Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Sexual activities of humans.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Cellular receptors that bind the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS. Included are CD4 ANTIGENS, found on T4 lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages, which bind to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease.
Sexual behaviors which are high-risk for contracting SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or for producing PREGNANCY.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.
A syndrome characterized by chronic, well-established DIARRHEA (greater than one month in duration) without an identified infectious cause after thorough evaluation, in an HIV-positive individual. It is thought to be due to direct or indirect effects of HIV on the enteric mucosa. HIV enteropathy is a diagnosis of exclusion and can be made only after other forms of diarrheal illness have been ruled out. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, pp1607-8; Haubrich et al., Bockus Gastroenterology, 5th ed, p1155)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Programs in which participation is not required.
Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
Sexual behavior that prevents or reduces the spread of SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES or PREGNANCY.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.
Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
An oversimplified perception or conception especially of persons, social groups, etc.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
People who engage in occupational sexual behavior in exchange for economic rewards or other extrinsic considerations.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The practice of making choices about SEXUAL PARTNERS based on their HIV status.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the same SEX.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Reduction of high-risk choices and adoption of low-risk quantity and frequency alternatives.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Enzyme of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS that is required to integrate viral DNA into cellular DNA in the nucleus of a host cell. HIV integrase is a DNA nucleotidyltransferase encoded by the pol gene.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The sexual attraction or relationship between members of both the same and the opposite SEX.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
Testing in which the source of the specimen or the person being tested is not individually identified.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
An agency of the UNITED STATES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that conducts and supports programs for the prevention and control of disease and provides consultation and assistance to health departments and other countries.
Usage of a single needle among two or more people for injecting drugs. Needle sharing is a high-risk behavior for contracting infectious disease.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
A republic in southern Africa, south of ANGOLA and west of BOTSWANA. Its capital is Windhoek.
A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.
Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins encoded by the TAT GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
A kingdom in southern Africa, west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Mbabane. The area was settled by the Swazi branch of the Zulu nation in the early 1880's, with its independence guaranteed by the British and Transvaal governments in 1881 and 1884. With limited self-government introduced in 1962, it became independent in 1968. Swazi is the Zulu name for the people who call themselves Swati, from Mswati, the name of a 16th century king, from a word meaning stick or rod. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1170 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p527)
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
People who frequently change their place of residence.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.
The status of health in rural populations.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Organized services for exchange of sterile needles and syringes used for injections as a potential means of reducing the transmission of infectious diseases.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
A prodromal phase of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Laboratory criteria separating AIDS-related complex (ARC) from AIDS include elevated or hyperactive B-cell humoral immune responses, compared to depressed or normal antibody reactivity in AIDS; follicular or mixed hyperplasia in ARC lymph nodes, leading to lymphocyte degeneration and depletion more typical of AIDS; evolving succession of histopathological lesions such as localization of Kaposi's sarcoma, signaling the transition to the full-blown AIDS.
The status of health in urban populations.
The application of methods designed to reduce the risk of harm associated with certain behaviors without reduction in frequency of those behaviors. The risk-associated behaviors include ongoing and active addictive behaviors.
Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
CXCR receptors with specificity for CXCL12 CHEMOKINE. The receptors may play a role in HEMATOPOIESIS regulation and can also function as coreceptors for the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Trans-acting transcription factors produced by retroviruses such as HIV. They are nuclear proteins whose expression is required for viral replication. The tat protein stimulates LONG TERMINAL REPEAT-driven RNA synthesis for both viral regulatory and viral structural proteins. tat stands for trans-activation of transcription.
A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.
Non-optimal interval of time between onset of symptoms, identification, and initiation of treatment.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
Counseling during which a professional plays an active role in a client's or patient's decision making by offering advice, guidance, and/or recommendations.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.
Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.
Proteins encoded by the NEF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
The sexual functions, activities, attitudes, and orientations of an individual. Sexuality, male or female, becomes evident at PUBERTY under the influence of gonadal steroids (TESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL), and social effects.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men's salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A soft, loose-fitting polyurethane sheath, closed at one end, with flexible rings at both ends. The device is inserted into the vagina by compressing the inner ring and pushing it in. Properly positioned, the ring at the closed end covers the cervix, and the sheath lines the walls of the vagina. The outer ring remains outside the vagina, covering the labia. (Med Lett Drugs Ther 1993 Dec 24;35(12):123)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
The purified, alkaloidal, extra-potent form of cocaine. It is smoked (free-based), injected intravenously, and orally ingested. Use of crack results in alterations in function of the cardiovascular system, the autonomic nervous system, the central nervous system, and the gastrointestinal system. The slang term "crack" was derived from the crackling sound made upon igniting of this form of cocaine for smoking.
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.

Analysis of the adult thymus in reconstitution of T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infection. (1/23412)

A key question in understanding the status of the immune system in HIV-1 infection is whether the adult thymus contributes to reconstitution of peripheral T lymphocytes. We analyzed the thymus in adult patients who died of HIV-1 infection. In addition, we studied the clinical course of HIV-1 infection in three patients thymectomized for myasthenia gravis and determined the effect of antiretroviral therapy on CD4(+) T cells. We found that five of seven patients had thymus tissue at autopsy and that all thymuses identified had inflammatory infiltrates surrounding lymphodepleted thymic epithelium. Two of seven patients also had areas of thymopoiesis; one of these patients had peripheral blood CD4(+) T-cell levels of <50/mm3 for 51 months prior to death. Of three thymectomized patients, one rapidly progressed to AIDS, one progressed to AIDS over seven years (normal progressor), whereas the third remains asymptomatic at least seven years after seroconversion. Both latter patients had rises in peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells after antiretroviral therapy. Most patients who died of complications of HIV-1 infection did not have functional thymus tissue, and when present, thymopoiesis did not prevent prolonged lymphopenia. Thymectomy before HIV-1 infection did not preclude either peripheral CD4(+) T-cell rises or clinical responses after antiretroviral therapy.  (+info)

Structural basis for the specificity of the initiation of HIV-1 reverse transcription. (2/23412)

Initiation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcription requires specific recognition of the viral genome, tRNA3Lys, which acts as primer, and reverse transcriptase (RT). The specificity of this ternary complex is mediated by intricate interactions between HIV-1 RNA and tRNA3Lys, but remains poorly understood at the three-dimensional level. We used chemical probing to gain insight into the three-dimensional structure of the viral RNA-tRNA3Lys complex, and enzymatic footprinting to delineate regions interacting with RT. These and previous experimental data were used to derive a three-dimensional model of the initiation complex. The viral RNA and tRNA3Lys form a compact structure in which the two RNAs fold into distinct structural domains. The extended interactions between these molecules are not directly recognized by RT. Rather, they favor RT binding by preventing steric clashes between the nucleic acids and the polymerase and inducing a viral RNA-tRNA3Lys conformation which fits perfectly into the nucleic acid binding cleft of RT. Recognition of the 3' end of tRNA3Lys and of the first template nucleotides by RT is favored by a kink in the template strand promoted by the short junctions present in the previously established secondary structure.  (+info)

High level inhibition of HIV replication with combination RNA decoys expressed from an HIV-Tat inducible vector. (3/23412)

Intracellular immunization, an antiviral gene therapy approach based on the introduction of DNA into cells to stably express molecules for the inhibition of viral gene expression and replication, has been suggested for inhibition of HIV infection. Since the Tat and Rev proteins play a critical role in HIV regulation, RNA decoys and ribozymes of these sequences have potential as therapeutic molecular inhibitors. In the present study, we have generated several anti-HIV molecules; a tat-ribozyme, RRE, RWZ6 and TAR decoys and combinations of decoys, and tested them for inhibition of HIV-1 replication in vitro. We used T cell specific CD2 gene elements and regulatory the HIV inducible promoter to direct high level expression and a 3' UTR sequence for mRNA stabilization. We show that HIV replication was most strongly inhibited with the combination TAR + RRE decoy when compared with the single decoys or the tat-ribozyme. We also show that the Tat-inducible HIV promoter directs a higher level of steady-state transcription of decoys and inhibitors and that higher levels of expression directly relate to increased levels of inhibition of HIV infection. Furthermore, a stabilization of the 3' end of TAR + RRE inhibitor transcripts using a beta-globin 3' UTR sequence leads to an additional 15-fold increase in steady-state RNA levels. This cassette when used to express the best combination decoy inhibitor TAR + RRE, yields high level HIV inhibition for greater than 3 weeks. Taken together, both optimization for high level expression of molecular inhibitors and use of combinations of inhibitors suggest better therapeutic application in limiting the spread of HIV.  (+info)

Pregnancy, body weight and human immunodeficiency virus infection in African women: a prospective cohort study in Kigali (Rwanda), 1992-1994. Pregnancy and HIV Study Group (EGE). (4/23412)

OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and body weight in African women during and after pregnancy. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was initiated at the Centre Hospitalier de Kigali in July 1992. Every woman seen at the antenatal clinic and with a gestational age of <28 weeks was offered HIV-1 antibody testing. Comparable numbers of HIV-infected (HIV+) and uninfected (HIV-) women were recruited. At inclusion, socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported pre-pregnancy weight were recorded; height and weight were measured. Each woman enrolled had a monthly follow-up until 9 months after delivery, with a clinical examination including weighing. Three anthropometric indices were used to answer the study objectives: weight, body mass index (BMI), and pregnancy balance. RESULTS: As of April 1994, 101 HIV+ and 106 HIV- women were followed until 5 months after delivery. Weight and BMI during pregnancy were lower in HIV+ women than in HIV- women. After delivery, weight and BMI gains were significantly lower in HIV+ women. Until 5 months after delivery, the mean weight variation was -2.2 kg (standard deviation [SD] = 5.9 kg) in HIV+ women and +0.2 kg (SD = 6.6 kg) in HIV- women (P = 0.007) in comparison to pre-pregnancy weight. Comparisons of the slopes of the weight curves did not show statistical differences throughout the pregnancy, but it did during the post-partum period (P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that HIV infection could impair nutritional status in pregnant women, especially during the post-partum period. Family planning and maternal and child health services including HIV testing and counselling, should consider a nutritional assessment and intervention programme targeted to HIV+ pregnant women.  (+info)

Dysregulated production of interleukin-8 in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (5/23412)

Interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in vivo was monitored in four study groups: normal blood donors, patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), patients with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, and dually infected (HIV/TB) patients. We show that whereas there was evidence of detectable levels of cell-associated IL-8 (mRNA and protein) in peripheral cells of healthy individuals, this was largely lost in the disease states studied. Coupled with this finding was significantly increased circulating levels of IL-8 in HIV-1-infected individuals with or without concomitant pulmonary TB (P < 0.001). On the other hand, the capacity of peripheral mononuclear cells to produce IL-8 spontaneously ex vivo was enhanced in HIV-1 and TB patients (P < 0.05) and many of the HIV/TB group, but their corresponding capacities to respond to various stimuli, in particular phytohemagglutinin, were significantly diminished compared to those of normal donors (P < 0.05). Circulating levels of IL-8 in a group of HIV/TB patients were significantly positively correlated with the percentage of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) in the peripheral circulation (r = 0.65; P = 0.01), the proportions of IL-8 receptor A (IL-8RA)-expressing (r = 0.86; P < 0.01) and IL-8RB-expressing (r = 0.77; P < 0.01) PMN, and the capacity of PMN to migrate in response to IL-8 as chemoattractant (r = 0.68; P < 0. 01). IL-8RB fluorescence intensity, however, was negatively correlated with plasma IL-8 levels (r = -0.73; P < 0.01). Our results suggest that altered regulation of IL-8 in HIV-1 may have important implications for antimicrobial defenses and for normal immune processes.  (+info)

Biophysical characterization of the structure of the amino-terminal region of gp41 of HIV-1. Implications on viral fusion mechanism. (6/23412)

A peptide of 51 amino acids corresponding to the NH2-terminal region (5-55) of the glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 was synthesized to study its conformation and assembly. Nuclear magnetic resonance experiments indicated the sequence NH2-terminal to the leucine zipper-like domain of gp41 was induced into helix in the micellar solution, in agreement with circular dichroism data. Light scattering experiment showed that the peptide molecules self-assembled in water into trimeric structure on average. That the peptide molecules oligomerize in aqueous solution was supported by gel filtration and diffusion coefficient experiments. Molecular dynamics simulation based on the NMR data revealed a flexible region adjacent to the hydrophobic NH2 terminus of gp41. The biological significance of the present findings on the conformational flexibility and the propensity of oligomerization of the peptide may be envisioned by a proposed model for the interaction of gp41 with membranes during fusion process.  (+info)

Maturation-induced conformational changes of HIV-1 capsid protein and identification of two high affinity sites for cyclophilins in the C-terminal domain. (7/23412)

Viral incorporation of cyclophilin A (CyPA) during the assembly of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) is crucial for efficient viral replication. CyPA binds to the previously identified Gly-Pro90 site of the capsid protein p24, but its role remained unclear. Here we report two new interaction sites between cyclophilins and p24. Both are located in the C-terminal domain of p24 around Gly-Pro157 and Gly-Pro224. Peptides corresponding to these regions showed higher affinities (Kd approximately 0.3 microM) for both CyPA and cyclophilin B than the best peptide derived from the Gly-Pro90 site ( approximately 8 microM) and thus revealed new sequence motifs flanking Gly-Pro that are important for tight interaction of peptide ligands with cyclophilins. Between CyPA and an immature (unprocessed) form of p24, a Kd of approximately 8 microM was measured, which corresponded with the Kd of the best of the Gly-Pro90 peptides, indicating an association via this site. Processing of immature p24 by the viral protease, yielding mature p24, elicited a conformational change in its C-terminal domain that was signaled by the covalently attached fluorescence label acrylodan. Consequently, CyPA and cyclophilin B bound with much higher affinities ( approximately 0.6 and 0.25 microM) to the new, i.e. maturation-generated sites. Since this domain is essential for p24 oligomerization and capsid cone formation, CyPA bound to the new sites might impair the regularity of the capsid cone and thus facilitate in vivo core disassembly after host infection.  (+info)

HIV-associated nephropathy is a late, not early, manifestation of HIV-1 infection. (8/23412)

BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) can be the initial presentation of HIV-1 infection. As a result, many have assumed that HIVAN can occur at any point in the infection. This issue has important implications for appropriate therapy and, perhaps, for pathogenesis. Since the development of new case definitions for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and better tools to assess infection, the relationship of HIVAN to the time of AIDS infection has not been addressed. In this study, we reassessed the stage of infection at the time of HIVAN diagnosis in 10 patients, and we reviewed all previously published cases applying the new case definitions to assess stage of infection. METHODS: HIVAN was confirmed by kidney biopsy in HIV seropositive patients with azotemia and/or proteinuria. CD4+ cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA copy number were measured. We also reviewed all published cases of HIVAN to determine if AIDS-defining conditions, by current Centers for Disease Control definitions, were present in patients with biopsy-proven HIVAN. RESULTS: Twenty HIV-1 seropositive patients with proteinuria and an elevated creatinine concentration were biopsied. HIVAN was the single most common cause of renal disease. CD4+ cell count was below 200/mm3 in all patients with HIVAN, fulfilling Centers for Disease Control criteria for an AIDS-defining condition. HIV-1 plasma RNA was detectable in all patients with HIVAN. In reviewing previous reports, an AIDS-defining condition was present in virtually all patients with HIVAN. CONCLUSION: HIVAN develops late, not early, in the course of HIV-1 infection following the development of AIDS. This likely accounts for the poor prognosis noted in previous publications and has implications for pathogenesis. In addition, given the detectable viral RNA levels, highly active antiretroviral therapy is indicated in HIVAN. Highly active antiretroviral therapy may improve survival as well as alter the natural history of HIVAN.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicenter evaluation of quantification methods for plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rna. AU - Lin, Hsiang Ju. AU - Myers, Lawrence E.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Blaine Hollinger, F.. AU - Henrard, Denis. AU - Hooper, Carol J.. AU - Kokka, Robert. AU - Kwok, Shirley. AU - Rasheed, Suraiya. AU - Vahey, Maryanne. AU - Winters, Mark A.. AU - Mc Quay, Lisa J.. AU - Nara, Peter L.. AU - Reichelderfer, Patricia. AU - Coombs, Robert W.. AU - Brooks Jackson, J.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Six procedures for quantifying plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA were evaluated by nine laboratories. The procedures differed in their sample volume and preparation of samples and methods of amplification and detection. Coded samples in a IO-folddilution series of HIV-L-spiked plasma were correctly ranked by all six procedures. Subsequently, coded duplicate plasma samples from 16 HIV-I-infected patients were tested using a common set of standards. Several HIV-1 ...
This is an open-label (all people know the identity of the intervention), multi-center (study conducted at multiple sites), uncontrolled (all the patients receiving darunavir) clinical and observational study (study in which the investigators/physicians observe the patients and measure their outcomes) to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of darunavir for the treatment human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection among adult Filipino patients. The study will enroll 10 percentage of patient who would use the product, as a requirement of the Philippine Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Patients will be monitored from baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter for a period of 24 weeks. Safety evaluations for adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, physical examination, concomitant medications, and co-morbid conditions will be monitored throughout the study. The duration of treatment will be for 24 weeks and the total study will be conducted for 3 years ...
This is an open-label (all people know the identity of the intervention), multi-center (study conducted at multiple sites), uncontrolled (all the patients receiving darunavir) clinical and observational study (study in which the investigators/physicians observe the patients and measure their outcomes) to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of darunavir for the treatment human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection among adult Filipino patients. The study will enroll 10 percentage of patient who would use the product, as a requirement of the Philippine Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Patients will be monitored from baseline and every 4 weeks thereafter for a period of 24 weeks. Safety evaluations for adverse events, clinical laboratory tests, physical examination, concomitant medications, and co-morbid conditions will be monitored throughout the study. The duration of treatment will be for 24 weeks and the total study will be conducted for 3 years ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of T lymphocytes requires cellular proliferation and DNA synthesis. Human monocytes were shown to have low DNA synthesis rates, yet the monocytotropic BaL isolate of HIV-1 was able to infect these cells efficiently. Monocytes that were irradiated to assure no DNA synthesis could also be readily infected with HIV-1BaL. Such infections were associated with the integration of HIV-1BaL DNA into the high molecular weight, chromosomal DNA of monocytes. Thus, normal, nonproliferating monocytes differ from T lymphocytes in that a productive HIV-1 infection can occur independently of cellular DNA synthesis. These results suggest that normal nonproliferating mononuclear phagocytes, which are relatively resistant to the destructive effects of this virus, may serve as persistent and productive reservoirs for HIV-1 in vivo. ...
Vpr and vpu are important for efficient human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication and CD4(+) T-cell depletion in human lymphoid tissue ex ...
We have examined cell-free viral populations in the blood plasma and seminal plasma compartments of men infected with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) using the V3-specific heteroduplex tracking assay (V3-HTA). We studied two cohorts of subjects who had visited either a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic for genital tract inflammation in the form of urethritis (n = 43) or a dermatology clinic (controls, n = 14) in Malawi.
Five hepatoma cell lines, including CZHC/8571, PLC/PRF/5, Hep3B, HepG2, and HUH7, were inoculated with three diverse isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Productive infection was noted in all hepatoma cell lines, and expression of viral p24 antigen lasted for over 3 months, but its level decreased in proportion to the number of viable cells. HIV-1 antigens were also found in the cells by immunohistochemical staining and radioimmunoprecipitation assay, as were viral RNA by in situ hybridization and HIV-1-like particles by electron microscopy. Virus yield assays were also positive on supernatant fluids collected from hepatoma cultures inoculated with HIV-1. Despite their susceptibility to infection, all five hepatoma cell lines were negative for CD4 by immunofluorescence and for CD4 mRNA by slot-blot hybridization. In addition, HIV-1 infection of hepatoma cell lines was not blocked by anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody or soluble CD4. Together, these findings clearly demonstrate that ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory genes including nef, vif, and vpr are important factors that determine the replication and pathogenesis of HIV-1. The state of activation is also important for the replication of HIV-1. We evaluated the properties of nef-, vif-, and vpr-minus macrophage-tropic HIV-1(JR) CSF in primary CD4+ Th1- or Th2-like cell cultures which had been activated through CD3 molecules in the presence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and IL-12 (Th1-like culture) or IL-4 (Th2-like culture), respectively. In activated Th1- or Th2-like cultures, replication of nef-minus HIV-1(JR-CSF) was markedly lower than that of wild-type HIV-1. Subsequent analysis by site-directed mutagenesis showed that (i) the presence of an acidic amino acid-rich domain (amino acid residues 72 to 75) in the Nef protein was critical for the enhancement of viral DNA synthesis, resulting in increased virus growth rate, and (ii) prolines that form part of Src homology 3 binding domain were not essential ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chimeric toxins targeted to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein augment the in vivo activity of combination antiretroviral therapy in thy/liv-SCID-Hu mice. AU - Goldstein, Harris. AU - Pettoello-Mantovani, Massimo. AU - Bera, Tapan K.. AU - Pastan, Ira H.. AU - Berger, Edward A.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which combines multiple inhibitors of essential human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HiV-1) enzymes, induces dramatic and sustained viral load reductions in many people infected with HIV-1. However, reservoirs of infected cells capable of producing replication-competent virus persist even after years of HAART, preventing elimination of infection. CD4-PE40 and 3B3(Fv)-PE38, chimeric toxins designed to target the HIV envelope (Env), represent a complementary class of agents that selectively kill productively infected cells. To investigate whether these Env-targeted toxins might serve as adjuncts to HAART for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Longitudinal studies of viral sequence, viral phenotype, immunologic parameters of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in perinatally infected twins with discordant disease courses. AU - Hutto, Cecelia. AU - Zhou, Y. I.. AU - Jun, H. E.. AU - Geffin, Rebeca. AU - Hill, Martin. AU - Scott, Walter. AU - Wood, Charles. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - Perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease and are variable in both the age of the patient at onset of serious disease and the progression of the clinical course. Heterozygotic perinatally infected twins with a marked difference in their clinical courses were monitored during the first 2 years of life. Twin B, the second-born twin, developed AIDS by 6 months of age and died at 22 months of age, while twin A remained minimally symptomatic through the first 2 years. Sequential blood specimens were obtained from the twins in order to characterize the ...
The occurrence of clinical manifestations associated with primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection was evaluated in a prospective cohort study of female sex workers in Mombasa, Kenya. Among 103 women who seroconverted to HIV-1, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, headache, arthralgia, myalgia, skin rash, swollen lymph nodes, extrainguinal lymphadenopathy, inguinal lymphadenopathy, and vaginal candidiasis were noted significantly more frequently at visits in which seroconversion first became evident. Eighty-one percent of seroconverting women had ≥1 of these 11 symptoms or signs. Among 44% of the women, the acute illness was severe enough to prevent them from working. Having ≥2 of 6 selected symptoms and signs yielded a sensitivity of 51%, specificity of 83%, positive likelihood ratio of 3.2, and negative likelihood ratio of 0.5 for acute HIV-1 infection. The recognition of primary HIV-1-infection illness in high-risk populations and subsequent risk-reduction counseling could ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternofetal Transmission of AIDS. T2 - Frequency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Nucleic Acid Sequences in Human Fetal DNA. AU - Soeiro, Ruy. AU - Rubinstein, Arye. AU - Rashbaum, William K.. AU - Lyman, William D.. PY - 1992/10. Y1 - 1992/10. N2 - Pediatric AIDS is increasing in frequency due to a rise in the number of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-l)-infected women of childbearing age. Because outcome studies reveal that most children infected peripartum manifest HIV-1-related disease in the first year of life, intrauterine infection has been suspected. Fetal tissues from 23 second-trimester abortuses were examined. The presence of HIV-1 nucleic acid sequences was determined by the polymerase chain reaction and used to define infection of the fetus. By analysis of available tissues, 7 of 23 fetuses were infected, while control fetal tissue was negative. In situ hybridization for HIV-1 DNA showed that only 1 of 8 infected abortuses was positive, while all ...
Genetic polymorphisms in chemokine and chemokine receptor genes influence susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and disease progression, but little is known regarding the association between these allelic variations and the ability of the host to transmit virus. In this study, we show that the maternal heterozygous SDF1 genotype (SDF1 3A/wt) is associated with perinatal transmission of HIV-1 (risk ratio [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 3.3) and particularly postnatal breastmilk transmission (RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.1 to 8.6). In contrast, the infant SDF1 genotype had no effect on mother-to-infant transmission. These data suggest that SDF1, which is a ligand for the T-tropic HIV-1 coreceptor CXCR4, may affect the ability of a mother to transmit the virus to her infant. This suggests that a genetic polymorphism in a gene encoding a chemokine receptor ligand may be associated with increased infectivity of the index case and highlights the importance of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of a family of related cellular transcription factors which can modulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcription in vitro. AU - Yoon, Jong-Bok. AU - Li, Gen. AU - Roeder, Robert G.. PY - 1994/1/1. Y1 - 1994/1/1. N2 - LBP-1 is a cellular protein which binds strongly to sequences around the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) initiation site and weakly over the TATA box. We have previously shown that LBP-1 represses HIV-1 transcription by inhibiting the binding of TFIID to the TATA box. Four similar but distinct cDNAs encoding LBP-1 (LBP-1a, -b, -c, and -d) have been isolated. These are products of two related genes, and each gene encodes two alternatively spliced products. Comparison of the amino acid sequence of LBP- 1 with entries in the available protein data bases revealed the identity of LBP-1c to α-CP2, an α-globin transcription factor. These proteins are also homologous to Drosophila melanogaster Elf-1/NTF-1, an essential transcriptional ...
709C.1 Criminal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.. 1. A person commits criminal transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus if the person, knowing that the person s human immunodeficiency virus status is positive, does any of the following:. a. Engages in intimate contact with another person.. b. Transfers, donates, or provides the person s blood, tissue, semen, organs, or other potentially infectious bodily fluids for transfusion, transplantation, insemination, or other administration to another person.. c. Dispenses, delivers, exchanges, sells, or in any other way transfers to another person any nonsterile intravenous or intramuscular drug paraphernalia previously used by the person infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.. 2. For the purposes of this section:. a. Human immunodeficiency virus means the human immunodeficiency virus identified as the causative agent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.. b. Intimate contact means the intentional exposure of the body of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased Mortality Associated With Vitamin A Deficiency During Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Infection. AU - Semba, Richard David. AU - Graham, Neil M H. AU - Caiaffa, Waleska T.. AU - Margolick, Joseph Bernard. AU - Clement, Liliana. AU - Vlahov, David. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - Objective: To determine whether plasma vitamin A levels are associated with immunologic status and clinical outcome during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Patients and Patients and Methods: Analysis of vitamin A levels, CD4 T cells, complete blood cell count, and serologic markers for liver disease in a random subsample of 179 subjects from a cohort of more than 2000 intravenous drug users with longitudinal follow-up to determine survival. Results: Mean (±SE) follow-up time was 22.8±1.1 months, and 15 subjects died during follow-up. More than 15% of the HIV-l-seropositive individuals had plasma vitamin A levels less than 1.05 μmol/L, a level consistent with vitamin A ...
Unlike HIV-1-infected people, most HIV-2-infected subjects maintain a healthy CD4+ T cell count and a strong HIV-specific CD4+ T cell response. To define the cellular immunological correlates of good prognosis in HIV-2 infection, we conducted a cross-sectional study of HIV Gag-specific T cell function in HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected Gambians. Using cytokine flow cytometry and lymphoproliferation assays, we show that HIV-specific CD4+ T cells from HIV-2-infected individuals maintained proliferative capacity, were not terminally differentiated (CD57-), and more frequently produced IFN-gamma or IL-2 than CD4+ T cells from HIV-1-infected donors. Polyfunctional (IFN-gamma+/IL-2+) HIV-specific CD4+ T cells were found exclusively in HIV-2+ donors. The disparity in CD4+ T cell responses between asymptomatic HIV-1- and HIV-2-infected subjects was not associated with differences in the proliferative capacity of HIV-specific CD8+ T cells. This study demonstrates that HIV-2-infected donors have a well-preserved and
An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data ...
A panel of anti-gp120 human monoclonal antibodies (HuMAbs), CD4-IgG, and sera from people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was tested for neutralization of nine primary HIV-1 isolates, one molecularly cloned primary strain (JR-CSF), and two strains (IIIB and MN) adapted for growth in transformed T-cell lines. All the viruses were grown in mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells and were tested for their ability to infect these cells in the presence and absence of the reagents mentioned above. In general, the primary isolates were relatively resistant to neutralization by the MAbs tested, compared with the T-cell line-adapted strains. However, one HuMAb, IgG1b12, was able to neutralize most of the primary isolates at concentrations of | or = 1 microgram/ml. Usually, the inability of a HuMAb to neutralize a primary isolate was not due merely to the absence of the antibody epitope from the virus; the majority of the HuMAbs bound with high affinity to monomeric gp120
Three examples of human plasma-derived concentrates, intermediate-purity factors VIII and IX, and fibrinogen were spiked with tissue culture-grown human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) strain RF. All examples were freeze-dried and heated at 80 degrees C for 72 hours by using validated production process models. HIV-1 infectivity was measured by a syncytial infectivity assay in C8166 cells and then compared with levels determined by nested HIV polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The infectivity assay demonstrated a reduction index of at least 4.5 log10, while PCR showed an average 1.7 log10. Large amounts of HIV-1 RNA (10(5)) were still detectable by PCR in samples in which infectivity assays failed to detect any HIV-1. These data suggest that HIV-1 PCR levels do not parallel HIV-1 infectivity levels during virus-inactivation procedures involved in coagulation factor concentrate production. PCR was able to detect the RNA associated with inactivated HIV-1 particles in the factor concentrates, which
article{ff4f8a23-6ca4-4f67-9971-6842888c6b56, abstract = {Human immunodeficiency virus type-2 (HIV-2) infected individuals develop immunodeficiency with a considerable delay and transmit the virus at a lower rate as compared to HIV-1 infected. Conceivably, comparative studies on immune responsiveness of the HIV-1 and HIV-2 infected hosts may help to explain differences in pathogenesis and transmission between the two types of infection. Previous studies have shown that the neutralizing antibody response is more potent and broader in HIV-2 than HIV-1 infection. In the present study we have further examined the function of the humoral immune response and studied the potentiating effect of complement (C) on antiviral activity of plasma from singly HIV-1 or HIV-2 infected, as well as HIV-1/HIV-2 dually infected individuals. Neutralization and antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 isolates were tested in a plaque reduction assay using U87.CD4-CCR5 cells. Results ...
Interactions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with hematopoietic stem cells may define restrictions on immune reconstitution following effective antiretroviral therapy and affect stem cell gene therapy strategies for AIDS. In the present study, we demonstrated mRNA and cell surface expression of HIV-1 receptors CD4 and the chemokine receptors CCR-5 and CXCR-4 in fractionated cells representing multiple stages of hematopoietic development. Chemokine receptor function was documented in subsets of cells by calcium flux in response to a cognate ligand. Productive infection by HIV-1 via these receptors was observed with the notable exception of stem cells, in which case the presence of CD4, CXCR-4, and CCR-5, as documented by single-cell analysis for expression and function, was insufficient for infection. Neither productive infection, transgene expression, nor virus entry was detectable following exposure of stem cells to either wild-type HIV-1 or lentivirus constructs pseudotyped in HIV-1
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular cloning of full-length HIV-1 genomes directly from plasma viral RNA. AU - Fang, Guowei. AU - Weiser, Barbara. AU - Visosky, Aloise A.. AU - Townsend, Laura. AU - Burger, Harold. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in plasma reflects the replicating virus population at any point in time in vivo. Studies of the relationship of the complete HIV-1 genome to pathogenesis therefore need to focus on plasma virions. Since dual infections and recombination can occur in vivo, cloning an intact plasma virus genome as a single full-length molecule is desirable. For these reasons, we developed an efficient method to clone full-length HIV-1 genomes directly from plasma viral RNA. This method used reverse transcription and long polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Virion-associated RNA was isolated from plasma samples and then reverse- transcribed to make cDNA for PCR amplification. Two different strategies were employed to amplify the ...
Four glycoproteins of apparent molecular weights 300,000, 140,000, 125,000, and 36,000 (gp300, gp140, gp125, and gp36) are detectable in human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infected cells. The gp125 and gp36 are the external and transmembrane components, respectively, of the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-2 mature virions. The gp300, which is a dimeric form of gp140, the precursor of HIV-2 envelope glycoprotein, is probably formed by a pH dependent fusion in the endoplasmic reticulum. Such a doublet is also observed in cells infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), a virus closely related to HIV-2. On the other hand, the envelope glycoprotein precursor of HIV-1 does not form a dimer during its processing. Experiments carried out with various inhibitors of oligosaccharide trimming enzymes suggest that transient dimerization of the glycoprotein precursor is required for its efficient transport to the Golgi apparatus and for its processing. The gp300 is useful for detecting antibodies to
Human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) entry requires fusion cofactors on the CD4+ target cell. Fusin, a heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptor, serves as a cofactor for T cell line-tropic isolates. The chemokines RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β, which suppress infection by macrophage-tropic isolates, selectively inhibited cell fusion mediated by the corresponding envelope glycoproteins (Envs). Recombinant CC CKR5, a G protein-coupled receptor for these chemokines, rendered CD4-expressing nonhuman cells fusion-competent preferentially with macrophage-tropic Envs. CC CKR5 messenger RNA was detected selectively in cell types susceptible to macrophage-tropic isolates. CC CKR5 is thus a fusion cofactor for macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains. ...
