ComputersComputer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Computer Literacy: Familiarity and comfort in using computers efficiently.Computer Systems: Systems composed of a computer or computers, peripheral equipment, such as disks, printers, and terminals, and telecommunications capabilities.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Computers, Handheld: A type of MICROCOMPUTER, sometimes called a personal digital assistant, that is very small and portable and fitting in a hand. They are convenient to use in clinical and other field situations for quick data management. They usually require docking with MICROCOMPUTERS for updates.Computer User Training: Process of teaching a person to interact and communicate with a computer.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Computer Terminals: Input/output devices designed to receive data in an environment associated with the job to be performed, and capable of transmitting entries to, and obtaining output from, the system of which it is a part. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Computers, Analog: Computers in which quantities are represented by physical variables; problem parameters are translated into equivalent mechanical or electrical circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.History of MedicineHistory, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.HistoryAlgorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Computer-Assisted Instruction: A self-learning technique, usually online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials.Minicomputers: Small computers that lack the speed, memory capacity, and instructional capability of the full-size computer but usually retain its programmable flexibility. They are larger, faster, and more flexible, powerful, and expensive than microcomputers.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Computers, Molecular: Computers whose input, output and state transitions are carried out by biochemical interactions and reactions.Automatic Data Processing: Data processing largely performed by automatic means.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Word Processing: Text editing and storage functions using computer software.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Computers, Hybrid: Computers that combine the functions of analog and digital computers. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Therapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cumulative Trauma Disorders: Harmful and painful condition caused by overuse or overexertion of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from work-related physical activities. It is characterized by inflammation, pain, or dysfunction of the involved joints, bones, ligaments, and nerves.Human Engineering: The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.United StatesModels, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Office Automation: Use of computers or computer systems for doing routine clerical work, e.g., billing, records pertaining to the administration of the office, etc.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.History of NursingReproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Computer Storage Devices: Devices capable of receiving data, retaining data for an indefinite or finite period of time, and supplying data upon demand.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Online Systems: Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Hospital Information Systems: Integrated, computer-assisted systems designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information concerned with the administrative and clinical aspects of providing medical services within the hospital.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Television: The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)Multimedia: Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Models, Anatomic: Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Software Design: Specifications and instructions applied to the software.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Ambulatory Care Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of ambulatory care services and facilities.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Man-Machine Systems: A system in which the functions of the man and the machine are interrelated and necessary for the operation of the system.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Communication Aids for Disabled: Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Video Recording: The storing or preserving of video signals for television to be played back later via a transmitter or receiver. Recordings may be made on magnetic tape or discs (VIDEODISC RECORDING).Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Documentation: Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Decision Support Systems, Clinical: Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Histology: The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.EnglandRadiology Information Systems: Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative activities associated with the provision and utilization of radiology services and facilities.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Brain-Computer Interfaces: Instrumentation consisting of hardware and software that communicates with the BRAIN. The hardware component of the interface records brain signals, while the software component analyzes the signals and converts them into a command that controls a device or sends a feedback signal to the brain.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Expert Systems: Computer programs based on knowledge developed from consultation with experts on a problem, and the processing and/or formalizing of this knowledge using these programs in such a manner that the problems may be solved.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.CD-ROM: An optical disk storage system for computers on which data can be read or from which data can be retrieved but not entered or modified. A CD-ROM unit is almost identical to the compact disk playback device for home use.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.JapanMedical Informatics Computing: Precise procedural mathematical and logical operations utilized in the study of medical information pertaining to health care.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Telecommunications: Transmission of information over distances via electronic means.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Programming Languages: Specific languages used to prepare computer programs.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Great BritainKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Asthenopia: Term generally used to describe complaints related to refractive error, ocular muscle imbalance, including pain or aching around the eyes, burning and itchiness of the eyelids, ocular fatigue, and headaches.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Artificial Intelligence: Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.Educational Technology: Systematic identification, development, organization, or utilization of educational resources and the management of these processes. It is occasionally used also in a more limited sense to describe the use of equipment-oriented techniques or audiovisual aids in educational settings. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, December 1993, p132)China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
... and in computer history in general. Windows 1.0 was declared obsolete and Microsoft stopped providing support and updates for ... "A history of Windows". Microsoft. 2012. Archived from the original on November 17, 2012. On November 20, 1985, two years after ... Version 1.04, released in April 1987, added support for the new IBM PS/2 computers, although no support for PS/2 mice or new ... Many manufacturers of MS-DOS computers such as Compaq, Zenith, and DEC promised to provide support, as did software companies ...
Lewis, Peter H. (29 August 1989). "PERSONAL COMPUTERS; Managing Your Money" - via "History of OFX". Retrieved ... Scott Cook and Tom Proulx, the company's founders, witnessed the rise of the personal computer and saw an opportunity to ...
LEWIS, PETER H. (August 25, 1987). "PERSONAL COMPUTERS; Does a Child Need A Computer at Home?". The New York Times. POLLACK, ... "Witness to History - Bud Colligan". Georgetown University. Retrieved 9 June 2013. ... As an early expert in education technology, in 1989, Colligan was recruited to be the CEO of Authorware, a computer-based ... as part of the team that launched the groundbreaking Macintosh personal computer. He later headed Apple's higher-education ...
