Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Ancient Lands: Geographical sites known to be extant in a remote period in the history of civilization, familiar as the names of ancient countries and empires.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Paleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.History of MedicineSiberia: A region, north-central Asia, largely in Russia. It extends from the Ural Mountains to the Pacific Ocean and from the Arctic Ocean to central Kazakhstan and the borders of China and Mongolia.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Palaeognathae: A superorder of large, mostly flightless birds, named for their distinctive PALATE morphology. It includes the orders Apterygiformes, Casuriiformes, Dinornithiformes, RHEIFORMES; STRUTHIONIFORMES and Tinamiformes.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.Gene Duplication: Processes occurring in various organisms by which new genes are copied. Gene duplication may result in a MULTIGENE FAMILY; supergenes or PSEUDOGENES.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Neanderthals: Common name for an extinct species of the Homo genus. Fossils have been found in Europe and Asia. Genetic evidence suggests that limited interbreeding with modern HUMANS (Homo sapiens) took place.HistoryHistory, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mammoths: An extinct genus of large mammals in the family Elephantidae that fed by grazing on low vegetation. Most died out at the end of the last ice age.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Greek World: A historical and cultural entity dispersed across a wide geographical area under the influence of Greek civilization, culture, and science. The Greek Empire extended from the Greek mainland and the Aegean islands from the 16th century B.C., to the Indus Valley in the 4th century under Alexander the Great, and to southern Italy and Sicily. Greek medicine began with Homeric and Aesculapian medicine and continued unbroken to Hippocrates (480-355 B.C.). The classic period of Greek medicine was 460-136 B.C. and the Graeco-Roman period, 156 B.C.-576 A.D. (From A. Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed; from F. H. Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Geological Phenomena: The inanimate matter of Earth, the structures and properties of this matter, and the processes that affect it.Vertebrates: Animals having a vertebral column, members of the phylum Chordata, subphylum Craniata comprising mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fishes.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Likelihood Functions: Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.Geology: The science of the earth and other celestial bodies and their history as recorded in the rocks. It includes the study of geologic processes of an area such as rock formations, weathering and erosion, and sedimentation. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Wolves: Any of several large carnivorous mammals of the family CANIDAE that usually hunt in packs.Literature: Writings having excellence of form or expression and expressing ideas of permanent or universal interest. The body of written works produced in a particular language, country, or age. (Webster, 3d ed)Funeral Rites: Those customs and ceremonies pertaining to the dead.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Evolution, Planetary: Creation and development of bodies within solar systems, includes study of early planetary geology.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.EuropeSynteny: The presence of two or more genetic loci on the same chromosome. Extensions of this original definition refer to the similarity in content and organization between chromosomes, of different species for example.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Byzantium: An ancient city, the site of modern Istanbul. From the 4th to 15th centuries the empire extended from southeastern Europe to western Asia, reaching its greatest extent under Justinian (527-565). By about 1000 A.D. it comprised the southern Balkans, Greece, Asia Minor, and parts of southern Italy. The capture of Constantinople in 1453 marked the formal end of the Byzantine Empire. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.AfricaReproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Genome, Mitochondrial: The genetic complement of MITOCHONDRIA as represented in their DNA.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Medicine, Ayurvedic: The traditional Hindu system of medicine which is based on customs, beliefs, and practices of the Hindu culture. Ayurveda means "the science of Life": veda - science, ayur - life.Gene Pool: The total genetic information possessed by the reproductive members of a POPULATION of sexually reproducing organisms.Choanoflagellata: An order of stalked, sessile, single-celled EUKARYOTES. They are considered the transitional link between the flagellated protozoa and the SPONGES, the most primitive metazoans.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.South AmericaHistory of NursingManuscripts, MedicalAngiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Chromosomes, Human, Y: The human male sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and none of the female gametes in humans.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Archaea: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and Eukarya), formerly called Archaebacteria under the taxon Bacteria, but now considered separate and distinct. They are characterized by: (1) the presence of characteristic tRNAs and ribosomal RNAs; (2) the absence of peptidoglycan cell walls; (3) the presence of ether-linked lipids built from branched-chain subunits; and (4) their occurrence in unusual habitats. While archaea resemble bacteria in morphology and genomic organization, they resemble eukarya in their method of genomic replication. The domain contains at least four kingdoms: CRENARCHAEOTA; EURYARCHAEOTA; NANOARCHAEOTA; and KORARCHAEOTA.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.Medicine in ArtEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Medicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.PaintingsExtraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Polyploidy: The chromosomal constitution of a cell containing multiples of the normal number of CHROMOSOMES; includes triploidy (symbol: 3N), tetraploidy (symbol: 4N), etc.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Middle East: The region of southwest Asia and northeastern Africa usually considered as extending from Libya on the west to Afghanistan on the east. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Eukaryotic Cells: Cells of the higher organisms, containing a true nucleus bounded by a nuclear membrane.Religious Philosophies: Sets of beliefs on the nature of the universe or Man.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Famous PersonsMicrosatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).GreeceHuman Migration: Periodic movement of human settlement from one geographical location to another.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Retroelements: Elements that are transcribed into RNA, reverse-transcribed into DNA and then inserted into a new site in the genome. Long terminal repeats (LTRs) similar to those from retroviruses are contained in retrotransposons and retrovirus-like elements. Retroposons, such as LONG INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS and SHORT INTERSPERSED NUCLEOTIDE ELEMENTS do not contain LTRs.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.MuseumsPolymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Elephants: Large mammals in the family Elephantidae, with columnar limbs, bulky bodies, and elongated snouts. They are the only surviving members of the PROBOSCIDEA MAMMALS.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Cultural Evolution: The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.Cytochromes b: Cytochromes of the b group that have alpha-band absorption of 563-564 nm. They occur as subunits in MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Rotifera: A class of minute animals of the phylum Aschelminthes.DNA, Chloroplast: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of CHLOROPLASTS.Crustacea: A large subphylum of mostly marine ARTHROPODS containing over 42,000 species. They include familiar arthropods such as lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE), crabs (BRACHYURA), shrimp (PENAEIDAE), and barnacles (THORACICA).Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Mediterranean Region: The MEDITERRANEAN SEA, the MEDITERRANEAN ISLANDS, and the countries bordering on the sea collectively.Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)PrimatesSequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Endogenous Retroviruses: Retroviruses that have integrated into the germline (PROVIRUSES) that have lost infectious capability but retained the capability to transpose.Central AmericaPseudogenes: Genes bearing close resemblance to known genes at different loci, but rendered non-functional by additions or deletions in structure that prevent normal transcription or translation. When lacking introns and containing a poly-A segment near the downstream end (as a result of reverse copying from processed nuclear RNA into double-stranded DNA), they are called processed genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.United StatesCross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Lemur: A genus of the family Lemuridae consisting of five species: L. catta (ring-tailed lemur), L. fulvus, L. macaco (acoumba or black lemur), L. mongoz (mongoose lemur), and L. variegatus (white lemur). Most members of this genus occur in forested areas on Madagascar and the Comoro Islands.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Far East: A geographic area of east and southeast Asia encompassing CHINA; HONG KONG; JAPAN; KOREA; MACAO; MONGOLIA; and TAIWAN.Genes, Mitochondrial: Genes that are located on the MITOCHONDRIAL DNA. Mitochondrial inheritance is often referred to as maternal inheritance but should be differentiated from maternal inheritance that is transmitted chromosomally.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.LizardsModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Gene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Gorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Americas: The general name for NORTH AMERICA; CENTRAL AMERICA; and SOUTH AMERICA unspecified or combined.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Prokaryotic Cells: Cells lacking a nuclear membrane so that the nuclear material is either scattered in the cytoplasm or collected in a nucleoid region.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Persia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Chordata, Nonvertebrate: A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla CEPHALOCHORDATA; UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Genealogy and HeraldryOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

