The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Geographical sites known to be extant in a remote period in the history of civilization, familiar as the names of ancient countries and empires.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.
The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Elephantidae that fed by grazing on low vegetation. Most died out at the end of the last ice age.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.
Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.
Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)
Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
Animals that have no spinal column.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.
The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.
An order of stalked, sessile, single-celled EUKARYOTES. They are considered the transitional link between the flagellated protozoa and the SPONGES, the most primitive metazoans.
One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.
Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.
The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.
Sets of beliefs on the nature of the universe or Man.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.
The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.
An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.
A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.
Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.
Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.
The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)
Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)
A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.

The Ice Man's diet as reflected by the stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of his hair. (1/1126)

Establishing the diets of ancient human populations is an integral component of most archaeological studies. Stable isotope analysis of well-preserved bone collagen is the most direct approach for a general assessment of paleodiet. However, this method has been limited by the scarcity of well-preserved skeletal materials for this type of destructive analysis. Hair is preserved in many burials, but is often overlooked as an alternative material for isotopic analysis. Here we report that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for the hair of the 5200 year-old Ice Man indicates a primarily vegetarian diet, in agreement with his dental wear pattern. Whereas previous investigations have focused on bone collagen, the stable isotope composition of hair may prove to be a more reliable proxy for paleodiet reconstruction, particularly when skeletal remains are not well preserved and additional archaeological artifacts are unavailable.  (+info)

Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair. (2/1126)

Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artefacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information, for example, concerning incidence of disease, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopic compositions, especially those made on isolates of collagen from bones, have been used to help suggest principal dietary components. A significant problem in the use of collagen is its long-term stability, and the possibility of isotopic alteration during early diagenesis, or through contaminating condensation reactions. In this study, we suggest that a commonly overlooked material, human hair, may represent an ideal material to be used in addressing human diets of ancient civilizations. Through the analysis of the amino-acid composition of modern hair, as well as samples that were subjected to radiation (thus simulating ageing of the hair) and hair from humans that is up to 5200 years old, we have observed little in the way of chemical change. The principal amino acids observed in all of these samples are essentially identical in relative abundances and content. Dominating the compositions are serine, glutamic acid, threonine, glycine and leucine, respectively accounting for approximately 15%, 17%, 10%, 8% and 8% of the total hydrolysable amino acids. Even minor components (for example, alanine, valine, isoleucine) show similar constancy between the samples of different ages. This constancy clearly indicates minimal alteration of the amino-acid composition of the hair. Further, it would indicate that hair is well preserved and is amenable to isotopic analysis as a tool for distinguishing sources of nutrition. Based on this observation, we have isotopically characterized modern individuals for whom the diet has been documented. Both stable nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions were assessed, and together provide an indication of trophic status, and principal type (C3 or C4) of vegetation consumed. True vegans have nitrogen isotope compositions of about 7/1000 whereas humans consuming larger amounts of meat, eggs, or milk are more enriched in the heavy nitrogen isotope. We have also analysed large cross-sections of modern humans from North America and Europe to provide an indication of the variability seen in a population (the supermarket diet). There is a wide diversity in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values based at least partially on the levels of seafood, corn-fed beef and grains in the diets. Following analysis of the ancient hair, we have observed similar trends in certain ancient populations. For example, the Coptics of Egypt (1000 BP) and Chinchorro of Chile (5000-800 BP) have diets of similar diversity to those observed in the modern group but were isotopically influenced by local nutritional sources. In other ancient hair (Egyptian Late Middle Kingdom mummies, ca. 4000 BP), we have observed a much more uniform isotopic signature, indicating a more constant diet. We have also recognized a primary vegetarian component in the diet of the Neolithic Ice Man of the Oetztaler Alps (5200 BP). In certain cases, it appears that sulphur isotopes may help to further constrain dietary interpretations, owing to the good preservation and sulphur content of hair. It appears that analysis of the often-overlooked hair in archaeological sites may represent a significant new approach for understanding ancient human communities.  (+info)

Preservation of key biomolecules in the fossil record: current knowledge and future challenges. (3/1126)

We have developed a model based on the analyses of modern and Pleistocene eggshells and mammalian bones which can be used to understand the preservation of amino acids and other important biomolecules such as DNA in fossil specimens. The model is based on the following series of diagenetic reactions and processes involving amino acids: the hydrolysis of proteins and the subsequent loss of hydrolysis products from the fossil matrix with increasing geologic age; the racemization of amino acids which produces totally racemized amino acids in 10(5)-10(6) years in most environments on the Earth; the introduction of contaminants into the fossil that lowers the enantiomeric (D:L) ratios produced via racemization; and the condensation reactions between amino acids, as well as other compounds with primary amino groups, and sugars which yield humic acid-like polymers. This model was used to evaluate whether useful amino acid and DNA sequence information is preserved in a variety of human, amber-entombed insect and dinosaur specimens. Most skeletal remains of evolutionary interest with respect to the origin of modern humans are unlikely to preserve useful biomolecular information although those from high latitude sites may be an exception. Amber-entombed insects contain well-preserved unracemized amino acids, apparently because of the anhydrous nature of the amber matrix, and thus may contain DNA fragments which have retained meaningful genetic information. Dinosaur specimens contain mainly exogenous amino acids, although traces of endogenous amino acids may be present in some cases. Future ancient biomolecule research which takes advantage of new methologies involving, for example, humic acid cleaving reagents and microchip-based DNA-protein detection and sequencing, along with investigations of very slow biomolecule diagenetic reactions such as the racemization of isoleucine at the beta-carbon, will lead to further enhancements of our understanding of biomolecule preservation in the fossil record.  (+info)

How microbial ancient DNA, found in association with human remains, can be interpreted. (4/1126)

The analysis of the DNA of ancient micro-organisms in archaeological and palaeontological human remains can contribute to the understanding of issues as different as the spreading of a new disease, a mummification process or the effect of diets on historical human populations. The quest for this type of DNA, however, can represent a particularly demanding task. This is mainly due to the abundance and diffusion of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and protozoans in the most diverse environments of the present-day biosphere and the resulting difficulty in distinguishing between ancient and modern DNA. Nevertheless, at least under some special circumstances, by using rigorous protocols, which include an archaeometric survey of the specimens and evaluation of the palaeoecological consistency of the results of DNA sequence analysis, glimpses of the composition of the original microbial flora (e.g. colonic flora) can be caught in ancient human remains. Potentials and pitfalls of this research field are illustrated by the results of research works performed on prehistoric, pre-Columbian and Renaissance human mummies.  (+info)

The molecular genetics of European ancestry. (5/1126)

In an earlier paper we proposed, on the basis of mitochondrial control region variation, that the bulk of modern European mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) diversity had its roots in the European Upper Palaeolithic. Refining the mtDNA phylogeny and enlarging the sample size both within Europe and the Middle East still support this interpretation and indicate three separate phases of colonization: (i) the Early Upper Palaeolithic about 50,000 BP; (ii) the Late Upper Palaeolithic 11,000-14,000 BP; and (iii) the Neolithic from 8500 BP.  (+info)

The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective. (6/1126)

The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Therefore, recent cladistic analyses have not resolved the phylogenetic history of these early hominids. Efforts to increase cladistic resolution by defining traits at greater levels of anatomical detail have instead introduced substantial phyletic error.  (+info)

Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. (7/1126)

The Hata Member of the Bouri Formation is defined for Pliocene sedimentary outcrops in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. The Hata Member is dated to 2.5 million years ago and has produced a new species of Australopithecus and hominid postcranial remains not currently assigned to species. Spatially associated zooarchaeological remains show that hominids acquired meat and marrow by 2.5 million years ago and that they are the near contemporary of Oldowan artifacts at nearby Gona. The combined evidence suggests that behavioral changes associated with lithic technology and enhanced carnivory may have been coincident with the emergence of the Homo clade from Australopithecus afarensis in eastern Africa.  (+info)

Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. (8/1126)

The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral ratio and an apelike upper arm-to-lower arm ratio.  (+info)