"Oral History of Federico Faggin" (PDF). Computer History Museum. 2006. Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community ... Desk-top' computer is typewriter size". Business Week. October 23, 1965. "Desk-Top Size Computer Is Being Sold by Olivetti For ... Earlier computers were expensive and could only be used by experts. The P101 was easy and economical, and programs on magnetic ... In large computers such as the Elea 9003, an instruction occupied 8 bytes, 120 instructions occupied nearly 1 Kbytes; the total ...
"The Return of the PDA". Marketing Computers. February 1995. "History of the Personal Data Assistant (PDA)". H2G2. March 31, ... on the users computers, including desktop computers, laptop computers, and Smart devices personal digital assistants. Prior to ... Some PIM/PDM software products are capable of synchronizing data over a computer network, including mobile ad hoc networks, or ...
"Walter Snelling". History of Computers. Retrieved 1 March 2016. "Services Held for Mrs. Alice Lee Moqué Funeral Oration and ... "National PTA History". National Parent Teacher Association. Retrieved 5 June 2016. "The Congress of Mothers". Public Opinion. ... Kendall, John Smith (1922). History of New Orleans. 3. New Orleans (La.): Lewis publishing Company. p. 939. ISBN 978-1-230- ... Hornor, William S. (1932). This old Monmouth of ours : history, tradition, biography, genealogy, and other anecdotes related to ...
History of Operating System [Article] History of Modern Computing Section 3 Computer Hardware and System Software Concepts. ... Bashe, Charles J.; Johnson, Lyle R.; Palmer, John H.; Pugh, Emerson W. (1986). IBM's Early Computers. History of Computing. MIT ... Computers in the 1950s and 1960s typically dealt with data that were organized into records either by the nature of the media, ... Computers in the 1950s and 1960s often did not have operating systems in the modern sense. Application programs called IOCS ...
... tracing the history of computers - manuals, ROM images, magazine and newsletter articles Personal ... Research Machines 380Z "OLD-COMPUTERS.COM : The Museum". Retrieved 2017-06-23. "Character Sets". ... The computer was available as ready-built boards or as kits consisting of board and components requiring soldering together. ... The design became the basis for what later became the ORIC ATMOS and later computers, which had similar keyboard addressing and ...
A beautiful statue of four horses, a symbol of Mongolian culture and history, is prominently situated in front of these two ... Mathematics and Computers; Physics and Electro mechanics; Chemistry; Mongolian Medicine; Clinical Medicine; Agriculture; ... Its scientific research unit consists of 11 institutes: World History, Horqin Culture, Condensed State Physics, Computational ... The colleges include Humanities; Politics, Law and History; Educational Sciences; International Exchange; ...
Lavington, Simon Hugh; Society, British Computer (1998). A History of Manchester Computers. British Computer Society. ISBN 978- ... "1951 - First Grown-Junction Transistors Fabricated". Computer History Museum. 2007. Archived from the original on 2013-07-12. ... Ferry, Georgina (2004). "4". A Computer Called LEO: Lyons Tea Shops and the World's First Office Computer. London: Harper ... March 30 - Remington Rand delivers the first UNIVAC I computer to the United States Census Bureau. It is inaugurated on June 14 ...
... which merged with other UK computer companies in 1968 to become International Computers Limited (ICL). History of computing ... Computer Conservation Society, Seminar on EMI computers (Dead Link?) EMIDEC 1100 Website ICL Computer Museum with EMIDEC. ... ISBN 0-7190-0803-4. EMIDEC Computer News 1 The EMIDEC 1100 Computer EMIDEC 1100 Delivery list and applications Elizabeth C. ... The EMIDEC 1100 computer (became the ICT 1101 in 1962) was produced by the Computing Services Division of EMI Laboratories in ...
9-. ISBN 978-0-07-460123-5. Surya Pratap Mehrotra; Prajapati Prasad Sah (10 November 2015). The Fourth IIT: History of IIT ... 8-. ISBN 978-0-07-462054-0. Raman (1993). Computers in Chemistry. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. pp. ...
History, Models, Tools, Languages". Advances in Computers. 72: 1-100. doi:10.1016/S0065-2458(08)00001-6. "A Secure Facility for ... As of 2012, it is staffed by 318 computer scientists and engineers. While the unclassified portion of the HPCS project ... The buildings will store dozens of computer cabinets that will comprise the exaflop machine. The facility will eventually use ...
"Dorr Eugene Felt (1862-1930)". History of Computers. Retrieved 2015-12-28. ... THE HISTORY OF ROCK COUNTY, WISCONSIN. Chicago: Western Historical Company. 1879. p. 771. " ...
Computer History Museum. Retrieved 2017-04-05. The IBM 1403 at Columbia University [1] Side view of 1403 with cover open, ... When faster computers were developed, however, the speed of card reading, magnetic tape, and early disk drives, along with ... IBM's Early Computers. MIT Press, 1986, p.471-472 Ackerman, Evan (31 March 2017). "How the IBM 1403 Printer Hammered Out 1,100 ... The IBM 1403 line printer was introduced as part of the IBM 1401 computer in 1959 and had an especially long life in the IBM ...