The Ice Man's diet as reflected by the stable nitrogen and carbon isotopic composition of his hair. (1/1126)

Establishing the diets of ancient human populations is an integral component of most archaeological studies. Stable isotope analysis of well-preserved bone collagen is the most direct approach for a general assessment of paleodiet. However, this method has been limited by the scarcity of well-preserved skeletal materials for this type of destructive analysis. Hair is preserved in many burials, but is often overlooked as an alternative material for isotopic analysis. Here we report that the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values for the hair of the 5200 year-old Ice Man indicates a primarily vegetarian diet, in agreement with his dental wear pattern. Whereas previous investigations have focused on bone collagen, the stable isotope composition of hair may prove to be a more reliable proxy for paleodiet reconstruction, particularly when skeletal remains are not well preserved and additional archaeological artifacts are unavailable.  (+info)

Documenting the diet in ancient human populations through stable isotope analysis of hair. (2/1126)

Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artefacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information, for example, concerning incidence of disease, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopic compositions, especially those made on isolates of collagen from bones, have been used to help suggest principal dietary components. A significant problem in the use of collagen is its long-term stability, and the possibility of isotopic alteration during early diagenesis, or through contaminating condensation reactions. In this study, we suggest that a commonly overlooked material, human hair, may represent an ideal material to be used in addressing human diets of ancient civilizations. Through the analysis of the amino-acid composition of modern hair, as well as samples that were subjected to radiation (thus simulating ageing of the hair) and hair from humans that is up to 5200 years old, we have observed little in the way of chemical change. The principal amino acids observed in all of these samples are essentially identical in relative abundances and content. Dominating the compositions are serine, glutamic acid, threonine, glycine and leucine, respectively accounting for approximately 15%, 17%, 10%, 8% and 8% of the total hydrolysable amino acids. Even minor components (for example, alanine, valine, isoleucine) show similar constancy between the samples of different ages. This constancy clearly indicates minimal alteration of the amino-acid composition of the hair. Further, it would indicate that hair is well preserved and is amenable to isotopic analysis as a tool for distinguishing sources of nutrition. Based on this observation, we have isotopically characterized modern individuals for whom the diet has been documented. Both stable nitrogen and carbon isotope compositions were assessed, and together provide an indication of trophic status, and principal type (C3 or C4) of vegetation consumed. True vegans have nitrogen isotope compositions of about 7/1000 whereas humans consuming larger amounts of meat, eggs, or milk are more enriched in the heavy nitrogen isotope. We have also analysed large cross-sections of modern humans from North America and Europe to provide an indication of the variability seen in a population (the supermarket diet). There is a wide diversity in both carbon and nitrogen isotope values based at least partially on the levels of seafood, corn-fed beef and grains in the diets. Following analysis of the ancient hair, we have observed similar trends in certain ancient populations. For example, the Coptics of Egypt (1000 BP) and Chinchorro of Chile (5000-800 BP) have diets of similar diversity to those observed in the modern group but were isotopically influenced by local nutritional sources. In other ancient hair (Egyptian Late Middle Kingdom mummies, ca. 4000 BP), we have observed a much more uniform isotopic signature, indicating a more constant diet. We have also recognized a primary vegetarian component in the diet of the Neolithic Ice Man of the Oetztaler Alps (5200 BP). In certain cases, it appears that sulphur isotopes may help to further constrain dietary interpretations, owing to the good preservation and sulphur content of hair. It appears that analysis of the often-overlooked hair in archaeological sites may represent a significant new approach for understanding ancient human communities.  (+info)

Preservation of key biomolecules in the fossil record: current knowledge and future challenges. (3/1126)

We have developed a model based on the analyses of modern and Pleistocene eggshells and mammalian bones which can be used to understand the preservation of amino acids and other important biomolecules such as DNA in fossil specimens. The model is based on the following series of diagenetic reactions and processes involving amino acids: the hydrolysis of proteins and the subsequent loss of hydrolysis products from the fossil matrix with increasing geologic age; the racemization of amino acids which produces totally racemized amino acids in 10(5)-10(6) years in most environments on the Earth; the introduction of contaminants into the fossil that lowers the enantiomeric (D:L) ratios produced via racemization; and the condensation reactions between amino acids, as well as other compounds with primary amino groups, and sugars which yield humic acid-like polymers. This model was used to evaluate whether useful amino acid and DNA sequence information is preserved in a variety of human, amber-entombed insect and dinosaur specimens. Most skeletal remains of evolutionary interest with respect to the origin of modern humans are unlikely to preserve useful biomolecular information although those from high latitude sites may be an exception. Amber-entombed insects contain well-preserved unracemized amino acids, apparently because of the anhydrous nature of the amber matrix, and thus may contain DNA fragments which have retained meaningful genetic information. Dinosaur specimens contain mainly exogenous amino acids, although traces of endogenous amino acids may be present in some cases. Future ancient biomolecule research which takes advantage of new methologies involving, for example, humic acid cleaving reagents and microchip-based DNA-protein detection and sequencing, along with investigations of very slow biomolecule diagenetic reactions such as the racemization of isoleucine at the beta-carbon, will lead to further enhancements of our understanding of biomolecule preservation in the fossil record.  (+info)

How microbial ancient DNA, found in association with human remains, can be interpreted. (4/1126)

The analysis of the DNA of ancient micro-organisms in archaeological and palaeontological human remains can contribute to the understanding of issues as different as the spreading of a new disease, a mummification process or the effect of diets on historical human populations. The quest for this type of DNA, however, can represent a particularly demanding task. This is mainly due to the abundance and diffusion of bacteria, fungi, yeasts, algae and protozoans in the most diverse environments of the present-day biosphere and the resulting difficulty in distinguishing between ancient and modern DNA. Nevertheless, at least under some special circumstances, by using rigorous protocols, which include an archaeometric survey of the specimens and evaluation of the palaeoecological consistency of the results of DNA sequence analysis, glimpses of the composition of the original microbial flora (e.g. colonic flora) can be caught in ancient human remains. Potentials and pitfalls of this research field are illustrated by the results of research works performed on prehistoric, pre-Columbian and Renaissance human mummies.  (+info)

The molecular genetics of European ancestry. (5/1126)

In an earlier paper we proposed, on the basis of mitochondrial control region variation, that the bulk of modern European mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) diversity had its roots in the European Upper Palaeolithic. Refining the mtDNA phylogeny and enlarging the sample size both within Europe and the Middle East still support this interpretation and indicate three separate phases of colonization: (i) the Early Upper Palaeolithic about 50,000 BP; (ii) the Late Upper Palaeolithic 11,000-14,000 BP; and (iii) the Neolithic from 8500 BP.  (+info)