Clay vessels and bronze weapons uncovered at Grakliani Hill, which has been under excavation for eight years. ( photo ). A printing device of the 4th Century BC was described as one of the most important discoveries of the area, which analog was found in South Mesopotamia, says an article in . In recent years archeologists also found a gold disc dating back to the 5th-6th Century BC. The same disc is preserved in Iran. Several rooms for worship and special mills and hand-mills also attracted international interest. From this discovery it is believed that wheat used in baking bread was grinded there. Furthermore, an altar platform discovered in the area has no analogue in the world. The article says digs there have shown an uninterrupted habitation of the site for 300,000 years. Archaeologists of the Tbilisi State University (TSU) also uncovered ancient treasures when works were conducted at the highway in 2007. Excavations at a settlement on the eastern slope uncovered a ...
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000-1,400 BCE, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a Basal Eurasian lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages prior to their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter-gatherers of Europe to drastically reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; ...
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000-1,400 BCE, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a Basal Eurasian lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages prior to their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter-gatherers of Europe to drastically reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; ...
The Iron Age is an archaeological age, the last of the three-age system of Old World prehistory. It follows the Bronze Age, in the Ancient Near East beginning c. 1200 BC, and in Europe beginning after c. 800 BC. It is taken to end with the beginning of Classical Antiquity, in about the 6th century BC, although in Northern Europe, the Germanic Iron Age is taken to last until the beginning of the Viking Age, c. AD 800. The term Iron Age is mostly limited to Europe and the Near East and the Indian subcontinent, although West Africa also has some iron metallurgy, beginning with the Nok culture c. 550 BC and spread by the Bantu expansion. There are also cast iron artefacts in China from about 500 BC, but use of iron was minimal, and the Bronze Age in China is usually extended to the beginning of the classical period (Qin dynasty). ...
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Here are a few pictures from the excavation at Ottenby Kungsgård (the royal manor Ottenby) 2004 and of a few of the finds. These finds are dated to the Pitted ware culture, a late neolithic hunter-gatherer culture in Scandinavia, dated to ca 3200 BC- ca 2300 BC. Most sites are found along the coasts of Svealand,…
Are you looking for the book See Inside the Ancient World? Great choice! We have good news for you, this book is in our electronic library in PDF, ePUB, MOBI and other formats! This book was written by author Rob Lloyd Jones who never disappoints. To download and read online See Inside the Ancient World you just need share us and after сlick the button above and register(it takes no more than 3 minutes!). Enjoy reading and stay tuned ...
TY - BOOK. T1 - Traditional medicines for modern times. T2 - Antidiabetic plants. AU - Soumyanath, Amala. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus world-wide is an issue of major socio-economic concern. Scientific interest in plant-derived medicine is steadily rising, yet there is often a wide disparity in the caliber of information available. A detailed compilation of scientific information from across the globe, Traditional Medicines for Modern Times: Antidiabetic Plants highlights the potential role of dietary and medicinal plant materials in the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes and its complications. The book not only describes plants traditionally used to treat diabetes, but evaluates the scientific studies on these plants and describes in vitro, in vivo, and clinical methods for their investigation. It examines the theory that changes in dietary patterns from traditional plant foodstuffs containing beneficial components, to richer, ...
Decades of excavation at the ancient Chinese city of Anyang have produced over 50,000 written texts from the Bronze Age capital of the Shang Dynasty.
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Philosophers have found words objects of fascination since at least the 5th century BC, with the foundation of the philosophy of language. Plato analyzed words in terms of their origins and the sounds making them up, concluding that there was some connection between sound and meaning, though words change a great deal over time. John Locke wrote that the use of words is to be sensible marks of ideas, though they are chosen not by any natural connexion that there is between particular articulate sounds and certain ideas, for then there would be but one language amongst all men; but by a voluntary imposition, whereby such a word is made arbitrarily the mark of such an idea.[9] Wittgensteins thought transitioned from a word as representation of meaning to the meaning of a word is its use in the language.[10]. Archaeology shows that even for centuries prior to this fascination by philosophers in the 5th century BC, many languages had various ways of expressing this verbal unit, which in turn ...
Aorta has an uncertain derivation. The first recorded mention of the word was by Hippocrates in the 5th century BC who used it to describe the trachea and its branches. Given the windpipes function, the term may have come from combination of the Greek aer (air) and tepeo (to hold).. Though he also subscribed to the Greek convention that arteries carried air, Aristotle, in the 4th century BC, was the first to apply the word to the vessel it is associated with today, inspired perhaps by a fancied resemblance to the arched sheath of an aorta, a large Greek knife with a curved handle.. Another candidate for Aristotles inspiration: aortemei, a Greek word meaning suspend (from aorter, a Grecian shoulder strap that things were hung from). Given all the blood vessels that branch to the viscera from the aorta, one can see how it may resemble a strap of sorts suspending the heart, kidney, stomach, and intestines ...
Aorta has an uncertain derivation. The first recorded mention of the word was by Hippocrates in the 5th century BC who used it to describe the trachea and its branches. Given the windpipes function, the term may have come from combination of the Greek aer (air) and tepeo (to hold).. Though he also subscribed to the Greek convention that arteries carried air, Aristotle, in the 4th century BC, was the first to apply the word to the vessel it is associated with today, inspired perhaps by a fancied resemblance to the arched sheath of an aorta, a large Greek knife with a curved handle.. Another candidate for Aristotles inspiration: aortemei, a Greek word meaning suspend (from aorter, a Grecian shoulder strap that things were hung from). Given all the blood vessels that branch to the viscera from the aorta, one can see how it may resemble a strap of sorts suspending the heart, kidney, stomach, and intestines ...
What happens when verse from Ovid, history as written by Herodotus, satyr plays, the works of Thucydides, an Attic red-figure kylix, and tracts describing medicinal practice of the ancient world are gathered in one place and analyzed with scholarly verve? You have none other than Classical Antiquity-a journal that combines the pleasures, politics, intellectualism, cultural production, sciences, and linguistics of European traditions, centuries past. Published biannually, Classical Antiquity explores interdisciplinary research and discussion of major issues throughout the field of classics, including Greek and Roman literature, history, archaeology, art, philosophy, and philology-Bronze Age through Late Antiquity. From extant written materials to newly unearthed art-objects, Classical Antiquitys coverage of the Greco-Roman ancient world is truly expansive. For further information about Classical Antiquity please visit the University of California, Berkeley, Department of Classics homepage. ...
Cancer is widespread today, but it doesnt appear to have been in the ancient world. Why not? Researchers are learning more about the history of cancer and how civilizations have treated it.
Cancer is widespread today, but it doesnt appear to have been in the ancient world. Why not? Researchers are learning more about the history of cancer and how civilizations have treated it.
Excavation at the Langyatai ruins in Qingdao City, East Chinas Shandong Province. Chinas National Cultural Heritage Administration has approved excavation at the ruins that date back to the Qin (221- 206 BCE) and subsequent Han (202 BCE- 220 CE) dynasties. Archaeologists have discovered remains of pottery pipelines that look like a modern drainage system. (Photo/ICphoto) ...
Ancient World: Internet Linked (World History) [Fiona Chandler, Jane Bingham, Susie McCaffrey] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. An illustrated description of ancient life-styles and cultures.
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The word diabetes comes from the Greek, diabainen, meaning to straddle, or to siphon, due to the excessive urination similar as soon as diabetes, which is gorgeous, for that defense its herald mellitus, Latin for cute or honey, secondary to its state in 1676. It was recognised as a chronic (incurable) disease by the ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Greeks, Indians and Romans, when its make known in the various languages translated as glamorous p.s.. The Indian physician Sushrata, in the 6th century BC, linked it since a nonappearance of exercise and obesity. Galen, a second century disciple of Hippocrates, and no-one else ever saw two cases, considering Hippocrates making no hint of it, possibly as he never axiom any cases. The Persian Avicenna (980-1037) recognised two innocent types and treated it together in the middle of a merger of lupine, zedoary seed and fenugreek, which is yet prescribed today throughout Asia. The Egyptian Maimonides (1135-1204) mentions it is altogether rare in the colder ...
The influence of cultural factors on the biological state, of prehistorical populations inhabiting Central Europe in the Bronze and Iron Ages have been analyzed. To achieve this goal the author...
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This Hubpages introduces readers to a live video stream show called Health Inn. Everyone is invited to join Debby Bruck and Dr Deepak Sharma on April 30th to discuss and learn about the issue of infertility in modern times.
An Open Afternoon between 2-5 on Saturday 8 September will give the public an opportunity to find more about the third season of excavations at the Pillar of Eliseg, a ninth-century AD stone monument which stands on a prehistoric mound near Valle Crucis Abbey Llangollen, in north-east Wales. Archaeologists from Bangor and Chester Universities are returning to carry out a third season of excavations at the site between 26 August -16 September 2012.. Publication date: 22 August 2012. ...
An Open Afternoon between 2-5 on Saturday 8 September will give the public an opportunity to find more about the third season of excavations at the Pillar of Eliseg, a ninth-century AD stone monument which stands on a prehistoric mound near Valle Crucis Abbey Llangollen, in north-east Wales. Archaeologists from Bangor and Chester Universities are returning to carry out a third season of excavations at the site between 26 August -16 September 2012.. Publication date: 22 August 2012. ...
Archaeological excavations have revealed traces of a 5th century BC occupation during the Achaemenid period, as well as later Parthian settlements in the citadel. Coins belonging to the reign of Sassanid kings, and that of the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II (AD 408-450), have also been discovered there. Also as recent as 2005, archaeologists unearthed over 1,300 clay seals in a storage room. The seals were used on parcels, letters, and merchandise sent to other cities with the names of the cities receiving the parcels, letters, and merchandise from Takhte Soleiman having been inscribed on the seals. Furthermore Iranian archeologists discovered a water mill which is believed to be from the Sassanid period; the first time that a Sassanid water mill is reported to have been found in Iran proper. The water mill is 17 meters high and 6 to 7 meters wide. Water was directed to this mill from Takhte Soleiman Lake through a canal and entered the mill from a raised ground with a high pressure ...
Atomic theory, ancient philosophical speculation that all things can be accounted for by innumerable combinations of hard, small, indivisible particles (called atoms) of various sizes but of the same basic material; or the modern scientific theory of matter according to which the chemical elements that combine to form the great variety of substances consist themselves of aggregations of similar subunits (atoms) possessing nuclear and electron substructure characteristic of each element. The ancient atomic theory was proposed in the 5th century bc by the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus and was revived in the 1st century bc by the Roman philosopher and poet Lucretius. The modern atomic theory, which has undergone continuous refinement, began to flourish at the beginning of the 19th century with the work of the English chemist John Dalton. The experiments of the British physicist Ernest Rutherford in the early 20th century on the scattering of alpha particles from a thin gold foil ...
The underwater archaeological excavations in the Turkish port town of Urla, being carried out by scientists of the University of Haifas Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies and headed by Prof. Michal Artzi, have been chosen by the Archaeological Institute of America as one of the ten most important nautical excavations in the world. Findings at the Turkish site have included the oldest wooden anchor in the world, the remains of an ancient port that collapsed in some earthquake, and even sunken remains of the town itself. The Urla excavations are carried out by University of Haifa researchers in cooperation with scientists from Ankara University. They began in 2000, when the Turkish researchers invited their Haifa colleagues to assist them in the underwater excavations at Urla. Over the years, many Turkish divers have been trained by experts from the University of Haifas Institute for Maritime Studies, and Ankara University has recently established its own marine institute under the ...
Find items like Snakes with Wings & Gold-Digging Ants at Daedalus Books. Because so much of what we know of the ancient world comes from Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BC, he will always remain, as Cicero deemed him, the Father of Historians. At the same time, a large part of the ability of history to entertain comes from his enormous, omnivorous, at times credulous appetite for stories of distant lands and strange creatures. This collection of five from Herodotus, translated in 1954 by Aubrey de Selincourt and revised in 1996 by John Marincola, focuses on Egypt, with such remarkable comments as Everybody here paints himself red and eats monkeys.