His main academic interest was the history of computers. He died of Hodgkin's lymphoma. Allan George Bromley was born on 1 ... The October-December 2000 issue of the IEEE Annals of the History of Computing was dedicated to him for the quality of his ... Eventually he was responsible for a collection of old computers which used to be displayed in the rear foyer of the building ... Computing Before Computers. Ames: Iowa State University Press. ISBN 0-8138-0047-1. Swade, Doron David (2003). Calculation and ...
Knuth, Donald E. (1962). "A HISTORY OF WRITING COMPILERS". COMPUTERS and AUTOMATION. Edmund C. Berkeley. 11 (12): 8-14. Clarke ... In computer science, an operator precedence parser is a bottom-up parser that interprets an operator-precedence grammar. For ...
History of Computers. Retrieved 1 March 2016. "Services Held for Mrs. Alice Lee Moque Funeral Oration and Music for Deceased ... "The History of Propane". Archived from the original on January 11, 2011. Retrieved 2007-12-22. Lubinsky, Daryl (June 2012). " ... Whelan, Frank (December 21, 2005). "Laborers, scientist once resided in Allentown homes ** History of houses at 15th and Linden ...
Difference engine, a pioneering 19th-century mechanical computer History of computing hardware Other early computers: Zuse Z3 ( ... ISBN 978-0-262-16147-3. Martin Campbell-Kelly; William Aspray, (1996). Computer: A History of the Information Machine. Basic ... IBM Archives: FAQ / Products and Services Computer Oral History Collection, 1969-1973, 1977 Grace Murray Hopper Interview, ... Columbia University Computing History. Retrieved April 23, 2011. Oral history interview with Robert Hawkins at Charles Babbage ...
Computers in Libraries. Retrieved 2009-06-11. "Rochester, MN : History". Retrieved 2017-06-30. ...
Bottorff, William W. "What Was The First Car? A Quick History of the Automobile for Young People". Austin Business Computers. ... Some consider this machine to be first car in history, or at least a forerunner. Villard de Honnecourt "Vom Winde gedreht" [ ...
ISBN 0-262-02225-7. Computer History Museum: Underwood Corporation An Underwood-Samas sorter Lee, J.A.L. (1995) Computer ... Rojas, Raul (editor) (2001). Encyclopedia of Computers and Computer History. Fitzroy Dearborn. p. 656. CS1 maint: Extra text: ... 1968: International Computers and Tabulators (ICT) is merged with English Electric Computers, forming International Computers ... 2010: A group from the Computer History Museum reported that an IBM 402 Accounting Machine and related punched card equipment ...
In: Computer Graphics, Vol. 21, Nr. 4, July 1987 The Marching Cubes. Marching Cubes 33: Construction of Topologically Correct ... ". "Marching Cubes". . Some of the early history of Marching Cubes. Newman, Timothy S.; Yi, Hong (2006). "A survey of the ... Marching cubes is a computer graphics algorithm, published in the 1987 SIGGRAPH proceedings by Lorensen and Cline, for ... This paper is one of the most cited papers in the computer graphics field.[citation needed] The applications of this algorithm ...
A prolific author of non-fiction, he wrote books about sex, computers and politics, particularly the history of the Middle East ... Evolution of the intelligent machine: a popular history of AI, 1988. Is God a programmer?: religion in the computer age, 1988. ... Privacy in the computer age, 1982. Computers in engineering and manufacture, 1982. The book of world sexual records, 1983. Sex ... The biology of computer life: survival, emotion and free will, 1985. Silicon shock: the menace of the computer invasion, 1985 ...
Its subject coverage includes astronomy, electronics, communications, computers and computing, computer science, control ... Inspec page at the Institution of Engineering and Technology Inspec Direct page The History of Science Abstracts and Inspec ... There are five main subjects covered by the Inspec database: physics; electrical engineering and electronics; computers and ... Inspec has several print counterparts: Computer and Control Abstracts (ISSN 0036-8113) Electrical and Electronics Abstracts ( ...
History[edit]. The term 'computational neuroscience' was introduced by Eric L. Schwartz, who organized a conference, held in ... Brain-computer interface. *Neural development. *Neural network (artificial). *Neural network (biological). *Detection theory ...
Press release on the Computer History Museum "COMPUTER HISTORY MUSEUMS MAJOR NEW EXHIBITION OPENS". Computer History Museum. ... Computer Festival held annually at The Computer History Museum Computer museums History of computing History of computer ... The Computer History Museum Historical Source Code Series. Computer History Museum. Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. ... Official website Computer History Museums channel on YouTube The Computer Museum Archive. ...
... a computer virus, also known as the Love Letter, swept through the nation. A news report later in the year describes the ... I Love You Computer Virus. Author:. Editors. Video Rating:. TV-PG. Video Duration:. 1:15. ... In May 2000, a computer virus, also known as the Love Letter, swept through the nation. A news report later in the year ... describes the especially potent and damaging malware that made its way into a number of computer systems through e-mails with ...
Computer History Museum Computers: From the Past to the Present The First "Computer Bug" at the Naval History and Heritage ... Computer Museum History of computing History of computing hardware History of software List of computer term etymologies, the ... The history of computer science began long before the modern discipline of computer science that emerged in the 20th century, ... "History of Computer Science". Ifrah, Georges (2001). The Universal History of Computing: From the Abacus to the ...