The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective. (6/1126)

The robust australopithecines were a side branch of human evolution. They share a number of unique craniodental features that suggest their monophyletic origin. However, virtually all of these traits appear to reflect a singular pattern of nasomaxillary modeling derived from their unusual dental proportions. Therefore, recent cladistic analyses have not resolved the phylogenetic history of these early hominids. Efforts to increase cladistic resolution by defining traits at greater levels of anatomical detail have instead introduced substantial phyletic error.  (+info)

Environment and behavior of 2.5-million-year-old Bouri hominids. (7/1126)

The Hata Member of the Bouri Formation is defined for Pliocene sedimentary outcrops in the Middle Awash Valley, Ethiopia. The Hata Member is dated to 2.5 million years ago and has produced a new species of Australopithecus and hominid postcranial remains not currently assigned to species. Spatially associated zooarchaeological remains show that hominids acquired meat and marrow by 2.5 million years ago and that they are the near contemporary of Oldowan artifacts at nearby Gona. The combined evidence suggests that behavioral changes associated with lithic technology and enhanced carnivory may have been coincident with the emergence of the Homo clade from Australopithecus afarensis in eastern Africa.  (+info)

Australopithecus garhi: a new species of early hominid from Ethiopia. (8/1126)

The lack of an adequate hominid fossil record in eastern Africa between 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma) has hampered investigations of early hominid phylogeny. Discovery of 2.5 Ma hominid cranial and dental remains from the Hata beds of Ethiopia's Middle Awash allows recognition of a new species of Australopithecus. This species is descended from Australopithecus afarensis and is a candidate ancestor for early Homo. Contemporary postcranial remains feature a derived humanlike humeral/femoral ratio and an apelike upper arm-to-lower arm ratio.  (+info)