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The first part of this research published previously proved without doubt that the metals dated to the Nordic Bronze Age found in Sweden were not smelted from the local copper ores. In this second part we present a detailed interpretation of these analytical data with the aim to identify the ore sources from which these metals originated. The interpretation of lead isotope and chemical data of 71 Swedish Bronze Age metals is based on the direct comparisons between the lead isotope data and geochemistry of ore deposits that are known to have produced copper in the Bronze Age. The presented interpretations of chemical and lead isotope analyses of Swedish metals dated to the Nordic Bronze Age are surprising and bring some information not known from previous work. Apart from a steady supply of copper from the Alpine ores in the North Tyrol, the main sources of copper seem to be ores from the Iberian Peninsula and Sardinia. Thus from the results presented here a new complex picture emerges of ...
Phi (/faɪ/;[1] uppercase Φ, lowercase φ or ϕ; Ancient Greek: ϕεῖ pheî [pʰé͜e]; Modern Greek: φι fi [fi]) is the 21st letter of the Greek alphabet. In Archaic and Classical Greek (c. 9th century BC to 4th century BC), it represented an aspirated voiceless bilabial plosive ([pʰ]), which was the origin of its usual romanization as ⟨ph⟩. During the later part of Classical Antiquity, in Koine Greek (c. 4th century BC to 4th century AD), its pronunciation shifted to that of a voiceless bilabial fricative ([ɸ]), and by the Byzantine Greek period (c. 4th century AD to 15th century AD) it developed its modern pronunciation as a voiceless labiodental fricative ([f]). The romanization of the Modern Greek phoneme is therefore usually ⟨f⟩. It may be that phi originated as the letter qoppa, and initially represented the sound /kʷʰ/ before shifting to Classical Greek [pʰ].[2] In traditional Greek numerals, phi has a value of 500 (φʹ) or 500,000 (͵φ). The Cyrillic letter Ef (Ф, ...
Up to 90% of small sites in the Peloponnese were abandoned, suggesting a major depopulation.[citation needed]Again, as with many of the sites of destruction in Greece, it is unclear how a lot of this destruction came about. The city of Mycenae for example was initially destroyed in an earthquake in 1250 BC as evidenced by the presence of crushed bodies buried in collapsed buildings.[23] However, the site was rebuilt only to face destruction in 1190 BC as the result of a series of major fires. There is a suggestion by Robert Drews that the fires could have been the result of an attack on the site and its palace however this is refuted by Eric Cline who points out the lack of archaeological evidence for an attack.[24][25] Thus, while fire was definitely the cause of the destruction, it is unclear what or whom caused said fires. We see a similar situation concurring in Tiryns in 1200 BC when an earthquake destroyed much of the city including its palace. It is likely however that the city continued ...
After acceptance of Darwins theory of evolution by the ma in archaeology, has made previously inaccessible parts of the ma in archaeology an explosion of archaeological evidence silenced the ma in archaeology. In the ma in archaeology a field in which amateurs can make a very temperate South Indian Autumn; a group of students and I could not, nor really did I wish to, make any value judgments on their field methods. The other students soon gathered around the ma in archaeology and Dr. Byregowda then began to get used for aerial survey. There are other lab techniques that archaeologists use to discover date and place of manufacture, and uncover fakes, such as deep sea reachable by mankind. However, the ma in archaeology of the school has conducted excavations include the ma in archaeology of ancient field-systems and their settlements, recording of plans and maps of earthworks of any kind and search for more information about a time when much of the ma in archaeology a little trickier than what ...
Ancient Greece, as with Ancient Rome and Ancient Egypt, played an important part in medical history. The most famous of all Ancient Greek doctors was Hippocrates. By 1200 B.C., Ancient Greece was developing in all areas - trade, farming, warfare, sailing, craftsmanship etc. Their knowledge of medicine developed accordingly.. Gods dominated the lives of the Greeks. Natural occurrences were explained away by using gods. This, however, did not occur in medicine where Ancient Greek physicians tried to find a natural explanation as to why someone got ill and died.. The Greeks were practicing medicine 1000 years before the birth of Christ. In the Iliad by Homer, injured soldiers were treated by doctors and the Greek leader in the tale, Menelaus, was treated for an arrow wound by a doctor-in-arms, Machaon.. However, not all Ancient Greeks turned to physicians when ill. many still turned to the gods. The god Apollo was consulted at a temple in Delphi and by the sixth century B.C., many turned to the ...
The excavations exposed hitherto unknown city quarters dating to the 14th - 12th centuries BC. The size of this city is estimated between 25 and 50 ha. Only a small portion of the city, the history of which goes back to the 16th century BC, has so far been excavated. At the beginning of the 12th century BC the city was destroyed and abandoned, and never inhabited again. The discovery of a city quarter was made possible through the use of a sophisticated ground penetrating radar device in 2010 and 2012, as part of a cooperative project between the University of Gothenburg (Prof. Peter M. Fischer) and the University of Vienna (Dr Immo Trinks). A ground penetrating radar may produce X-ray images of the soil up to 2m beneath the surface. The 2013 excavations, which exposed 200 square metres of the city, confirmed the interpretation of the radar survey. ...
In this compelling volume, military historian Richard A. Gabriel explores the long-hidden world of ancient military medicine from 4000 BC to AD 1453 to reveal its surprisingly sophisticated body of knowledge, practice, and technique. Ranging broadly from the deserts of North Africa, across the plains of India and Persia, to the mountains of Europe and Asia Minor, this book examines medical history from the Bronze Age through the Middle Ages. By revealing long-forgotten medical secrets, Dr Medical books Man And Wound In The Ancient World: A History Of Military Medicine From Sumer To. author richard a gabriel format hardback language english publication year 28 11 2011 subject medicine subject 2 medicine general themonsterbookshop co uk in titles description add my store to your favorites and receive my email newsletters about new items and special promotions general interest man and wound in the ancient world a history of military medicine from sumer to the fall of constantinople item details ...
A Bronze Age wooden container found in an ice patch at 2,650m in the Swiss Alps could help archaeologists shed new light on the spread and exploitation of cereal grains following a chance discovery. CREDIT Archaeological Service of the Canton of Bern Original Article: The team of archaeologists were expecting to…
Hippocrates Health Institute collects and uses your personal information to operate the Hippocrates Health Institute Web site and deliver the services you have requested. Hippocrates Health Institute also uses your personally identifiable information to inform you of other products or services available from Hippocrates Health Institute and its affiliates. Hippocrates Health Institute may also contact you via surveys to conduct research about your opinion of current services or of potential new services that may be offered.. Hippocrates Health Institute does not sell, rent or lease its customer lists to third parties. Hippocrates Health Institute may, from time to time, contact you on behalf of external business partners about a particular offering that may be of interest to you. In those cases, your unique personally identifiable information (e-mail, name, address, telephone number) is not transferred to the third party. In addition, Hippocrates Health Institute may share data with trusted ...
Although long considered to be a barren region on the periphery of ancient Chinese civilization, the southwest massif was once the political heartland of numerous Bronze Age kingdoms during the first ... More. Although long considered to be a barren region on the periphery of ancient Chinese civilization, the southwest massif was once the political heartland of numerous Bronze Age kingdoms during the first millennium BC. Their distinctive material tradition-intricately cast bronze kettledrums and cowrie shell containers-have given archaeologists and historians a glimpse of the extraordinary wealth, artistry, and power exercised by highland leaders in prehistory. After a millennium of rule, however, imperial conquest under the Han state in 109 BC reduced local power, leading to the disappearance of Bronze Age traditions and a fraught process of assimilation. Instead of a clash between center and periphery or barbarism and civilization, this book examines the classic study of imperial conquest as ...
Bell, A., Gurney, D. and Healey, H. 1999. Lincolnshire Salterns: Excavations at Helpringham, Holbeach St Johns and Bicker Haven, East Anglian Archaeology, Report 89, Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire.. Gurney, D. 1999. A Romano-British salt-making site at Shell Bridge, Holbeach St Johns: Excavations by Ernest Greenfield 1961, in A. Bell, et al. Lincolnshire Salterns: Excavations at Helpringham, Holbeach St Johns and Bicker Haven, East Anglian Archaeology, Report 89, Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire, 21-69.. Dickinson, B. 1999. The samian: Site B, in D. Gurney, A Romano-British salt-making site at Shell Bridge, Holbeach St Johns: Excavations by Ernest Greenfield, 1961, in A. Bell, et al. Lincolnshire Salterns: Excavations at Helpringham, Holbeach St Johns and Bicker Haven, East Anglian Archaeology, Report 89, Heritage Trust of Lincolnshire, 45-6.. Site type: Rural, salt-making site.. One vessel shows apparent use wear: Drag. 35, CG LMV, c. AD 100-130; worn on inside. [Identification BMD].. ...
Introduction: Archeology is a scientific discipline that merges the humanities study of human activities, behavior, and thoughts with a scientific approach, methods, and techniques to this subject matter. Archeology is concerned with tools and other artifacts of human culture, heir relative contexts, and related environmental data. The archeologist attempts to reconstruct and interpret the past by analyzing, dating, and comparing systematically investigated sites and artifacts through the analysis of material remains, other evidence of human activity, and their contexts. There are two major types of archeology in the U.S.: archeology of everything preceding the earliest period of recorded history in a given area, or prehistoric archeology; and the archeology from the appearance in a given area of written records, referred to as document or text-aided historical archeology.. The concerns of archeologists can be summarized as follows:. Archeological sites and materials should be protected, ...
Silphium was the wonder plant of the ancient world. Originally identified by Greek colonists in North Africa, the plant - a species of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) - grew only in a dimunitive area near the coast and could not be cultivated. Silphium was popular as a spice for cooking, but its notoriety stems from its alleged medicinal qualities, particularly its use as an herbal contraceptive (the I love you heart symbol may have originated from the shape of silphiums seed pods and its use in sex). So valuable was Silphium that it became an important component of the ancient worlds economy and appears on coins. Its also among the first species recorded (by Pliny the Elder) as going extinct, probably by grazing sheep or uncontrolled harvesting. Or is it? ...
The course is primarily designed for students who have studied ancient history, classics or classical studies as their first degree.. You can choose to study from one of two pathways: classics or ancient history.. If you are interested in classics, you will engage in advanced study of the literatures, languages and cultures of Ancient Greece and Rome.. If you want to specialise in ancient history, you will focus on the histories, societies and cultures of Archaic and Classical Greece, Rome and the wider Mediterranean world.. The highly flexible course offers you the opportunity to study a wide range of topics reflecting the research specialisms of our staff across ancient history, classics and archaeology, including Byzantine studies, whilst developing your own research interests and professional skills.. Through this course you will gain an advanced knowledge and understanding of:. ...
Explore Evgenia Dafoulis board Δ ταξη on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Ancient greece for kids, Ancient greece lessons and Greek history.
Around the 8th century BC, a kingdom known as Dmt was established in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, with its capital at Yeha in northern Ethiopia. After the fall of D`mt in the 5th century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms, the Aksumite Kingdom, ancestor of medieval and modern Ethiopia, during the first century BC, which was able to reunite the area.[5]. They established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. The Persian religious figure Mani listed Axum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time.[6] It was in the early 4th century AD that a Syro-Greek castaway, Frumentius, was taken to the court and eventually converted King Ezana to Christianity, thereby making it the official state religion.[7] For this accomplishment, he received the title Abba Selama (Father of peace). At various times, including a period in the 6th century, Axum ...
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Genetic evidence suggests a sense of family, parity and conquest in the Xiongnu Iron Age nomads of Mongolia Abstract In an effort to characterize the people who composed the groups known as the Xiongnu, nuclear and whole mitochondrial DNA data were generated from the skeletal remains of 52 individuals excavated from the Tamir Ulaan Khoshuu (TUK) cemetery in Central Mongolia. This burial site, attributed to the Xiongnu period, was used from the first century BC to the first century AD.
Now, a team from Mainz University in Germany, together with researchers from UCL (University College London) and Cambridge, have found that the first farmers in central and northern Europe could not have been the descendents of the hunter-gatherers that came before them. But what is even more surprising, they also found that modern Europeans couldnt solely be the descendents of either the hunter-gatherer alone, or the first farmers alone, and are unlikely to be a mixture of just those two groups. This is really odd, said Professor Mark Thomas, a population geneticist at UCL and co-author of the study. For more than a century the debate has centered around how much we are the descendents of European hunter-gatherers and how much we are the descendents of Europes early farmers. For the first time we are now able to directly compare the genes of these Stone Age Europeans, and what we find is that some DNA types just arent there - despite being common in Europeans today ...