Apples Tablet Computer History. November 11, 2010 2:02 AM Subscribe. Apples Tablet Computer History - A collection of ... So if youre going to handwrite on your computer, yeah, of course youre going to use a proxy for the real life thing.. When ... Im arguing that people didnt want to use a tablet as a computer, they wanted to use it as less than a computer. For that ... So if youre going to handwrite on your computer, yeah, of course youre going to use a proxy for the real life thing.. Theres ...
Following the detection of the Gpcode blackmail virus by Kaspersky Lab, we examine the history of ransomware and computer ... Download Computer Weekly. * In The Current Issue: *CIO interview: Network Rail plans digital factory to accelerate ... "Keys using 256-bit encryption can be broken in a few hours on a personal computer and keys of 512 bits have been broken in the ... The discovery of a computer virus that encrypts hard discs and demands payment to unlock files marks the latest step by ...
But we must discuss some details about the innovation by Charles babbage, the grandfather of modern computer. He designed two ... history Of computers The very first attempt towards this automatic computing was made by Blaise Pascal. He invented a device ... Thus, the computers are more reliable.. Some of the examples of third generation computers are IBM system/360 family and DEC ... This computer established a concept of minicomputer. We will explain more about the term mini-computer later.. The major ...
Explore the companys history, profile, and timeline. Find the key facts youre looking for! ... Read about the history of Encore Computer Corporation. ... Company History: Encore Computer Corporation is one of the ... Encore acquired Hydra Computer Systems, Inc. to develop processors, Foundation Computer Systems, Inc. to write software, and ... It purchased SEL and reorganized it under the name Computer Systems Division (CDS). As part of Gould, the new Computer Systems ...
The title changed to Computers and People in January 1974. Incomplete run, extent uncertain. Premiere issue Sept 1951. Museum ...
Knowledge is power, and the computer is an amplifier of that power. We are now at the dawn of a new computer revolution... ... His dissertation was supervised by legendary computer pioneer Herb Simon and explored a pioneering computer simulation of human ... Feigenbaum joined the Stanford computer science faculty in 1965 as one of its founding members. That same year, he and Nobel ... Over a career spanning the history of artificial intelligence, he has written and spoken extensively on artificial intelligence ...
Today its pretty uncommon to scan a Windows computer and not find at least one virus. These pieces of self-replicating code ... Like most inventions, viruses have a history. Lets take a look at the history of computer viruses and where the modern ... If you want to read more about the history of computer viruses, I recommend Wikipedias fascinating timeline about computer ... A History Of Computer Viruses & The Worst Ones of Today Justin Pot June 19, 2010. 19-06-2010 5 minutes ...
Add Site or Add URL to Submit Site in Computers Robotics Category. Human-edited to ensure high quality. Submit your site today! ... History Directory. Site Listings. Aitopics / Briefhistory A timeline of AI and Robotics events from 500 BC to 2000 AD ... Add Site or Add URL to Submit Site to the History Directory ...
... - Free download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for ... Before moving towards the elaborate history of computers, you can read about the computer history in brief and the evolution of ... Timeline of Computer History Computers have evolved from the fundamental principles of mathematical calculation and language ... Computer development still continues.. Let us now look at the history and timeline of computing systems. Before moving ahead, ...
Computer Science*Electrical & Computer Engineering*Engineering & Technology Management*Mechanical & Materials Engineering* ... History*Intensive English Language Program*International Studies*Judaic Studies*Mathematics & Statistics*Philosophy*Physics * ... Maseeh College of Engineering & Computer Science *Civil & Environmental Engineering *Intelligent Transportation Systems Lab* ...
Computer Museums The Retro-Computing Society of Rhode Island, Providence, Rhode Island The Computer History Museum, Mountain ... Computer History and Simulation Links This set of links is not intended to be complete. For more information, search Google ... with queries "computer collection", "computer museum", "emulators", or "retrocomputing". Online Computer Collections Carl ... Computer and Software Information Pages Gordon Greenes PDP-1 pages Tom Knights PDP-6 pages are offline Doug Jones PDP-8 ...
Computers from online booksellers and bookstores specializing in History Of Mathematics & Computers at ... Bookstores specializing in History Of Mathematics & Computers. Looking for history of mathematics & computers books? ... We feature a stock strong in literature, history, Western philosophy, history of science, history of computers, and art. We are ... Especially California Fine Printing History Of Ideas History Of Mathematics & Computers History Of Science Literature Western ...
... it is hard to imagine a world in which the computer virus ... The following is an abbreviated history of the computer virus. ... Abbr: history of the computer virus by: cube The following is an abbreviated history of the computer virus. It is not ... The history of the Computer Virus, while a long one, is a very interesting one. Unfortunately, detailing every virus and its ... At the time, Melissa was the fastest spreading virus in history. Hundreds of thousands of computers were infected. Melissa was ...
An open meeting of the John Austin Society for the History of Medicine. Dr. Jenna Healey, Hannah Professor of the History of ... Jenna Healey: Bodies in Bits - Computers in the History of Anatomy. Share ...