Clay vessels and bronze weapons uncovered at Grakliani Hill, which has been under excavation for eight years. ( Qartli.ge photo ). "A printing device of the 4th Century BC was described as one of the most important discoveries of the area, which analog was found in South Mesopotamia," says an article in Agenda.ge . "In recent years archeologists also found a gold disc dating back to the 5th-6th Century BC. The same disc is preserved in Iran. Several rooms for worship and special mills and hand-mills also attracted international interest. From this discovery it is believed that wheat used in baking bread was grinded there. Furthermore, an altar platform discovered in the area has no analogue in the world." The article says digs there have shown an uninterrupted habitation of the site for 300,000 years. Archaeologists of the Tbilisi State University (TSU) also uncovered ancient treasures when works were conducted at the highway in 2007. Excavations at a settlement on the eastern slope uncovered a ...
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000-1,400 BCE, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a Basal Eurasian lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages prior to their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter-gatherers of Europe to drastically reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; ...
We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 44 ancient Near Easterners ranging in time between ~12,000-1,400 BCE, from Natufian hunter-gatherers to Bronze Age farmers. We show that the earliest populations of the Near East derived around half their ancestry from a Basal Eurasian lineage that had little if any Neanderthal admixture and that separated from other non-African lineages prior to their separation from each other. The first farmers of the southern Levant (Israel and Jordan) and Zagros Mountains (Iran) were strongly genetically differentiated, and each descended from local hunter-gatherers. By the time of the Bronze Age, these two populations and Anatolian-related farmers had mixed with each other and with the hunter-gatherers of Europe to drastically reduce genetic differentiation. The impact of the Near Eastern farmers extended beyond the Near East: farmers related to those of Anatolia spread westward into Europe; farmers related to those of the Levant spread southward into East Africa; ...
The Iron Age is an archaeological age, the last of the three-age system of Old World prehistory. It follows the Bronze Age, in the Ancient Near East beginning c. 1200 BC, and in Europe beginning after c. 800 BC. It is taken to end with the beginning of Classical Antiquity, in about the 6th century BC, although in Northern Europe, the Germanic Iron Age is taken to last until the beginning of the Viking Age, c. AD 800. The term "Iron Age" is mostly limited to Europe and the Near East and the Indian subcontinent, although West Africa also has some iron metallurgy, beginning with the Nok culture c. 550 BC and spread by the Bantu expansion. There are also cast iron artefacts in China from about 500 BC, but use of iron was minimal, and the Bronze Age in China is usually extended to the beginning of the classical period (Qin dynasty). ...
Here are a few pictures from the excavation at Ottenby Kungsgård (the royal manor Ottenby) 2004 and of a few of the finds. These finds are dated to the Pitted ware culture, a late neolithic hunter-gatherer culture in Scandinavia, dated to ca 3200 BC- ca 2300 BC. Most sites are found along the coasts of Svealand,…
Are you looking for the book See Inside the Ancient World? Great choice! We have good news for you, this book is in our electronic library in PDF, ePUB, MOBI and other formats! This book was written by author Rob Lloyd Jones who never disappoints. To download and read online See Inside the Ancient World you just need share us and after сlick the button above and register(it takes no more than 3 minutes!). Enjoy reading and stay tuned ...
Decades of excavation at the ancient Chinese city of Anyang have produced over 50,000 written texts from the Bronze Age capital of the Shang Dynasty.
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Philosophers have found words objects of fascination since at least the 5th century BC, with the foundation of the philosophy of language. Plato analyzed words in terms of their origins and the sounds making them up, concluding that there was some connection between sound and meaning, though words change a great deal over time. John Locke wrote that the use of words "is to be sensible marks of ideas", though they are chosen "not by any natural connexion that there is between particular articulate sounds and certain ideas, for then there would be but one language amongst all men; but by a voluntary imposition, whereby such a word is made arbitrarily the mark of such an idea".[9] Wittgensteins thought transitioned from a word as representation of meaning to "the meaning of a word is its use in the language."[10]. Archaeology shows that even for centuries prior to this fascination by philosophers in the 5th century BC, many languages had various ways of expressing this verbal unit, which in turn ...
Aorta has an uncertain derivation. The first recorded mention of the word was by Hippocrates in the 5th century BC who used it to describe the trachea and its branches. Given the windpipes function, the term may have come from combination of the Greek aer (air) and tepeo (to hold).. Though he also subscribed to the Greek convention that arteries carried air, Aristotle, in the 4th century BC, was the first to apply the word to the vessel it is associated with today, inspired perhaps by a fancied resemblance to the arched sheath of an aorta, a large Greek knife with a curved handle.. Another candidate for Aristotles inspiration: aortemei, a Greek word meaning "suspend" (from aorter, a Grecian shoulder strap that things were hung from). Given all the blood vessels that branch to the viscera from the aorta, one can see how it may resemble a strap of sorts suspending the heart, kidney, stomach, and intestines ...
Aorta has an uncertain derivation. The first recorded mention of the word was by Hippocrates in the 5th century BC who used it to describe the trachea and its branches. Given the windpipes function, the term may have come from combination of the Greek aer (air) and tepeo (to hold).. Though he also subscribed to the Greek convention that arteries carried air, Aristotle, in the 4th century BC, was the first to apply the word to the vessel it is associated with today, inspired perhaps by a fancied resemblance to the arched sheath of an aorta, a large Greek knife with a curved handle.. Another candidate for Aristotles inspiration: aortemei, a Greek word meaning "suspend" (from aorter, a Grecian shoulder strap that things were hung from). Given all the blood vessels that branch to the viscera from the aorta, one can see how it may resemble a strap of sorts suspending the heart, kidney, stomach, and intestines ...
Cancer is widespread today, but it doesnt appear to have been in the ancient world. Why not? Researchers are learning more about the history of cancer and how civilizations have treated it.
Cancer is widespread today, but it doesnt appear to have been in the ancient world. Why not? Researchers are learning more about the history of cancer and how civilizations have treated it.
Excavation at the Langyatai ruins in Qingdao City, East Chinas Shandong Province. Chinas National Cultural Heritage Administration has approved excavation at the ruins that date back to the Qin (221- 206 BCE) and subsequent Han (202 BCE- 220 CE) dynasties. Archaeologists have discovered remains of pottery pipelines that look like a modern drainage system. (Photo/ICphoto) ...
Ancient World: Internet Linked (World History) [Fiona Chandler, Jane Bingham, Susie McCaffrey] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. An illustrated description of ancient life-styles and cultures.
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The word diabetes comes from the Greek, diabainen, meaning to straddle, or to siphon, due to the excessive urination similar as soon as diabetes, which is gorgeous, for that defense its herald mellitus, Latin for cute or honey, secondary to its state in 1676. It was recognised as a chronic (incurable) disease by the ancient Egyptians, Chinese, Greeks, Indians and Romans, when its make known in the various languages translated as glamorous p.s.. The Indian physician Sushrata, in the 6th century BC, linked it since a nonappearance of exercise and obesity. Galen, a second century disciple of Hippocrates, and no-one else ever saw two cases, considering Hippocrates making no hint of it, possibly as he never axiom any cases. The Persian Avicenna (980-1037) recognised two innocent types and treated it together in the middle of a merger of lupine, zedoary seed and fenugreek, which is yet prescribed today throughout Asia. The Egyptian Maimonides (1135-1204) mentions it is altogether rare in the colder ...
The influence of cultural factors on the biological state, of prehistorical populations inhabiting Central Europe in the Bronze and Iron Ages have been analyzed. To achieve this goal the author...
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This Hubpages introduces readers to a live video stream show called Health Inn. Everyone is invited to join Debby Bruck and Dr Deepak Sharma on April 30th to discuss and learn about the issue of infertility in modern times.