Existing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) effectively controls viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected individuals but cannot completely eradicate the infection, at least in part due to the persistence of latently infected cells. One strategy that is being actively pursued to eliminate the latent aspect of HIV-1 infection involves therapies combining latency antagonists with HAART. However, discordant pharmacokinetics between these types of drugs can potentially create sites of active viral replication within certain tissues that might be impervious to HAART. A preliminary reverse genetic screen indicated that the proteasome might be involved in the maintenance of the latent state. This prompted testing to determine the effects of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) on latently infected cells. Experiments demonstrated that PIs effectively activated latent HIV-1 in several model systems, including primary T cell models, thereby defining PIs as a new class of HIV-1
Combinations of reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are currently used in anti-human immunodeficiency virus therapy in order to prevent or delay the emergence of resistant virus and to improve the efficacy against viral enzymes carrying resistance mutations. Drug-drug interactions can result in ei …
Clinical trial for Human Immunodeficiency Virus | Infection | HIV infection , Switch Study to Evaluate Dolutegravir Plus Lamivudine in Virologically Suppressed Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Positive Adults (TANGO)
This invention is directed toward the isolation of a novel retrovirus, the human immune deficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2, previously named LAV-2), from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) originating from West Africa. This virus is related to HIV-1, the causative agent of AIDS, both by its morphology and by its tropism and in vitro cytopathic effect on CD4 (T4) positive cell lines and lymphocytes. However, preliminary hybridization experiments indicated that there are substantiated differences between the sequences of the two genomes. Furthermore, the proteins of HIV-1 and HIV-2 have different sizes and their serological cross-reactivity is restricted to the major core protein, as the envelope glycoproteins of HIV-2 are not immunoprecipitated by HIV-1 positive sera. Overlapping molecular clones were obtained and the complete nucleotide sequence of the gag and env genes was ascertained. An antigenic envelope polypeptide having the following amino acid sequence was identified: NH2
Both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) lead to chronic infection in a high percentage of persons, and an expanding epidemic of HIV-1-HCV coinfection has recently been identified. These individuals provide an opportunity for simultaneous assessment of immune responses to two viral infections associated with chronic plasma viremia. In this study we analyzed the breadth and magnitude of the CD8(+)- and CD4(+)-T-lymphocyte responses in 22 individuals infected with both HIV-1 and HCV. A CD8(+)-T-lymphocyte response against HIV-1 was readily detected in all subjects over a broad range of viral loads. In marked contrast, HCV-specific CD8(+)-T-lymphocyte responses were rarely detected, despite viral loads in plasma that were on average 1,000-fold higher. The few HCV-specific responses that were observed were relatively weak and limited in breadth. CD4-proliferative responses against HIV-1 were detected in about half of the coinfected subjects tested, but no proliferative
Cervical and vaginal secretions from 17 women infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) were evaluated daily through the course of one menstrual cycle for HIV-1 DNA (21-31 visits per woman). HIV-1-infected cells were detected in 207 (46%) of 450 endocervical swabs and 74 (16%) of 449 vaginal swabs. There was considerable variability in the percentage of positive swabs from each woman, ranging from 4% to 100% of endocervical swabs and from 0 to 71% of vaginal swabs. In multivariate analyses, plasma HIV-1 RNA was significantly associated with shedding of HIV-1-infected cells; each 1-unit increase in the log of plasma virus load was associated with a 5.6-fold increase in the odds of cervical shedding (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1-14.8) and a 3.9-fold increase in the odds of vaginal shedding (95% CI, 2.1-7.2). There was no discernible pattern of genital tract shedding with phase of the menstrual cycle and no significant association with serum estradiol or progesterone levels ...
The cell-to-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) was studied using MOLT-4 cells chronically infected with a variant strain of HIV-1SF-2 (MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H) and CD4+ human lymphoid MT-4 cells. MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H cells produced less than 1 TCID50 infectious particles per 105 cells per day as determined by the cytopathogenicity in MT-4 cells. However, the expression of envelope glycoproteins gp120 and gp41 on the MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H cell membrane was satisfactory for syncytium formation with the uninfected MOLT-4 cells. When MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H and MT-4 cells were co-cultured, severe cytopathogenicity was observed in MT-4 cells without being accompanied by the formation of multi-nucleated cells. Thus, the system consisting of MOLT-4/HIV-1SF-2H and MT-4 cells is convenient for exclusive study of the mechanism of cell-to-cell transmission of HIV-1. Using various compounds, it was confirmed that cell-to-cell transmission required both gp120/gp41-CD4 binding and de novo DNA ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Factors associated with nucleic acids related to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in cervico-vaginal secretions. AU - Spinillo, Arsenio. AU - Debiaggi, Maurizia. AU - Zara, Francesca. AU - Maserati, Renato. AU - Polatti, Franco. AU - De Santolo, Antonella. PY - 2001/6. Y1 - 2001/6. N2 - Objective: To assess HIV-related nucleic acids in cervico-vaginal secretions and the factors associated with them. Design: Observational study. Setting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Pavia, Italy. Population: HIV-positive patients attending a cytology service. Methods: Paired blood and cervico-vaginal lavage samples were obtained from 122 known HIV-seropositive patients during periodic visits for cytologic screening for lower genital tract neoplasia. Vaginal specimens for the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas vaginalis and candida infection were also obtained. HIV-1-RNA in plasma, proviral HIV-1-DNA, cell associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in ...
There is increasing evidence that CD8 lymphocytes may represent targets for infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in vivo whose destruction may contribute to the loss of immune function underlying AIDS. HIV-1 may infect thymic precursor cells destined to become CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes and contribute to the numerical decline in both subsets on disease progression. There is also evidence for the induction of CD4 expression and susceptibility to infection by HIV-1 of CD8 lymphocytes activated in vitro. To investigate the relationship between CD8 activation and infection by HIV-1 in vivo, activated subsets of CD8 lymphocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-seropositive individuals were investigated for CD4 expression and HIV infection. Activated CD8 lymphocytes were identified by expression of CD69, CD71, and the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II, the beta-chain of CD8, and the RO isoform of CD45. CD4(+) and CD4(-) CD8 lymphocytes, CD4 lymphocytes, other T cells,
HIV-2 was first described in 19851 and was isolated in 1986 in West Africa,2 where it is currently endemic. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that, from 1988 to June 2010, 166 cases had met the CDC case definition of HIV-2 infection in the United States.3 The largest number of cases were from the Northeast, including 77 from New York City.3 The majority of cases had a West African origin or connection.3 However, a report from New York City suggests that HIV-2 may be underreported because antibody cross-reactivity between HIV-1 and HIV-2 is common and frequently results in misdiagnosis of HIV-2 as HIV-1 or dual infection.4 Incorporating a type-differentiating immunoassay into the HIV screening protocol can assist in identifying the type. ...
Abstract. Objective: To evaluate the impact of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on HIV-1 transmission rates among HIV-1 discordant couples in Rakai, Uganda.. Design: Observational cohort study.. Methods: HIV-1 discordant couples were retrospectively identified between 2004 and 2009. Study participants underwent annual screening for HIV-1 and were interviewed to evaluate risk behaviors. Participants were offered voluntary counseling and testing and provided with risk reduction counseling. Free ART was offered to participants with a CD4 cell count of 250 cells/μl or less or WHO stage IV disease. HIV-1 incidence and sexual risk behaviors were compared before and after the HIV-1-positive index partners started ART.. Results: Two hundred and fifty HIV-1 discordant couples were followed between 2004 and 2009 and 32 HIV-1-positive partners initiated ART. Forty-two HIV-1 transmissions occurred over 459.4 person-years prior to ART initiation, incidence 9.2/100 person-years [95% confidence interval (CI) ...
The HIV-1 regulatory proteins Rev and Tat are expressed early in the virus life cycle and thus may be important targets for the immune control of HIV-1-infection and for effective vaccines. However, the extent to which these proteins are targeted in natural HIV-1 infection as well as precise epitopes targeted by human cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) remain to be defined. In the present study, 57 HIV-1-infected individuals were screened for responses against Tat and Rev by using overlapping peptides spanning the entire Tat and Rev proteins. CD8+ T cell responses against Tat and Rev were found in up to 19 and 37% of HIV-1-infected individuals, respectively, indicating that these regulatory proteins are important targets for HIV-1-specific CTL. Despite the small size of these proteins, multiple CTL epitopes were identified in each. These data indicate that Tat and Rev are frequently targeted by CTL in natural HIV-1 infection and may be important targets for HIV vaccines.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of ongoing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in residual viremia during recombinant HIV-1 poxvirus immunizations in patients with clinically undetectable viral loads on durable suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. AU - Shiu, Carlum. AU - Cunningham, Coleen K.. AU - Greenough, Thomas. AU - Muresan, Petronella. AU - Sanchez-Merino, Victor. AU - Carey, Vincent. AU - Jackson, Brooks. AU - Ziemniak, Carrie. AU - Fox, Lawrence. AU - Belzer, Marvin. AU - Ray, Stuart C.. AU - Luzuriaga, Katherine. AU - Persaud, Deborah. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2009/10. Y1 - 2009/10. N2 - In most human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who achieve viral loads of ,50 copies/ml during highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), low levels of plasma virus remain detectable for years by ultrasensitive methods. The relative contributions of ongoing virus replication and virus production ...
Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Reactivity during Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-1-Infected Patients with Advanced Immunodeficiency. Charles R. Rinaldo Jr.,1,2,* Xiao-Li Huang,1 Zheng Fan,1 Joseph B. Margolick,3 Luann Borowski,1 Aki Hoji,1 Christine Kalinyak,1 Deborah K. McMahon,1,2 Sharon A. Riddler,1,2 William H. Hildebrand,4 Richard B. Day,1 and John W. Mellors1,2,5. Graduate School of Public Health1 and School of Medicine,2 University of Pittsburgh, and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center,5 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261; Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 212053; and University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 731904. Received 17 December 1999/Accepted 29 January 2000. Journal of Virology, May 2000, p. 4127-4138, Vol. 74, No. 9. The long-term efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy may relate to augmentation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CD8+ T-cell ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enters brain microvascular endothelia by macropinocytosis dependent on lipid rafts and the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. AU - Liu, Nancy Q.. AU - Lossinsky, Albert S.. AU - Popik, Waldemar. AU - Li, Xia. AU - Gujuluva, Chandrasekhar. AU - Kriederman, Benjamin. AU - Roberts, Jaclyn. AU - Pushkarsky, Tatania. AU - Bukrinsky, Michael. AU - Witte, Marlys. AU - Weinand, Martin. AU - Fiala, Milan. PY - 2002/6/25. Y1 - 2002/6/25. N2 - Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMVECs) present an incomplete barrier to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) neuroinvasion. In order to clarify the mechanisms of HIV-1 invasion, we have examined HIV-1 uptake and transcellular penetration in an in vitro BMVEC model. No evidence of productive infection was observed by luciferase, PCR, and reverse transcriptase assays. Approximately 1% of viral RNA and 1% of infectious virus penetrated the BMVEC barrier without disruption of tight ...
Virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are critical in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and will play an important part in therapeutic and prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines. The identification of virus-specific epitopes that are efficiently recognized by CTL is the first step in the development of future vaccines. Here we describe the immunological characterization of a number of novel HIV-1-specific, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes that share a high degree of conservation within HIV-1 and a strong binding to different alleles of the HLA-A2 superfamily. These novel epitopes include the first reported CTL epitope in the Vpr protein. Two of the novel epitopes were immunodominant among the HLA-A2-restricted CTL responses of individuals with acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. The novel CTL epitopes identified here should be included in future vaccines designed to induce HIV-1-specific CTL responses restricted by the HLA-A2 superfamily and will be important to
Virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses are critical in the control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and will play an important part in therapeutic and prophylactic HIV-1 vaccines. The identification of virus-specific epitopes that are efficiently recognized by CTL is the first step in the development of future vaccines. Here we describe the immunological characterization of a number of novel HIV-1-specific, HLA-A2-restricted CTL epitopes that share a high degree of conservation within HIV-1 and a strong binding to different alleles of the HLA-A2 superfamily. These novel epitopes include the first reported CTL epitope in the Vpr protein. Two of the novel epitopes were immunodominant among the HLA-A2-restricted CTL responses of individuals with acute and chronic HIV-1 infection. The novel CTL epitopes identified here should be included in future vaccines designed to induce HIV-1-specific CTL responses restricted by the HLA-A2 superfamily and will be important to
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Influence of filgrastim (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA in patients with cytomegalovirus retinitis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Maternal viral genotypic zidovudine resistance and infrequent failure of zidovudine therapy to prevent perinatal transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076. AU - Eastman, P. Scott. AU - Shapiro, David E.. AU - Coombs, Robert W.. AU - Frenkel, Lisa M.. AU - McSherry, George D.. AU - Britto, Paula. AU - Herman, Steven A.. AU - Sperling, Rhoda S.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - Maternal samples were assessed from 96 women enrolled in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group protocol 076 to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) genotypic zidovudine resistance at entry, if zidovudine resistance developed on study, and the role of zidovudine resistance in vertical transmission of HIV-1 despite zidovudine therapy. Low and high levels of genotypic resistance were assessed by differential hybridization, oligoligation, or direct sequencing of plasma HIV-1 RNA for codons K70R and T215Y/F. None of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity is inversely correlated with HIV type 1 viral load in HIV type 1- infected long-term survivors. AU - Betts, Michael R.. AU - Krowka, John F.. AU - Kepler, Thomas B.. AU - Davidian, Marie. AU - Christopherson, Cindy. AU - Kwok, Shirley. AU - Louie, Leslie. AU - Eron, Joseph. AU - Sheppard, Haynes. AU - Frelinger, Jeffrey A.. PY - 1999/9/1. Y1 - 1999/9/1. N2 - HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T cell (CTL) activity has been suggested to correlate with protection from progression to AIDS. We have examined the relationship between HIV-specific CTL activity and maintenance of peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocyte counts and control of viral load in 17 long-term survivors (LTSs) of HIV-1 infection. Longitudinal analysis indicated that the LTS cohort demonstrated a decreased rate of CD4+ T cell loss (18 cells/mm3/year) compared with typical normal progressors (approximately 60 cells/mm3/year). The majority of the LTSs had ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 co-infection in human cervical tissue. AU - Fox-Canale, Andrea M.. AU - Hope, Thomas J.. AU - Martinson, Jeffrey. AU - Lurain, John R.. AU - Rademaker, Alfred W.. AU - Bremer, James W.. AU - Landay, Alan. AU - Spear, Gregory T.. AU - Lurain, Nell S.. PY - 2007/12/5. Y1 - 2007/12/5. N2 - Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infect the female genital tract. A human cervical explant model was developed to study single and dual infection by these viruses in the genital compartment. An HCMV strain expressing green fluorescent protein, and two clinical HCMV strains produced peak viral DNA copies at 14 to 21 days post-infection. Peak levels of HIV-1Ba-L p24 antigen occurred at 7 days post-infection. HIV-1Ba-L appeared to enhance HCMV in co-infected tissues. Singly and dually infected explants produced increased levels of cytokines IL-6, IL-8, and GRO-α in culture supernatants. ...
Glutamine is a conditionally essential amino acid that is an important metabolic resource for proliferating tissues by acting as a proteinogenic amino acid, a nitrogen donor for biosynthetic reactions and as a substrate for the citric acid or tricarboxylic acid cycle. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) productively infects activated CD4(+) T cells that are known to require glutamine for proliferation and for carrying out effector functions. As a virus, HIV-1 is furthermore entirely dependent on host metabolism to support its replication. In this study, we compared HIV-1 infected with uninfected activated primary human CD4(+) T cells with regard to glutamine metabolism. We report that glutamine concentrations are elevated in HIV-1-infected cells and that glutamine is important to support HIV-1 replication, although the latter is closely linked to the glutamine dependency of cell survival. Metabolic tracer experiments showed that entry of glutamine-derived carbon into the citric acid ...
Background. the genetic diversity of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) raises the question of whether vaccines that include a component to elicit antiviral T cell immunity based on a single viral genetic clade could provide cellular immune protection against divergent HIV-1 clades. Therefore, we quantified the cross-clade reactivity, among unvaccinated individuals, of anti-HIV-1 T cell responses to the infecting HIV-1 clade relative to other major circulating clades.Methods. Cellular immune responses to HIV-1 clades A, B, and C were compared by standardized interferon-gamma enzyme-linked immunospot assays among 250 unvaccinated individuals, infected with diverse HIV-1 clades, from Brazil, Malawi, South Africa, Thailand, and the United States. Cross-clade reactivity was evaluated by use of the ratio of responses to heterologous versus homologous ( infecting) clades of HIV-1.Results. Cellular immune responses were predominantly focused on viral Gag and Nef proteins. Cross-clade ...
A human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2)-infected woman experienced asymptomatic superinfection with HIV-1 subtype AG. She did not have cross-neutralizing autologous HIV-1 antibodies before and shortly after HIV-1 superinfection. This evidence supports a mechanism other than cross-neutralizing antibodies for the mild course of HIV-1 infection in this woman.. ...
HIV-1-particular antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) antibodies within HIV-1-positive (HIV-1+) individuals predominantly target CD4-induced (CD4i) epitopes on HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). various stages of downregulating CD4, were all susceptible to NK cell-mediated ADCC. Importantly, we PCDH9 observed that this cytolysis of bystander cells and early infected cells in this culture system was driven by sensitization of target cells by inoculum-derived HIV-1 Env or virions. This phenomenon provided Env to target cells prior to Env expression, resulting in artifactual ADCC measurements. Future studies should take into consideration the inherent caveats of contamination systems and develop improved models to address the potential role for ADCC against cells with nascent HIV-1 contamination. IMPORTANCE An increasing body of evidence suggests that ADCC contributes to protection against HIV-1 acquisition and slower HIV-1 disease progression. Targeting cells early through the infection ...
HIV-2 was first described in 1985 in West Africa on the basis of its antigenic relationship to HIV-1 and the SIV [1,2]. Since that time, several international research collaborations have sought to understand the pathogenicity of this closely related HIV virus and the impact of its interaction with the prototype HIV-1 infection in vivo. Coexisting in West Africa with HIV-1, HIV-2, by contrast generally demonstrates an attenuated phenotype for transmission and disease [3,4]. In rural Guinea Bissau, a more bimodal outcome has been described with HIV-2 progressors indistinguishable from HIV-1 progressors, and HIV-2 controllers (35-40%) maintaining undetectable viral load for 10-15 years, with a normal life expectancy [5]. In 1995, the concept that HIV-2 might protect from HIV-1 infection was raised from long-term studies of the registered sex worker cohort in Dakar, Senegal [6,7]. The generalizability of these findings was questioned by studies from Ivory Coast, Guinea Bissau and the Gambia [8-10]. ...
The vertical transmission of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV -1) is defined as the transmission of the virus from infected mother to fetus. In order to infect the fetal blood supply in utero, the virus must pass through the placenta. The virus collects in the placental trophoblast, and only certain strains are able to pass from that point into the fetal blood supply, because the placental trophoblast is not a strong host for HIV replication. This report analyzes transcription factors present in placental trophoblast which may be critically important to HIV replication in trophoblast. This is done through the use of a set of 27 linker-scanning mutants created by Dr. Steven L. Zeichner in Philadelphia. These mutants replace 18 bp at a time in subsequent order along the U3 and R regions of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). The U3 and R regions of the LTR are primarily regions of viral transcriptional control. By transfecting the mutated LTRs into human placental trophoblasts, it ...
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance to the small molecule maturation inhibitor 3-O-(3,3-dimethylsuccinyl)-betulinic acid is conferred by a variety of single amino acid substitutions at the CA-SP1 cleavage site in Gag.
We have investigated the molecular basis of biological differences observed among cell line-adapted isolates of the human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in response to receptor binding by using a soluble form of CD4 (sCD4) as a receptor mimic. We find that sCD4 binds to the envelope glycoproteins of all of the HIV-1 isolates tested with affinities within a threefold range, whereas those of the HIV-2 and SIV isolates have relative affinities for sCD4 two- to eightfold lower than those of HIV-1. Treatment of infected cells with sCD4 induced the dissociation of gp120 from gp41 and increased the exposure of a cryptic gp41 epitope on all of the HIV-1 isolates. By contrast, neither dissociation of the outer envelope glycoprotein nor increased exposure of the transmembrane glycoprotein was observed when sCD4 bound to HIV-2- or SIV-infected cells. Moreover, immunoprecipitation with sCD4 resulted in the coprecipitation of the surface and
