the discovery of HIV-1, the early transmission, dissemination, and establishment of the virus in human populations remain unclear. (
  • Our results reconstruct the early dynamics of HIV-1 and emphasize the role of social changes and transport networks in the establishment of this virus in human populations. (
  • Trans and non-binary people are key populations whose HIV prevention and treatment needs have been neglected. (
  • CCR5 eller CXCR4 tropisme bestemmes ud fra sekvensanalyse af V3 i envelopegenet af Human immundefektvirus 1 (HIV-1). (
  • Human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells modified by zinc-finger nucleases targeted to CCR5 control HIV-1 in vivo. (
  • Entry of HIV-1 into target cells involves the interaction of the HIV envelope (Env) with both a primary receptor (CD4) and a coreceptor (CXCR4 or CCR5). (
  • 5 allows us to reach millions of people globally with accurate and reliable resources about HIV prevention and treatment. (
  • Investigating fitness epistasis among amino acids of a functionally important region of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) exterior envelope glycoprotein found to be common and complex, involving not only pairwise interactions, but also higher-order interactions. (
  • The conserved surface of the HIV-1 gp120 envelope glycoprotein that binds to the HIV-1 coreceptor is protected from humoral recognition by multiple layers of camouflage. (
  • Our findings may facilitate the development of new therapeutic agents that inhibit HIV-1 assembly, envelope incorporation and ultimately virus production," said Saad, a professor of microbiology at UAB. (
  • The envelope protein of HIV-1, or Env, is a transmembrane protein delivered to the plasma membrane by the cell's secretory pathway. (
  • Orthologous to human HTATSF1 (HIV-1 Tat specific factor 1). (
  • Complete eradication of the human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) from infected individuals is not currently possible due, in part, to continuing presence of virus in lymphocytes and cells of the macrophage lineage [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Moreover, in resting CD4+ T cells, P-TEFb, composed of CDK9 and human cyclin T1, is sequestered in an inactive form by the HEXIM-1/7SK snRNA regulatory complex. (
  • In this study, I used a lentiviral transduction system to achieve HIV-1-specificity in primary human TCD4+. (
  • In fact, a team of researchers lead by Huanzhang Zhu used the on target DNA cleaving potential of zinc finger nucleases to cleave the HIV-1 provirus out of infected human T-cells. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus is a non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. (
  • We also conducted an in cellulo genome-wide comparative study of nucleosome positions and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) integration sites identified experimentally in vivo. (
  • Fig. 1: Base editing the +58 BCL11A erythroid enhancer in human CD34 + HSPCs. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a blood-borne virus typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and during the birth process or via human milk (vertical transmission). (
  • Electron microscopy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 virions. (
  • The mouse CXCL12/SDF-1 orthologs share 99% aa sequence identity with the human protein. (
  • Because non-human primates are not susceptible to HIV-1, scientists use a chimeric SHIV in experimental settings because that virus replicates in macaques. (
  • The prevalence of mental problems in HIV-infected individuals is significantly higher than that in the general population [ 8 ]. (
  • False Negatives - a small number of people who are infected with HIV-1 will have negative test results. (
  • Our results predict sex as a determinant of HIV effects in brain. (
  • Results: An important measure in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV is to teach women in reproductive age about HIV. (
  • These results are consistent with a previous report among HAART-experienced subjects, thus further implicating HIV DNA in the pathogenesis of HAD. (
  • PATH HIV-1 dipstick : product information and evaluation results. (
  • Taken together , these results indicate that HIV-1 IN is a shape-readout DNA binding protein. (
  • In The Lancet HIV , Judith Aberg and colleagues present results of the INTREPID study. (
  • The results of this study are important, and if used effectively in HIV programming, could have a significant impact in protecting people who inject drugs from becoming infected with HIV. (
  • Because HIV and the behaviors or identities associated with it - such as being gay or using drugs - are still stigmatized, confirming or disclosing one's HIV status is still widely perceived as socially dangerous. (