An Open Afternoon between 2-5 on Saturday 8 September will give the public an opportunity to find more about the third season of excavations at the Pillar of Eliseg, a ninth-century AD stone monument which stands on a prehistoric mound near Valle Crucis Abbey Llangollen, in north-east Wales. Archaeologists from Bangor and Chester Universities are returning to carry out a third season of excavations at the site between 26 August -16 September 2012.. Publication date: 22 August 2012. ...
An Open Afternoon between 2-5 on Saturday 8 September will give the public an opportunity to find more about the third season of excavations at the Pillar of Eliseg, a ninth-century AD stone monument which stands on a prehistoric mound near Valle Crucis Abbey Llangollen, in north-east Wales. Archaeologists from Bangor and Chester Universities are returning to carry out a third season of excavations at the site between 26 August -16 September 2012.. Publication date: 22 August 2012. ...
Archaeological excavations have revealed traces of a 5th century BC occupation during the Achaemenid period, as well as later Parthian settlements in the citadel. Coins belonging to the reign of Sassanid kings, and that of the Byzantine emperor Theodosius II (AD 408-450), have also been discovered there. Also as recent as 2005, archaeologists unearthed over 1,300 clay seals in a storage room. The seals were used on parcels, letters, and merchandise sent to other cities with the names of the cities receiving the parcels, letters, and merchandise from Takhte Soleiman having been inscribed on the seals. Furthermore Iranian archeologists discovered a water mill which is believed to be from the Sassanid period; the first time that a Sassanid water mill is reported to have been found in Iran proper. The water mill is 17 meters high and 6 to 7 meters wide. Water was directed to this mill from Takhte Soleiman Lake through a canal and entered the mill from a raised ground with a high pressure ...
Atomic theory, ancient philosophical speculation that all things can be accounted for by innumerable combinations of hard, small, indivisible particles (called atoms) of various sizes but of the same basic material; or the modern scientific theory of matter according to which the chemical elements that combine to form the great variety of substances consist themselves of aggregations of similar subunits (atoms) possessing nuclear and electron substructure characteristic of each element. The ancient atomic theory was proposed in the 5th century bc by the Greek philosophers Leucippus and Democritus and was revived in the 1st century bc by the Roman philosopher and poet Lucretius. The modern atomic theory, which has undergone continuous refinement, began to flourish at the beginning of the 19th century with the work of the English chemist John Dalton. The experiments of the British physicist Ernest Rutherford in the early 20th century on the scattering of alpha particles from a thin gold foil ...
The underwater archaeological excavations in the Turkish port town of Urla, being carried out by scientists of the University of Haifas Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies and headed by Prof. Michal Artzi, have been chosen by the Archaeological Institute of America as one of the ten most important nautical excavations in the world. Findings at the Turkish site have included the oldest wooden anchor in the world, the remains of an ancient port that collapsed in some earthquake, and even sunken remains of the town itself. The Urla excavations are carried out by University of Haifa researchers in cooperation with scientists from Ankara University. They began in 2000, when the Turkish researchers invited their Haifa colleagues to assist them in the underwater excavations at Urla. Over the years, many Turkish divers have been trained by experts from the University of Haifas Institute for Maritime Studies, and Ankara University has recently established its own marine institute under the ...
Archaeologists have discovered settlements dating from the 7th century BC in the area. Wandering around the old town youll find yourself standing on layers of history from ancient times to the present. So its no surprise that Plovdiv has been named one of the European Capitals of Culture for 2019.
Dogs have been a part of the history of human beings since before the written word. The ancient temple of Gobekli-Tepe in Turkey, dated to at...
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (eCAM) is an international peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that seeks to understand the sources and to encourage rigorous research in this new, yet ancient world of complementary and alternative medicine.
Essays from BookRags provide great ideas for Ancient history essays and paper topics like Essay. View this student essay about Ancient history.
The secrets of our genetic heritage are finally being unlocked. The massive scientific effort to sequence the human genome is in fact just the beginning of a long journey as the extraordinary genetic diversity that exists between individuals becomes clear. Work in this field is yielding profound insights into the wider implications for understanding biology, human health and history. It promises much: to understand our evolutionary origins, to define us as individuals, to predict our risk of disease and to more effectively understand, treat and prevent illness. Genetics can help us understand both rare inherited disorders and common multifactorial diseases like asthma, heart diseases and diabetes. Huge investments are being made and great advances have been achieved, but the challenges remain daunting. This book provides an authoritative overview of this topical and very rapidly advancing field of biomedical research. Human Genetic Diversity provides a concise, authoritative overview of human ...
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Written by Edward O. Wilson, Narrated by Jonathan Hogan. Download the app and start listening to The Social Conquest of Earth today - Free with a 30 day Trial! Keep your audiobook forever, even if you cancel. Dont love a book? Swap it for free, anytime.
Washington (AFP) April 21, 2008 - Astrophysicist Stephen Hawking called Monday for a new era of space conquest akin to Christopher Columbus discovery of the new world, in a speech on the 50th anniversary of NASA space agency.
80% off a Hand Made Oil Painting Reproduction of Conquest of passage, one of the most famous paintings by Henri De Toulouse-Lautrec. Free certificate of authenticity free shipping.
John Foot enjoys The Conquest of Malaria in Italy, Frank M Snowdens masterly history of the countrys fight to eradicate the deadly disease.
Genome sequences of African hunter-gatherers from three different populations reveal insights into how humans have adapted to distinct environments over evolutionary history. By sequencing whole genomes of individuals within these groups, a team of scientists has substantially expanded knowledge about the scope of genetic diversity in humans, publishing their findings on July 26 in the journal Cell.
Ive never been a huge fan of world PvP, but as someone who enjoys PvPing, I can see the importance of it. What if world pvp rewarded a small amount of conquest points in addition to honor? 2-3 conquest per kill wouldnt make or break anything, but itd be a nice bonus for anyone who has to frequently fend of gankers while doing dailies (or perhaps you are the ganker!). It wouldnt be enough conquest to replace the other (quicker) methods of gaining conquest points, but it would really
With the 2012 Conquest Carbon, longtime cyclocross stalwart Redline steps into the carbon era with a machine that is both drastically different from their
2008 Boston Whaler Boats 255 Conquest for sale in Edgewater, FL. Buy your next boat on iboats.com from dealers, owners, and brokers. Need to sell a boat? Sell it here on iboats.com. Listing: 310182
Fill out the form below to view the Whitepaper on how a defective probe can permanently damage any System it comes into contact with. [contact-form-7 id="6751" title="White Page Killer Probe"]. by Conquest Imaging on 12.4.2017. link ...
[news author=TaitWatson link=http://www. swtor. com/community/showthread. php?p=8456511#edit8456511 datetime=22. 09. 2015 08:34AM]Hey everyone! We are granting the Conquest rewards today in
Pre-Christian Celtic warriors are mentioned as going into battle naked on a number of occasions. The Celts that invaded Italy in the 4th Century BC fought naked, as did the Gaesati mercenary band that the Boii and Insubres called upon late in the 3rd Century. The consul Manlius Volso told his men that the Galatian tribes still fought naked in the 2nd Century, and as late as the 5th Century AD the Picts are still alleged to have fought naked ...
Historically, dream was thought of as communication from the gods. Even though it is said that Egyptians were the first to interpret dreams, as early the 5th century BC, the Greek philosopher Heraclitus, suggested that a persons dream world was...
Take the initial heuristic process, for example. Ive come across many atheists who dont accept that a historical Jesus existed on the grounds that "there are no contemporary references to him and all references to him are later hearsay" or even that "there are no eyewitness accounts of his career". So they rule out any evidence we do have referring to him on the basis that it is not contemporary and/or from eyewitnesses. But if we ruled out any reference ancient, medieval or pre-modern person or event on these grounds, wed effectively have to abandon the study of early history: we dont have contemporary evidence for most people and events in the ancient world, so this would make almost all of our sources invalid, which is clearly absurd. Given that we have no eyewitness or contemporary sources for far more prominent figures, such as Hannibal, expecting them for a peasant preacher like Jesus is clearly ridiculous. No historian of the ancient world would regard this as a valid historical ...