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The Torquay Natural History Society in 1927 put together a team of archaeologists to excavate Kents Cavern. That year they discovered the most important hominin bone fragment of the excavation, a fragmented maxilla now available to view at the Torquay Museum. The quality of excavation at the site was not great and the history of work there, hampers attempts to understand the formation of the site. It has been known locally since at least 1659 and excavation of the site is first documented in 1824, by the work of Thomas Northmore.. His work then in turn attracted the attention of William Buckland, who was then Reader in Geology at the University of Oxford. When the Roman Catholic priest John MacEnery discovered flint tools beneath the stalagmitic floor of the cave (considered flood deposits), his work was ignored for being contrary to the biblical teachings of genesis. That did not stop further excavation at the site which continued from 1846 to the 1890s. This work was not done to 21st ...
Top honours for Rescue Dig of the Year at the prestigious Current Archaeology Awards went to Scottish Coastal Archaeology and the Problem of Erosion (SCAPE), a trust set up to research, conserve, and promote the archaeology ofScotlands coast.. Working tirelessly with local societies to record unique archaeology before it is lost forever to the sea, this project has recorded numerous endangered sites, including those at Bressay, Brora, Unst, and North Uist. Gathering invaluable information about the heritage of the area, these excavations have been bringing together professional archaeologists, amateurs, and local communities alike.. Tom Dawson, who manages SCAPE and accepted the award on their behalf, said:. There are so many sites at risk and this award will help show people that protecting them is really worthwhile work. The award for Archaeologist of the Year went to Tony Wilmott, Senior Archaeologist for English Heritage. Renowned for his trailblazing excavations at Birdoswald and Maryport ...
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This thesis investigates the relationship between climate, agriculture and social change in South Asias Bronze Age urban Indus Civilisation. Specifically, my research tests the hypothesis that an abrupt weakening of the Indian Summer Monsoon ca 2100 cal BC led to increasing crop water stress, and hence potentially contributed to the Civilisations decline by reducing food supply. This hypothesis is frequently invoked in discussions of the Civilisations end, yet until now, has not been empirically tested. Using material excavated from several Indus settlements, this study uses a novel combination of isotopic techniques to directly test the connection between climate change and agricultural stress. These techniques are first, oxygen isotope analysis of faunal bones and teeth; and second, stable carbon isotope analysis of crop remains. The oxygen analyses provide detailed records of monsoon intensity at a local, human scale, while the carbon analyses provide an empirical test of whether crop ...
Ancient Greece STEM & STEAM Challenges Cross-curricular challenges for students who are studying Ancient Civilizations and Ancient Greece! This resource has science, technology, engineering, and measurement activities to do with your upper elementary kids that will really enhance their
Wessex Archaeology have offices in Salisbury, Sheffield, Rochester and Edinburgh. We are one of the UKs leading heritage practices.
The book series Berlin Studies of the Ancient World, issued by the Excellence Cluster Topoi, brings together contributions from all fields of classical studies, from pre- and early history and classical archeology to ancient philosophy, theory of science and theology. Monographs and volumes which present the research results of the Excellence Cluster Topoi form a major focus of the series.. All publications are issued in high-quality print editions and simultaneously in electronic form. Since 2014 Topoi has made this series available at the research plattform Edition Topoi on an open access basis - thus facilitating rapid exchange of research worldwide.. More information on the book series and the publication strategies of the Excellence Cluster Topoi are available on ...
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Introduction This study examined the psychometric properties of the model of human occupation screening tool single observation form. Method Clinical records were extracted pre- and post-treatment for 152 mental health service users. Data were model of human occupation screening tool single observation form scores and demographics. We investigated the form using Rasch analysis; we also present an analysis of change over time. Results We identified four misfitting items and evidence of instability with respect to change over time. After anchoring to adjust for unstable estimates, it was possible to measure client change, and there were significant differences in scores pre-post treatment indicating client improvement in ability. Conclusion The study provides initial psychometric assessment of this version of the model of human occupation screening tool ...
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Masters degree in Classical archaeology and Ancient history at Lund University 2009, doctoral student since 2012.. My focus is on classical archaeology, and I have participated in several field excavations around the Mediterranean (Italy, Greece and Cyprus). I am also a member of the Swedish Pompeii Project (Italy) since 2006, which has led me to my field of research, Greeting the visitor in Pompeii. Roman fauces mosaics contextualised, on entrances (fauces) to Pompeian domestic dwellings and their mosaic floors. I am interested in the private entrance as a public space, and thus how it was decorated. Since the studys focus is on entrance mosaics, the atrium house and its fauces, will be investigated, which will include some 30 houses with figurative and ornamental mosaics, some with epigraphic inscriptions. Furthermore, I will study the location of the houses at Pompeii, as to see if this was of any importance for the house owner and his (presumed) display of cultural status. ...
Sozomen; Philostorgius (1855). The Ecclesiastical History of Sozomen and The Ecclesiastical History of Philostorgius. ... 18.27). An ancient route linking Sepphoris to Legio, and further south to Samaria-Sebastia, is believed to have been paved by ... In 1992, the area occupied until 1948 by the Arab village, where the remains of the ancient city have been excavated, was ... The theatre shows evidence of ancient damage, possibly from the earthquake in 363. A modern structure stands to one side of the ...
"Ancient History". Georgia Tech Glee Club. Retrieved February 25, 2011. "Join Us". Georgia Tech Glee Club. Retrieved February 26 ... "History of the NROTC Unit at Georgia Institute of Technology". Georgia Tech NROTC. Archived from the original on September 2, ... "I'm a Ramblin' Wreck" has had many other notable moments in its history. It is reportedly the first school song to have been ... "History Of UTC". Archived from the original on July 15, 2011. Retrieved February 26, 2011. "Under the Couch » About Us". ...
Since April 1, 2010, von Reden has been Professor of Ancient History with a focus on Greek History at the Albert-Ludwigs- ... Sitta von Reden (born 1962 in Hannover) is a German ancient historian and Professor of Ancient History at the Albert-Ludwigs- ... She is particularly known for her research on ancient economics, and the social and cultural history of the Graeco-Roman world ... Von Reden received her doctorate in Ancient History at the University of Cambridge. She was Junior Research Fellowship at The ...
ISBN 1-56025-871-3. "Ancient History". C. Michael Hogan (2007) Volubilis, The Megalithic Portal, ed. by A. ... A History (Paris 1992; Oxford 1995) at 358-360. See section herein on Berber relations. See Early History of Tunisia for both ... The more ancient and most informative are cuneiform tablets, ca. 1600-1185, from ancient Ugarit, located to the north of ... The Cambridge Ancient History: The fourth century B.C., 2nd ed., 1994. University Press. p. 813. Robert McQueen Grant (1 ...
Christie, Jan (1996). "The Early Indonesian Economy". In Miksic, John (ed.). Ancient History. Singapore: Didier Millet. ISBN ...
Bellwood, Peter (2001). "Ceremonial Bronzes of the Pre-Classic Era". In Miksic, John (ed.). Ancient History. Indonesian ... I Wayan Ardika (2001). "Late Prehistoric Bali". In Miksic, John (ed.). Ancient History. Indonesian Heritage. Archipelago Press ... Examples of Bronze Age Pejeng drum, such as the ancient Moon of Pejeng, is the largest bronze drum in the world, indicating the ...
Massare, J.A. (1992). "Ancient mariners". Natural History. 101: 48-53. J A Massare (1987). "Tooth morphology and prey ... The specimen is today preserved in the Natural History Museum, its inventory number being BMNH R.1330. It is the earliest ... This would have been proven by long furrows present in ancients seabeds. Such a lifestyle has in 2017 been suggested for ... One of Turner's partial plesiosaur skeletons is still preserved as specimen BMNH R.45 in the British Museum of Natural History ...
"Ancient History". HISTORY. Retrieved 2019-12-24. ... De musculis pedii et antipedii, p. 269) Klenerman, L. (April 2007). "The early history of tendo Achillis and its rupture". The ...
Community sports never became as popular among ancient Romans as it had among the ancient Greeks. Gyms were used more as a ... The British Cyclopaedia of the Arts, Sciences, History, Geography, Literature, Natural History, and Biography Volume 1 ABA to ... History com. "The Olympic Games". HISTORY. Retrieved 2020-09-30.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) Partington 1838, p. ... In ancient Greece there was a phrase of contempt, "He can neither swim nor write." After a while, however, Olympic athletes ...
Ancient History. 30 (2): 104-118. Traill, John S., The political organization of Attica: a study of the demes, trittyes, and ... phylai, φυλαί; derived from ancient Greek φύεσθαι "to descend, to originate") is an ancient Greek term for tribe or clan. ...
"Space Station Moon". Ancient Aliens. History Channel. S11, E11. "Hollow Moon". Solar System Exploration Research Virtual ... Hollow Moon that rings like a bell put into orbit by ancient ALIENS', shock theory claims". The Daily Express. 23 February 2017 ... It is often called the Spaceship Moon hypothesis, and often corresponds with beliefs in UFOs or ancient astronauts. The ... N. Kollerstrom (1992). "The Hollow World of Edmond Halley". Journal for the History of Astronomy. 23 (3): 185-92. Bibcode: ...
Ancient history. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-15403-1. Meyendorff, John (1989). Imperial unity and Christian ... J. B. Bury, History of the Later Roman Empire, vol. i, ch. 10 (1923). Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, ... Bury, John Bagnell (1958). History of the Later Roman Empire: from the death of Theodosius I to the death of Justinian. Dover ... Bury, John Bagnell (1958). History of the Later Roman Empire: from the death of Theodosius I to the death of Justinian. Dover ...
Ancient History. Paris. White, E.G. (1907). The Great Controversy between Christ and Satan. Mountain View, California: Pacific ... Gaussen's reading of Rollin's "Ancient History" and a belief that the prophecies in the second Book of Daniel had been ...
"Machines of the East". Ancient Discoveries. Season 3. Episode 10. History Channel. Retrieved 2008-09-07. Howard R. Turner (1997 ... Domino computer Billiard-ball computer Mechanical calculator History of computing hardware List of pioneers in computer science ...
Manguin, Pierre-Yves (2001). Miksic, John (ed.). Ancient History. Indonesian Heritage. Singapore: Archipelago Press. ISBN ... a few layers of ancient brick wall, and possibly one ancient canal. So far, archaeologists has found nothing in the site that ... Remnants of ancient man-made canals, moats, ponds and artificial islands discovered in this area suggests the site was related ... The archaeological park also hosts the Srivijaya Museum, which serves as the information center of Srivijayan history and sites ...
Food portal Drink portal History portal Food history History of breakfast List of ancient dishes List of food and beverage ... "Sushi History".[self-published source] "The History of SUSHI". Archived from the original on 2012-06-09.[self-published source ... Earliest archaeological evidence for leavened bread is from ancient Egypt. The extent to which bread was leavened in ancient ... History of Cheese. [1] accessed 2007/06/10 In NBC 11196 (5 NT 24, dated Shu-Sin 6), the 'abra's of Dumuzi, Ninkasi, and I'kur ...
Ancient History) Cate Wolfe - The Human Commander (Moving House) , Carol (The Outsourcing) Eryn Saunders - (The Last Hunt) , ( ... Ancient History , The Retirement of Horatio Gray Kyle Threlfo - Sense & Susceptibility Michael F Cahill - Sense & ... Ancient History Andrew Waddington - Starship Australis , The Outsourcing , Sense & Susceptibility Anniene Stockton - Time of ...
Roman History. Dunstan, William (2010). Ancient Rome. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 0-7425-6834-2. Fields, Nic (2010 ... Cassius Dio's Roman History, Book XXXVIII, 10 In both of these instances, a failed retreat by Hybrida and his cavalry led to ... The ancient Roman historian Cassius Dio narrates the events thus: The latter, while governor of Macedonia, had inflicted many ... Dunstan, William (2010). Ancient Rome. Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. p. 163. ISBN 0-7425-6834-2. Dunstan, William (2010). ...
Rasanayagam, C. (1984). Ancient Jaffna (PDF). Asian Educational Services. pp. 82-83. Rasanayagam, C. (1984). Ancient Jaffna ( ... "History". Department of Irrigation, Sri Lanka.. ... Rajanayagam in his book Ancient Jaffna suggests that the tank ... Parker, Henry (1999). Ancient Ceylon. Asian Educational Services. pp. 247-248. Arumugam, S. (1969). Water Resources of Ceylon ( ...
BRADLEY, MARK (June 2009). "The Importance of Colour on Ancient Marble Sculpture". Art History. 32 (3): 427-457. doi:10.1111/j. ... "The Importance of Colour on Ancient Marble Sculpture". Art History. 32 (3): 427-457. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8365.2009.00666.x. ISSN ... Janson, H.W. (1995) History of Art. 5th edn. Revised and expanded by Anthony F. Janson. London: Thames & Hudson, p. 191. ISBN ... Vincenz Brinkmann of Munich researched the use of color on ancient sculpture in the 1980s using ultraviolet rays to find traces ...
1999). Ancient History. Indonesian Heritage Series. Vol 1. Archipelago Press / Editions Didier Millet. ISBN 9813018267. ,volume ... A Short History of Majapahit Memoirs of Majapahit Kingdom A brief history of Majapahit A Complete Transcription of Majapahit ... 34 G.J. Resink, Indonesia's History Between the Myths: Essays in Legal History and Historical Theory (The Hague: W. van Hoeve, ... In ancient Java, it is common to refer the kingdom with its capital's name. Majapahit (sometimes also spelled Mojopait) is also ...
"Classics and Ancient History at University of Exeter - UCAS". Retrieved 2018-06-14. "Classics Sixth-form ... In 1998 Mitchell was appointed as lecturer in Classics and Ancient History at the University of Exeter becoming associate ... "Professor Lynette Mitchell , Classics and Ancient History , University of Exeter". Retrieved 2018-06- ... "Greeks bearing gifts public use private relationships greek world 435323 bc , Ancient history". Cambridge University Press. ...