... This site documents my work on SimH, a simulator for historic computer systems, as well as ... The change history can be found in the sim_rev.h header file. * Download PDF copies of the documentation here. SIMH implements ... SimH (History Simulator) is a loose Internet-based collective of people interested in restoring historically significant ... computer hardware and software systems by simulation. The goal of the project is to create highly portable system simulators ...
Len Shustek is chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Computer History Museum. In 1979, he cofounded Nestar Systems, an early ... The Computer History Museum cannot do that. Only the Eudora fan base can. ... and the Eudora domain names to the Computer History Museum (CHM). The transfer agreement allows us to publish the code under ... He has taught computer science at Carnegie-Mellon and Stanford Universities, and was a founder of the "angel financing" firm ...
Tag: Computer History. In praise of cut, copy, and paste. by Eric Miller ... We use the clipboard on our computers and phones every day and over the years it may have saved days if not weeks of cumulative ... Trying to Find a Computer Built for Simulation?. Workstations, Servers, and Clusters designed by PADT specifically for ...
Ellis Island oral history project, series NPS, no. 127 : interview of Cornelia Do. [Cornelia Do; Amelia Green] ... histories> ; # North American immigrant letters, diaries and oral histories. schema:name "Ellis Island oral history project, ... North American Immigrant Letters, Diaries, and Oral Histories; North American immigrant letters, diaries and oral histories ... North American Immigrant Letters, Diaries, and Oral Histories; North American immigrant letters, diaries and oral histories. ...
Labels: computer history, debut mystery, delete. annette Dashofy, EMT, erasing hard drive, old computer, Pennsylvania, problem ... With some of you writers listing what youve recently researched on your computers, Im betting your computer histories are ... My history is pretty innocent right now. Games, books, poisoning.... ;). I have only had a couple of computers & still have ... Hmmm, search history, eh? I know when I look at my sites-visited history at, say, noon, I am blown away by the sheer number of ...
While we already know about these trends in American history, Kleinberg points out, a computer doesn t, and it has found these ... Buzzwords of history, revealed by computer scans, indicate new ways of searching the Web. 19.02.2003 ... Jon Kleinberg, a professor of computer science at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., has developed a method for a computer to ... In his own e-mail -- largely from other computer scientists -- he quickly found keywords relating to hot topics. In mail from ...
Learn about the earliest computing devices developed by humans, the first electronic computers and the... ... Video: History of Computers: Timeline & Evolution. Modern computing has a rich history. Learn about the earliest computing ... History of Computers. A computer is an electronic machine that accepts information, stores it, processes it according to the ... Computer systems using microprocessors are considered the fourth generation of computers. In the early 1970s computers were ...
... a computer scientist and Pixar co-founder, along with two PC... ... The Computer History Museum on Monday announced its Class of ... The Computer History Museum on Monday announced its Class of 2013 includes Ed Catmull, a computer scientist and Pixar co- ... Computer History Museum to induct Pixar co-founder not named Steve Jobs into Hall of Fellows. ... Tags AppleData Centersteve jobshardware systemsPixarConfiguration / maintenancePixar Animation StudiosComputer History Museum ...
  • The ENIAC ushered in the era of what is known as first generation computers. (
  • Zuse Z3, ENIAC and EDSAC were some of the early digital computers. (
  • The Ballistics Research Laboratory of the United States came up with the Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer (ENIAC). (
  • Around the same time, the British built the Colossus computer to break encrypted German codes for the war effort, and the Americans built the Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzer and Computer, or ENIAC. (
  • Huskey's claims to fame include working on the famed ENIAC computer , working alongside computer industry legend Alan Turing, and as a faculty member at the University of California, Berkeley, developing the G15, called by some the first true personal computer. (
  • The title of forefather of today's all-electronic digital computers is usually awarded to ENIAC, which stood for Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator. (
  • In 1986, two brothers, Basit and Amjad Alvi who owned a computer store in Pakistan got a little tired of seeing people copying their software. (
  • It includes academic hackers working on early minicomputers, prominent hackers from the open source software movement, the computer underground/hacker scene, and security experts. (
  • A "complete" computer including the hardware , the operating system (main software ), and peripheral equipment required and used for "full" operation can be referred to as a computer system . (
  • As numerical software is highly efficient for approximate numerical computation , it is common, in computer algebra, to emphasize exact computation with exactly represented data. (
  • In conducting proprietary name reviews, the Division of Medication Error Prevention and Analysis (DMEPA) evaluates the orthographic and phonetic similarity of a proposed proprietary name to other proprietary or established names using the Phonetic Orthographic Computer Analysis (POCA) software program. (
  • FHC Portal This center has access to the Family History Center Portal page which gives free access in the center to premium family history software and websites that generally charge for subscriptions. (
  • The barriers inhibiting the practice of Computer-assisted Language Learning can be classified in the following common categories: (a) financial barriers, (b) availability of computer hardware and software, (c) technical and theoretical knowledge, and (d) acceptance of the technology. (
  • The CS also maintains 12 standards committees to develop IEEE standards in various areas of computer and software engineering (e.g., the Design Automation Standards Committee and the IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Committee). (
  • The software is the instructions that makes the computer work. (