In Guinea-Bissau HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I are prevalent in the general population. The natural history of HIV/HTLV-I single and dual infections has not been fully elucidated in this population. Previous studies have shown that combinations of these infections are more common in older women than in men. The present study compares mortality associated with HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I single and dual infections in individuals over 35 years of age within an urban community-based cohort in Guinea-Bissau. A total of 2,839 and 1,075 individuals were included in the HIV and HTLV-I mortality analyses respectively. Compared with HIV-negative individuals, adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) were 4.9 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3, 10.4) for HIV-1, 1.8 (95%CI: 1.5, 2.3) for HIV-2, and 5.9 (2.4, 14.3) for HIV-1/HIV-2 dual infections. MRR for HTLV-I-positive compared with HTLV-I-negative individuals was 1.7 (1.1, 2.7). Excluding all HIV-positive individuals from the analysis, the HTLV-I MRR was 2.3 (1.3, 3.8). The
During HIV type-1 (HIV-1), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections, altered iron balance correlates with morbidity. The liver-produced hormone hepcidin dictates systemic iron homeostasis. We measured hepcidin, iron parameters, cytokines, and inflammatory markers in three cohorts: plasma donors who developed acute HIV-1, HBV, or HCV viremia during the course of donations; HIV-1-positive individuals progressing from early to chronic infection; and chronically HIV-1-infected individuals (receiving antiretroviral therapy or untreated). Hepcidin increased and plasma iron decreased during acute HIV-1 infection, as viremia was initially detected. In patients transitioning from early to chronic HIV-1 infection, hepcidin in the first 60 d of infection positively correlated with the later plasma viral load set-point. Hepcidin remained elevated in individuals with untreated chronic HIV-1 infection and in subjects on ART. In contrast to HIV-1, there was no evidence of hepcidin ...
Objectives: Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests, routinely used for diagnosis in adults and older children in resource-limited settings (RLS), do not detect early HIV infections prior to seroconversion or when antibody levels are still low. Nucleic acid amplification to detect HIV-1 RNA is the most sensitive method for acute HIV infection diagnosis, but is costly. We therefore investigated HIV- 1 RNA testing of pooled dried blood spots (DBS) to diagnose acute HIV infection. Design: Laboratory-based investigation. Methods: DBS were collected from HIV-1 Voluntary Counselling and Testing (HVCT) clients who tested negative on the Advanced QualityTM HIV antibody rapid test. DBS samples from five participants were pooled and tested on the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 (CAP/CTM) Test v2. Individual DBS were tested when pools tested positive (, 200 RNA copies/ml). Acute infection was confirmed by HIV viral load testing, two fourth-generation HIV serological assays, and ...
Background The CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing family (CMTM) is a novel family of proteins linking chemokines and TM4SF. Different members exhibit diverse biological functions. In this study, the effect of intracellular CMTM2 on regulating human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) transcription was evaluated.. Methods The effects of CMTM2 on regulating full-length HIV-1 provirus and the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR)-directed transcription were assessed by luciferase assay. Transcription factor assays, using the luciferase reporter plasmids of AP-1, CRE, and NF-kB were conducted to explore the signaling pathway(s) that may be regulated by CMTM2. The potential relationship between CMTM2 and the transcription factor AP-1 was further analyzed by Western blotting analyses to investigate the effect of CMTM2 on PMA-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation.. Results The results from the current study revealed that CMTM2 acts as a negative regulator of HIV-1 transcription. CMTM2 exerted a ...
CONTEXT: Presence of low-frequency, or minority, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) drug resistance mutations may adversely affect response to antiretroviral treatment (ART), but evidence regarding the effects of such mutations on the effectiveness of first-line ART is conflicting.. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of preexisting drug-resistant HIV-1 minority variants with risk of first-line nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral virologic failure.. DATA SOURCES: Systematic review of published and unpublished studies in PubMed (1966 through December 2010), EMBASE (1974 through December 2010), conference abstracts, and article references. Authors of all studies were contacted for detailed laboratory, ART, and adherence data.. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA ABSTRACTION: Studies involving ART-naive participants initiating NNRTI-based regimens were included. Participants were included if all drugs in their ART regimen were fully active by standard HIV ...
Other Development of an effective low-cost anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) drugs is needed for treatment of AIDS patients in developing countries. Host cell lipid raft microdomains, which are enriched with cholesterol, glycolipids, ceramide, and gangliosides, are important for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry. Retinoid analogs have been shown to modulate ceramide levels in the cell membrane, while cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) specifically binds to the ganglioside GM1. In this study, we found that the acyclic retinoid analogs geranylgeranoic acid (GGA) and NIK-333 as well as CT-B efficiently attenuate CXCR4-tropic, but not CCR5-tropic, HIV-1 vector infection. We also found that GGA and NIK-333 suppress CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 infection by attenuating CXCR4 expression. CT-B also attenuated CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 infection, but did not suppress CXCR4 expression. These results suggest a distinct role for lipid raft microdomains in CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infections and ...
Lien vers Pubmed [PMID] - 15218022. J. Biol. Chem. 2004 Aug;279(35):36625-32. By frequently rearranging large regions of the genome, genetic recombination is a major determinant in the plasticity of the human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) population. In retroviruses, recombination mostly occurs by template switching during reverse transcription. The generation of retroviral vectors provides a means to study this process after a single cycle of infection of cells in culture. Using HIV-1-derived vectors, we present here the first characterization and estimate of the strength of a recombination hot spot in HIV-1 in vivo. In the hot spot region, located within the C2 portion of the gp120 envelope gene, the rate of recombination is up to ten times higher than in the surrounding regions. The hot region corresponds to a previously identified RNA hairpin structure. Although recombination breakpoints in vivo cluster in the top portion of the hairpin, the bias for template switching in this same ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of HIV-1 Tat on Secretion of TNF-α and IL-1β by U87 Cells in AIDS Patients with or without AIDS Dementia Complex. AU - Zhao, Li. AU - Pu, Shuang Shuang. AU - Gao, Wen Hua. AU - Chi, Yuan Yuan. AU - Wen, Hong Ling. AU - Wang, Zhi Yu. AU - Song, Yan Yan. AU - Yu, Xue Jie. PY - 2014/2. Y1 - 2014/2. N2 - Objective To explore the role of HIV-1 tat gene variations in AIDS dementia complex (ADC) pathogenesis. Methods HIV-1 tat genes derived from peripheral spleen and central basal ganglia of an AIDS patient with ADC and an AIDS patient without ADC were cloned for sequence analysis. HIV-1 tat gene sequence alignment was performed by using CLUSTAL W and the phylogentic analysis was conducted by using Neighbor-joining with MEGA4 software. All tat genes were used to construct recombinant retroviral expressing vector MSCV-IRES-GFP/tat. The MSCV-IRES-GFP/tat was cotransfected into 293T cells with pCMV-VSV-G and pUMVC vectors to assemble the recombinant retrovirus. After infection of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV-1, HIV-2, and HTLV-I Infection in High-Risk Groups in Brazil. AU - Cortes, Eduardo. AU - Detels, Roger. AU - Aboulafia, David. AU - li, Xi Ling. AU - Moudgil, Tarsem. AU - Alam, Masud. AU - Bonecker, Carlos. AU - Gonzaga, Augusto. AU - Oyafuso, Luiza. AU - Tondo, Michele. AU - Boite, Carlos. AU - Hammershlak, Nelson. AU - Capitani, Carlos. AU - Slamon, Dennis J.. AU - ho, David D.. PY - 1989/4/13. Y1 - 1989/4/13. N2 - We conducted a serologic survey for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) and human T-cell lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-I) in 704 Brazilians with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or at risk for it. The study population included 70 homosexual men (11 of whom were prostitutes), 58 bisexual men (19 of whom were prostitutes), 101 female prostitutes from three socioeconomic groups, 13 wives of men with hemophilia who were seropositive for HIV-1 antibodies, and 47 blood donors with positive Venereal Disease Research ...
21948 there is some evidence that infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be a factor in the development or worsening of the condition under consideration.. 2464 the veteran has been infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).. 28120 the veteran has established the causal connection between the infection with HIV and VEA service for the condition under consideration.. 28121 the veteran was infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the time of the clinical onset of the condition under consideration.. 28122 the veteran has established the causal connection between the infection with HIV and VEA service for the clinical onset of the condition under consideration.. 28125 the veteran has established the causal connection between the infection with HIV and operational service for the clinical onset of the condition under consideration.. or. 28126 the veteran has established the causal connection between the infection with HIV and eligible service for the clinical ...
Cell-cell interactions through direct contact are very important for cellular communication and coordination especially for immune cells. The human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1) induces immune cell interactions between CD4(+) cells to shuttle between T cells via a virological synapse. A goal to understand the process of cell-cell transmission through virological synapses is to determine the cellular states that allow a chance encounter between cells to become a stable cell-cell adhesion. We demonstrate the use of optical tweezers to manipulate uninfected primary CD4(+) T cells near HIV Gag-iGFP transfected Jurkat T cells to probe the determinants that induce stable adhesion. When combined with fast 4D confocal fluorescence microscopy, optical tweezers can be utilized not only to facilitate cell-cell contact, but also to simultaneously track the formation of a virological synapse, and ultimately to probe the events that precede virus transfer. [GRAPHICS] HIV-1 infected T cell (green) ...
Exosomes are membranous nanovesicles of endocytic origin that carry host and pathogen derived genomic, proteomic, and lipid cargos. Exosomes are secreted by most cell types into the extracellular milieu and are subsequently internalized by recipient cells. Upon internalization, exosomes condition recipient cells by donating their cargos and/or activating various signal transduction pathways, consequently regulating physiological and pathophysiological processes. The role of exosomes in viral pathogenesis, especially human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] is beginning to unravel. Recent research reports suggest that exosomes from various sources play important but different roles in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. From these reports, it appears that the source of exosomes is the defining factor for the exosomal effect on HIV-1. In this review, we will describe how HIV-1 infection is modulated by exosomes and in turn how exosomes are targeted by HIV-1 factors. Finally, we will discuss potentially emerging
Gag-Pol polyprotein and Gag polyprotein may regulate their own translation, by the binding genomic RNA in the 5-UTR. At low concentration, Gag-Pol and Gag would promote translation, whereas at high concentration, the polyproteins encapsidate genomic RNA and then shutt off translation (By similarity).
The prevalence of the CCR2b-V64I mutation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive and -seronegative female workers and the potential effect of heterozygosity of this mutation on HIV-1 plasma RNA viral load and markers of immune activation were assessed. CCR2b-V64I was detected by polymerase chain reaction, followed by restriction enzymes analysis; plasma viral load was measured by the Amplicor HIV-1 monitor assay and CD4(+) T-cell counts and markers of immune activation by standard three-color FACscan flow cytometry. Of the 260 female workers, 56 (21.5%) were heterozygous for CCR2b-V64I, and 8 (3%) were homozygous. Of the 99 HIV-seronegative female workers, 19 (19.2%) were heterozygous for the CCR2b-V64I mutation compared with 37 (23%) of the 161 HIV-seropositive FSW (P = 0.47). In a univariate analysis of viral load among HIV-seropositive FSW, no difference was noted between those heterozygous for or without the mutation; both groups had plasma viral loads of 5.0 log(10) ...
Despite great progress in the treatment of AIDS, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type I (HIV-1) remains one of the major concerns as a human pathogen. One of the therapeutic strategies against viral infections is the application of catalytic ribonucleic acids (ribozymes) that can significantly reduce expression of a target gene by site-specific hydrolysis of its mRNA. In this paper we report a study on the activity of several variants of hammerhead ribozymes targeting a conserved region within mRNA encoding HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp41. Based on the data from in vitro assays and gene silencing in the cultured cells, we propose a new hammerhead ribozyme targeting the gp41-encoding sequence that can be potentially used as a therapeutic agent in AIDS treatment. Moreover, we demonstrate that the hydrolytic activity of the ribozyme in the intracellular environment can not be inferred solely from the results of the in vitro experiments. ...
The design of a human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) immunogen that can induce broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies is a major goal of HIV-1 vaccine development. Although rare human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) exist that broadly neutralize HIV-1, HIV-1 envelope immunogens do not induce these antibody specificities. Here we demonstrate that the two most broadly reactive HIV-1 envelope gp41 human mAbs, 2F5 and 4E10, are polyspecific autoantibodies reactive with the phospholipid cardiolipin. Thus, current HIV-1 vaccines may not induce these types of antibodies because of autoantigen mimicry of the conserved membrane-proximal epitopes of the virus. These results may have important implications for generating effective neutralizing antibody responses by using HIV-1 vaccines.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV-1 Vpr Accelerates Viral Replication during Acute Infection by Exploitation of Proliferating CD4+ T Cells In Vivo. AU - Sato, Kei. AU - Misawa, Naoko. AU - Iwami, Shingo. AU - Satou, Yorifumi. AU - Matsuoka, Masao. AU - Ishizaka, Yukihito. AU - Ito, Mamoru. AU - Aihara, Kazuyuki. AU - An, Dong Sung. AU - Koyanagi, Yoshio. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The precise role of viral protein R (Vpr), an HIV-1-encoded protein, during HIV-1 infection and its contribution to the development of AIDS remain unclear. Previous reports have shown that Vpr has the ability to cause G2 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HIV-1-infected cells in vitro. In addition, vpr is highly conserved in transmitted/founder HIV-1s and in all primate lentiviruses, which are evolutionarily related to HIV-1. Although these findings suggest an important role of Vpr in HIV-1 pathogenesis, its direct evidence in vivo has not been shown. Here, by using ...
Three types of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) are now used for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infections, but only reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors are readily available to the vast majority of HIV-1-infected individuals in the developing world. The treatment regimen of choice is a combination of a nonnucleoside RT inhibitor (almost exclusively nevirapine [NVP]) and two nucleoside RT inhibitors, i.e., zidovudine (AZT) or stavudine plus lamivudine or didanosine.. In addition to being the backbone of most treatment regimens, NVP is provided as a single dose to block the mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 in developing countries. In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the frequency of MTCT is approximately 25 to 48% (2, 36, 38), whereas the administration of a short course of AZT therapy near the end of gestation (7, 8, 49) or the administration of a single dose of NVP at labor can reduce the rate of perinatal transmission to less than 20% (22, 25, 32, ...
In human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, the proportion of circulating mononuclear cells (PBMCs) which carry HIV provirus and the number of HIV proviral sequences per infected PBMC have been matters for conjecture. Using a double polymerase chain reaction which allows the detection of single molecules of provirus and a method of quantifying the provirus molecules, we have measured provirus frequencies in infected individuals down to a level of one molecule per 10(6) PBMCs. As a general rule, only a small proportion of PBMCs contain provirus (median value of samples from 12 patients, one per 8,000 cells), and most if not all of the infected cells carry a single provirus molecule. The frequency of provirus-carrying cells correlated positively both with the progression of the disease and with the success with which virus could be isolated from the same patients by cocultivation methods. Of seven asymptomatic (Centers for Disease Control stage II) patients, all but one contained one
Residual viral replication persists in a significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. To determine the source of this virus, levels of HIV RNA and DNA from lymphoid tissues and levels of viral RNA in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and genital secretions in 28 patients treated for ⩽2.5 years with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine were examined. Both HIV RNA and DNA remained detectable in all lymph nodes. In contrast, HIV RNA was not detected in 20 of 23 genital secretions or in any of 13 CSF samples after 2 years of treatment. HIV envelope sequence data from plasma and lymph nodes from 4 patients demonstrated sequence divergence, which suggests varying degrees of residual viral replication in 3 and absence in 1 patient. In patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy, the greatest virus burden may continue to be in lymphoid tissues rather than in central nervous system or genitourinary compartments ...
Access to scientific, verifiable, alternative information about HIV/AIDS and immune boosting treatments for health that most ... Non-HIV AIDS, HIV-negative AIDS, No Virologic Gold standard terms never seen in an HIV ad. But even if you do test repeatedly ... Abbott Laboratories HIV Test, 1997). If commerce laws were applied equally, the "knowing is beautiful" ads for HIV testing ... Vironostika HIV Test, 2003).. This is significant in Africa, because HIV estimates for African nations are drawn almost ...
HIV - Nucleic Acid Test - COBAS Ampliscreen HIV-1 Test - Package Insert. Supporting Documents. *Supporting Documents older than ... COBAS AmpliScreen HIV-1 Test Proper Name: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1/Polymerase Chain Reaction). Tradename: ... Qualitative in vitro test for direct detection of HIV-1 RNA in human plasma from donations of whole blood and blood components ... COBAS AmpliScreen HIV-1 Test, version 1.5. Manufacturer: Roche Molecular Systems, Inc. Indication: ...
HIV-1 inhibitor resistance is discussed in detail, and critical assessmen ... This volume thoroughly covers HIV-1 antiretrovirals currently in clinical use, together with their advantages and limitations. ... Fragment-based drug design HIV Gag protein HIV capsid HIV integrase protein HIV matrix HIV nucleocapsid protein HIV protease ... HIV reverse transcriptase protein HIV stem-loop HIV transcription HIV-1 antiretroviral treatment HIV-1 drug resistance HIV-1 ...
Infection with an HIV strain harboring drug resistance-related mutations is referred to as transmitted drug resistance (TDR) or ... Katzenstein DA, Holodniy M (1995) HIV viral load quantification, HIV resistance, and antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Clin Rev 96: ... Gianella S, Richman DD (2010) Minority variants of drug-resistant HIV. J Infect Dis 202(5):657-666PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMed ... Boden D et al (1999) HIV-1 drug resistance in newly infected individuals. JAMA 282(12):1135-1141CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Scientists have created a computational model that could change the way that researchers look at possibilities for an HIV-1 ... New insights into HIV-1 vaccine design. New insights into HIV-1 vaccine design. Scientists have created a computational model ... "An effective HIV-1 vaccine has proven elusive, partly due to the difficulty of causing an immune response that can neutralize ... "An effective HIV-1 vaccine has proven elusive, partly due to the difficulty of causing an immune response that can neutralize ...
HIV-1 doesnt evolve and stuff? Well, um, apparently its figuring out how to become invisible to an entire branch of our immune ... system.Adaptation of HIV-1 to human leukocyte antigen class I Oh shi- ... HERV vs HIV. CTL-based vaccines and HIV-1. Ive written about them quite a few times here on ERV. Quick recap-- All of your ... Listen, nobody thinks the guy who cured Charlie Sheen of HIV cured Charlie Sheen of HIV. Even Charlie Sheen. Dr Sam I was ...
HIV/AIDS Treatment Options: An Overview What are your HIV treatment options, and how do you choose the right one? Our panel of ... Can You Get HIV By Doing This? Can HIV be transmitted through this sexual activity? Dr. Jose Gonzalez-Garcia answers this ... Black Women Still at High Risk for HIV/AIDS Despite the drop in new infections, black women are still at a high risk for HIV, ... I am concerned that I may have been exposed to HIV 2 but only tested for HIV 1. Does anyone know if HIV1 and HIV2 are routinely ...
... Varyc varyc.mmcri at OFFICE.MMC.ORG Tue Oct 18 12:02:28 EST 1994 *Previous message: Free BioTechniques Past Paper ... Does anyone know of an HIV-1 DNA test panel that can be used to establish sensitivity/specificity of a set of pcr reagents. Id ...
Most people with HIV have HIV-1. Genetic differences between the two viruses mean that diagnosis and treatment of HIV-1 and HIV ... HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the two main types of HIV. ... ... Hepatitis C and HIV coinfection People living with HIV are at higher risk of contracting hepatitis C. This because HIV can ... According to the HIV awareness charity Avert, around 95 percent of people living with HIV have HIV-1. ...
Engineering Anti-HIV gp120/41 BiAbs.. To produce antibodies that bind simultaneously to both gp120 and gp41 subunits of HIV-1 ... Broad and potent anti-HIV antibodies are rare in part because there are numerous features of the HIV envelope protein that make ... 2009) Challenges for structure-based HIV vaccine design. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 4:431-440. ... HIV) infection: Evidence for a constraint on the ability of HIV to completely evade neutralizing antibody responses. J Virol 80 ...
Allow for an added labeling claim for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in plasma specimens and the detection of ... Product: OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. PMA number: BP010047. Indication for Use: Allow for an added labeling claim for ... Package Insert - OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. Supporting Documents. *Supporting Documents older than three years - ... the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in plasma specimens and the detection of HIV-1 antibodies in oral fluid specimen ...