  • Undetected mental health problems such as depression, personality disorders, cognitive disorders, and cooccurring conditions such as substance-related disorders can affect drug adherence, clinic attendance, and quality of life and can influence the outcome of disease and high-risk behaviors that increase risk of HIV transmission [ 8 , 9 ]. (
  • The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are en- dorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. (
  • To better understand this hypothesized "genetic bottleneck," investigator, Katja Klein, PhD, and colleagues, "conducted the first study to compare HIV-1 genetic diversity between the vaginal tract and the blood in newly infected people," according to a press release on the research. (
  • Many people have no symptoms when they are first infected with HIV. (
  • In our 35th year we're asking people to donate £35 - that's just £1 for every year we've been providing life-changing information. (
  • Not So Fast: Do people with HIV really experience accelerated aging? (
  • it creates very real obstacles for people with HIV in obtaining treatment, housing, education, and employment, all of which are essential to their health. (
  • Lock This Whore Up": Legal Violence and Flows of Information Precipitating Personal Violence against People Criminalised for HIV-Related Crimes in Canada, Alexander McClelland, 10 Eur. (
  • ST has previously received a travel bursary funded by Janssen-Cilag through the British HIV Association, speaker honoraria and funding for preparation of educational materials from Gilead Sciences, and is a member of the steering group of SWIFT, a networking group for people involved in research in HIV and women, funded by Bristol Myers Squibb. (
  • The World Mental Health Survey conducted in seventeen countries found that about 1 in 20 people reported having an episode of depression in the preceding year [ 4 ]. (
  • How could HIV-1 drug resistance impact preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention? (
  • These properties converge to provide HIV-1 with the means, motive, and opportunity to recombine its genetic material at an unprecedented high rate and to allow genetic recombination to serve as one of the highest barriers to HIV- 1 eradication. (
  • An older test called the Home Access HIV-1 Test Service underwent discontinuation in 2019. (
  • The best way in these countries to prevent transmission is through information about HIV, testing and counseling, as well as nevirapine prophylaxis. (
  • This is not the first study to prove that PrEP - pre-exposure prophylaxis - is effective in reducing HIV transmission in high risk groups. (
  • HIV-1 matrix protein (MA) is a multifunctional structural protein localized on N terminus of Gag precursor p55. (
  • Once injected into muscle tissue, like HIV itself, the vehicle turns those cells into "factories" that could produce enough of the new protective protein to last for years, perhaps decades, Farzan said. (
  • As with all HIV screening tests, a reactive test result needs to be confirmed by an additional, more specific test. (
  • CHLP fights stigma and discrimination at the intersection of HIV, race, health status, disability, class, sexuality and gender identity and expression, with a focus on criminal and public health systems. (
  • HIV-related stigma discourages testing and prevention practices, and creates confusion about the routes and relative risks of HIV transmission. (
  • HIV-related stigma is also tied to and compounded by stigma and discrimination associated with sex, race and ethnicity, immigration status, poverty, sexual orientation, gender identity, and gender expression. (
  • Effects of chronic HIV-1 Tat exposure in the CNS: heightened vulnerability of males versus females to changes in cell numbers, synaptic integrity, and behavior. (
  • Some individuals undergo HIV screening every so often, while others seek tests only after possible exposure. (
  • 9,14,15] However, the effect of HIV exposure of age annual y.[1-4] However, the mortality rate from pneumonia on pneumonia morbidity and mortality risk is less well known. (
  • In Bangui, the rate of isolation of pure cultures of K. pneumoniae from the stools of immunocompromised HIV-infected adults with chronic diarrhea is increasing. (
  • However, many of those with chronic HCV do not know they are infected, and recently it has been noted that more New Yorkers are dying from HCV than from HIV. (
  • These cells may be particularly suited as sanctuaries for virus because HIV-1 DNA (HIV DNA), compared to HIV RNA, is less affected by current treatment regimens [ 6 - 9 ]. (