  • With over 40 years of rich presentation history, the presentation software company was created out of the presentation design agency, Sales Graphics. (
  • During 1984 and 1985, the company concentrated on designing and marketing UNIX-based computers and terminal servers. (
  • In 1984, a university professor named Fred Cohen first publicly introduced the idea of a computer virus to a class of graduate students. (
  • Dell Situation Analysis and SWOT By: Nicole Saathoff History Dell was started in 1984 by a college student, Michael Dell. (
  • It was the first known geared mechanism to use a differential gear, which was later used in analog computers. (
  • Programmable machines were also invented by Muslim engineers, such as the automatic flute player by the Banū Mūsā brothers, and Al-Jazari's programmable humanoid automata and castle clock, which is considered to be the first programmable analog computer. (
  • The analog computers, steadily finding new jobs in process control, are likened to human operators with the eyes of Argus and the limbs of a millipede. (
  • The first analog computers were developed during WW2, and they rapidly advanced into the 50s, and 60s. (
  • Talk, held at the workshop "Computer-Assisted Approaches in Historical and Typological Language Comparison", organized as part of the Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europea (2019-08/21-24, Leipzig, University of Leipzig). (
  • Althof and colleagues 5 have described the crucial domains that need to be considered in assessing the competence of medical students in taking sexual histories. (
  • Copeland and Long were able to calculate the correct speed, remove distortion caused by a wobble in the recording and filter out background noise to reproduce a more accurate rendition of the world's first ever computer-generated music. (
  • The next significant effort towards devising an electromechanical computer was made at the, Harvard University, jointly sponsored by IBM and the Department of UN Navy, Howard Aiken of Harvard University developed a system called Mark I in 1944. (
  • The reflective memory system passively "reflected" memory updates to the memory boards on every one of the computers on the participating system. (
  • Each individual computer in a system possessed a reflective memory adapter and functioned as a repository for shared data. (
  • Email has a long and storied history, dating back to MIT's Compatible Time Sharing System ( CTSS ) and the US government's AUTODIN in the early 1960s. (
  • Operating System, which are resource managers, manage the computer hardware and makes them conveniently available to the users. (
  • Considering this fact brought the Operating System designers to develop multiprogramming computers that will keep all the jobs in main memory at one go, and a processor is switched in between each job in order to keep them advancing, whereby the peripheral devices are in use. (
  • RFC1392, the Internet Users' Glossary, usefully amplifies this as: A person who delights in having an intimate understanding of the internal workings of a system, computers and computer networks in particular. (
  • A computer production control and data acquisition system operates 95 oil wells, 45 water injection wells, 10 water supply wells, five central tank batteries, two production test satellites and four water injection stations in four of the five units. (
  • The use of computers, of the digital reservoir simulator model, and of the computer production control and data acquisition system has afforded optimum project management of reservoir performance and operations. (
  • The following is a discussion of the ensuing exploitation of the five major Pennsylvanian Age oil-bearing sands underlying the Postle Area and the computer production control and data acquisition system as it was applied in the Postle Area. (
  • Computer-based system including tests assessing psychomotor-cognitive skills required for driving was developed by TUBITAK-ODTU and BILTEN. (
  • A computerized data handling system at the British Museum (Natural History) has grown out of the work of the Information Retrieval Group of the Museums Association (IRGMA) and Cambridge Geological Data System (CGDS). (
  • A special format for the collection and entry to the computer system of curatorial and research information has been devised, including the use of Data Recording Forms applicable to most Sections in the Department of Palaeontology. (
  • Another brand of computer-aided electronic auscultatory device (correlated audioelectric cardiography device) is the Audicor System (Inovise Medical, Inc., Portland, OR). (
  • In this study, 7 board-certified primary care physicians were evaluated both with and without the use of a computer-based decision-support system using 100 pre-recorded patient heart sounds (55 innocent murmurs, 30 pathological murmurs, and 15 without murmur). (
  • The 1980s brought the first CAD system to be available on a personal computer rather than a mainframe computer. (
  • Watson is a question answering computer system capable of answering questions posed in natural language , developed in IBM 's DeepQA project by a research team led by principal investigator David Ferrucci . (
  • So modern keyboards send scancodes with each keypress and it is up to the computer operating system to make sense out of them. (
  • The mouse became part of the ground breaking Xerox Alto computer system which was the first minicomputer system to offer a graphical user interface. (
  • The topics covering Computer types: desk top computer, work stations, enterprise system. (
  • server system, super computers. (
  • What are the four main components of a computer system? (
  • The four main components of a computer system are input devices, output devices, processing devices and the storage devices used to store data within the c. (
  • The museum officially recognizes Catmull for: "His pioneering work in computer graphics, animation and filmmaking. (
  • The database will serve in case of future radiation accidents by providing comparable case histories and for scientific work on the acute radiation syndrome. (
  • Giant digital computers, handling an increasing share of office work or solving overwhelming technical problems, are often compared with regiments of clerks wielding pencils or battalions of engineers brandishing slide rules. (
  • This term may as well be used for a group of computers that are connected and work together, in particular a computer network or computer cluster . (
  • have tips for training your neck, shoulder and arm muscles when taking a break during work at the computer. (