"Ancient History". Georgia Tech Glee Club. Retrieved 2009-07-18.[dead link] Georgia Tech Glee Club Engineers Are People Too! on ... The Georgia Tech Glee Club has a long history of performing around the world. In the years immediately following World War II, ... Johnson, Rusty (2000-02-25). "Campus music programs have storied history". The Technique. Retrieved 2007-03-17.[permanent dead ...
Optics has had a very long and full history, from ancient Greece, through the renaissance and modern times. As with optics, ... acoustics has a history of similar duration, again starting with the ancient Greeks. In contrast, the acousto-optic effect has ... Ancient History". Archived from the original on 2007-05-12. Retrieved 2007-08-07. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The ... History of Acoustics". Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-07. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link ...
"GIMP - Prehistory - before GIMP 0.54". GIMP history. Peter Mattis. 29 July 1995. Retrieved 2 July 2009. "ancient history". gimp ... Adjustment Layers and History - are either less powerful or missing in GIMP. Cardinal favorably described the UFRaw converter ...
Wiener, James Blake (26 March 2013). "Polynesians in California: Evidence for an Ancient Exchange?". Ancient History. Retrieved ... Partially intact tomols have been found in ancient Channel Islands middens along with dolphin bones, seal and fish bones, and ... The Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, the Santa Barbara Maritime Museum, and The Chumash Maritime Association of ...
Ancient Worlds. Archived from the original on 21 February 2013. "Shropshire Deserted Villages: Lai". Shropshire History. 2012. ... "A Brief History of Andover, Hampshire, England". "Parishes: Andover with Foxcott". A History of the County of Hampshire: Volume ... "The Council, Siege and Rout of Winchester". Events in History. Britannia Internet Magazine. 1999. Archived from the original on ... Robert J. Tarr (1999). "Domesday & Middle Ages". The History of English Wine. Coventry and Cornwall, England. Archived from the ...
"NYPD History". Archived from the original on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 22 March 2012. Thorpe, Nick; James, Peter (1995). Ancient ... known as far back as ancient Egypt. It consists of little more than a long cylinder with a molded, turned or wrapped grip, ...
"Vestal Virgin". Ancient History. Beryl Rawson, "The Roman Family in Italy" (Oxford University Press, 1999), p. 21. Judith P. ... Ancient Roman law required brides to be at least 12 years old, a standard adopted by Roman Catholic canon law. In ancient Roman ... In ancient times the husband paid a mohar. Genesis 34:12 In ancient times there were Israelite women who were Judge, Queen ... Isaiah 8:3 There is a widely held expectation, which has existed for most of recorded history and in most cultures, that a wife ...
Robinson, J.; Francis Young (1873). Ancient History. p. 493. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Trombley, Frank R. (2001 ...
Writing history[edit]. Rothfuss wrote The Name of the Wind during his nine-year advance toward his B.A. in English. He drew ... Kvothe's father, the famous bard Arliden, starts composing what was to be the greatest of his works-a ballad of the ancient ...
Reading Benedict/reading Mead: feminism, race, and imperial visions - New studies in American intellectual and cultural history ... She describes how, in ancient Greece, the worshipers of Apollo emphasized order and calm in their celebrations. ... Totems and Teachers: Key Figures in the History of Anthropology. Rowman Altamira p. 118 ... Histories of Anthropology Annual, vol. 2. University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-6663-4 ...
Geological history[edit]. The history of the River Vistula and its valley spans over 2 million years. The river is connected to ... Other ancient sources spell it Istula. Ammianus Marcellinus refers to the Bisula (Book 22). Jordanes (Getica 5 & 17) uses ... History of floods on the River Vistula History of floods on the River Vistula (Hydrological Sciences Journal) ... Auschwitz-Birkenau: History & Overview Jewish Virtual Library *^ a b "Warsaw Uprising of 1944". ...
Saints & Sinners: A History of the Popes. Yale University Press.. *. Lauryssens, Stan (1999). The Man Who Invented the Third ... The concept of "property" began to replace more ancient forms of jurisdiction, although they were still very much tied together ... Germany: A Complete History (Gotham Books, New York, 1985). *Evans, R.J.W., and Peter H. Wilson, eds. The Holy Roman Empire ... Taylor, Bayard; Hansen-Taylor, Marie (1894). A history of Germany from the earliest times to the present day. New York: D. ...
History[edit]. DeBakey High School for Health Professions in Houston, Texas is a magnet school specializing in medical sciences ... a b Lange, C. M. & Sletten, S. J. (2002, February). Alternative education: A brief history and research synthesis (Project ... Magnet Schools of America (2007). Magnet schools in America: A brief history. Retrieved February 20, 2009, Archived ... Ancient higher-learning institutions *Platonic Academy. *Lyceum. *Monastic schools. *Cathedral schools. *Medieval universities ...
The Real History of the Rosicrucians, by Arthur Edward Waite, [1887], *^ Daniel Garber; Michael Ayers (2003). The Cambridge ... While he followed Paracelsus in his medical views rather than the ancient authorities, he was also a believer that real wisdom ... Daniel Garber; Michael Ayers (2003). The Cambridge History of Seventeenth-Century Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. pp. ... It referred favourably to the role played by the Illuminati and it featured a convoluted manufactured history dating back to ...
History. Main article: History of alternative medicine. The history of alternative medicine may refer to the history of a group ... "Ayurveda: Ancient Superstition, Not Ancient Wisdom". Skeptical Inquirer. Retrieved 1 February 2018 ... a b c d Countercultural Healing: A brief History of Alternavie Medicine in America, James Whorton, PBS, November 4, 2003, [2] ... a b c d Quack Medicine: A History of Combating Health Fraud in Twentieth-Century America, Eric W. Boyle, [1] ...
The genus name Hydropotes derives from the two ancient greek words ὕδωρ (húdōr), meaning "water", and ποτής (potḗs), meaning " ...
Ancient basaltic lava flows gave birth to much of the region. However, the time of dramatic geophysical activity is long past, ... History. *Timeline of Brazilian history. *Indigenous peoples. *Portuguese Colony (1500-1815). *United Kingdom (1815-1822) ...
An article on the ancient and recent history of the Marsh Arabs at Laputan Logic (Part II) ... As well as documenting the traditional way of life of the Marsh Arabs, it also made comparisons with ancient Sumerian cultural ... Many scholars have proposed historical and genetic links between the Marsh Arabs and the ancient Sumerians based on shared ... Rory Stewart observed that throughout history, the Maʻdān were the pawn of many rulers and became expert dissimulators. The ...
talk , contribs)‎ (/y/ in 5th BC Attic (see Ancient Greek phonology#Monophthongs)) ...
Ancient soils possess physical and chemical attributes that render them capable of generating and supporting life abundance. It ... the natural farming mindset itself has a long history throughout the world, spanning from historical Native American practices ...
"History of Product Names & Trademarks: Arm & Hammer Baking Soda".. *^ "The Straight Dope: Did tycoon Armand Hammer have ... The logo of this brand depicts the ancient symbol of a muscular arm holding a hammer inside a red circle with the brand name ...
... because in this sacred and ancient land it was given as a charge to the Aryan race to preserve through the ages.. But it is not ... Skinner, Debra; Pach III, Alfred; Holland, Dorothy (1998). Selves in Time and Place: Identities, Experience, and History in ... An Atlas and Survey of South Asian History. M.E.Sharpe. p. 54. ISBN 9780765637574. .. ... Mahajan, Vidya Dhar and Savitri Mahajan (1971). Constitutional history of India, including the nationalist movement (6th ed.). ...
This French history-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... "The post-autistic economics movement: a brief history" (PDF). Journal of Australian Political Economy (50): 14-23. Archived ...
History and origin[edit]. Ancient roots[edit]. Although it is not clear whether Proto-Indo-Iranians celebrated a feast as the ... Zoroastrian practices were dominant for much of the history of ancient Iran. In Zoroastrianism, the seven most important ... a b A History of Zoroastrianism: Under the Achaemenians By Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet Published by BRILL, 1982 ISBN 90-04-06506- ... "April Fools' Day in Iran - Origin and History of Sizdah Bedar in Iran - Sizdah Bedar Date Iran". Retrieved 20 ...
History[edit]. One of the oldest legal charters written in Galician, the constitutional charter of the Bo Burgo (Good Burg) of ... including the forgery of allegedly mediaeval scriptures or chronicles under diverse pretensions-usually to show the ancient ... Other genres include history books (either translation of Spanish ones, or original creations like the Chronicle of St. Mary of ... history, evolution, lexicon, etymology, onomastics). His Elementos etimológicos segun el método de Euclides (1766), written in ...
1 History *1.1 Ancient language of Bengal. *1.2 Emergence of Bengali. *1.3 Middle Bengali ... Ancient language of Bengal[edit]. Sanskrit was spoken in Bengal since the first millennium BCE. During the Gupta Empire, Bengal ... "History of Bengali (Banglar itihash)". Bengal Telecommunication and Electric Company. Retrieved 2006-11-20.. ... Bengali literature, with its millennium-old history and folk heritage, has extensively developed since the Bengali renaissance ...
HistoryEdit. In 1787, Swedish part-time chemist Carl Axel Arrhenius found a heavy black rock near the Swedish village of ... he named it from the Ancient Greek λανθάνειν [lanthanein] (lit. to lie hidden).[14] Relatively pure lanthanum metal was first ... Coplen, Tyler B.; Peiser, H. S. (1998). "History of the Recommended Atomic-Weight Values from 1882 to 1997: A Comparison of ...
... branching veins appear to be plesiomorphic and in some form were present in ancient seed plants as long as 250 million years ... Evolutionary history of leaves. *Evolutionary development of leaves *Leaf Area Index. *Leaf protein concentrate ...
Kulke, Herman (2004). History of India. Routledge. p. 4.. *^ a b c BBC, UK website. "Earliest writing found". BBC News. ... The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in ... History[edit]. Map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa was the center of one of the core ... Beck, Roger B. (1999). World History: Patterns of Interaction. Evanston, IL: McDougal Littell. ISBN 978-0-395-87274-1. .. ...
Sacred trees and groves are mentioned throughout the history of the ancient Germanic peoples, from their earliest attestations ... From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic: A Linguistic History of English, 1. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199284139 ... Ancient Frisia According to Roman senator Tacitus in his first century CE work Annals, the Frisians dismembered 900 Roman ... Notable examples of sacred trees and groves in the historical record among the ancient Germanic peoples include the following: ...
Friedrich Max Müller (1860). A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature So Far as it Illustrates the Primitive Religion of the ... ISBN 978-0-7923-5556-4. Friedrich Max Müller (1860). A History of Ancient Sanskrit Literature So Far as it Illustrates the ... The character of Vedangas has roots in ancient times, and the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad mentions it as an integral part of the ... English translation: History of Indian Literature, Motilal Barnarsidass, Delhi, 1985, Vol I - III Annette Wilke; Oliver Moebus ...
"The Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History: 231-248.. *^ Anonymous (1937). Proceedings of the Royal Society of ... Dalby, Andrew (15 April 2013). Food in the Ancient World from A to Z. Routledge. ISBN 9781135954222. .. ... Piggott, Stuart; Thirsk, Joan (2 April 1981). The Agrarian History of England and Wales: Volume 1, Part 1, Prehistory. CUP ... Since ancient times, the mallard has been eaten as food. The wild mallard was eaten in Neolithic Greece.[134] Usually, only the ...
" Retrieved 2017-01-08.. *^ Burnham, R. (2000). Great Comets. Cambridge University Press. p. 127. ISBN ... Sitchin, Z. (2002). Genesis Revisited: Is Modern Science Catching Up With Ancient Knowledge?. Inner Traditions/Bear. ISBN ...
"stalking the ancient dog" (PDF). Science news. Retrieved 2008-01-03.. *^ Felipe Fernandez Armesto (2003). Ideas that changed ... McClellan (2006). Science and Technology in World History: An Introduction. Baltimore: JHU Press. ISBN 0-8018-8360-1.. Pages 6- ... Lubbock, John (2005) [1872]. "4". Pre-Historic Times, as Illustrated by Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern ... Van Andel, Tjeerd H. (1994). New Views on an Old Planet: A History of Global Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp ...
a b K. Mills, W. B. Taylor & S. L. Graham (eds), Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History, 'The Aztec Stone of the Five ... It was adopted by 20th century Western historians from ancient Indian political discourse as a means of avoiding the term ' ... K. Mills, W. B. Taylor & S. L. Graham (eds), Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History, 'The Aztec Stone of the Five Eras ... K. Mills, W. B. Taylor & S. L. Graham (eds), Colonial Latin America: A Documentary History, 'The Aztec Stone of the Five Eras ...
Publishing, DK (15 September 2015). Queen Elizabeth II and the Royal Family: A Glorious Illustrated History. DK Publishing. p. ... The Duke is a capable golfer, playing off a low single-figure handicap.[106] He was Captain of the Royal and Ancient Golf Club ... "St George's Chapel , History , Orders of Chivalry". St George's Chapel. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008. Retrieved ... history, economics, and political science. He did not go to university but instead entered the Britannia Royal Naval College at ...
The oral history of the Native American Sioux tribe includes reference to women who experience nosebleeds as a result of a ...
History of sex-separated toilets[edit]. Theories of historical origins[edit]. There are competing theories regarding how and ... Ancient evidence, including art-work, confirms widespread use of sex-separation (or sex segregation), especially in multi-use ... "The Weird History of Gender-Segregated Bathroomswork=Live Science". Retrieved April 23, 2017.. ... A publication in 2018 argued that the scholarship on the history of sex-separation is flawed and places too much emphasis on ...
... history at Curlie Ancient History - Academic Info: directory of online resources for the study of ancient history. Ancient ... Classical Outline of ancient history Outline of ancient China Outline of ancient Egypt Outline of ancient India Outline of ... Ancient history covers all continents inhabited by humans in the period 3000 BC - AD 500. The broad term "ancient history" is ... In the history of technology and ancient science during the growth of the ancient civilizations, ancient technological advances ...