Much more spectacular than Heidengraben is Heuneburg, which dates to the Early Iron Age, or Hallstatt period, centuries earlier. Excavations at Heuneburg long ago revealed fortifications, elite burial mounds called tumuli, imported goods and houses. But more recent work directed by Dirk Krausse (a co-organizer of the conference) has added some key attributes of social complexity and urbanism, including a very rich child burial (which suggests that wealth and status were inherited, not just acquired within an individuals lifetime); the existence of a very large "suburban" area of houses in walled compounds at the base of the fortified hill. Manuel Fernández-Götz and Dirk Krausse have written an article, now in press in the journal Antiquity, that argues for the urban status of Heuneburg. If the site was indeed an urban center, it would make it the earliest urban site north of the Alps. I agree with their evidence and interpretations, but I will let Manuel describe the site and its urban ...
Much more spectacular than Heidengraben is Heuneburg, which dates to the Early Iron Age, or Hallstatt period, centuries earlier. Excavations at Heuneburg long ago revealed fortifications, elite burial mounds called tumuli, imported goods and houses. But more recent work directed by Dirk Krausse (a co-organizer of the conference) has added some key attributes of social complexity and urbanism, including a very rich child burial (which suggests that wealth and status were inherited, not just acquired within an individuals lifetime); the existence of a very large "suburban" area of houses in walled compounds at the base of the fortified hill. Manuel Fernández-Götz and Dirk Krausse have written an article, now in press in the journal Antiquity, that argues for the urban status of Heuneburg. If the site was indeed an urban center, it would make it the earliest urban site north of the Alps. I agree with their evidence and interpretations, but I will let Manuel describe the site and its urban ...
The history of typography is an expansive subject, especially since typography covers such a broad spectrum. This all-encompassing subject was born in ancient times, was revolutionized in Asia, reborn in Renaissance-era Europe, modernized with the Industrial Revolution, and continues to evolve as technology and art progress in our current digital age.
Beets are one of the many root vegetables that are available year-round, making them a great seasonal addition to your winter meals. The best time to buy them, however, is when they are in season June through October. I asked Jody Victor® to tell us more.. Jody Victor®: In-season beets are at their most tender. Look for unblemished bulbs with sturdy, un-wilted greens. Beets with round bottoms are sweeter than flat-bottomed ones. Besides the usual red beets you can find golden beets and a pink-and-white striped variety. If possible, take your beets home with the greens intact. Beets are loaded with Vitamins A, B1, B6, and C and also with calcium, magnesium, copper, phosphorus, sodium, and iron. Beet greens contain a high content of beta-carotene and a higher content of iron than spinach. Beets have been cultivated since the second millennium BC. Beets are believed to have been domesticated somewhere along the Mediterranean and later spread to Babylonia by the 8th century BC and as far as China ...
Mede, one of an Indo-European people, related to the Persians, who entered northeastern Iran probably as early as the 17th century bc and settled in the plateau land that came to be known as Media
The first mentions of HTN were in 6th Century BC. Scientists coined the term ESSENTIAL HTN, as they thought that the BP elevation was essential for survival when some patients had vascular disease. The first ever elevated blood pressure in a patient without kidney disease was reported by Frederick Mahomed in late 1800s. ...
History and origin[edit]. Ancient roots[edit]. Although it is not clear whether Proto-Indo-Iranians celebrated a feast as the ... Zoroastrian practices were dominant for much of the history of ancient Iran. In Zoroastrianism, the seven most important ... a b A History of Zoroastrianism: Under the Achaemenians By Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet Published by BRILL, 1982 ISBN 90-04-06506- ... "April Fools' Day in Iran - Origin and History of Sizdah Bedar in Iran - Sizdah Bedar Date Iran". FundooTimes.com. Retrieved 20 ...
1 History *1.1 Ancient language of Bengal. *1.2 Emergence of Bengali. *1.3 Middle Bengali ... Ancient language of Bengal[edit]. Sanskrit was spoken in Bengal since the first millennium BCE. During the Gupta Empire, Bengal ... "History of Bengali (Banglar itihash)". Bengal Telecommunication and Electric Company. Retrieved 2006-11-20.. ... Bengali literature, with its millennium-old history and folk heritage, has extensively developed since the Bengali renaissance ...
Inside Ancient Egypt[edit]. *Inside Ancient Egypt offers a glimpse into what life was like for ancient Egyptians. Twenty-three ... The Field Museum of Natural History, also known as The Field Museum, is a natural history museum in the city of Chicago, and is ... The Ancient Americas[edit]. *The Ancient Americas displays 13,000 years of human ingenuity and achievement in the Western ... Object history of the Iuhi. References[edit]. *^ "TEA-AECOM 2016 Theme Index and Museum Index: The Global Attractions ...
4 History of steelmaking *4.1 Ancient steel. *4.2 Wootz steel and Damascus steel ... History of steelmaking[edit]. Main articles: History of ferrous metallurgy and History of steel ... "Ancient and Mediæval India. Volume 2". ISBN 9780543929433.. *^ a b c Juleff, G. (1996). "An ancient wind powered iron smelting ... Africa's Ancient Steelmakers. Time, September 25, 1978.. *^ Wilford, John Noble (1996-02-06). "Ancient Smelter Used Wind To ...
History[edit]. Ancient history[edit]. The ancient territory of Éile obtained its name from pre-historic inhabitants called the ... Wallace, W. J. R. (2004). Faithful to our trust: a history of the Erasmus Smith Trust and the High School, Dublin. Blackrock, ... The Peerage of Ireland or, A Genealogical History of the Present Nobility of That Kingdom, 1789, Vol IV, p 11. ... The ancient name of the district on which the town now stands was Tuatha Corca Teine. Teine was supposed to have been the son ...
Gokhale, B. Govind (1995). Ancient India: History and Culture. Archived 8 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. p. 84. "The ... History[edit]. Main article: History of Punjab. Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and witnessed ... Punjab History - history of Punjab Archived 22 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. ... Malik, Iftikhar Haider (2008). The History of Pakistan. Greenwood Publishing Group.. *^ "Katas Raj Temples". Temple Darshan. ...
History[edit]. Ancient[edit]. Early references to the phenomenon are found in ancient Greek writing. For example, the ... and the ancient Indian Hindu practice of Yoga nidra. The cultivation of such awareness was common practice among early ...
Ancient history[edit]. Maat, to ancient Egyptians, personified the virtue of truth and justice. Her feather represents truth.[2 ... Norman Rufus Colin Cohn (1993). Cosmos, Caos and the World to Come: The Ancient Roots of Apocalyptic Faith. ISBN 978-0-300- ... Virtue (Latin: virtus, Ancient Greek: ἀρετή "arete") is moral excellence. A virtue is a trait or quality that is deemed to be ... Virtue is a much debated[14] and an evolving concept in ancient scriptures of Hinduism.[15][16] The essence, need and value of ...
Ancient history[edit]. See also: Magna Graecia. From the 11th century BC, Phoenicians began to settle in western Sicily, having ... Modern and Contemporary history[edit]. After the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, waves of Greek (including Arvanites) migrants ... See also: History of Sicily. The Sicilian people are indigenous to the island of Sicily, which was first populated beginning in ... The community of the Greeks of Messina (or Siculo-Greeks) speaks the modern Greek with some elements of the ancient Greek ...
Use and attitudes in ancient history[edit]. The desire for men to wear hairpieces is a response to a long-standing cultural ... The Ancient Near East, Amelie Kuhrt, Routledge, September 1995, ISBN ? *^ Ancient Greek Portrait Sculpture: Contexts, Subjects ... History[edit]. An engraving of Julius Caesar showing both pattern baldness and signature wreath, which he used to cover his ... The earliest known example of a toupée was found in a tomb[7] near the ancient Predynastic capital of Egypt, Hierakonpolis. The ...
History[edit]. Ancient Town[edit]. In the Mycenaean period of Greece, there was thought to be a town called Vorthona which is ... In Ancient Greece, the town used to be called Asine. The town was under Spartan control. In 218 BC, the inhabitants of Asine ... Recent History[edit]. Now Skoutari is a peaceful sea town with around 150 residents during summer. Skoutari was struck by a ...
History[edit]. In Indonesian history, agricultural pursuits spanned for some millennia with some traces still observable in ... The ancient maritime empires of Srivijaya (7th to 11th century) and Majapahit (13th to 15th century) for example, were actively ... Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 8-9. ISBN 0-300- ... Coffee in Indonesia began with its colonial history, and has played an important part in the growth of the country. Indonesia's ...