  • [ 7-10 ] Nevertheless, despite the country-wide availability of treatment and prevention, HIV-1 transmission is still ongoing and in Switzerland primarily happens among MSM with high-risk behaviour as in many other resource-rich settings. (
  • Testing and treatment of HIV-positive mothers has helped lower the number of babies getting HIV. (
  • Cabotegravir tablets should be taken in combination with oral rilpivirine for 1 month before starting treatment with Cabenuva to ensure that the medications are well tolerated before switching to the extended-release injectable formulation, the agency advised. (
  • HIV treatment referral services are available. (
  • Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) in blocks of four by randomly generated sequence to receive two intradermal injections of either MVA85A or placebo. (
  • Nearly half of the participants reported inability to ask their husbands about HIV and STIs even if they had their doubts. (
  • Investments in health research and development (R&D) are poorly aligned with global public health needs, the World Health Organisation said, highlighting that merely 1% of the total funding on health R&D was allocated towards neglected diseases like HIV , tuberculosis and malaria which account for more than 12.5% of the global disease burden. (
  • Following increases in sexual risk behaviour from 1996 onwards, HIV-1 continues to spread among MSM. (
  • Routine testing is essential for anyone with known HIV risk factors, such as sex with more than one partner since their last HIV test. (
  • In particular, evidence has been reported that antiretro- viral (ARV) interventions to either the HIV-infected mother or HIV-exposed infant can significantly reduce the risk of postnatal transmission of HIV through breastfeeding. (
  • We aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of migrants' wives regarding HIV and STIs, and to understand risk perception of HIV due to their husbands' sexual behaviour. (
  • Knowledge of HIV and HIV risk associated with migration were statistically significantly higher in younger women, those who were literate and the longer the period of their husbands' migration. (
  • University of Western Ontario investigators have conducted the first study to reveal that the HIV-1 variants found in the vaginal tract of recently infected women are more diverse than those found in blood. (
  • In a new study, researchers show that a new drug candidate blocks every strain of HIV-1, HIV-2 and SIV that has been isolated from humans or rhesus macaques, including the hardest-to-stop variants. (
  • By targeting the HIV-1 viral conical core, also known as the capsid or core, therapies could disrupt the process of assembly and/or disassembly of the virus, resulting in the suppression of the virus. (
  • Additionally, and unexpectedly, I found that MHCII-restricted TCD4+-to-TCD4+ presentation facilitates transfer of virus to HIV-1-specific TCD4+, providing both a potential explanation for the rapid spread of the virus to HIV-1-specific TCD4+ in vivo and a novel mechanism for compromising the host response. (
  • With this knowledge, Farzan and his team developed the new drug candidate so that it binds to two sites on the surface of the virus simultaneously, preventing entry of HIV into the host cell. (
  • Although HIV can nowadays be successfully managed with a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs that inhibit replication, the virus remains latent in the genome of infected individuals waiting to come out full throttle whenever it is given the chance. (
  • During this period, the person might have no reason to suspect they have HIV, but they can spread the virus to others. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy is effective, affordable and even freely available in many developing countries, yet it is only used by 59 percent of those infected with HIV. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 infected children. (
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy is beyond reach of most HIV-infected children in developing countries. (
  • The study subjects were HIV-1 infected children, who were receiving 3-drug antiretroviral therapy for a period of three or more months. (
  • The potential of ARVs to reduce HIV transmission throughout the period of breastfeed- ing also highlights the need for guidance on how child health services should commu- nicate information about ARVs to prevent transmission through breastfeeding, and the implications for feeding of HIV exposed infants through the first two years of life. (
  • Even though questions remain about the extent to which PrEP can be effective in preventing either of the routes of transmission in this group, the overall result is that daily tenofovir does reduce HIV transmission in injecting drug users,' Karim said. (