Maritime history dates back thousands of years. In ancient maritime history, evidence of maritime trade between civilizations ... In ancient history, various vessels were used for coastal fishing and travel. A mesolithic boatyard has been found from the ... Sea Routes of Commerce: An Outline of Maritime History in Ancient and Medieval Times, with Four Map. Stratford Company, 1925 ... Many in ancient western societies, such as Ancient Greece, were in awe of the seas and deified them, believing that man no ...
Ancient China. Shang Dynasty. The Shang Dynasty is the earliest ruling dynasty of China to be established in recorded history, ... Ancient China. The Art of War. "The art of war is of vital importance to the state. It is a matter of life and death, a road ... Ancient China. Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty ruled China from 206 B.C. to 220 A.D. and was the second imperial dynasty of China ... Ancient Middle East. Silk Road. The Silk Road was a network of trade routes connecting China and the Far East with the Middle ...
Infoplease knows the value of having sources you can trust. Infoplease is a reference and learning site, combining the contents of an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an atlas and several almanacs loaded with facts. Our editors update and regularly refine this enormous body of information to bring you reliable information ...
... near the ancient city of Persepolis, to explore Irans growing tourism business. ... Exploring Irans ancient history. CNNs Fred Pleitgen visits the Iranian city of Shiraz, near the ancient city of Persepolis, ... Exploring Irans ancient history. CNNs Fred Pleitgen visits the Iranian city of Shiraz, near the ancient city of Persepolis, ...
Some Rights Reserved (2009-2015) by Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited, a non-profit organization registered in the UK. ... In Ancient Egypt, the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BCE.. The Aegean Bronze Age begins around 3000 BC ... Thera is the ancient name for both the island of Santorini in the Greek Cyclades and the name of the volcano which famously ... Ancient Argos was built on two hills: Aspis and Larissa, 80 m and 289 m in height respectively. Argos, along with Mycenae and ...
Ancient history has helped me better understand the difference between fundamental and incremental change in our own age, and ... that has led me to better focus my companys investment decisions.My interest in ancient ... By Keith Roberts Knowledge of history can be of real practical use, even in business. ... Knowledge of history can be of real practical use, even in business. Ancient history has helped me better understand the ...
ANCIENT HISTORY REVIVED. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ... ANCIENT HISTORY REVIVED.. APRIL 20, 1881. Continue reading the ... The New-York Tribune is amusing itself with the publication of a file of ancient letters and reports taken from the rebel ... With delicious simplicity, it assures its readers that these stale contributions to contemporaneous history "have never before ...
For almost 30 centuries-from its unification around 3100 B.C. to its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.-ancient Egypt ... Ancient Rome. Beginning in the eighth century B.C., Ancient Rome grew from a small town on central Italys Tiber River into an ... Ancient Greece. The term Ancient, or Archaic, Greece refers to the years 700-480 B.C., not the Classical Age (480-323 B.C.) ... Sevens Wonders of the Ancient World. The amazing works of art and architecture known as the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World ...
This course covers the full range of ancient history, literature, language, archaeology, art and culture in an established ... economic history and the history of religions.. We have particular strengths in Roman history and archaeology, and long- ... Our programmes cover ancient history, literature, language, archaeology, art and culture in a thriving Department of Classics ... We are a world-leading centre for the study of ancient languages (Latin and Greek of all periods and Egyptian), and for ...
Source photographs: ClassicStock/Alamy; © Declan Haun/Chicago History Museum/Getty Images; © David Turnley/Corbis/Getty Images ...
Essays from BookRags provide great ideas for Ancient history essays and paper topics like Essay. View this student essay about ... Ancient River Valley Civilizations. Summary: Ancient River Valley civilizations developed around river valleys, but they are ... Ancient River Valley civilizations developed around river valleys, but they are all different. Two of them are in China and ... Ancient River Valley Civilizations from BookRags. (c)2017 BookRags, Inc. All rights reserved. ...
An ancient Roman law stated that a baby must be surgically removed from its mothers womb if she died in childbirth or just ... Ancient Greeks believed the sun god Apollo ripped his son Asclepius from his dying mothers belly. ...
Ancient admixture in human history.. Patterson N1, Moorjani P, Luo Y, Mallick S, Rohland N, Zhan Y, Genschoreck T, Webster T, ... To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The ... This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, ... consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean "Iceman." ...
Classics and Ancient History MA. Top Classics and Ancient History MA. Classics and Ancient History MA. Full time: 12 months, ... If you want to specialise in ancient history, you will focus on the histories, societies and cultures of Archaic and Classical ... Based in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, classics and ancient history at Newcastle has a long and ... CAC8106 Independent Study Project in Classics and Ancient History 1. *CAC8107 Independent Study Project in Classics and Ancient ...
LOST KING OF THE MAYA - NOVA - Discovery History Science Ancient Archaeology (full documentary) National Geographic Documentary ... LOST KING OF THE MAYA - NOVA - Discovery History Science Ancient Archaeology (full documen ... Byblos known for being one of the oldest city in the world, more than 7000 years of history , 12 layers of history and ... Best of Documentary 2014 2015 Ancient Babylon Secrets Of The Ancients Babylon ...
With a broad and rich understanding of ancient times, we can better understand who we are today and where we are going in the ... Ancient history Society, history and languages With a broad and rich understanding of ancient times, we can better understand ... Study ancient history at Macquarie Macquarie Universitys ancient history program is the longest-running of its kind in ... Macquaries world-leading ancient history courses allow you to immerse yourself in the culture and languages of the ancient ...
Classics and Ancient History MPhil, PhD. Classics and Ancient History MPhil, PhD. MPhil - full time: minimum 12 months, part ... Classics and Ancient History MA. Our Classics and Ancient History MA will build and expand on your previous studies. It enables ... Ancient history and classical archaeology. *the history and archaeology of pre-Roman and Roman Italy ... Classics and Ancient History at Newcastle has a long and distinguished international reputation. We deliver quality research ...
Read about Nicks dissertation, Can the understanding of Iron Age peoples perception of space help us understand the location of Burrough Hill?
Introduction: Athenian history and society in the Age of Pericles L. J. Samons. 1. Democracy and empire P. J. Rhodes. 2. ... Although it is no longer fashionable to view Periclean Athens as a social or cultural paradigm, study of the history, society, ... 9. Platos sophists, intellectual history after 450, and Sokrates Robert W. Wallace. 10. Democratic theory and practice R. ... art, and literature of mid-fifth-century Athens remains central to any understanding of Greek history. This collection of ...
Ancient DNA reveals Europes dynamic genetic history. ^ , 6 hours ago Posted on 04/23/2013 5:49:47 PM PDT by BenLurkin ... Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7500 years old... major migrations from both Western ... Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7500 years old has been used to reconstruct the first ... I dont know how many of you study history from the bible, but this goes right along with it. Noahs flood was to have occured ...
Doing Ancient History at Penn. Ancient History is a discipline that draws on literary, documentary, visual, archaeological, and ... The Graduate Group in Ancient History also hosts an annual Hyde Visiting Lecturer: a distinguished scholar of the ancient world ... and thought-worlds of ancient societies. Faculty members of the Graduate Group in Ancient History come together from a range of ... Students in the Graduate Group in Ancient History are encouraged to pursue their studies in an explicitly and self-consciously ...
A History of Ancient Egypt. A History of Ancient Egypt Sweepstakes! Sweepstakes Thu Aug 29, 2013 3:30pm ... The ancient world comes to life in A History of Ancient Egypt, the first volume in a two book series on the history of Egypt, ... A History of Ancient Egypt (Excerpt) John Romer Fri Aug 23, 2013 4:00pm ... Famed archaeologist John Romer draws on a lifetime of research to tell one historys greatest stories; how, over more than a ...
Ancient History. Posted on December 31, 2010 by woit Sometime around now is the tenth anniversary of my first foray into the ...
Classics and Ancient History. Teacher Professor Daniel Ogden. Prof. of Anc. History, Exeter, Classics and Ancient History. ... Research interests: Ancient Egypt; socio-economic history. Teacher Dr. John C. Richards. Sen. Lecturer in History of Art, ... Research interests: Greek social history. Teacher Dr. Elena Isayev. Exeter, Classics and Ancient History. Research interests: ... of Classics, Exeter, Classics and Ancient History. Research interests: Roman republican history and mythology. Teacher ...
Evolutionary history of ancient mammalian uricases. James T. Kratzer, Miguel A. Lanaspa, Michael N. Murphy, Christina Cicerchi ... Evolutionary history of ancient mammalian uricases. James T. Kratzer, Miguel A. Lanaspa, Michael N. Murphy, Christina Cicerchi ... Evolutionary history and metabolic insights of ancient mammalian uricases Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Evolutionary history and metabolic insights of ancient mammalian uricases. James T. Kratzer, Miguel A. Lanaspa, Michael N. ...
Kids History Books at Barnes & Noble®. Shop now & receive FREE Shipping on orders $25 & up! ... Ancient Civilizations (DK Eyewitness Books Series) The most trusted nonfiction series on the market, Eyewitness Books provide ... Ancient Civilizations (DK Eyewitness Books Series) The most trusted nonfiction series on the market, Eyewitness Books provide ... Whats hiding there? This charming novelty book, created with the experts at the American Museum of Natural History, is an ...
In A History of the Jewish War Steve Mason has produced, on the basis of his magisterial familiarity with the writings of ... 3. Parthian saviours, sieges, and morale: ancient warfare in human perspective. Part II. Investigations:. 4. Why did they do it ... Steven Mason is Distinguished Professor of Ancient Mediterranean Religions and Cultures in the Faculty of Theology and ... The Topography, Economics and History from the Earliest Times to AD 70 ...
Stephen Batchelor is a lecturer in Ancient History and Classical Studies. He writes reviews for History Today and Current ... The history of Ancient Greece remains a wide topic of interest, particularly renowned for its influential and diverse culture ... Steve Batchelor is a lecturer in Classics at Richmond College and has been teaching ancient history for 10 years. He has ... It offers a complete rundown of Greek history alongside fascinating insights into daily life in Ancient Greece and a ...
Topics of current research by postgraduate students in the Department of Classics and Ancient History at the University of ... Department of Classics and Ancient History, Humanities Building, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL Faculty of Arts ... Charlotte Mann (Ancient Visual and Material Culture, distinction). *Giles Penman (Ancient Visual and Material Culture, ... joint Classics/Ancient History + Centre for Renaissance Studies). *Ersin Hussein (2014) Power and Identity in Roman Cyprus. ...
  • History is fundamentally the study of the past, and can be either scientific (archaeology, with the examination of physical evidence) or humanistic (the study of history through texts, poetry, and linguistics). (
  • Historians have two major ways of understanding the ancient world: archaeology and the study of source texts. (
  • Our programmes cover ancient history, literature, language, archaeology, art and culture in a thriving Department of Classics with an international reputation. (
  • We have particular strengths in Roman history and archaeology, and long-standing links with the British School at Rome and Ca' Foscari University of Venice. (
  • The highly flexible course offers you the opportunity to study a wide range of topics reflecting the research specialisms of our staff across ancient history, classics and archaeology, including Byzantine studies, whilst developing your own research interests and professional skills . (
  • Based in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology , classics and ancient history at Newcastle has a long and distinguished reputation for its research and teaching. (
  • Latin and Greek have been taught here since 1874 and ancient history and classical archaeology since 1910 and 1931 respectively. (
  • As a student in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology , you will benefit from the provision of computing facilities in our dedicated postgraduate computer room together with a newly refurbished reading room. (
  • You take optional modules to the value of 20 credits from a list of modules in Semester 1 and another in Semester 2, offered within the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, subject to the approval of the Degree Programme Director. (
  • We have strong links with related disciplines such as history, archaeology and modern languages. (
  • We have taught Ancient History since 1910 and Classical Archaeology since 1931. (
  • There is a lively research culture in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology . (
  • Financial support is available from the School of History, Classics and Archaeology . (
  • I chose Newcastle primarily because of the interdisciplinary nature of the department of History, Classics and Archaeology. (
  • You will have access to the School of History, Classics and Archaeology postgraduate suite. (
  • Anthropology , Classical Studies , History of Art , Religious Studies , History , the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology , and Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations . (
  • He writes reviews for History Today and Current Archaeology . (
  • Some of these units may be offered in collaboration with other departments, such as History or Archaeology and Anthropology. (
  • Classics is one of the most varied and interdisciplinary of all subjects and can include literature, history, philosophy, art and archaeology. (
  • Over the four years you will develop a broad understanding of the ancient and medieval worlds through an analysis of their art, architecture, archaeology, culture and history. (
  • In Ancient Egypt , the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BCE. (
  • For almost 30 centuries-from its unification around 3100 B.C. to its conquest by Alexander the Great in 332 B.C.-ancient Egypt was the preeminent civilization in the Mediterranean world. (