KL - History of law. The ancient orient[edit]. KL2-135 - General. KL147-177 - Ancient legal systems compared. KL190-420 - ... KQ - History of law. Law of indigenous peoples) KQ2-197 - History of law. KQ2010-9000 - Law of indigenous peoples. KQC - ... KBR - History of canon law[edit]. KBR2-4090 - History of canon law ... K215-218 - History. K236 - Universality and non-universality of law. K237-264 - The concept of law. K270-274 - Acts and events ...
History[edit]. Ancient precursors[edit]. Traditions similar to the modern custom of trick-or-treating extend all the way back ... The ancient Greek writer Athenaeus of Naucratis records in his book The Deipnosophists that, in ancient times, the Greek island ... Morton, Lisa (2012). Trick or Treat a history of halloween. Reaktion Books. p. 64. ISBN 9781780231877.. ... Lisa Morton, Trick or Treat A history of Halloween, Reaktion Books (2012). 229 pages. ISBN 978-1-78023-187-7 ...
History[edit]. Ancient and medieval[edit]. The use of prisons can be traced back to the rise of the state as a form of social ... 1995). The Oxford History of the Prison: the practice of punishment in western society. Oxford University Press. p. x. ISBN ... For a history of the development of prison libraries, see Coyle, William (1987). Libraries in Prisons: A Blending of ... Hostettler, John (2009). A History of Criminal Justice in England and Wales. Waterside Press. p. 157. ISBN 9781906534790.. .mw- ...
History[edit]. Ancient times[edit]. Zalău is situated in the area inhabited by "Free Dacians", 8 km (5.0 mi) away from the ... houses and a customs house in the ancient Roman province of Dacia. Zalău was the crossing point between Central Europe and ... the Zalău County Museum of History and Art displays artifacts ranging from neolithic times to modern times, with a focus on the ... are evidence of free Dacian continuity in this area and of developing economic relations with the Roman ancient city of ...
History and art. Prehistoric and ancient history. White was one of the first colors used in art. The Lascaux Cave in France ... According to Pliny the Elder in his Natural History, Apelles (4th century BC) and the other famous painters of ancient Greece ... In ancient Egypt and ancient Rome, priestesses wore white as a symbol of purity, and Romans wore a white toga as a symbol of ... The ancient Romans had two words for white; albus, a plain white, (the source of the word albino); and candidus, a brighter ...
History[edit]. Ancient history[edit]. Political independence (4th century - 1632)[edit]. Main article: Kingdom of Semien ... 5 History *5.1 Ancient history *5.1.1 Political independence (4th century - 1632) ... 1; Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book VI, Chap. 30 *^ A. H. M. Jones and Elizabeth Monroe, A History of Ethiopia (Oxford: ... Modern history[edit]. The contemporary history of the Beta Israel community begins with the reunification of Ethiopia in the ...
History[edit]. Main article: History of anatomy. Ancient[edit]. Image of early rendition of anatomy findings ... Social History of Medicine, 18(3), pp. 419-437. *^ "Ignaz Philipp Semmelweis". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 October ... Porter, R. (1997). The Greatest Benefit to Mankind: A Medical History of Humanity from Antiquity to the Present. Harper Collins ... Zimmerman, Leo M.; Veith, Ilza (1993). Great Ideas in the History of Surgery. Norman. ISBN 978-0-930405-53-3. .. ...
Raychaudhuri Hemchandra (1972), Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, pp. 85-86 ... History. Main article: History of Bihar. See also: Timeline for Bihar; Magadha; Mithila Kingdom; History of Buddhism in India; ... Elliot, History of India, Vol 4 *^ Jha, D. N. (9 July 2014). "Grist to the reactionary mill". The Indian Express. Archived from ... Mishra Shree Govind, History Of Bihar 1740-1772, Munshiram Manoharlal, 1970. *Verma B S, Socio-religious Economic And Literary ...
1861). Ancient Law: Its Connection with the Early History of Society, and Its Relation to Modern Ideas. Reprint edition (1986 ... Maine, Henry Sumner, 1822-1888 (1861). Ancient law : its connection with the early history of society, and its relation to ... Ancient Near East. The Sumerians produced the earliest surviving written codes.[24] Urukagina (reigned c. 2380 BC - c. 2360 BC ... 1994). The Old Babylonian Loan Contract: Its History and Geography. Ramat Gan, Israel: Bar-Ilan University Press. ISBN 965-226- ...
Ancient history[edit]. Ancient Etruscan "aryballoi" terracota vessels unearthed in the 1860s at Bolzhaya Bliznitsa tumulus near ... Davies, Glyn (2002) [1995]. Ideas: A History of Money from Ancient Times to the Present Day. Cardiff: University of Wales Press ... B.Gascoigne et al - History World .net *^ Ivan Dikov (July 12, 2015). "Bulgarian Archaeologists To Start Excavations of Ancient ... Covers sea-trading over the whole world from ancient times.). *. Watson, Peter (2005). Ideas: A History of Thought and ...
History[edit]. Ancient India[edit]. The Vedas (2000-1400 BCE) are earliest Indian texts to mention the concept of usury. The ... Santosh Kumar Das (1980). The economic history of ancient India. Cosmo Publications. pp. 229-. ISBN 978-81-307-0423-4.. ... Aquique (1974). Economic History of Mithila. Abhinav Publications. p. 157. ISBN 978-81-7017-004-4. Retrieved 12 January 2015.. ... Austin, Granville (1999). Working a Democratic Constitution - A History of the Indian Experience. New Delhi: Oxford University ...
History[edit]. Ancient[edit]. The city was known as Venusia ("City of Venus") to the Romans, who credited its establishment-as ... The ancient amphitheatre adjacent furnished the materials for its walls.. *Baroque Church of the Purgatory (or San Filippo Neri ... Remains of the ancient city walls and of an amphitheatre still exist, and a number of inscriptions have been found there.[1] ... Remains of ancient wildlife, including extinct species of elephants, bisons and rhinoceroses, have been found, as well as a ...
Writing history[edit]. Rothfuss wrote The Name of the Wind during his nine-year advance toward his B.A. in English. He drew ... Kvothe's father, the famous bard Arliden, starts composing what was to be the greatest of his works-a ballad of the ancient ...
... is among the ancient and modern mammals included in the Natural History Museums new exhibit; Credit: Karen Knauer. Below, a ... followed by a permanent exhibition about Southern Californias natural and cultural history in 2012. The Natural History Museum ... The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County will open its newly restored 1913 Building in July with "Age of Mammals" -- an ... Natural History Museum modernizes 1913 building, looks to the future. Photo: A polar bear, top, an example of an animal ...
He has been featured on Biblical programs for the History Channel and the Discovery Channel. Kent fell in love with Biblical ... inspired by the ancient discipline of spiritual pilgrimage. NIV First-Century Study Bible, Italian Duo-Tone, Black/Dark ... The NIV Cultural Background Study Bible invites you into the questions, stories, and interpretations-both ancient and modern- ... It introduces you to an ancient world vastly different from your own, but rich in valuable life lessons. This Bible is designed ...
If theyre preserved in shales which have been included in ancient mountains belts and squeezed and stretched, then the ... Secret Life of the Natural History Museum. What is behind the locked doors and hidden in drawers that the public never see? ... People who probably never really thought so about the history of life on this planet, if they read one of my books I hope they ... 1, The Secret Life of the Natural History Museum."?. Richard: Yeah. Thank you. Ill read a little passage about several of the ...
A: Here is a bit of history of the division and names of Samuel. In the ancient Hebrew text, 1 and 2 Samuel were one book, ... 1 Sam 24:13 the proverb of the ancient one (most manuscripts) vs. the proverbs of the ancient one (A Dead Sea scroll ... Socrates Ecclesiastical History (c.400-439 A.D.) Theodoret of Cyrus (423-458 A.D.) Leo I of Rome (440-461 A.D.) Among heretics ... Ancient people had the idea that they should not approach a deity empty-handed, and the Old Testament has a similar principle. ...
The gruesome history of eating corpses as medicine * How Neolithic farming sowed the seeds of modern inequality 10,000 years ... We now know for sure that malaria was endemic in ancient Egypt. This was only been speculated on the basis reports by [the 5th ... the researchers identified ancient DNA for the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in tissues from two mummies. ... studied 91 bone tissue samples from ancient Egyptian mummies and skeletons dating from 3500 to 500 B.C. ...
They were amazed that priests in the ancient American civilizations wore garments similar to priests in the ancient Middle East ... For more information here, please see A Brief Stellar History.. So what about the fossils? And why are they in the apparent ... Ancient legends talk about the thunderbolts of Zeus, which are definitely not simple lightning strikes. Is this what David is ... There have been a number of incredible happenings through history that those alive at the time were sure men for all time could ...