2007) Antibody-mediated neutralization and simian immunodeficiency virus models of HIV/AIDS. Curr HIV Res 5:594-607. ... A macaque model of HIV-1 infection. Theodora Hatziioannou, Zandrea Ambrose, Nancy P. Y. Chung, Michael Piatak, Fang Yuan, ... A macaque model of HIV-1 infection. Theodora Hatziioannou, Zandrea Ambrose, Nancy P. Y. Chung, Michael Piatak, Fang Yuan, ... To generate the HIV-1 and stHIV-1 constructs used throughout these studies, the env gene in an HIV-1NL4-3 proviral plasmid was ...
Drugs used to treat HIV and hepatitis B could be repurposed to prevent type 2 diabetes A group of drugs used to treat HIV and ... Immune cells that can recognize residual HIV-infected cells in people living with HIV (PLWH) who take antiretroviral therapy ( ... HIV wonder drug may not be as effective as hoped in sub-Saharan Africa, study suggests Dolutegravir, the current first-line ... Scientists recreate initial steps of HIV infection in a test tube Accomplishing a feat that had been a pipe dream for decades, ...
The primary cellular receptor for HIV is CD4, but this molecule is insufficient to permit viral fusion. During 1996, the ... HIV-1 enters its target cells by fusion at the plasma membrane. ... Co-receptors for HIV-1 entry Curr Opin Immunol. 1997 Aug;9(4): ... HIV-1 enters its target cells by fusion at the plasma membrane. The primary cellular receptor for HIV is CD4, but this molecule ... 1 The Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Center, The Rockefeller University, 455 First Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA. [email protected] ...
Total HIV DNA: a global marker of HIV persistence Among the different markers of HIV persistence in infected cells, total HIV ... Inducible HIV RNA transcription assays to measure HIV persistence: pros and cons of a compromise With the increasing number of ... Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV ... HIV evolution and diversity in ART-treated patients Characterizing HIV genetic diversity and evolution during antiretroviral ...
Cellular entry of HIV-1 is mediated by interaction with CD4 and chemokine receptors that serve as entry coreceptors. The immune ... Host genetic influences on HIV-1 pathogenesis.. Michael NL1.. Author information. 1. Department of Molecular Diagnostics and ... Genetic polymorphisms in these genes have recently been associated with effects on HIV-1 pathogenesis. The history and ... response against HIV-1 is regulated by genes of the HLA locus. ... Clinical Overview - HIV InSite. *HIV/AIDS - MedlinePlus Health ...
According to HIV / AIDS PHYSICIANS. * Fast Five Quiz: How Much Do You Know About HIV Pre- and Postexposure Prophylaxis? ... Option B+ Antiviral Regimen Helps Mothers Achieve HIV Suppression * Caring for People Living With HIV During the Global ... The proportion of patients with HIV-1 RNA , 50 copies/mL was 85% for those in the group that took atazanavir 300 mg ... A pooled analysis looked at data from 771 antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults infected with HIV-1 who received for at least ...
... an adult cohort study with linked HIV testing from Manicaland, with a mathematical model fitted to local age-specific HIV ... Assessing adult mortality in HIV-1-afflicted Zimbabwe (1998-2003). Ben A Lopman, Ruanne Barnabas, Timothy B Hallett, Constance ... The population attributable fraction of adult deaths due to HIV was 0.61 for men and 0.70 for women, with life expectancy ... and allow direct quantification of the impact of HIV. ... which has been severely affected by HIV.. METHODS. We compared ...
... ,Donor Screening: The Procleix System has added a significant layer of a safety to the nations blood ... VERSANT HIV RNA 3.0 Assay (bDNA). 7. Wampole PreVue B. Burgdorferi Antibody Detection Assay. 8. VerifyNow Aspirin Assay. 9. ... The Procleix HIV-1/HCV Assay can simultaneously detect the presence of HIV-1 and HCV in blood donor samples *The combination ... The combination HIV-1/HCV test system was developed and manufactured by Gen-Probe and is marketed worldwide as the Procleix ...
HIV-1 Nomenclature Proposal. By D. L. Robertson, J. P. Anderson, J. A. Bradac, J. K. Carr, B. Foley, R. K. Funkhouser, F. Gao, ... HIV-1 Nomenclature Proposal. By D. L. Robertson, J. P. Anderson, J. A. Bradac, J. K. Carr, B. Foley, R. K. Funkhouser, F. Gao, ... HIV/AIDS and Retrovirology Branch, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA, USA; ... HIV/AIDS and Retrovirology Branch, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta GA, USA; ...
AIDS virus »DNA »DNA virus »HIV-1 »RNA genome »T cells »cell nucleus »cytoplasm »immune response »infected cells »viral DNA ... Further reports about: , AIDS virus , DNA , DNA virus , HIV-1 , RNA genome , T cells , cell nucleus , cytoplasm , immune ... The AIDS virus HIV-1, which is a retrovirus, has an RNA genome that it temporarily converts into DNA in infected cells. This ... HIV-1: The undercover agent. 29.07.2020. Antibodies are not the only protection against viruses: At a much earlier stage, ...
CAEV vs HIV: But what if it could, tho?. Listen, nobody thinks the guy who cured Charlie Sheen of HIV cured Charlie Sheen of ... HIV and Charlie Sheen. ERV-,TMZ?. No, this is an education and outreach opportunity, and I want to use it to the… ... In the case of HIV-1, this is actually a pretty good idea. Yes, you could also do gene therapy to force B-cells to make broadly ... If you had asked me 6 years ago about using gene therapy to fight HIV/AIDS, I would have given you a nice rant about how ...
CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties.. Colin P1,2,3, Zhou Z1,2, Staropoli I1,2, Garcia-Perez J4, ... From a functional standpoint, we illustrate that the nature of the CCR5 molecules to which gp120/HIV-1 binds shapes sensitivity ... CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. It exists in diverse conformations and oligomerization ... We show that envelope glycoproteins (gp120s) from different HIV-1 strains exhibit divergent binding levels to CCR5 on cell ...
HIV-1 PROTEASE. A, B. 99. Human immunodeficiency virus 1. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HIV-1 PROTEASE FROM THE NY5 ISOLATE. EC: ... The ability to replace an inhibitor bound to the HIV-1 protease in single crystals with other potent inhibitors offers the ... The ability to replace an inhibitor bound to the HIV-1 protease in single crystals with other potent inhibitors offers the ... The replacement approach has been successfully used with single crystals of the HIV-1 protease complexed with a weak inhibitor ...
Bills Give Inaccurate Picture of HIV TransmissionMississippi Opens Education, Drug-Treatment Programs to HIV-Positive ... HIV Undetectable = Untransmittable (U=U) Fact Sheet. Who Tends to Gain Weight With HIV Treatment?. HIV/AIDS Cure: The Basics. ... HIV Charities Determined -- But Dimmer -- As Energy Rates Soar. We Need to Know More About How HIV Drugs Work in Women. Annan ... Pakistan Investigates Black Market Sale of HIV Kits. Advertisement. Syringe Prescription to Prevent HIV Infection in Rhode ...
Structure of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase in a Complex with the Non-Nucleoside Inhibitor Alpha-Apa R 95845 at 2.8 A Resolution. ... Crystal Structures of 8-Cl and 9-Cl TIBO Complexed with Wild-Type HIV-1 RT and 8-Cl TIBO Complexed with the Tyr181Cys HIV-1 RT ... Structure of HIV-1 RT/TIBO R 86183 Complex Reveals Similarity in the Binding of Diverse Nonnucleoside Inhibitors. Ding, J.,& ... The HIV-1 RT/HBY 097 structure reveals an overall inhibitor geometry and binding mode differing significantly from RT/NNRTI ...
HIV-1 and HIV-2 are closely related, but distinct viruses. They are both retroviruses belonging to the genus Lentiviridae and ... HIV-2 is associated with lower viral loads and is less infectious than HIV-1. The cells that HIV infects and destroys, called ... The type of ART used to treat people with HIV-2 differs from that used to treat HIV-1, meaning it is essential to differentiate ... In the case of specimens that test negative for HIV-2 antibody but might have indeterminate HIV-1 antibody present, a Western ...
Immune control of HIV reservoirs in CD4 T cells involves modulation of both HIV-1 latency and the continuous reseeding of the ... reservoir offering conceptual models that may advance HIV cure strategies. ... Summary: Immune control of HIV reservoirs in CD4 T cells involves modulation of both HIV-1 latency and the continuous reseeding ... Immune control of HIV-1 reservoirs Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2013 May;8(3):204-10. doi: 10.1097/COH.0b013e32835fe6d2. ...
  • Infection with an HIV strain harboring drug resistance-related mutations is referred to as transmitted drug resistance (TDR) or primary resistance. (
  • Brenner BG et al (2007) High rates of forward transmission events after acute/early HIV-1 infection. (
  • Brenner BG et al (2008) Transmission networks of drug resistance acquired in primary/early stage HIV infection. (
  • Harnessing the power of broadly neutralizing antibodies, which emerge years into a chronic HIV infection, could help overcome this challenge. (
  • In the case of HIV-1 infection, some peoples pirate flags REALLY piss off their CTLs. (
  • Passive transfer of broadly neutralizing human antibodies against HIV-1 protects macaques against infection. (
  • Although antibodies that neutralize autologous viruses are common, only a fraction of the patients infected with HIV-1 develop broadly neutralizing serologic activity, and only 2 to 3 y after infection ( 3 - 9 ). (
  • Importantly, passive transfer of bNAbs to monkeys effectively protects them against simian-human immunodeficiency virus infection ( 22 - 31 ), and it has therefore been proposed that vaccines that elicit such antibodies may be protective against infection in humans ( 1 , 2 , 32 - 34 ). (
  • Importantly, infection of pig-tailed macaques with stHIV-1 results in acute viremia, approaching the levels observed in HIV-1-infected humans, and an ensuing persistent infection for several months. (
  • We demonstrate the potential utility of this HIV-1-based animal model in a chemoprophylaxis experiment, by showing that a commonly used HIV-1 therapeutic regimen can provide apparently sterilizing protection from infection following a rigorous high-dose stHIV-1 challenge. (
  • While chimpanzees can be productively infected, they are endangered, expensive, do not typically develop AIDS after HIV-1 infection, and their use in research engenders ethical concerns ( 2 ). (
  • Consequently, the most widely used animal models of human HIV-1 infection and AIDS comprise infection of rhesus or pig-tailed macaques with simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV) or chimeras encoding the HIV-1 envelope or reverse transcriptase (SHIV, or RT-SHIV), which can cause simian AIDS ( 3 - 7 ). (
  • Antiretroviral therapy cannot cure HIV-1 infection due to the persistence of a small number of latently infected cells harboring replication-competent proviruses. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved atazanavir and cobicistat ( Evotaz , Bristol-Myers Squibb) for treatment of adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection. (
  • The FDA decision follows a review of data from a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled trial (study 114) in 692 treatment-naïve patients with HIV-1 infection and baseline estimated creatinine clearance above 70mL/min. (
  • In a new study, scientists from the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH) and Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin have now shown that the AIDS virus HIV-1 employs a sophisticated propagation strategy that causes the infection to go largely unnoticed in infected cells - at least in T cells, which are part of the body's immune system. (
  • During an infection with a DNA virus, e.g., herpes or HIV viruses, which transcribe their RNA genome into DNA, part of the viral DNA from the virus particle enters the cytoplasm of the cell, where it meets the DNA sensor cGAS and an immune response is triggered. (
  • In contrast, the same T cells produced a strong cGAS-dependent immune response to an infection with another DNA virus, HSV-1. (
  • We interrogated the significance of the CCR5 structural diversity on HIV-1 infection. (
  • Around 90% of people with this infection are long-term, clinical non-progressors and recent estimates suggest that people with an undetectable HIV-2 viral load have similar survival chances to that of the general population. (
  • 1 Laboratory Immunity and Infection, UMR-S 945 UPMC-INSERM, University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris, France. (
  • Suspected or documented active, untreated HIV-1 related opportunistic infection or other condition requiring acute therapy at the time of randomization. (
  • The assessment of viral tropism should be considered in every stage of HIV-1 infection. (
  • Maraviroc, a CCR5 inhibitor, is the only antiretroviral agent targeting coreceptor binding currently licensed for use in HIV infection. (
  • When most people think of AIDS, they generally do not think of a neurological disease, yet HIV infection can have an important impact on brain function. (
  • Researchers at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, together with investigators at other universities and clinics across Canada and in Australia, are conducting a major study to better understand the effects of HIV infection on brain health. (
  • Researchers used a gene-editing strategy in DNA to eliminate HIV-1 infection in animal studies. (
  • May 1 (UPI) -- Researchers at Temple University and the University of Pittsburgh successfully excised HIV DNA from the genomes of living animals to eliminate HIV-1 infection, the report in a new study. (
  • However, complete eradication of HIV-1 from infected individuals is not possible without targeting latent sources of infection. (
  • HIV-1 establishes latent infection in resting CD4 + T cells and findings indicate that latency can also be established in the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. (
  • 1 million people are estimated to be infected with HIV with 15% of these people unaware of their infection. (
  • Before starting PrEP, it is essential to document a negative HIV test, no signs or symptoms of acute HIV infection, hepatitis B status, and normal renal function. (
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced the approval, on October 5, 2006, of the APTIMA(r) HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay, manufactured by Gen-Probe Incorporated of San Diego, California, for use in clinical laboratories and public health facilities to detect primary (early) HIV-1 infection. (
  • The APTIMA~ HIV-I RNA Qualitative Assay is an in vitro nucleic acid test (NAT) for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in human plasma intended for use as an aid in the diagnosis of HIV-I infection, including acute or primary infection, before the appearance of antibodies to HIV-1. (
  • Traditional detection and diagnosis of HIV-I infection is based on testing for anti-viral antibodies by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) with confirmation by supplemental antibody tests such as Western blot or immunofluorescence assays (IFA). (
  • Although sensitivity of HIV-1 antibody detection has increased in the last few years, a window period between infection and detectable serological markers still exists. (
  • Following a recent exposure to HIV-I, it may take several months for the antibody response to reach detectable levels, during which time, testing for antibodies to HIV-I, including the use of rapid antibody tests, will not indicate true infection status. (
  • The newly approved test may provide earlier diagnosis of infection because it detects nucleic acid of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) in human plasma, rather than the antibody response to the virus. (
  • Presence of HIV-I RNA in the plasma of patients without antibodies to HIV-I is indicative of acute or primary HIV-1 infection. (
  • The test, however, is not meant to be used as a stand-alone test for the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection. (
  • In addition, the APTIMA HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay may be used as an additional test to confirm HIV-I infection in an individual whose specimen is repeatedly reactive for HIV-1 antibodies. (
  • The APTIMA test can be used instead of the traditional Western blot test or IFA for confirmation of HIV-1 infection when the screening test result for HIV-1 antibodies is positive. (
  • The sensitivity of the APTIMA(r) HIV-1 RNA Qualitative Assay is comparable to that of FDA approved viral load assays that measure the amount of HIV-1 virus circulating in the blood of patients with established HIV-1 infection to monitor the treatment and progression of AIDS. (
  • Unlike the viral load tests, however, the APTIMA test has been approved for the diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection, as well as for confirming HIV-1 infection when tests for antibodies to HIV-1 are positive. (
  • From its initial presentation in the early nineteen eighties until 1996, HIV-1 infection almost inevitably led to AIDS, which was a death sentence. (
  • The improved prognosis of patients with HIV-1 infection following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Western society has lead to an increased desire of couples of which either or both partners are HIV infected to parent a child. (
  • Although researchers have long suspected that HIV-1 s origins lie in some way with chimpanzee infection through a closely related virus SIVcpz (simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzees), only a few captive apes had been found to harbor SIVcpz. (
  • Dysregulation of Systemic and Mucosal Humoral Responses to Microbial and Food Antigens as a Factor Contributing to Microbial Translocation and Chronic Inflammation in HIV-1 Infection , Hel Z, Xu J, Denning WL, Helton ES, Huijbregts RPH, Heath SL, et al. (
  • To establish infection, HIV-1 must infect cells that support high-level replication, namely CD4+ T cells, which are absent from the outermost genital epithelium. (
  • This replication independent mode of HIV-1 transmission, known as trans -infection, greatly increases T cell infection in vitro and is thought to contribute to viral dissemination in vivo . (
  • This review outlines the recent data defining the mechanisms of trans -infection and provides a context for the potential contribution of trans -infection in HIV-1 disease. (
  • The agency approved Gilead Sciences' Stribild as a once-a-day treatment to control HIV in adults who have not previously been treated for infection. (
  • Before the publication, tandem bi-specific bnAb has not been previously investigated in vivo against HIV-1 infection. (
  • Therefore, the research team provides a proof-of-concept that BiIA-SG is a novel universal antibody drug for prevention and immunotherapy against HIV-1 infection. (
  • AIDS is the most severe stage of HIV infection. (
  • HIV is a viral infection. (
  • For example, infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) increases the risk ratio of acquiring HIV from 2 to 4. (
  • The results of infections carried out in cell culture suggest a biological mechanism for the enhancement of HIV-1 infection by HSV-2. (
  • Individuals who do not express CCR5 are resistant to HIV infection. (
  • For these and other reasons CCR5-tropic HIV-1 viruses are believed to be ones that transmit infection from one individual to another. (
  • In human skin explant cultures, which contain LCs, co-infection with HSV-2 substantially increased the number of HIV-1 cells. (
  • About 3-8 weeks (rarely up to six months) after exposure to the virus, the body begins to produce HIV antibodies in response to the infection. (
  • Last month AIDS researchers received some good news when two teams of scientists reported that people born with changes in both copies of a gene, called CKR5, seem to have a natural resistance to HIV-1 infection. (
  • Now, taking this landmark finding one step further, another team of researchers confirms in this week's issue of Science that people who inherit two altered copies of the CKR5 gene avoid HIV infection even after being exposed to the virus many times. (
  • The scientists found that the 17 people in the study exposed to HIV-1 who had dual mutations in CKR5 were free of HIV infection, strongly suggesting they have a natural resistance to the virus. (
  • All belong to groups at high risk for HIV infection -- hemophiliacs, sexually active homosexual men, and intravenous drug users. (
  • With access to so many people with well documented health histories, Dean said he and his colleagues could correlate known variables in HIV infection and progression -- such as age, ethnicity, mode of transmission -- with the CKR5 gene. (
  • One hundred-and-ninety five of these people were infected with the virus, suggesting people bearing one deleted copy of the gene were not protected from HIV-1 infection. (
  • The development of these antibodies in the early stage of infection might play a role in the outcome of the HIV disease.It has to be investigated whether HIV 1-infected women who developed these antibodies show a lower rate of HIV transmission to their offspring than those without such antibodies. (
  • Boston, MA -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 04/18/2014 -- Global Markets Direct's, 'HIV-1 Infection - Pipeline Review, H1 2014', provides an overview of the HIV-1 Infection's therapeutic pipeline. (
  • This report provides comprehensive information on the therapeutic development for HIV-1 Infection, complete with comparative analysis at various stages, therapeutics assessment by drug target, mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA) and molecule type, along with latest updates, and featured news and press releases. (
  • It also reviews key players involved in the therapeutic development for HIV-1 Infection and special features on late-stage and discontinued projects. (
  • The study will evaluate whether the investigational vaccine regimen is safe and able to reduce the incidence of HIV infection among 2,600 sexually active women in sub-Saharan Africa. (
  • Detection of the HIV-1 antigen may allow doctors to diagnose the viral infection earlier than detection of the antibodies alone, the FDA said. (
  • New market research titled "HIV-1 Infection - Pipeline Review, H2 2015" to its store. (
  • In view of the high priority for developing new drugs for the treatment of HIV infection, all proposals must be received by no later than May 30, 1995. (
  • HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus) weakens the immune system by destroying important cells, specifically CD4+ T cells, that control infection. (
  • Latent infection of CD4 + T cells provides a mechanism for lifelong persistence of HIV-1, even in patients on effective combination therapy. (
  • Virologic effects of broadly neutralizing antibody VRC01 administration during chronic HIV-1 infection. (
  • The assay can be utilized for screening of blood donors and/or as an aid in the diagnosis of clinical conditions related to infection with HIV-1 and/or HIV-2 - the etiological agents of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (
  • But a team at King's College, London, has shown that in the case of HIV-1 infection, some human T cells are not completely vulnerable to an HIV-1 viral attack. (
  • Michael Malim and colleagues have found a human gene, CEM15 , whose product actually inhibits HIV-1 infection and may eventually provide a potential new target for drug therapy. (
  • 1 Yet, the wiseguy mien has not completely disappeared: While the protein encoded by the newly discovered gene normally protects certain T cells against HIV-1 infection, its antithesis, Vif (viral infectivity factor), overcomes CEM15 and establishes the disease. (
  • But scientists do know that without Vif, viruses like HIV-1 are crippled and cannot replicate sufficiently to establish infection. (
  • It was the study of Vif's role in HIV-1 infection that put Malim, a professor of infectious diseases, and colleagues onto CEM15's trail. (
  • The London team and one from the University of Pennsylvania suspected that such a gene existed after they discovered a previously unknown phenotype that resists HIV-infection and other retroviruses. (
  • Malim's group and another at Oregon Health Sciences University simultaneously published the existence of an unidentified cellular factor that could inhibit HIV-1 infection, but could be overcome by the presence of Vif protein. (
  • 1 They studied HIV-1 infection in T cells where the Vif protein was either fully functional or deleted. (
  • In cells classified as permissive, HIV-1 could replicate and set up infection whether or not Vif was present. (
  • After identifying the candidate gene ( CEM15 ), Malim's team transferred it to permissive cells and found that the CEM15 protein could confer resistance to HIV-1 infection as found in nonpermissive cells. (