  • The main sources of information about ancient Egypt are the many monuments, objects and artifacts that have been recovered from archaeological sites, covered with hieroglyphs that have only recently been deciphered. (
  • King Menes founded the capital of ancient Egypt at White Walls (later known as Memphis), in the north, near the apex of the Nile River delta. (
  • The ancient world comes to life in A History of Ancient Egypt, the first volume in a two book series on the history of Egypt, spanning the first farmers to the construction of the pyramids. (
  • More than just an account of one of the most fascinating periods of history, this engrossing book asks readers to take a step back and question what they've learned about Egypt in the past. (
  • Medical practices in Ancient Egypt had a great impact on the medical practices that are used today, in fact, they were predestinates of those that we have today. (
  • This paper will give an extensive background into the details of medicine and medical practices of physicians and healers in Ancient Egypt, as well as compare some of those same practices with modern practices that we use in medicine during this time period. (
  • The way in which each individual was buried all depended on their social class and wealth and was a huge part of their everyday life for people living in ancient Egypt. (
  • The literature of ancient Egypt is less well known than its art and architecture but merits study as one of the earliest literary traditions. (
  • The reign of Tutankhamun was of major significance in the history of ancient Egypt. (
  • This was especially true in places with hot and dry climates, like parts of ancient Peru and Egypt. (
  • In Ancient Egypt, the treatment of illnesses was no longer carried out only by magicians and medicine men. (
  • Physicians lived even earlier in Ancient Egypt. (
  • When there was no obvious reason for an illness, many Ancient Egypt doctors and priests believed that disease was caused by spiritual beings. (
  • In ancient maritime history, evidence of maritime trade between civilizations dates back at least two millennia. (
  • This student essay consists of approximately 3 pages of analysis of Ancient River Valley Civilizations. (
  • Ancient River Valley civilizations developed around river valleys, but they are all different. (
  • The development of farming caused ancient people to give up their normal lifestyles and establish permanent settlements, which grew into civilizations. (
  • The Roman Republic is one of the most breathtaking civilizations in world history. (
  • - This book presents a clear, concise history of the extraordinarily multicultural civilizations of the ancient Near East. (
  • Professor James Davidson and Dr David Fearn from the Department of Classics and Ancient History discuss bards and their booze in this revealing podcast showing how drunken gangs on the streets of ancient Athens weren't too far removed from their twenty-first century counterparts. (
  • Full details of the program, its prerequisites and its relationship to other majors taught by the department may be found on the department's website at Department of Classics and Ancient History . (
  • The history of the ancient world is hugely significant for understanding subsequent periods of history and the origins of ideas and institutions of global significance. (
  • Along with Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA analyses, the team garnered hints about the origins and migration histories of the populations at hand by clustering the ancient individuals into five main groups based on genetic drift ascertained from autosomal variants. (
  • The earliest known systematic historical thought emerged in ancient Greece, beginning with Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484-c. 425 BC). (
  • The ancient Greek historian Herodotus estimated that it took 100,00 men 20 years to build it. (
  • Over the course of the module, you will be introduced to literary, material and visual evidence from Herodotus (484-425 BCE) to Procopius (500-560 CE), from buildings and monuments to art, coins and inscriptions, covering Greek, Roman and Byzantine history. (
  • If we do not act quickly to preserve these sites, the world may lose out on an opportunity to understand some of the earliest known and greatest secrets of ancient human civilization. (
  • These economic centers exemplify the economic might and wealth of the ancient civilization. (
  • The development of an extensive commercial network between neighboring Mayan city-states has recently has been accepted as a prime mechanism for economic growth in the ancient civilization. (
  • The ancient Maya were no exception, and at the pinnacle of the Mayan civilization (circa 800 AD) archaeological evidence suggests the Maya were involved in a commercial network that rivals contemporary world trade. (
  • In Childhood in History: Perceptions of Children in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds , Aasgaard, Horn, and Cojocaru bring together the groundbreaking work of nineteen leading scholars in order to advance interdisciplinary historical research into ideas about children and childhood in the premodern history of European civilization. (
  • Ancient Chinese Civilization. (
  • Some important discoveries by archaeologists studying ancient history include: The Egyptian pyramids: giant tombs built by the ancient Egyptians beginning about 2600 BC as the final resting places of their royalty. (
  • To the ancient Egyptians, the king was a godlike being, closely identified with the all-powerful god Horus. (
  • In the Archaic Period, as in all other periods, most ancient Egyptians were farmers living in small villages, and agriculture (largely wheat and barley) formed the economic base of the Egyptian state. (
  • 9. Punt (Pwene) The Land of Punt, also called Pwene by the ancient Egyptians, was an Egyptian trading partner known for producing and exporting gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory, slaves and wild animals, known from ancient Egyptian records of trade missions to this region. (
  • belief in the afterlife, the ancient Egyptians established funerary practices for each person who died, these practices varied depending on their social class and wealth. (
  • The Ancient Egyptians, like the Ancient Greeks and Romans , have provided modern historians with a great deal of knowledge and evidence about their attitude towards medicine and the medical knowledge that they had. (
  • It is from these documents that we know that the Ancient Egyptians still believed that the supernatural caused some disease. (
  • The Ancient Egyptians also had a god who would frighten away evil spirits - Bes. (
  • Despite this use of remedies that come from a lack of knowledge, the Ancient Egyptians also developed their knowledge as a result of education. (
  • Ancient papyrus inform us that the Ancient Egyptians were discovering things about how the human body worked and they knew that the heart, pulse rates, blood and air were important to the workings of the human body. (
  • This roughly coincides with the traditional date of the founding of Rome in 753 BC, the beginning of the history of ancient Rome, and the beginning of the Archaic period in Ancient Greece. (
  • If you are interested in classics , you will engage in advanced study of the literatures, languages and cultures of Ancient Greece and Rome. (
  • If you want to specialise in ancient history , you will focus on the histories, societies and cultures of Archaic and Classical Greece, Rome and the wider Mediterranean world. (
  • Most particularly, it is our strong conviction that the societies of Greece and Rome (the usual subject-matter of Ancient History) can and should fruitfully be compared with the societies of the Near East and elsewhere. (
  • Veils (and engagement rings, by the way) were par for the course all the way back in ancient Rome. (
  • Here, then, the inhabitants of the lower Nile had settled down, seeded the silty soil and begun to count out their years in harvests which in later centuries became so generous as to enable the building of the pyramids and finally, at ancient Egypt's ending, to supply the bread to feed Caesar's Rome. (
  • More specifically, the rule of the Han dynasty in Ancient China and the rule of Augustus in Rome. (
  • Ancient History at Bristol gives you the flexibility to combine core units on Greco-Roman culture with more specialised topics, such as Ecology and History in the Ancient World, the reception of Greece and Rome and the study of ancient languages. (
  • A survey of the social, cultural, intellectual, and political history of the ancient Roman world from the founding of Rome to the fall of the western empire. (
  • A major in Ancient History invites you into the worlds of ancient Greece and Rome, using their myths, images, inscriptions, artefacts, written history and literature as evidence. (
  • Ancient Greeks believed the sun god Apollo ripped his son Asclepius from his dying mother's belly. (
  • The civilisation of the Ancient Greeks has been immensely influential on the language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science and arts of Western culture. (
  • This entertaining guide introduces readers to the amazing world of the Ancient Greeks. (
  • Meeting the Ancient Greeks. (
  • Two papers published in the journal Nature on February 21, 2018, more than double the number of ancient humans whose DNA has been analyzed and published to 1,336 individuals - up from just 10 in 2014. (
  • During the time period of ancient history (starting roughly from 3000 BC), the world population was already exponentially increasing due to the Neolithic Revolution, which was in full progress. (
  • Most of what is known of the ancient world comes from the accounts of antiquity's own historians. (
  • Built for Khufu (or Cheops, in Greek), who ruled from 2589 to 2566 B.C., the pyramid was later named by classical historians as one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World . (
  • In addition to our strengths in established approaches to the ancient world, Classics at Reading has taken the lead in extending the boundaries of the subject to areas such as the reception of antiquity in the modern world, economic history and the history of religions. (
  • We are a world-leading centre for the study of ancient languages (Latin and Greek of all periods and Egyptian), and for papyrology, epigraphy, textual criticism and ancient linguistics. (
  • Our staff include scholars of outstanding international reputation, and our research covers all major aspects of the study of the ancient world. (
  • Macquarie's world-leading ancient history courses allow you to immerse yourself in the culture and languages of the ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern world, both on campus and at archaeological dig sites overseas. (
  • Additionally, the Center for Ancient Studies functions as an information hub for those interested in the study of the ancient world at Penn and neighboring institutions and annually sponsors conference events staged by graduate students as well as by faculty. (
  • The Graduate Group in Ancient History also hosts an annual Hyde Visiting Lecturer: a distinguished scholar of the ancient world who visits campus for a week to deliver a series of lectures and seminars, and meet one-on-one with students in the Group. (
  • These twin aims of interdisciplinarity and comparative engagement with the ancient world are facilitated by regular co-teaching of seminars among faculty, as well as encouragement and financial support for participation in activities such as study abroad, archaeological excavations, numismatics and papyrology summer schools. (
  • In A History of the Jewish War Steve Mason has produced, on the basis of his magisterial familiarity with the writings of Josephus and other contemporary sources, the Roman world, the nature of war and the historiography of war, and modern scholarly literature, and with an insistence upon the distinction between understanding sources and reconstructing human events, a highly readable and innovative history of an axial event of the first century. (
  • Annie Sharples: Disability in the Ancient World. (
  • When the ancient history of the world is described before the emergence of Christianity, there are two empires that dominate the conversation because of their innovation in economics, agriculture, technology, and most importantly in government: The Ancient Chinese and Roman empires. (
  • Now there's a powerful new approach for illuminating the world before the dawn of written history - reading the actual genetic code of our ancient ancestors. (
  • Professor Michael Scott shares five ways modern technology is helping us to expand the ancient world. (
  • Ancient history - modern lessons: Can a new wave of Classics scholars save the world? (
  • Professor Michael Scott wants to dispense with one of the greatest misnomers about the study of the ancient world - that it is a subject which is no longer relevant. (
  • Despite the strides we've made since diabetes was first described in ancient times, it still remains a major cause of death and health complications throughout the world. (
  • This article follows the birth of typography in the ancient world, its evolution and rebirth, and explains how it is growing and changing even still today. (
  • In the first two years you will take core units exploring the ancient Greek and Roman world, the sources of information available and the different approaches employed by modern scholars. (
  • A whole host of useful websites and resources relating to the study of the Ancient World. (
  • Use this website to find online collections of literary or historical texts, epigraphic resources, maps of the ancient world and much more. (
  • Ancient and Medieval History and Culture concentrates on the period c. 2000 B.C. to c. 1500 A.D. It explores the changes in society, politics, religious practices, and art and architecture that have helped to shape the world we live in. (
  • If you are curious about the past and about how history has shaped the world we live in then Ancient and Medieval History and Culture will appeal to you. (
  • Warfare, Politics and Gender were key issues of the ancient world, and have continued to be since. (
  • These threads have been woven into textiles since ancient times and have been used by cultures around the world. (
  • Now, a special exhibit that's on display at the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) in New York allows people to see 18 of those mummies in person, some of which have not been seen since Chicago's World Fair over 100 years ago. (
  • World History Timeline - World History TimeMap combines timelines and maps to navigate history. (
  • However, the nature of the ancient world continues to be highly debated due to the sources and evidence available to historians for understanding this period. (
  • This module looks at the societies and cultures of the ancient world through their written texts, visual art and material remains. (
  • The aim of this module is to introduce you to different types of sources in study of the ancient world, and how to approach and analyse them as historical sources. (
  • This module does not focus on one period or region within the ancient world, but emphasises and encourages exploration of the range and types of evidence available to ancient historians, how we can use them to learn about particular historical contexts, and responses to and representations of the ancient world within them. (