In Klaus, Grant reimagines one of the biggest cultural myths in history, and we could not be more excited to pair him with one ... A sweeping saga of two brothers locked in combat in in colonial 1940s Burma, where an ancient magic will decide their fate, and ... Curious, Katie researches the owners of the house, and discovers it may have more of a sinister history than she thought … ...
Ancient China. Shang Dynasty. The Shang Dynasty is the earliest ruling dynasty of China to be established in recorded history, ... Ancient China. The Art of War. "The art of war is of vital importance to the state. It is a matter of life and death, a road ... Ancient China. Han Dynasty. The Han Dynasty ruled China from 206 B.C. to 220 A.D. and was the second imperial dynasty of China ... Ancient Middle East. Silk Road. The Silk Road was a network of trade routes connecting China and the Far East with the Middle ...
... near the ancient city of Persepolis, to explore Irans growing tourism business. ... Exploring Irans ancient history. CNNs Fred Pleitgen visits the Iranian city of Shiraz, near the ancient city of Persepolis, ... Exploring Irans ancient history. CNNs Fred Pleitgen visits the Iranian city of Shiraz, near the ancient city of Persepolis, ...
Some Rights Reserved (2009-2015) by Ancient History Encyclopedia Limited, a non-profit organization registered in the UK. ... In Ancient Egypt, the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BCE.. The Aegean Bronze Age begins around 3000 BC ... Thera is the ancient name for both the island of Santorini in the Greek Cyclades and the name of the volcano which famously ... Ancient Argos was built on two hills: Aspis and Larissa, 80 m and 289 m in height respectively. Argos, along with Mycenae and ...
Ancient history has helped me better understand the difference between fundamental and incremental change in our own age, and ... that has led me to better focus my companys investment decisions.My interest in ancient ... By Keith Roberts Knowledge of history can be of real practical use, even in business. ... Knowledge of history can be of real practical use, even in business. Ancient history has helped me better understand the ...
ANCIENT HISTORY REVIVED. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ... ANCIENT HISTORY REVIVED.. APRIL 20, 1881. Continue reading the ... The New-York Tribune is amusing itself with the publication of a file of ancient letters and reports taken from the rebel ... With delicious simplicity, it assures its readers that these stale contributions to contemporaneous history "have never before ...
Find out more about the history of Peloponnesian War, including videos, interesting articles, pictures, historical features and ... Learn the history behind todays headlines with the History Made Every Day newsletter.. Please enter a valid email address Sign ... By submitting your information, you agree to receive emails from HISTORY and A+E Networks. You can opt out at any time. More ... Get HISTORY at your fingertips. Sign up now for our newsletter.. Sign me up ...
This course covers the full range of ancient history, literature, language, archaeology, art and culture in an established ... economic history and the history of religions.. We have particular strengths in Roman history and archaeology, and long- ... Our programmes cover ancient history, literature, language, archaeology, art and culture in a thriving Department of Classics ... We are a world-leading centre for the study of ancient languages (Latin and Greek of all periods and Egyptian), and for ...
Source photographs: ClassicStock/Alamy; © Declan Haun/Chicago History Museum/Getty Images; © David Turnley/Corbis/Getty Images ...
Essays from BookRags provide great ideas for Ancient history essays and paper topics like Essay. View this student essay about ... Ancient River Valley Civilizations. Summary: Ancient River Valley civilizations developed around river valleys, but they are ... Ancient River Valley civilizations developed around river valleys, but they are all different. Two of them are in China and ... Ancient River Valley Civilizations from BookRags. (c)2017 BookRags, Inc. All rights reserved. ...
An ancient Roman law stated that a baby must be surgically removed from its mothers womb if she died in childbirth or just ... Ancient Greeks believed the sun god Apollo ripped his son Asclepius from his dying mothers belly. ...
Ancient admixture in human history.. Patterson N1, Moorjani P, Luo Y, Mallick S, Rohland N, Zhan Y, Genschoreck T, Webster T, ... To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The ... This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, ... consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean "Iceman." ...
Classics and Ancient History MA. Top Classics and Ancient History MA. Classics and Ancient History MA. Full time: 12 months, ... If you want to specialise in ancient history, you will focus on the histories, societies and cultures of Archaic and Classical ... Based in the School of History, Classics and Archaeology, classics and ancient history at Newcastle has a long and ... CAC8106 Independent Study Project in Classics and Ancient History 1. *CAC8107 Independent Study Project in Classics and Ancient ...
LOST KING OF THE MAYA - NOVA - Discovery History Science Ancient Archaeology (full documentary) National Geographic Documentary ... LOST KING OF THE MAYA - NOVA - Discovery History Science Ancient Archaeology (full documen ... Byblos known for being one of the oldest city in the world, more than 7000 years of history , 12 layers of history and ... Best of Documentary 2014 2015 Ancient Babylon Secrets Of The Ancients Babylon ...
With a broad and rich understanding of ancient times, we can better understand who we are today and where we are going in the ... Ancient history Society, history and languages With a broad and rich understanding of ancient times, we can better understand ... Study ancient history at Macquarie Macquarie Universitys ancient history program is the longest-running of its kind in ... Macquaries world-leading ancient history courses allow you to immerse yourself in the culture and languages of the ancient ...
Classics and Ancient History MPhil, PhD. Classics and Ancient History MPhil, PhD. MPhil - full time: minimum 12 months, part ... Classics and Ancient History MA. Our Classics and Ancient History MA will build and expand on your previous studies. It enables ... Ancient history and classical archaeology. *the history and archaeology of pre-Roman and Roman Italy ... Classics and Ancient History at Newcastle has a long and distinguished international reputation. We deliver quality research ...
Introduction: Athenian history and society in the Age of Pericles L. J. Samons. 1. Democracy and empire P. J. Rhodes. 2. ... Although it is no longer fashionable to view Periclean Athens as a social or cultural paradigm, study of the history, society, ... 9. Platos sophists, intellectual history after 450, and Sokrates Robert W. Wallace. 10. Democratic theory and practice R. ... art, and literature of mid-fifth-century Athens remains central to any understanding of Greek history. This collection of ...
Ancient DNA reveals Europes dynamic genetic history. phys.org ^ , 6 hours ago Posted on 04/23/2013 5:49:47 PM PDT by BenLurkin ... Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7500 years old... major migrations from both Western ... Ancient DNA recovered from a series of skeletons in central Germany up to 7500 years old has been used to reconstruct the first ... I dont know how many of you study history from the bible, but this goes right along with it. Noahs flood was to have occured ...
Doing Ancient History at Penn. Ancient History is a discipline that draws on literary, documentary, visual, archaeological, and ... The Graduate Group in Ancient History also hosts an annual Hyde Visiting Lecturer: a distinguished scholar of the ancient world ... and thought-worlds of ancient societies. Faculty members of the Graduate Group in Ancient History come together from a range of ... Students in the Graduate Group in Ancient History are encouraged to pursue their studies in an explicitly and self-consciously ...
  • This is the first permanent museum exhibit to trace the history of evolution -- from the extinction of the dinosaurs to the rise of humans -- within the context of epochal changes in the Earth's geology and climate," says John Harris, the Natural History Museum's head of vertebrate studies and chief curator of the Page Museum at the La Brea Tar Pits. (latimes.com)
  • The exhibition also will explain how scientists reconstruct Earth's history, including one display that "re-imagines" what locations around L.A. may have looked like over the past 40 million years. (latimes.com)
  • The NIV Cultural Background Study Bible invites you into the questions, stories, and interpretations-both ancient and modern-which introduce you to a world vastly different from your own. (christianbook.com)
  • Age of Mammals" will fill one wing of the 1913 Building with a mix of ancient fossils, modern specimens and interactive multimedia. (latimes.com)
  • Today, he keeps his connection to the Holy Land strong as he leads tours to Israel that combine study and prayer, inspired by the ancient discipline of spiritual pilgrimage. (christianbook.com)
  • A new dinosaur hall is scheduled to open in 2011, followed by a permanent exhibition about Southern California's natural and cultural history in 2012. (latimes.com)
  • The Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County will open its newly restored 1913 Building in July with "Age of Mammals" -- an exhibition that's been 65 million years in the making. (latimes.com)
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