  • The mainframe was replaced by personal computers that allowed greater possibilities for individual work. (
  • Computer forensics analyst would be designed for somebody already working in the networking field and is interested in upgrading their skills and getting into an area where they are doing more computer forensics type work. (
  • Our museum offers an opportunity to see a unique collection of old computer appliances that were used by people of the '80s - '90s for work and games. (
  • Computers simplify the administrative procedures, perform clerical work, plan and keep things on schedule, and manipulate general office duties. (
  • At first, most of the companies used computers basically for clerical work. (
  • As Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) and Interaction Design moved from designing and evaluating work-oriented applications towards dealing with leisure-oriented applications, such as games, social computing , art, and tools for creativity , we have had to consider e.g. what constitutes an experience , how to deal with users' emotions , and understanding aesthetic practices and experiences. (
  • Kenneth G. Fisher, who had built the Prime Computer Company from a fledgling $7 million operation into a $350 million giant in just six short years, combined with C. Gordon Bell and Henry Burkhardt III to form Encore in 1983. (
  • One of the first viruses in history came over 20 years after von Neumann's talks, and was called " Creeper . (
  • They were the only computation tools for long years before the creation of computers. (
  • As fact and fiction have become intertwined over the years, it is difficult to pinpoint exactly when the first actual computer virus was written. (
  • We use the clipboard on our computers and phones every day and over the years it may have saved days if not weeks of cumulative time. (
  • Kenneth G. Fisher, who had built the Prime Computer Company from a fledgling $7 million operation into a $350 million giant in just six short years, joinedC. (
  • In the last few years the number of teachers using Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) has increased markedly and numerous articles have been written about the role of technology in education in the 21st century. (
  • Dan Dainton explains, "We have adjunct faculty from both law enforcement and also from federal agencies who have years of experience in this field and are able to add to our program and give our students perspective on computer forensics concepts and techniques that would apply to the law enforcement side. (
  • In the past few years, computers have become an indispensable part of all kinds of fields and industries. (
  • Over the past sixty years, the spectacular growth of the technologies associated with the computer is visible for all to see and experience. (
  • After many years of modding computer cases with windows, lights and the like, [Cameron] decided it was time to try something new and combine his next custom case with a desk . (
  • The museum's origins date to 1968 when Gordon Bell began a quest for a historical collection and, at that same time, others were looking to preserve the Whirlwind computer. (
  • While computers as we know them today are relatively recent, the concepts and ideas behind computers have quite a bit of history - time for a whirlwind tour of how we got to the age of email, YouTube and Facebook. (
  • The speed, power and versatility of computers have been increasing dramatically ever since then, with MOS transistor counts increasing at a rapid pace (as predicted by Moore's law ), leading to the Digital Revolution during the late 20th to early 21st centuries. (
  • IEEE Computer Society traces its origins to the Subcommittee on Large-Scale Computing, established in 1946 by the American Institute of Electrical Engineers ( AIEE ), and to the Professional Group on Electronic Computers (PGEC), established in 1951 by the Institute of Radio Engineers (IRE). (
  • Its history is complex and involves many aspects-technological, organizational, and community. (
  • The change was to have switching and storing mechanism with no moving parts and then the electronic switching technique 'triode' vacuum tubes were used and hence born the first electronic computer. (
  • John V. Atanasoff devised the first digital electronic computer Atanasoff and Clifford Berry came up with the ABC prototype. (
  • The US National Bureau of Standards came up with the Standards Electronic/Eastern Automatic Computer (SEAC). (
  • Lynos Electronic Office (LEO), the first business computer was developed by John Simmons and T. Raymond Thompson. (
  • A computer is an electronic machine that accepts information, stores it, processes it according to the instructions provided by a user and then returns the result. (
  • Computer-aided electronic auscultatory devices have been developed that acquire, record, and analyze the acoustic signals of the heart. (
  • These computer-aided electronic auscultatory devices are intended to provide support to the physician in the evaluation of heart sounds for the identification of suspected murmurs, a potential sign of heart disease. (
  • Zargis Medical Corporation (Princeton, NJ) has received U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) clearance to market Zargis Acoustic Cardioscan, a computer-aided electronic auscultatory device intended to support physicians in analyzing heart sounds in patients. (
  • There is inadequate evidence of the validity of computer-aided electronic auscultatory devices, or their impact on clinical outcomes in the peer-reviewed published medical literature. (
  • Clinical studies are necessary to determine the performance characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values) of computer-aided electronic auscultatory devices and their impact on clinical management and patient outcomes. (
  • Computer-aided electronic auscultatory devices differ from phonocardiograms in that only the former incorporate computer analysis of the heart sounds. (
  • Researchers administered a generic Quality of Life (QOL) instrument, physical symptom assessment, patient health questionnaire, and a tobacco screen through audio computer-assisted self-interviews (ACASI) and linked the responses to their electronic medical records (EMR) data. (
  • You can recycle your computer by dropping it off at an approved recycling center that handles electronic devices. (
  • This book is a questionnaire to record case histories of the acute radiation syndrome in a standardised way. (