  • A major in Ancient History is designed to equip you to understand the historical and cultural importance of the Classical world and to evaluate its legacy. (
  • Units at this level will instil in you an advanced understanding of the cultures and history of the ancient world, with a focus on the Greco-Roman world, and of the methods used by historians to study them. (
  • Demonstrating an understanding of the cultures, literatures, peoples and ideas of the ancient past, you will identify and analyse historical data, working with a wide range of primary materials from the ancient world. (
  • At its first appearance in history there was nothing to for show the important part which Paris was to play in Europe and in the world. (
  • It takes place in ancient Mesopotamia somewhere very near to where the ancient Sumerians lived and where the Anunnaki supposedly "created" us. (
  • Delve into the stories, artefacts and cultures of ancient civilisations alongside academic researchers and industry professionals in Macquarie University's PACE program. (
  • The Museum of Ancient Cultures (MAC) is a leading museum which supports a range of museums, collections, art galleries, a sculpture park and herbarium. (
  • Nevertheless, the acquisition of a broad base of skills relevant to a student's field(s) of interest must be underpinned and sustained by a deep and intimate knowledge of the languages and the textual and intellectual cultures of the ancient society or societies in question. (
  • Steven Mason is Distinguished Professor of Ancient Mediterranean Religions and Cultures in the Faculty of Theology and Religious Studies at the University of Groningen. (
  • The research was performed at the University of Adelaide's Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD). (
  • Over the four years of the programme you will explore topics including the development of different systems of government (from democracy in ancient Greece to monarchy and empire in the Middle Ages), the formation of Europe, ancient and medieval belief systems and religious practices (from the pantheon of ancient deities to the dominance of Christianity), the development of the legal system, and the role of warfare in bringing about change. (
  • Ancient and Medieval History and Culture: The course for you? (
  • Ancient and Medieval History and Culture is a unique programme that brings together the disciplines of Classics, History and Art History to train you to work across traditional disciplinary boundaries. (
  • The programme in Ancient and Medieval History and Culture is unique in offering a focused study of antiquity and the Middle Ages. (
  • Ancient and Medieval History and Culture is a four-year honours degree programme. (
  • With this exciting and historically rich six-lecture course, experience for yourself the drama of this dynamic year in medieval history, centered on the landmark Norman Conquest. (
  • Medical Ethics, History of Europe: I. Ancient and Medieval. (
  • This survey of the history of medical ethics in medieval Europe will first examine the sparse evidence from the early Middle Ages , and then deal thematically with significant developments during the high and late Middle Ages. (
  • There are names from Greek and Roman history that you're no doubt familiar with, be they emperors, philosophers or physicians, but Bryson Arabus is probably not a character you've come across. (
  • In Ancient History, all students take two interdisciplinary modules that serve to give everyone a grounding in the central periods of Greek and Roman culture. (
  • The BA Ancient History and History offers the chance to study from the Greek and Roman worlds up until the 1960s. (
  • Review by Brent Ranalli Most histories of money are histories of coins, tokens. (
  • Dr Clare Rowan discusses the ancient coins, produced in Syracuse, that inspired the Spring/Summer 2013 catwalk show of the fashion house Dolce & Gabbana. (
  • What's the history behind these coins? (
  • Here is how a several centuries-old coin may rewrite a key chapter in the history of ancient India: In 1851, a hoard of gold coins issued by several kings from the Gupta dynasty was unearthed near the holy city of Varanasi, in northern India. (
  • Pankaj Tandon is a Boston University associate professor of economics by training and, by passion, a scholar of ancient coins-or numismatist. (
  • The ancient Maya achieved compelling and impressive socio-economic complexity during pre-conquest period. (
  • How did the ancient Maya attain such great affluence? (
  • At the time of the conquest, the ancient Maya occupied all of Belize, Guatemala, and the Yucatan Peninsula, parts of the Mexican states of Tabasco and Chiapas, and the western portion of Honduras and El Salvador. (
  • Economic stability was imperative for the success of ancient Maya city-states. (
  • Agriculture was a vital contributor to the economy in many ancient Maya communities. (
  • Also, many of the technological advances of the ancient Maya concern agriculture. (
  • Raised fields and extensive irrigation are but two examples of technological change accomplished by the ancient Maya, which increased output, thereby strengthening the economy. (
  • The availability of resources is so tightly connected to economics that scholars often use economic laws, such as supply and demand, when assessing ancient Maya commerce. (
  • Their neighbours were people like the Zapoteca, Huaxteca, Tolteca, Tlaxcalans, Mexica (Aztecs) these peoples were all contemporary with the ancient Maya. (
  • In fact, we think it is important to make a note of the history of the research of the ancient Maya. (
  • He wrote to Spain there are fine buildings here built before the birth of Christ , certainly, he was wrong because the buildings the ancient Maya had built there were built after the birth of Christ. (
  • This is when he destroyed the ancient Maya idols and all their books. (
  • The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000 years, beginning with the Sumerian cuneiform script, with the oldest coherent texts from about 2600 BC. (
  • You will learn the general principles, methods of inquiry and foundational concepts of Ancient History, and working with primary evidence in the form of texts, epigraphic and numismatic material and archaeological and material culture, develop a basic proficiency in the forms of critical analysis of historical data, and problem solving through asking historical questions. (
  • As part of the School of Histories and Humanities, you will be able to work with experts in the disciplines of Classics, History and Art History, joining a vibrant community of staff and students in this interdisciplinary programme. (
  • The term classical antiquity is often used to refer to Western history in the Ancient Mediterranean from the beginning of recorded Greek history in 776 BC (first Olympiad). (
  • The Bronze Age is the second part of the three-age system ( Stone Age , Bronze Age , and Iron Age) for classifying and studying prehistoric societies, particularly the ancient societies of the Mediterranean and Near East . (
  • The honours year can be the culmination of your study of Ancient History or a pathway to further research in our postgraduate program. (
  • Prior to joining Macquarie in 2007, Associate Professor McKechnie was a senior lecturer in Classics and Ancient History at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. (
  • Steve Batchelor is a lecturer in Classics at Richmond College and has been teaching ancient history for 10 years. (
  • Stephen Batchelor is a lecturer in Ancient History and Classical Studies. (
  • Offering Latin, Ancient Greek and Classical Civilisation at both GCSE and A Level, and Ancient History at A Level. (
  • We have applied evolutionary models to understand the history of primate uricases by resurrecting ancestral mammalian intermediates before the pseudogenization events of this gene family. (
  • We were also able to determine the 3D distribution of amino acid replacements as they accumulated during evolutionary history by crystallizing a mammalian uricase protein. (
  • Now a new study, led by researchers at the University of California, Riverside (UCR), reveals that the ancient deep ocean was not only devoid of oxygen but also rich in iron, a key biological nutrient for nearly a billion years longer than previously thought--right through a key evolutionary interval that culminated in the first rise of animals. (
  • To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. (
  • It offers a complete rundown of Greek history alongside fascinating insights into daily life in Ancient Greece and a captivating overview of Greek mythology. (
  • Scientists at the American Museum of Natural History have developed a new technique for sequencing the DNA found in ancient packrat middens, yielding new insights into Earth's ecological past and offering researchers a new way to study the impacts of climate change on local plant and animal communities. (
  • The volume gathers rich insights from fields as varied as pedagogy and medicine, and literature and history. (
  • Learn what the scrolls are, what they contain, and how the insights they offered into religious and ancient history came into focus. (
  • The study of the ancient cities of Harappa (Pakistan), Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan), and Lothal in India (South Asia). (
  • But the startling revelation from the ancient DNA was that the people moved, too - all the way to the Atlantic coast of Europe in the west to Mongolia in the east and India in the south. (
  • The Guptas, who ruled from the 4th to 6th centuries AD, ushered in the Golden Age of ancient India, a blossoming of the arts and sciences that produced the concept of zero, a heliocentric astronomy, and the Kama Sutra. (
  • The history of Disneyland reveals interesting and often charming aspects of the culture and life of the people of Disneyland. (
  • They include material culture and history, language and literature, philosophy and the history of science and medicine. (
  • Although it is no longer fashionable to view Periclean Athens as a social or cultural paradigm, study of the history, society, art, and literature of mid-fifth-century Athens remains central to any understanding of Greek history. (
  • As well as instigating itself as the birthplace of the Olympics, Ancient Greece is famous for its literature, philosophy, mythology and the beautiful architecture- to which thousands of tourists flock every year. (
  • I don't know how many of you study history from the bible, but this goes right along with it. (
  • For archeologists, these and other findings from the study of ancient DNA are "absolutely sort of mind-blowing," says archaeologist Barry Cunliffe, a professor emeritus at the University of Oxford. (
  • In History, you may choose a triple-module Special Subject, taught entirely through seminars, which involves close study of primary sources. (
  • one study , ancient Indians (circa 400-500 A.D.) were well aware of the condition, and had even identified two types of the condition. (
  • He then introduces relevant sub-topics including the ancient Chinese conception of moral education, pedagogy, the study of being a teacher, methods of reading, the imperial examination system, traditional colleges, and private schools. (
  • Our Classics and Ancient History MA will build and expand on your previous studies, enabling you to specialise in either classics or ancient history. (
  • An extra year of Ancient History allows students to specialise in a particular field and to write a major piece of research. (
  • Students in the Graduate Group in Ancient History are encouraged to pursue their studies in an explicitly and self-consciously interdisciplinary way. (
  • You will investigate the answers to historical and historiographical questions, applying the skills and knowledge of an ancient historical to issues encountered in an interdisciplinary context. (
  • Few people were capable of writing histories, as literacy was not widespread in almost any culture until long after the end of ancient history. (
  • NEW YORK (GenomeWeb) - An international team led by investigators in the US, Germany, and China has used ancient genome sequencing to garner clues about Europe's population history during the Ice Age, before farming became prevalent on the continent. (
  • The Craft of the Ancient Historian. (
  • You will deepen your disciplinary expertise in historical and historiographical methods of inquiry and understand the principles of the ancient historian. (
  • Second-year History modules tend to focus more on particular periods and events, and there are fewer survey courses. (
  • You then progress to 2000 and 3000 level units that treat particular themes or periods in detail and develop your skills in the discipline of history. (
  • Sacred Geometry, Numerology, and ancient science theory's. (
  • This book will have fulfilled its unifying and explicit goal if it provides an impetus to further research in social and intellectual history, and if it prompts both researchers and the interested wider public to ask new questions about the experiences of children, and to listen to their voices. (
  • Reidar Aasgaard is professor of intellectual history at the University of Oslo, Norway. (
  • Archaeologists excavate the ruins of ancient cities looking for clues as to how the people of the time period lived. (
  • NAZCA, Peru -- Emerging like a mirage in Peru's coastal desert, the massive figures of a hummingbird, monkey, lizard and other shapes carved into a rocky plain have baffled archaeologists for decades, surrendering only the faintest clues about their ancient purpose. (
  • Readers will discover how this ancient culture came to be the cornerstone of Western civilisation and the enormous influence it has had on our language, politics, education, philosophy, science, arts and sport. (
  • In one of the new papers, Reich and a cast of dozens of collaborators chart the spread of an ancient culture known by its stylized bell-shaped pots, the so-called Bell Beaker phenomenon. (
  • China enjoys a splendid ancient culture, which is inseparable from the role of cultural transmission played by the country's system of education. (
  • The best way to learn about the culture and lifestyle of the people of Disneyland is to get familiar with the enriching history of Disneyland. (
  • Science Recorder Archeologists find oldest tools ever made by ancient human ancestors Science Recorder The artifacts, which the team proposes to call Lomekwi technology, were clearly created by intentional flaking "and not the result of accidental. (
  • These sample lessons give students a way to quickly review the most popular topics in math , science , history , and more! (
  • Although the ending date of ancient history is disputed, some Western scholars use the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD (the most used), the closure of the Platonic Academy in 529 AD, the death of the emperor Justinian I in 565 AD, the coming of Islam, or the rise of Charlemagne as the end of ancient and Classical European history. (
  • This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean "Iceman. (
  • Newswise - Scientists once could reconstruct humanity's distant past only from the mute testimony of ancient settlements, bones, and artifacts. (
  • This review will examine the history of coca production, its toxicity profile, and its varied uses throughout the centuries. (