  • Human cells contain at least one gene that has natural anti-HIV activity," says Malim, but the virus encodes its own countermeasure, the Vif protein, and infection proceeds. (
  • Like other enveloped viruses, HIV-1 needs to bud from host cells in order to spread infection to other cells. (
  • This information could potentially be used to develop drugs that target these binding regions and disrupt HIV-1 budding, preventing infection from spreading. (
  • Gelsolin activity controls efficient early HIV-1 infection. (
  • Remarkably, efficient HIV-1 Env-mediated membrane fusion and infection of permissive lymphocytes were impaired when gelsolin was either overexpressed or silenced, which led to a loss or gain of cortical actin, respectively. (
  • These perturbed-actin events are responsible for the inhibition of early HIV-1 infection. (
  • For the first time we provide evidence that through its severing of cortical actin, and by controlling the amount of actin available for reorganization during HIV-1 Env-mediated viral fusion, entry and infection, gelsolin can constitute a barrier that restricts HIV-1 infection of CD4+ lymphocytes in a pre-fusion step. (
  • Thus, we propose that gelsolin is a new factor that can limit HIV-1 infection acting at a pre-fusion step, and accordingly, cell-signals that regulate gelsolin expression and/or its actin-severing activity may be crucial to combat HIV-1 infection. (
  • Clinical trials have shown that HIV-1 infection cannot be prevented by immunization with monomeric recombinant forms of viral envelope (Env) proteins. (
  • However, it is clear that the HIV-1 Env contains epitopes that can induce neutralizing antibodies and that such antibodies can protect primates from infection. (
  • This research proposal is designed to create a vaccine that can induce antibodies capable of preventing infection by the HIV virus. (
  • This expanded surveillance case definition for AIDS and classification system for HIV-1 infection also included additional clinical conditions seen in women, such as invasive cervical cancer. (
  • Lactobacilli already play a protective role in the vagina by reducing inflammation, which is a risk factor for HIV infection. (
  • Vaginal inflammation is a risk factor for Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection because inflammatory cells are targets for the virus, which enters the body during sexual intercourse through the vaginal and cervical mucosa. (
  • Osel's MucoCept Technology platform aims to leverage this natural microbiota of the vagina and cervix and enhance it to prevent infection from HIV by engineering one microbial component, Lactobacillus jensenii , to produce anti-viral proteins or anti-HIV antibodies capable of neutralizing the virus. (
  • The pediatrician plays a key role in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 infection. (
  • For infants born to women with HIV-1 infection identified during pregnancy, the pediatrician ensures that antiretroviral prophylaxis is provided to the infant to decrease the risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection and promotes avoidance of postnatal HIV-1 transmission by advising HIV-1-infected women not to breastfeed. (
  • The pediatrician should perform HIV-1 antibody testing for infants born to women whose HIV-1 infection status was not determined during pregnancy or labor. (
  • For HIV-1-exposed infants, the pediatrician monitors the infant for early determination of HIV-1 infection status and for possible short- and long-term toxicity from antiretroviral exposures. (
  • and (3) further reducing the risk of HIV-1 transmission by advising women with HIV-1 infection not to breastfeed. (
  • Care of the infant or child with perinatal infection with HIV-1 should be undertaken in consultation with a pediatric HIV specialist. (
  • Continuing technologic and medical advances in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric HIV-1 infection require an ongoing assessment and review of recommendations relating to management of infants known to be exposed to HIV-1 infection. (
  • 4 Many of these infant infections could have been prevented if HIV-1 infection had been identified in their mothers through adequate preconception and prenatal care and if appropriate prophylactic interventions had been performed. (
  • They individually probed 30,000 of one woman's antibody-producing B cells and isolated two that were able to stop more than 70% of 162 divergent HIV strains from establishing an infection. (
  • However, it is still under study whether bNAbs could prevent HIV infection. (
  • Shishi Luo and Perelson, published their findings in the paper "Competitive exclusion by autologous antibodies can prevent broad HIV-1 antibodies from arising. (
  • They used a mathematical model to examine how broadly neutralizing antibodies coevolve with HIV. (
  • In their model, broadly neutralizing antibodies emerge earlier, and face less competition, in infections caused by multiple distinct strains of HIV compared with single strains. (
  • Though antibodies can target HIV-1 viruses, and HIV-1 infected cells, CTLs should be the go-to workhorses for killing HIV-1 infected cells. (
  • Its the only HIV-1 protein that your antibodies can see. (
  • For people at increased risk of HIV-2, a healthcare provider may also test for HIV-2 antibodies or antigens. (
  • To test the idea that increasing apparent affinity might enhance neutralizing activity, we engineered bispecific anti-HIV-1 antibodies (BiAbs) that can bind bivalently by virtue of one scFv arm that binds to gp120 and a second arm to the gp41 subunit of gp160. (
  • The individual arms of the BiAbs preserved the binding specificities of the original anti-HIV IgG antibodies and together bound simultaneously to gp120 and gp41. (
  • The human serologic response to HIV-1 is polyclonal and targets both internal and viral surface proteins, but only antibodies directed against the HIV envelope spike, gp160, mediate viral neutralization ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Several broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) to HIV-1 gp160 have been isolated, including a group that binds to gp120 ( 10 - 18 ) and a group that is specific for gp41 ( 19 - 21 ). (
  • Broad and potent anti-HIV antibodies are rare in part because there are numerous features of the HIV envelope protein that make it a poor target. (
  • In addition to these well-established "defense" mechanisms, it has been proposed that the low density of functional HIV gp160 on the viral surface may render the anti-HIV antibodies less efficient for viral neutralization by impeding their bivalent binding to the virus ( 49 - 51 ). (
  • consequently, bivalent binding of specific antibodies to HIV should enhance neutralization. (
  • One directly testable prediction of this hypothesis is that anti-HIV antibodies that bind bivalently to their target show increased neutralizing potency. (
  • To test this idea, we artificially engineered anti-HIV gp120/41 bispecific antibodies (BiAbs) bearing one antigen-binding site directed against a nonneutralizing gp41 epitope and a second to one of a number of different neutralizing gp120 epitopes. (
  • When tested for viral neutralization, we found enhanced neutralization by the anti-HIV gp120/41 BiAbs compared with the original anti-gp120 IgG antibodies. (
  • Allow for an added labeling claim for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in plasma specimens and the detection of HIV-1 antibodies in oral fluid specimen. (
  • In people infected with HIV-1 virus, immune system cells in the intestinal tract may be unable to produce certain antibodies at the levels necessary to keep bacterial material from entering the bloodstream, according to a new study in PLOS Pathogens . (
  • The analysis revealed that antibodies that allow the immune system to identify and respond to specific species of bacteria were present in intestinal secretions of both HIV-1-uninfected and -infected individuals. (
  • However, compared to non-infected people, the antibodies from people with HIV-1 were present primarily in a less mature form, called IgM, rather than the forms that are more efficient in binding the targets, called IgG and IgA. (
  • The results indicate that antibody-producing cells in the intestines of HIV-1-infected individuals have decreased capacity to switch from the production of IgM to IgA and IgG, the types of antibodies that normally restrict the translocation of bacterial components across the mucosal barrier. (
  • Since it is extremely difficult to develop an appropriate immunogen to elicit broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against genetically divergent HIV-1 subtypes, developing existing bnAbs as passive immunization becomes a useful approach for HIV-1 prophylaxis and immunotherapy. (
  • If you are infected, your immune system will make antibodies against HIV. (
  • An antibody test detects antibodies to HIV. (
  • Antibodies are proteins that your immune system makes in response to foreign invaders, such as a HIV. (
  • This type of test looks for antibodies to HIV as well as a viral protein called p24. (
  • Furthermore, human HIV-positive sera with antibodies reacting with the domain Env362-420 and rabbit sera raised against the oligopeptide Env362-420 also inhibited the transport of HIV-1. (
  • THURSDAY, Aug. 8 (HealthDay News) -- The first rapid test to detect the HIV-1 antigen, as well as blood antibodies for the HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains, has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (
  • Infusions of 30 mg kg −1 of each of the antibodies were well-tolerated. (
  • Antibodies in HIV-1 vaccine development and therapy. (
  • The MP Diagnostics (MPD) HIV-1/2 ELISA 4.0 is an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) intended for the detection of antibodies to Human Immunodeficiency Viruses (HIV) type 1 (group M - O) or type 2 in human serum or plasma samples. (
  • HIV-1/2 specific antibodies, if present, will bind to the antigens immobilised on the solid phase. (
  • One year later, Myron Essex and his colleagues1 found that AIDS patients had antibodies to the Human T-cell Leukemia virus Type-1 (HTLV-I), a virus discovered by Gallo a few years earlier. (
  • Eradicating HIV-1 through the use of a vaccine that produces broadly neutralizing antibodies has been the ultimate goal for HIV prevention, however generating appropriate immune responses via vaccine strategies has proven difficult. (
  • Engineering these bacteria to deliver HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies mucosally at the site where the virus first enters the body may offer a cost-effective and long-lasting new barrier to HIV-1 transmission that is different but compatible with current antiviral therapies, barrier methods or future vaccines. (
  • Engineered vaginal Lactobacilli with anti-HIV properties, like the delivery of neutralizing antibodies or antiviral proteins, offer considerable potential as Live Biotherapeutic Products for an important global health need -- reducing the heterosexual transmission of HIV in women," said K.T. Moortgat, Ph.D., Osel Chief Executive Officer. (
  • Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies (bNAbs) are neutralizing antibodies which neutralize multiple HIV-1 viral strains. (
  • By 2006, researchers had identified a few so-called "broadly neutralizing antibodies" (bNAbs) that worked on multiple HIV strains. (
  • Integrated web resource BNAber, focused on broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies, has recently been introduced. (
  • HIV-1 inhibitor resistance is discussed in detail, and critical assessments as to what will be required of future antiretrovirals in order to halt viral replication, reduce viral resistance, and alter the state of viral latency are presented. (
  • We demonstrate that such minimally modified stHIV-1 strains are capable of high levels of replication in vitro in pig-tailed macaque ( Macaca nemestrina ) lymphocytes. (
  • stHIV-1 replication was controlled thereafter, at least in part, by CD8+ T cells. (
  • A major reason underlying the inability of HIV-1 to replicate in nonhuman primate cells is the existence therein of gene products that have evolved to inhibit retroviral replication. (
  • By exploiting type 1 interferon's ability to foster an antagonistic cellular environment for viral replication, a research group from France pinpointed DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX42 as an intrinsic inhibitor of HIV, but also other pathogenic viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Chikungunya virus. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses HIV-1 replication but does not eradicate the virus. (
  • Integration of viral DNA into the host genome is a central event in the replication cycle and the pathogenesis of retroviruses, including HIV. (
  • Although antiretroviral therapy is able to suppress HIV replication in infected patients, the virus persists and rebounds when treatment is stopped. (
  • Immune control of HIV-1 reservoirs is a two-step process: viral replication activation from latent reservoirs followed by elimination of virus-expressing cells by the host. (
  • Environmental factors, such as pro-inflammatory type-I interferon, chemokines or cytokines, can facilitate HIV-1 replication, confer dormancy in CD4 cells or confer resistance to cytopathogenic effects of cytotoxic CD8 T cells. (
  • The study demonstrated that HIV-1 replication can be completely shut down and the virus eliminated from genomes in living animals. (
  • The team is the first to perform HIV-1 replication and shut down the virus, eliminating it from infected cells in three different animal models, including a "humanized" animal model where mice were transplanted with human immune cells and infected with HIV. (
  • A better understanding of the expression and activity of these non-canonical viral proteins will help to dissect their potential role in viral replication and reveal how HIV-1 optimized the coding potential of its genes. (
  • Immune activation induced by these microbial products may be the mechanism responsible for chronic inflammation that drives HIV-1 pathogenesis and progression to AIDS, despite successful control of HIV-1 replication by antiretroviral therapy", says Dr. Hel. (
  • With its integral role in HIV replication, HIV protease has been a prime target for drug therapy. (
  • We show that X4 as compared with R5 HIV-1 shows limited to no replication in CD1a+ VEDCs. (
  • Explanations for this increased risk include direct inoculation of HIV-1 into the blood through genital ulcers, and the induction of inflammatory cells by HSV-2 which act as sites of replication for HIV-1. (
  • Supercomputers helped model a key building block in the HIV-1 protective capsid, which could lead to strategies for potential therapeutic intervention in HIV-1 replication. (
  • The RT associated activities are both essential for HIV-1 replication and validated targets for drug development, but only the polymerase function has been widely investigated as drug target. (
  • Some believe that Vif operates during the late stages of HIV virus replication, somehow overcoming some cells' seemingly innate resistance to the virus--this innate resistance stems from the newly discovered CEM15 gene. (
  • Says Sundquist, "In a general sense, I think that it is important to identify all of the cellular proteins that are involved in HIV replication, and it appears likely that the newly identified VPS37 proteins play a direct role in HIV budding. (
  • Despite the drop in new infections, black women are still at a high risk for HIV, the virus that causes Aids. (
  • Improving HIV-1 therapy and developing a vaccine against HIV-1 infections is now more important than ever. (
  • However, HIV-2 can suppress the immune system and lead to the development of AIDS, in which case a person develops the same symptoms and infections that are seen with HIV-1. (
  • More than 1 million people in the United States had HIV in 2006, but one in five are unaware of their infections, federal health officials said. (
  • The percentage of people unaware of their infections has declined, from 25 percent in 2003 to 21 percent in 2006, due to both increased diagnoses and a decline in deaths among persons living with HIV. (
  • Of all new HIV infections in 2009, 70% were MSM. (
  • The accumulated number of HIV-1 infections has more than doubled from 4,443 diagnostic cases in 2009 to 9,091 in 2017, despite the timely introduced combination antiretroviral therapy and prevention interventions in Hong Kong. (
  • The new FDA-approved test detects nucleic acid from HIV-2 and from HIV-1 Group O. HIV-2 infections and HIV-1 Group O infections are predominantly found on the African. (
  • Triple therapy formulations such as Atripla have been used successfully to treat infections with HIV-1, and presumably there will be mixtures of three antiviral drugs for treating hepatitis C. (
  • Let's use HIV-1 to illustrate the value of treating infections with multiple antiviral drugs. (
  • There are two distinct types of HIV but the vast majority of infections circulating in the world are HIV type 1 (HIV 1). (
  • The human AIDS viruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) represent cross-species (zoonotic) infections. (
  • Viruses related to HIV-1 have been isolated from the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), but only three such SIVcpz infections have been documented, one of which involved a virus so divergent that it might represent a different primate lentiviral lineage. (
  • Abstract DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The HIV-1 epidemic has resulted in ~2.7 million new infections in 2007 for a total of ~33 million people living with HIV/AIDS. (
  • PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has resulted in 2 million deaths and 2.7 million new infections in 2007, for a total of nearly 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS. (
  • This test is intended to be used to monitor known HIV-positive infections. (
  • It is not intended for primary detection of HIV infections. (
  • Although there has been a dramatic decline in the number of new HIV-1 infections in infants in the United States since 1994, when ARV prophylaxis was first documented to prevent MTCT, 9 transmission continues to occur. (
  • sigh* Okay, there are two potential targets for an HIV-1 vaccine: 1-- The envelope protein. (
  • By virtue of its particular capsid and Vif protein sequences, HIV-1 avoids and antagonizes the human forms of TRIM5α and APOBEC3 proteins. (
  • The discovery of a potential "Achilles heel" in Nef, the protein that is crucial to HIV virulence and its capacity to trigger AIDS, paves the way for the development of a new class of drugs against the virus. (
  • Loss of important protein-inhibitor interactions may account for the reduced potency of HBY 097 against the Tyr188Leu HIV-1 RT mutant. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) negative factor (Nef protein) accelerates virulent progression of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by its interaction with specific cellular proteins involved in signal transduction and host cell activation. (
  • The crystal structure of HIV-1 Nef protein bound to the Fyn kinase SH3 domain suggests a role for this complex in altered T cell receptor signaling. (
  • Stability and proteolytic domains of Nef protein from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1. (
  • Structure of the anchor-domain of myristoylated and non-myristoylated HIV-1 Nef protein. (
  • Furthermore, the Gottlinger laboratory investigates the function of an accessory HIV-1 protein called Nef, which is not essential for the virus to multiply, but for unknown reasons is crucial for its ability to cause disease. (
  • HIV type 1 is a retrovirus that predominantly infects lymphocytes that bear the CD4 surface protein, as well as coreceptors belonging to the chemokine receptor family (CCR5 or CXCR4), and causes AIDS. (
  • TNV/p28 tev , p18 6Drev , Tat1-Rev2, Tat^8c, p17 tev , or Ref) are the result of alternative splicing events, Tat-T/Vpt is produced upon programmed ribosomal frameshifting, and a Rev1-Vpu fusion protein is expressed due to a nucleotide polymorphism that is unique to certain HIV-1 clade A and C strains. (
  • The paragon of such a multitasking or moonlighting protein is HIV-1 Nef, which has been described to downmodulate a variety of surface receptors including CD4, MHC class I, CD28, and CXCR4, counteracts the host restriction factors SERINC3/5, and upregulates the invariant chain/CD74 to suppress antigen presentation ( Pereira and daSilva, 2016 ). (
  • HIV protease cleaves newly synthesized polyproteins (namely, Gag and Gag-Pol) at nine cleavage sites to create the mature protein components of an HIV virion, the infectious form of a virus outside of the host cell. (
  • In order for this precursor to become a functional protein, each monomer must associate with another HIV-1 PR monomer to form a functional catalytic active site by each contributing the Asp25 of their respective catalytic triads. (
  • By attaching to host protein CD4, BiIA-SG strategically ambushes invading HIV-1 particles to protect CD4 positive T cells. (
  • These findings, which come from analyzing the DNA of 1,955 people whose HIV status has been tracked for many years, provides the strongest evidence to date that treatments targeting CKR5 and/or its protein could help people infected with HIV-1 keep the virus in check. (
  • They determined that HIV anchors to not only the well-known CD4 protein that sits on the cell surface, but it also attaches to the CKR5 protein. (
  • They hypothesized that these typographical errors in the gene lead to changes in the shape of the CKR5 protein that, like changing the shape of a lock, blocks HIV from binding to the CKR5 protein that it uses to enter macrophages. (
  • While the scientists don't know yet why this is so, Dean speculated, "It may be that people with one normal and one altered copy of the gene produce a smaller amount of protein that is able to serve as a doorway for HIV-1 to enter certain cells. (
  • What Stampede2 allowed us to do is establish what the molecular interactions are between the HIV proteins and this small molecule and to test the hypothesis that it was stabilizing a particular part of the protein using molecular dynamics," said Juan Perilla. (
  • Mosaic vaccines are computationally designed from protein sequence data that were extracted from this wealth of sequences, and the computer code used to design them was inspired by the way HIV-1 itself naturally evolves. (
  • The HIV Gag protein contains a specific sequence of amino acids which it uses to recruit the human tumor susceptibility gene 101 (TSG101). (
  • The full-length HIV-1 Env protein can be presented on the surface of VLPs composed of Gag protein and cellular membrane components. (
  • Protein-Protein Interaction between Surfactant Protein D and DC-SIGNviaC-Type Lectin Domain Can Suppress HIV-1 Transfer. (
  • Osel scientists have previously demonstrated that Lactobacillus could be engineered to secrete another anti-HIV-1 protein. (
  • However, there is little risk of transmitting HIV through sex if a person takes HIV medications correctly and is able to maintain an undetectable viral load. (
  • HIV 1 RNA viral load of greater then 500 copies/mL. (
  • The objective of the study, "Computerized Counseling Reduces HIV-1 Viral Load and Sexual Transmission Risk: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial," was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of a computerized intervention made specifically to support patients towards positive behavioral change. (
  • After the nine-month period, CARE+ intervention participants overall had an average decrease in HIV viral load, had better ART adherence, and decreased the odds of transmission risks. (
  • When HIV-1 isn't treated, viral load will increase. (
  • Clinicians in those countries can also use the assay in testing dried blood spots to monitor viral load and disease progression in HIV-1 infected patients. (
  • Your viral load levels are usually used as an indicator of how well your immune system is dealing with HIV. (
  • This test detects and/or measures the amount (viral load) of RNA (ribonucleic acid) of the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV 1) in blood. (
  • Viral load" means the number of HIV particles or copies of the virus present in the blood. (
  • In addition, whereas the quantification of HIV-1 in the semen and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the viral load of seminal plasma have been relatively well documented [6-9] , similar features have not been studied so extensively in the saliva compartment. (
  • Globally, the viral load was higher in blood than in the mucosal compartments ( Table 1 ). (
  • However, four men exhibited a higher viral load in semen than in blood and another subject tested positive for HIV-1 RNA only in the saliva. (
  • In the four individuals with dual antibody-sensitive viruses, immunotherapy resulted in an average reduction in HIV-1 viral load of 2.05 log 10 copies per ml that remained significantly reduced for three months following the first of up to three infusions. (