  • BACKGROUND:The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between obesity, berlin questionnaire (BQ), epworth sleepiness scale (ESS), past history of road traffic accident(RTA) and performance on driving simulator among heavy vehicle drivers. (
  • John von Neumann - the brilliant mathematician who helped bring us nuclear energy, game theory and quantum theory's operating mechanics - theorized about the existence of computer viruses as early 1944. (
  • To this day, it still pops up from time to time and is one of, if not the most widespread viruses in history. (
  • The Computer History Museum claims to house the largest and most significant collection of computing artifacts in the world (the Heinz Nixdorf Museum, Paderborn, Germany, has more items on display but a far smaller total collection). (
  • The CHM oral history program conducts video interviews around the history of computing and networking, with over 700 as of 2016. (
  • It covers the history of computing in 20 galleries, from the abacus to the Internet. (
  • Modern computing has a rich history. (
  • Although computer algebra could be considered a subfield of scientific computing , they are generally considered as distinct fields because scientific computing is usually based on numerical computation with approximate floating point numbers , while symbolic computation emphasizes exact computation with expressions containing variables that have no given value and are manipulated as symbols. (
  • There is no learned society that is specific to computer algebra, but this function is assumed by the special interest group of the Association for Computing Machinery named SIGSAM (Special Interest Group on Symbolic and Algebraic Manipulation). (
  • Quantum computing has the potential to tackle problems conventional computers can't handle. (
  • The Computer Society sponsors workshops and conferences, publishes a variety of peer-reviewed literature, operates technical committees, and develops IEEE computing standards. (
  • The Computer Society is a leading publisher of technical material in computing. (
  • In 2008, the Computer Society launched Computing Now, a Web portal featuring free access to a rotation of CSDL articles, along with technical news, CS blogs, and multimedia content. (
  • As most publications were delivered digitally in 2014, the Computer Society launched the complementary monthly digest Computing Edge magazine, which consists of curated articles from its magazines. (
  • Scientists have developed the most accurate computing method to date to reconstruct the patchwork of genetic faults within tumours and their history. (
  • To listen to a snippet of computing history, click here (mp3) . (
  • Given the importance and long history of the Escape key (it was created in 1960 ), a developer who relies on Vim might be forgiven for thinking that the venerable key would be sticking around a bit longer. (
  • Graham Cluley runs his own award-winning computer security blog, and is a veteran of the anti-virus industry having worked for a number of security companies since the early 1990s. (
  • In the 1980s, Steve Dorner was working at the computer center at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. (
  • Hardware only specify the physical devices that a computer uses to accomplish a task, provides computer power, but cannot use it. (
  • Keys using 256-bit encryption can be broken in a few hours on a personal computer and keys of 512 bits have been broken in the past by using the processing power of hundreds of computers at once," he said. (
  • We evaluated the app with trials with 14 medical student volunteers who alternated the roles of patient and clinician, using 2 randomly allocated sexual case histories. (
  • Since the acute radiation syndrome can be considered a rare disease it is deemed necessary to record all accessible case histories world-wide in a standardised form. (
  • The computer case portion is made from wood. (
  • importance of specific information on cancer genetics that might be provided by an "ideal computer program. (
  • RAGs could enable general practitioners to be more effective gatekeepers to genetics services, empowering them to reassure the majority of patients with a family history of breast and ovarian cancer who are not at increased genetic risk. (
  • We previously reported a qualitative evaluation of Risk Assessment in Genetics (RAGs), a computer program to support the assessment of familial breast and ovarian cancer in primary care. (
  • Blood Types: History, Genetics, and Percentages around the World. (
  • And such understanding is crucial in writing the history of the cosmos, understanding its structure, content and laws as well as predicting its future. (
  • Participants were 11th and 12th grade students identified with learning disabilities in reading and writing from two intact, self-contained social studies classes.During the three weeks of the study, students in the experimental group received content regarding the Industrial Revolution via a conceptually framed, computer-adapted text, while students in the control group were taught the same content using the district adopted textbook. (
  • The Postle Area Computer Control Operation (PACCO) handles 95 oil wells, 45 water injection wells, and 10 water supply wells about 300 miles from the control computer. (
  • The control computer is located in Oklahoma City, approximately 300 airline miles southeast of the producing properties. (
  • and 'Computer Production Control and Data Acquisition as Applied in Postle Area,' by H.E. Schwartz, Jr. (
  • ASR-33 Teletype keyboard layout (by Daniele Giacomini [CC BY-SA 2.5 (], via Wikimedia Commons) When the IBM PC came out its keyboard combined the IBM typewriter keyboard with the new computer keys, adding to Control and Escape the Alt key and a set of Function keys. (
  • Apple ][ keyboard from Apart from the Control key, which is combined with other keys to generate non-printing ASCII characters, like Bell (ASCII 7), and the Escape key (ASCII 27), these other keys originally manipulated the high order bit of a character code. (
  • In production activities, computers can control the assembly lines and the whole production procedure. (
  • for instance specific purpose computer only numeric data or to completely control automated manufacturing process. (
  • for a long time based on data collection and analysis, the classical approaches, pre-dating the era of computers, have been challenged recently, as reflected in the quantitative turn in diversity linguistics, which started around the second millennium. (