  • Fig. 2: Viral load following 3BNC117/10-1074 infusions in HIV-1-infected participants. (
  • In total, HIV-1 expresses 16 canonical proteins from only nine genes within its 10 kb genome. (
  • In addition to the canonically expressed proteins, a growing number of publications describe the existence of non-canonical fusion proteins in HIV-1 infected cells. (
  • The goal of this review is to provide an overview of previously described HIV-1 fusion proteins and to summarize our current knowledge of their expression patterns and putative functions. (
  • The Gag-Pol polyprotein, which contains premature coding proteins, including HIV-1 PR. (
  • The viral DNA can either remain dormant in the nucleus or be transcribed into mRNA and translated by the host cell into the Gag-Pol polyprotein, which would then be cleaved into individual functional proteins (including a newly synthesized HIV-1 PR) by the mature HIV-1 PR. (
  • On episode #232 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent meets up with Roberto, Reuben, Lou, and Leslie at the University of Minnesota to talk about their work on HIV-1, APOBEC proteins, measles virus, and teaching virology to undergraduates. (
  • The naturally-occurring compound IP6 (red) facilitates the formation and assembly of HIV-1 structural proteins, results from XSEDE Stampede2 and Anton2 systems show. (
  • Perilla ran simulations of inositol phosphate interactions with HIV structural proteins CA-CTD-SP1 using NAMD through allocations on XSEDE , the Extreme Science and Engineering Environment, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). (
  • Through XSEDE, the Stampede2 system at the Texas Advanced Computing Center ran NAMD simulations of the Inositol phosphates IP3, IP4, IP5 and their interactions with HIV proteins CA-CTD-SP1. (
  • Understanding the history, structure and complexity of the viral foe has been key to developing the mosaic vaccine antigens, assembled from natural sequences, which are optimized to achieve coverage of the many different versions of HIV proteins that are circulating. (
  • Vif proteins are produced by HIV-1 and other primate immunodeficiency viruses, although how they precisely work is still a mystery. (
  • An international team of researchers has identified a family of proteins that are involved in HIV-1 budding from host cells, and are therefore likely to be essential for the spread of the virus. (
  • In preliminary studies on the creation of VLPs carrying HIV-1 Env proteins, we have begun to address the challenges outlined above. (
  • Engineering Anti-HIV gp120/41 BiAbs. (
  • From a functional standpoint, we illustrate that the nature of the CCR5 molecules to which gp120/HIV-1 binds shapes sensitivity to inhibition by CCR5 ligands and cellular tropism. (
  • In der vorliegenden Arbeit konnte die in den Transport von zellfreien HIV-1 durch epitheliale Zellen beteiligte Domäne auf gp120 erstmals näher charakterisiert werden. (
  • Überlappende Oligopeptide -basierend auf der Aminosäurensequenz von gp120- wurden zur Hemmung der Transzytose von HIV-1 durch humane Amnionzellen verwendet. (
  • HIV can penetrate epithelial barriers by a receptor-mediated transport mechanism involving interaction of a lectin-like domain on the viral glycoprotein gp120 and a receptor on the epithelial surface. (
  • In this study the domain on gp120 involved in transcytosis of cell-free HIV-1 through epithelial cells was characterized in more detail. (
  • Overlapping oligopeptides of gp120 were used to inhibit transcytosis of HIV 1 through an amnion cell monolayer. (
  • The wells of the polystyrene microplate strips are coated with recombinant HIV antigens (gp41, gp120, and gp-36) expressed in E.coli. (
  • Here we show that gelsolin restructures cortical F-actin during HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated signalling, without affecting cell-surface expression of receptors or viral co-receptor signalling. (
  • Indeed, HIV-1 Env-gp120-induced F-actin reorganization and viral receptor capping were impaired under these experimental conditions. (
  • Moreover, gelsolin knockdown promoted HIV-1 Env-gp120-mediated aberrant pseudopodia formation. (
  • Based on an understanding of species-specific variation in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiretroviral genes, we constructed simian-tropic (st)HIV-1 strains that differ from HIV-1 only in the vif gene. (
  • CCR5 plays immune functions and is the coreceptor for R5 HIV-1 strains. (
  • We show that envelope glycoproteins (gp120s) from different HIV-1 strains exhibit divergent binding levels to CCR5 on cell lines and primary cells, but not to CD4 or the CD4i monoclonal antibody E51. (
  • By engineering a tandem bi-specific broadly neutralizing antibody, the team found that this novel antibody drug is universally effective not only against all genetically divergent global HIV-1 strains tested but also promoting the elimination of latently infected cells in a humanized mouse model. (
  • Naturally occurring HIV-1 resistant strains, however, are readily found against these so-called bnAbs and result in the failure of durable viral suppression in bnAb-based monotherapy. (
  • BiIA-SG not only displays a potent activity against all three panels of 124 genetically divergent global HIV-1 strains tested, but also prevents diverse live viral challenges completely in humanized mice. (
  • HIV-1 has an ability to mutate rapidly, which results in great global genetic diversity with multiple strains and subtypes prevalent in different parts of the world. (
  • 2013 Oct 24;155(3):531-9) and if the immune responses to mosaic vaccines elicited responses that could cross-react with highly diverse HIV strains. (
  • All HIV-1 strains known to infect man, including HIV-1 groups M, N and O, are closely related to just one of these SIVcpz lineages, that found in P. t. troglodytes. (
  • They could block about two-thirds of a large panel of HIV strains. (
  • existing models generally employ simian viruses that are divergent from HIV-1, reducing their usefulness in preclinical investigations. (
  • The divergence between human and simian viruses necessitates a 2-stage process for evaluation of candidate vaccines in macaques, with proof of concept-challenge studies using SIV followed by immunogenicity studies using the corresponding HIV-1 immunogens, which often cannot be directly evaluated for indications of efficacy before human trials. (
  • Julia Kazmierski, co-author of the current study, combined T cells and HIV-1 viruses in a petri dish. (
  • HIV-1 and HIV-2 are closely related, but distinct viruses. (
  • Each of these viruses is thought to have arisen as a result of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) being introduced into the human population, although the origin for HIV-2 was the sooty mangabey (SIVsm), while for HIV-1, it was the chimpanzee (SIVcpz). (
  • The type of ART used to treat people with HIV-2 differs from that used to treat HIV-1, meaning it is essential to differentiate between the two viruses when testing people who are at risk of having HIV-2. (
  • Any samples that are submitted for HIV diagnostic testing should be screened using an enzyme immunoassay that is able to detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2 and any laboratory performing this screening should include algorithms for differentiating between the two viruses in repeatedly reactive samples. (
  • Most HIV-1 quasispecies infect cells expressing CCR5 and are thus defined as CCR5- or R5-tropic, while a smaller proportion of viruses bind to CXCR4 and are defined as CXCR4- or X4-tropic. (
  • If the RNA polymerase mutation rate is 1 out of every 10,000 bases synthesized, then each base in the viral genome is substituted in a collection of 10,000 viruses. (
  • An HIV-1 infected person can make as many as 10,000,000,000 virus particles each day, so 10 10 /10 4 = one million viruses will be produced each day with resistance to one drug. (
  • Most viruses enter the human body through muscosal surfaces, and in women, the vagina and cervix are the major sites of entry for HIV-1 during sexual intercourse," said Laurel Lagenaur, Ph.D, senior author and Director of Research at Osel. (
  • The discovery of bNAbs has led to an important area of research, namely, discovery of a vaccine, not only limited to HIV, but also other rapidly mutating viruses like Influenza. (
  • This is a 96 week study to determine if UK- 453,061 in combination with Darunavir /ritonavir and a Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase inhibitor is as efficacious, safe and tolerable as etravirine in combination with Darunavir /ritonavir and a Nucleos(t)ide Reverse Transcriptase inhibitor in HIV-1 infected patients who have been previously treated with antiretroviral drugs and have NNRTI resistance mutations. (
  • After entering the host cell, viral RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA using the HIV reverse transcriptase . (
  • When viral HIV-RNA enters the cell, it is accompanied by a reverse transcriptase, an integrase, and a mature HIV-1 PR. (
  • Auto-processing of HIV-1 PR is characterized by two sequential steps: (1) the intramolecular cleavage of the N-terminus at the p6pol-protease cleavage site, which serves to finalize PR processing and increase enzymatic activity with the newly formed PR-reverse transcriptase intermediate, and (2) the intermolecular cleavage of the C-terminus at the protease-reverse transcriptase cleavage site, leading to the assembly of two PR subunits into mature dimers. (
  • Qiagen, Chatsworth, CA, USA), and the quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed using the HIV-Monitor kit. (
  • The HIV-1 genomic RNA reverse transcription is an essential step in the virus cycle carried out by the viral-coded reverse transcriptase (RT), which has two associated functions: the RNA- and DNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP and DDDP) function and the ribonuclease H (RNase H) function. (
  • HIV is a virus that weakens the immune system. (
  • Taking these medications daily as they instruct can slow progression of HIV, prevent transmission, and help protect the immune system. (
  • Scientists from Scripps Research and Los Alamos National Laboratory have devised a method for mapping in unprecedented detail the thickets of slippery sugar molecules that help shield HIV from the immune system. (
  • HIV-1 virus is known to cause extensive intestinal tract damage, allowing whole bacteria and tiny pieces of microbes living in the intestines to enter the bloodstream and activate the immune system. (
  • Nonetheless, the findings could improve our understanding of how HIV-1 undermines the immune system and inform research into potential new treatments. (
  • This study's purpose is to learn how dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) affects the HIV virus, the immune system, hormone levels, body composition and quality of life. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a virus that infects cells in the immune system. (
  • When HIV is not treated, it can cause the immune system to become severely weakened. (
  • Scientists don't understand many of the details of how HIV-1 can fool our immune system cells so effectively. (
  • 1. Is 1 week after possible exposure too early for someone with a healthy immune system to experience acute HIV symptoms? (
  • Scientists have created a computational model that could change the way that researchers look at possibilities for an HIV-1 vaccine. (
  • Luo and Perelson's research was supported by the National Institute of Health through a grant to the Duke Center for HIV/AIDS Vaccine Immunology and Immunogen Discovery (CHAVI-ID). (
  • HIV-1 CTL Vaccine: lol, we are screwed. (
  • HIV-1 CTL Vaccine: Did HIV-1 steal Harry Potters Invisibility Cloak? (
  • And vaccine against HIV? (
  • To end the HIV/AIDS pandemic, it is important to discover either an effective vaccine or a therapeutic cure. (
  • The HIV-1 mosaic vaccine in the trial was originally designed at Los Alamos National Laboratory by theoretical biologist Bette Korber and her team. (
  • LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Nov. 30, 2017-Just in time for World AIDS Day (Dec. 1) international partners are announcing the first efficacy study for an investigational HIV-1-preventive "mosaic" vaccine. (
  • Historically, the search for an HIV vaccine has been challenging due in part to the virus's extraordinary diversity. (
  • The goal of the mosaic vaccine is to elicit immune responses that can protect a vaccinated person from the world of HIV diversity that they might encounter. (
  • The new study will be conducted at clinical sites affiliated with the NIAID-funded HIV Vaccine Trials Network. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - As part of a larger project aimed at producing a handheld molecular diagnostic for use in the developing world, researchers at Dartmouth have developed an assay to rapidly and reliably detect all subtypes of HIV-1 in plasma samples. (
  • The team intends to port the HIV-1 assay onto a handheld device that they are developing in parallel. (
  • The new HIV-1 assay also may be useful to the developed world as is, since there are not many inexpensive qualitative assays currently on the market. (
  • The group also used the AcroMetrix HIV-1 panel from Life Technologies to establish the limit of detection for the assay. (
  • Clinical labs can now adapt the published qualitative HIV-1 assay. (
  • HIV 1/O/2 tests for HIV-1, HIV-2 and group O. Your EIA HIV-2 is also an HIV-2 -specific assay. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - Hologic said today that it has received two CE marks for its Aptima HIV-1 Quant Dx Assay for use in testing dried blood spots and the early diagnosis of the disease in infants. (
  • Hologic said that as a result of receiving the CE marks, the assay can be used in European and African countries to qualitatively detect HIV type 1 (HIV-1) RNA in infants that are less than 18 months old. (
  • Though HIV-1 and HIV-2 are both retroviruses that can have similar effects on the human body, they are genetically distinct. (
  • One major advantage of HIV-1 and related retroviruses compared to their host species is certainly their high mutation rate that allows them to quickly adapt to an ever-changing environment. (
  • HIV-1 protease (PR) is a retroviral aspartyl protease (retropepsin), an enzyme involved with peptide bond hydrolysis in retroviruses, that is essential for the life-cycle of HIV, the retrovirus that causes AIDS. (
  • The authors describe the engineering of Lactobacillus jensenii to stably express broadly neutralizing antibody fragments against the HIV-1 virus in an advanced online publication of AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses , entitled "Expression of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody Fragments Using Human Vaginal Lactobacillus . (
  • The AIDS virus HIV-1, which is a retrovirus, has an RNA genome that it temporarily converts into DNA in infected cells. (
  • Another area of interest are cellular factors that are potentially involved in the organization of the viral RNA genome and its uptake into HIV-1 particles. (
  • The work continued a previous proof-of-concept study in which they used transgenic rat and mouse models with HIV-1 DNA incorporated into the genome of every tissue of the animals' bodies. (
  • Despite its small genome size, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) is one of the most successful pathogens and has infected more than 70 million people worldwide within the last decades. (
  • The HIV-1 viral genome, like that of HCV, is slightly less than 10,000 bases long. (
  • In a search for the HIV-1 reservoir, we have now sequenced the genome of a new SIVcpzstrain (SIVcpzUS) and have determined, by mitochondrial DNA analysis, the subspecies identity of all known SIVcpz-infected chimpanzees. (
  • Castor D et al (2012) Transmitted drug resistance and phylogenetic relationships among acute and early HIV-1-infected individuals in New York City. (
  • I'm worried that this might be acute HIV. (
  • Hi Allison, I think you will be fine and I do not think you have HIV acute symptoms. (
  • These models have been extremely informative, particularly in studies of SIV and SHIV pathogenesis ( 1 , 8 - 10 ). (
  • Host genetic influences on HIV-1 pathogenesis. (
  • Genetic polymorphisms in these genes have recently been associated with effects on HIV-1 pathogenesis. (
  • HIV pathogenesis is characterized by the depletion of T lymphocytes and by the presence of a population of cells in which latency has been established called the HIV-1 reservoir. (
  • Using the deuterated (2H) glucose method for endogenous labeling, we have analyzed host factors that influence T-cell turnover in HIV-1-uninfected and -infected humans. (
  • Viraemia suppressed in HIV-1-infected humans by broadly neutralizing antibody 3BNC117. (
  • HIV has been in humans for maybe 70 years, but the gene has been around a lot longer and is conserved down to mouse. (
  • The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report is published by the Surveillance Branch of the Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention - Surveillance and Epidemiology, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (
  • Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention. (
  • Publication of this report would not have been possible without the contributions of the State and territorial health departments and the HIV/AIDS surveillance programs that provided surveillance data to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • Thus, the development of animal models that use HIV-1 as the challenge virus would undoubtedly facilitate the evaluation of candidate prevention and treatment strategies. (
  • It is a part of the publication CDC HIV/Hepatitis/STD/TB Prevention News Update . (
  • The reports said the growing number of people living with HIV underscores the critical need to reach infected individuals with testing, treatment, and prevention services to reduce the impact of the disease. (
  • The results were positive and point to a new platform for further studies in HIV self-care and prevention. (
  • Understanding the interplay between HIV-1 and CD1a+ VEDCs is important for future prevention and cure strategies. (
  • In this article, we'll explore what you need to know about HIV-1, including how it's treated and strategies for prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends using an antigen/antibody test for HIV diagnosis. (
  • Out of the total funding, $426 million will focus on ensuring universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services, with an emphasis on eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV and ensuring prevention programmes are serving adolescents, youth and key populations at higher risk of HIV. (
  • Some 50,000 people are infected with HIV each year in the United States, the agency said, citing statistics from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the AAP, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend documented, routine HIV-1 antibody testing for all pregnant women in the United States after notifying the patient that testing will be performed, unless the patient declines HIV-1 testing ("opt-out" consent or "right of refusal" 5 , 7 , 10 ). (
  • AIDS research has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that utilizes HIV-1 as the challenge virus, the central problem being the absence of a practical host species in which HIV-1 replicates efficiently ( 1 ). (
  • Langerhans cells (LC) are believed to one of the first cells in which HIV-1 replicates after sexual exposure. (
  • When a person is infected with HIV 1, the virus replicates-it produces more and more copies of itself-and moves into the lymph nodes, spleen, and other parts of the body. (
  • Aug. 9, 2018 - HIV-1 replicates in ninja-like ways. (
  • Blick G et al (2007) The probable source of both the primary multidrug-resistant (MDR) HIV-1 strain found in a patient with rapid progression to AIDS and a second recombinant MDR strain found in a chronically HIV-1-infected patient. (
  • Because their CTLs get so worked up, HIV-1 infected cells are slaughtered, lowering viral loads, thus slowing progression to AIDS. (
  • Moreover, the strong associations between certain HLA class molecules, such as HLA-B*57, HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*51, and slow disease progression may decline as the epidemic continues, particularly where these HLA alleles are highly prevalent, and where HIV transmission rates are high. (
  • Furthermore, no controlled clinical trials of ART for HIV-2 have been carried out and no recommendations exist to guide decision making in the management of the immunosuppression and disease progression that can occur as a result of this condition. (
  • To monitor the status of HIV 1 disease in conjunction with other lab tests and physical disease progression and to guide therapy. (
  • An estimated 1.2 million Americans have HIV, which develops into AIDS unless treated with antiviral drugs. (
  • There are, however, two major scientific challenges: the tremendous HIV-1 diversity and the antiviral drug-unreachable latency. (
  • Cell-associated (CA) HIV RNA has received much attention in recent years as a surrogate measure of the efficiency of HIV latency reversion and because it may provide an estimate of the viral reservoir size. (
  • Immune control of HIV reservoirs in CD4 T cells involves modulation of both HIV-1 latency and the continuous reseeding of the reservoir offering conceptual models that may advance HIV cure strategies. (
  • Currently, most individuals infected with HIV-1 develop AIDS after an estimated median latency period of 10 years. (
  • For their current study, Christine Goffinet's research group teamed up with scientists from the Hannover Medical School, TWINCORE, and others to demonstrate that HIV-1 does indeed manage to evade detection by this enzyme in T cells - the most important target cells of HIV-1 in vivo. (
  • detecting the amplified product of LTR sequences using a labeled detection probe that hybridizes specifically with LTR sequence in the amplified product, thereby indicating presence of the HIV-1 nucleic acid in the biological sample. (
  • 8 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the detecting step uses at least one labeled detection probe having an LTR-specific sequence consisting essentially of SEQ ID NO:16 or SEQ ID NO:41. (
  • Inside, HIV-1 copies its genes and scavenges parts to build a protective bubble for its copies. (
  • or =500 copies/mL of HIV-1 RNA. (
  • In 2002, Gen-Probe received approval of its Biologics License Application (BLA) for the first FDA-approved nucleic acid test for HIV-1 and HCV in donated human blood. (
  • Nucleic acid sequences and methods for detecting HIV-1 nucleic acid (LTR and pol sequences) in biological samples by detecting amplified nucleic acids are disclosed. (
  • Kits comprising nucleic acid oligomers for amplifying HIV-1 nucleic acid present in a biological sample and detecting the amplified nucleic. (
  • 2 . The method of claim 1 , wherein the contacting step uses a capture oligomer that hybridizes specifically to a target region in LTR sequences of HIV-1 nucleic acid complementary to SEQ ID NO:1 or complementary to LTR-specific sequence contained in SEQ ID NO:2. (
  • The ability to replace an inhibitor bound to the HIV-1 protease in single crystals with other potent inhibitors offers the possibility of investigating a series of protease inhibitors rapidly and conveniently with the use of X-ray crystallography. (
  • Dendritic cells (DCs), present in mucosal epithelia, potentially facilitate HIV-1 acquisition. (
  • Dendritic cells can also transfer intact, infectious HIV-1 to CD4 T cells through an analogous structure, the infectious synapse. (
  • The public face of HIV is well-known: HIV is a sexually transmitted virus that particularly preys on gay men, African Americans, drug users, and just about all of Africa, although we re all at risk. (
  • Collins JA et al (2004) Competitive fitness of nevirapine-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutants. (
  • There are two main types of this virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2. (
  • Taking a major step forward in HIV research, scientists at the Lewis Katz School of Medicine at Temple University have successfully edited SIV - a virus closely related to HIV, the cause of AIDS - from the genomes of non-human primates. (
  • The immunodeficiency disease AIDS, which is caused by the HIV virus, can in most cases be treated very effectively with antiretroviral drugs. (
  • Nevertheless, Goffinet and her team will not give up their fight against the AIDS virus and will continue to search for promising new ways to target HIV-1 - including and especially in times of corona. (
  • Globally, HIV-1 is the most prevalent type of HIV and is generally the virus that people are talking about if they mention HIV without specifying a type. (
  • Concomitantly, adaptive immunity takes advantage of CD4 T-cell homeostatic mechanisms and can expose HIV-1 antigen-expressing cells to HIV-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells, and limit virus spreading. (
  • Moreover, for the charge to stick, a sexual partner doesn't need to have acquired the virus or prove the transmission source if they do become HIV positive. (
  • Phenotypic assays determine HIV tropism by culturing host infected cells or by engineering a recombinant virus derived from the virus population of the subject (as discussed by Raymond et al. (
  • Research in the Gottlinger laboratory focuses on interactions between HIV-1, the virus that causes AIDS, and the host cell in which it propagates. (
  • An international team of scientists, led by researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB), has discovered a crucial missing link in the search for the origin of HIV-1, the virus responsible for human AIDS. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergoes a severe population bottleneck during sexual transmission and yet adapts extremely rapidly to the earliest immune responses. (
  • Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) targets CD4 + T cells and cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. (
  • These cells are relatively more resistant to apoptosis induced by HIV-1, thus are important stable hideouts of the virus. (
  • According to UAB post-doctoral researcher Brandon Keele, Ph.D., lead author of the report, this allowed for unprecedented genetic comparisons to be done between HIV-1 and its closest simian virus counterpart. (
  • this allowed for unprecedented genetic comparisons to be done between HIV-1 and its closest simian virus counterpart. (
  • Antiretroviral therapy (ART), the primary type of treatment for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), can reduce sexual transmission, prevent illness, and increase longevity and quality of life for patients. (
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - The Food and Drug Administration on Monday approved a new anti-HIV pill that combines four medicines to combat the virus that causes AIDS. (
  • With about six million people infected with the virus - more than 10% of the population - South Africa carries the world's heaviest HIV/Aids caseload and has around 2.5 million people taking antiretroviral (ARV) drugs daily. (
  • In the world, HIV/AIDS has resulted in estimated 40 million deaths while 36.9 million people are still living with the virus. (
  • HIV-1 is a type of retrovirus that originated from a similar virus in chimpanzees. (
  • When a person contracts HIV-1, the virus begins to infect a specific type of immune cell called a CD4 cell. (
  • When HIV-1 isn't treated with antiretroviral drugs, the virus continues to deplete the body's CD4 cells. (
  • A person can contract HIV-1 when bodily fluids that contain the virus come into contact with their blood or with mucous membranes like those found in the genitals, anus, or mouth. (
  • The risk of being infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is substantially enhanced in individuals with other sexually transmitted diseases. (
  • In addition, the scientists report that people who have one normal and one altered copy of CKR5 do become HIV-positive, but they tend to progress slowly to full-blown AIDS and often live longer than most people infected with the virus. (
  • Now that we are beginning to see the benefits of attacking HIV with, not one, but a combination of different drugs, today's finding points out a different, but naturally proven, angle from which to attack the virus and make its life really rough," said Stephen O'Brien, Ph.D., leader of the AIDS genetics research group at NCI's Frederick Cancer Research and Development Center and senior author of today's paper. (
  • Last June, researchers made headlines when they discovered that a strain of HIV, believed to be important in person-to-person transmission of the virus, anchors to immune cells called macrophages in a very specific way. (
  • Following up on this new lead, two research teams reported independently last month that they had found a key piece to the long-standing puzzle of why some people exposed to HIV never become infected with the virus. (
  • Each group includes individuals who are HIV-positive with AIDS, those who are HIV positive but do not have AIDS, and a relatively large number of people who have been exposed to the virus but are HIV negative. (
  • The Alere Determine HIV-1/2 Ag/Ab Combo test can detect these markers for the AIDS-causing virus in human serum, plasma and blood specimens, the agency said in a news release. (
  • One of the biggest medical miracles of our generation has been the development of antiretroviral drugs to control the HIV virus, said Dr. Luban, the David L. Freelander Memorial Professor in HIV/AIDS Research, professor of molecular medicine and lead author of the study. (
  • If HIV-1 is untreated, the virus reduces the number of CD4+ T cells in the body. (
  • The agreement declared Gallo and Montagnier to be co-discoverers of the AIDS virus, presently known as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). (
  • To download a certificate of analysis for Quantitative Synthetic Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA ( VR-3245SD ), enter the lot number exactly as it appears on your product label or packing slip. (
  • The certificate of analysis for that lot of Quantitative Synthetic Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) RNA ( VR-3245SD ) is not currently available online. (
  • Het humane immuundeficiëntie virus type 1 (hiv-1) is het virus dat aids veroorzaakt. (
  • By 1993, 172,000 individuals in the United States had died from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and another 1,000,000 were estimated to be infected by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the retrovirus that causes AIDS. (
  • Researchers with the Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center have secured $4 million in funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)/National Cancer Institute to establish an HIV-associated Malignancy Research Center (HAMRC) focused on lung cancer in East Africa. (
  • The researchers suspect that the comparatively short HIV-1 DNA is present in the cytoplasm in insufficient quantities and is not long enough to be detected by cGAS. (
  • Based on this refined data set, researchers estimate HIV prevalence increased by 11 percent, or 112,000 people, since 2003. (
  • Researchers genetically inactivated HIV-1 in transgenic mice, reducing the RNA expression of viral genes by roughly 60 to 95 percent. (
  • Researchers determined the success of the strategy by measuring levels of HIV-1 RNA and used a new live bioluminescence imaging system. (
  • Researchers there have developed a test that uses intercalating dye RT-PCR and melt curve-based controls to detect the most common HIV-1 M, as well as O, N, and P subtypes. (
  • We discovered, in collaboration with other researchers, that HIV uses this small molecule to complete its function," said Juan R. Perilla, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware. (
  • To locate this anti-HIV cellular factor, researchers looked for genes that are expressed solely in the nonpermissive cells. (
  • In 1990, researchers identified the first HIV bNAb, far more powerful than any antibody seen before. (
  • Since 2009, researchers have identified more than 50 HIV bNAbs. (
  • In 2009, researchers isolated and characterized the first HIV bNAbs seen in a decade. (
  • This volume thoroughly covers HIV-1 antiretrovirals currently in clinical use, together with their advantages and limitations. (
  • Several techniques were developed to assess HIV tropism, and treatment guidelines from different countries are not uniform in defining which methods should be employed in clinical practice. (
  • This test is intended for use in conjunction with clinical presentation and other laboratory markers of disease progress for the clinical management of HIV-1 infected patients. (
  • With significantly improved breadth and potency, BiIA-SG will hopefully be the first "Made in Hong Kong" anti-HIV-1 antibody drug for clinical development. (
  • Clinical pharmacology in HIV cure research - what impact have we seen? (
  • Here we report on a phase 1b clinical trial ( NCT02825797 ) in which two potent bNAbs, 3BNC117 13 and 10-1074 14 , were administered in combination to seven HIV-1 viremic individuals. (
  • 7 The current clinical report offers companion guidance on the evaluation and management of the HIV-1-exposed infant after birth. (
  • Experts at the forefront of HIV-1 research provide overviews of approaches from the fields of virology, chemical biology and structural biology for obtaining small molecule inhibitors that target viral regulatory and structural components at multiple points in the viral lifecycle. (
  • On episode #314 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent travels to Albert Einstein College of Medicine where he speaks with Kartik, Ganjam, and Margaret about their work on Ebolavirus entry, a tumor suppressor that binds the HIV-1 integrase, and the entry of togaviruses and flaviviruses into cells. (
  • On episode #278 of the science show This Week in Virology , Vincent, Dickson, Alan, and Kathy discuss disruption of the ccr5 gene in lymphocytes of patients infected with HIV-1. (
  • HIV-1 can become resistant to certain types of antiretroviral drugs. (
  • But with proper medical care, including antiretroviral drugs, HIV-1 can be controlled, and people can live normal life spans. (
  • those tests detect HIV 1 and HIV2 simultaneously. (
  • The genetic differences between HIV-1 and HIV-2 mean that if a person takes a test for HIV-1, it may not detect HIV-2. (
  • This test requires a plasma HIV-RNA of more than 1000 cps/mL and has recently been improved, being currently able to detect with 100% sensitivity CXCR4-tropic clones representing 0.3% or more of the viral population. (
  • While HIV remains a major health challenge in Zimbabwe, with 1.3 million people living with HIV at the end of 2016, the dramatic scale up of the HIV response is remarkable. (
  • Mountain View, CA (March 24, 2016): A normal, predominant bacterial species of the healthy vaginal microbiota can be engineered for potential use as a novel protective agent against HIV-1 transmission in women, according to a new publication from scientists at Osel, Inc. and their collaborators. (
  • There are four groups of HIV-1: M, N, O, and P. The largest of these is group M, which is further divided into nine subtypes. (
  • Read this for more information about the four types and nine subtypes of HIV-1. (
  • Een hiv-1 vaccin zal bescherming moeten bieden tegen de verschillende subtypes die wereldwijd voorkomen. (
  • Alhoewel deze antistoffen geen invloed hebben op het ziektebeloop zijn deze wel in staat om verschillende subtypes van hiv-1 te herkennen. (
  • The HIV/AIDS Surveillance Supplemental Report is not copyrighted and may be used and copied without permission. (
  • In 2018, 20 scientists across the world issued a consensus statement underscoring the fact that HIV criminalization laws are based on fallacies and faulty science. (
  • The study, "Inositol phosphates are assembly cofactors for HIV-1," was published in the journal Nature on August 1, 2018. (
  • Castro H et al (2013) Persistence of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance mutations. (
  • Being able to accurately measure HIV persistence in ART-treated individuals is necessary for monitoring the response to ART, as well as the effectiveness of curative interventions aimed at HIV remission. (
  • This thematic series in Retrovirology contains a collection of review articles that describe traditional and novel methods of quantitation of HIV persistence in vivo . (
  • Among the different markers of HIV persistence in infected cells, total HIV DNA is to date the most widely used. (
  • The following table shows the characteristics of various HIV-1 bNAbs In addition to targeting conserved epitopes, bNAbs are known to have long variable regions on their immunoglobulin (Ig) isotypes and subclasses. (
  • Indeed HIV-1 patients who develop bNAbs have been shown to have high germinal center activity as exhibited by their comparatively higher levels of plasma CXCL13, which is a biomarker of germinal center activity. (
  • Online databases like bNAber and LANL constantly report and update the discovery of new HIV bNAbs. (
  • Low levels of bNAbs are now found in up to 25% of HIV patients. (
  • The replacement approach has been successfully used with single crystals of the HIV-1 protease complexed with a weak inhibitor. (
  • The HIV-1 RT/HBY 097 structure reveals an overall inhibitor geometry and binding mode differing significantly from RT/NNRTI structures reported earlier, in that HBY 097 does not adopt the usual butterfly-like shape. (
  • Two phase IIB trials assessed the effectiveness of adding darunavir, a new protease inhibitor, to low dose ritonavir for treating people with HIV-1 who had a history of previous treatment. (
  • American Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents (2013) (as discussed elsewhere [ 11 ]) recommend the use of tropism testing whenever a CCR5 inhibitor is considered for use (AI) or in case of virologic failure in patients treated with CCR5 inhibitor (BIII). (
  • The MP Diagnostics HIV-1/2 ELISA 4.0 is an antigen sandwich immunoassay. (
  • But while HIV-1 evolves ways to hide from cytotoxic T-cells, this escape comes at a fitness cost. (
  • HIV-1 enters its target cells by fusion at the plasma membrane. (
  • Although most cells infected with HIV are rapidly eliminated in vi. (
  • It allows an overall quantification of all viral forms of HIV DNA in infected cells, each playin. (
  • The cells that HIV infects and destroys, called CD4+ cells, therefore decline in number at a slower rate than with HIV-1 and disease progresses more slowly. (
  • CCR5 and CXCR4 chemokines receptors are critical coreceptors for the binding of HIV to specific host cells. (
  • HIV enters target cells by interacting with specific surface receptors. (
  • However, it is impossible to achieve a cure for HIV-1 without considering these neglected latent reservoirs, the cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. (
  • In CD + 4 T cells, HIV-1 buds from the host cell plasma membrane. (
  • In untreated HIV-1 disease, the average half life of circulating T cells was diminished without compensatory increases in cell production. (
  • a ) Correlations between k of total CD4+ T cells, percent naive CD4+ T cells, and thymic index are derived from the data presented in Table 1 . (
  • To improve HIV-1 neutralization breadth and potency, bispecific bnAb, which blocks two essential steps of HIV-1 entry into target cells, have been engineered and show promising efficacy in animal models. (
  • Moreover, gene transfer of BiIA-SG achieves pro-longed drug availability in vivo, leading to a promising efficacy of eliminating HIV-1 infected cells in humanized mice. (
  • People infected with HIV are diagnosed with AIDS when their CD4 count falls below 200 cells/mm 3 or if they develop an. (
  • These cells express the HIV-1 receptors CD4 and CCR5, but not CXCR4, and can therefore be infected with CCR5-tropic* but not CXCR4-tropic HIV-1. (
  • HIV has evolved to make use of these small molecules present in our cells to essentially be infectious. (
  • The Luban lab observed that natural killer (NK) cells, another innate immune cell type in the blood, were altered by the chronic inflammation that accompanies loss of the innate lymphoid cells in people with HIV-1. (
  • It is believed that these memory NK cells may help control HIV-1 but also contribute to ongoing systemic inflammation. (
  • Now that we know these cells are gone, this provides a potential understanding for chronic inflammation in HIV patients. (
  • Long-term follow-up studies confirm the stability of the latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4 + T cells. (
  • Conversely, nonpermissive cells are those in which HIV-1 cannot replicate without Vif, indicating an innate defense system in those particular cells. (
  • This is a necessary step both for understanding how HIV-1 buds from cells and for defining the MVB pathway in human cells," says Sundquist. (
  • HIV-1 forms a reservoir that persists despite prolonged therapy and is considered the main barrier to an HIV cure. (
  • The identification of the most appropriate marker to measure reservoir size has been a great challenge for the HIV field. (
  • Characterizing HIV genetic diversity and evolution during antiretroviral therapy (ART) provides insights into the mechanisms that maintain the viral reservoir during ART. (
  • To discuss the recent major advances in the understanding of how host immune defenses contribute to HIV reservoir control. (
  • Although the primate reservoir of HIV-2 has been clearly identified as the sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys), the origin of HIV-1 remains uncertain. (
  • These results, together with the observation that the natural range of P. t. troglodytes coincides uniquely with areas of HIV-1 group M, N and O endemicity, indicate that P. t. troglodytes is the primary reservoir for HIV-1 and has been the source of at least three independent introductions of SIVcpz into the human population. (
  • The journals that review HIV tests, drugs and patients, as well as the instructional material from medical schools, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) and HIV test manufacturers will agree with the public perception in the large print. (
  • Barth RE et al (2012) Accumulation of drug resistance and loss of therapeutic options precede commonly used criteria for treatment failure in HIV-1 subtype-C-infected patients. (
  • Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to take either atazanavir 300 mg coadministered with cobicistat 150 mg once per day or atazanavir 300 mg coadministered with ritonavir 100 mg once per day. (
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly improved the life of HIV-1 infected patients. (
  • Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), or continuous ART in HIV -negative patients, has proven to decrease the rate of HIV transmission. (
  • These patients should be followed every 3 months for repeat HIV testing as well as STI screening, risk reduction counseling, and every 6 months monitoring of renal function. (
  • Company studies showed that 88 to 90 percent of patients taking Stribild had an undetectable level of HIV in their blood after 48 weeks, compared with 87 percent for patients taking Atripla, another HIV drug that contains Truvada and one other drug. (
  • Over one million HIV/AIDS patients in India are without access to the much-needed anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment, a new international report said today, suggesting that India should consider issuing compulsory licensing for increasing availability of drugs. (
  • However, it needs to cross some distance for ensuring universal access for all its HIV/AIDS patients. (
  • Between 1.1 and 1.4 million HIV/AIDS patients have no access for ARV therapy in India. (
  • India must consider issuing compulsory licenses for ensuring free access to second and third-line treatment for HIV/AIDS patients whose number is steadily climbing. (
  • India is yet issue a compulsory license despite its rising HIV/AIDS patients who now need second and third-line treatment. (
  • Patients with HIV-1 are now living longer thanks to these drugs. (
  • However, there are a growing number of reports that patients with HIV-1 experience increased rates of diseases associated with chronic inflammation, including coronary vascular disease, said Luban. (
  • Looking at blood and intestine tissue samples taken from HIV-1 positive patients, Luban and colleagues discovered that ILCs are severely depleted. (
  • Early evidence for the neuropathogenicity of HIV-1 included (a) the presence of HIV-1 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AIDS, (b) abnormal neuroimaging findings in neurologically impaired AIDS patients, (c) the high frequency of peripheral neuropathies in AIDS patients, and (d) the presence of HIV-1 in tissue obtained by brain biopsy. (
  • Boden D et al (1999) HIV-1 drug resistance in newly infected individuals. (
  • Whether the experimental strategy actually worked to treat the individuals HIV-1, I dont know. (
  • However, the increase in CD4+ cell count as a response to ART is greater among individuals infected with HIV-1 than among those infected with HIV-2. (
  • In most of these cases, individuals who are positive for HIV are charged and punished for unintentional exposure, not deliberate intent to harm. (
  • Now, new research from faculty affiliated with New York University's Center for Drug Use and HIV Research (CDUHR) at the NYU College of Nursing (NYUCN), published in the Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes , shows that computerized counseling is a promising intervention for increased ART adherence and safer sex, especially for individuals with problems in these areas. (
  • Individuals primarily acquire HIV-1 that utilizes the CCR5 receptor (termed either R5 or R5X4) during heterosexual transmission, and the mechanism for the block against variants that only use the CXCR4 receptor (classified as X4) remains unclear. (
  • Fig. 1: Study design and pharmacokinetics of 3BNC117 and 10-1074 in HIV-1-infected individuals. (
  • Fig. 4: HIV-1 escape analysis of individuals receiving 3BNC117 and 10-1074 therapy. (
  • Antibody 10-1074 suppresses viremia in HIV-1-infected individuals. (
  • CCR5 structural plasticity shapes HIV-1 phenotypic properties. (
  • In particular, even if gp120s can bind both CCR5 monomers and oligomers, impairment of CCR5 oligomerization improved viral entry, suggesting that HIV-1 prefers monomers for entry. (
  • Collectively, our results support a role for CCR5 heterogeneity in diversifying the phenotypic properties of HIV-1 isolates and provide new clues for development of CCR5-targeting drugs. (
  • Can Descovy be used for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV? (
  • 5 , 6 These strategies have been outlined in a separate American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) policy statement titled "HIV Testing and Prophylaxis to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission in the United States. (
  • The HIV antibody test (called ELISA or EIA ) is one of the most reliable medical tests. (
  • Additionally, HIV protease has two molecular "flaps" which move a distance of up to 7 Å when the enzyme becomes associated with a substrate. (
  • However, these analyses make clear the advantages of longitudinal cohort data, which provide more complete ascertainment than household censuses, highlight possible inaccuracies in model assumptions, and allow direct quantification of the impact of HIV. (
  • Blood plasma HIV-RNA quantification was performed by the ultra-sensitive HIV-Monitor test (Roche Diagnostic Systems, Branchburg, NJ, USA). (
  • When the laws were created, "many were the equivalent [to general criminal laws], because HIV was seen as a death sentence," explains Chris Beyrer MD, MPH, a professor of public health and human rights at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, in Baltimore, Maryland. (
  • They tested their system in mice infected with EcoHIV, which is the mouse equivalent of human HIV-1. (
  • Even with treatment, though, the human body can't get rid of HIV-1 completely. (
  • Passive immunization with the anti-HIV-1 human monoclonal antibody (hMAb) 4E10 and the hMAb combination 4E10/2F5/2G12. (
  • They also showed that VPS37B is a subunit of the human ESCRT-I complex, and that it is capable of recruiting the ESCRT-I complex to support HIV budding in vivo. (
  • Bennett DE et al (2009) Drug resistance mutations for surveillance of transmitted HIV-1 drug-resistance: 2009 update. (
  • Burchell AN et al (2012) Increase in transmitted HIV drug resistance among persons undergoing genotypic resistance testing in Ontario, Canada, 2002-09. (
  • HBY 097 selects for unusual drug-resistance mutations in HIV-1 RT (e.g. (
  • Additional tests are performed both after a person receives an HIV-1 diagnosis and throughout their treatment. (
  • Learn about HIV and AIDS treatment options, symptoms, and diagnosis. (
  • HIV-2 is mainly present in West Africa, but it is slowly starting to appear in other regions, including the United States, Europe, and India. (
  • Cases of HIV-2 have been reported in France, Portugal, and in countries with colonial links to these nations as a result of immigration from and commercial ties to West Africa. (
  • HIV type 2 is endemic to regions in West Africa. (
  • We have determined the structure of the Tyr188Leu HIV-1 RT drug-resistant mutant in complex with HBY 097 at 3.3 A resolution. (
  • Larger studies will be necessary to confirm the efficacy of antibody combinations in reducing HIV-1 viremia and limiting the emergence of resistant viral variants. (

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