History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and biological action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of toxic manifestations.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.National Academy of Sciences (U.S.): A United States organization of distinguished scientists and engineers established for the purpose of investigating and reporting upon any subject of art or science as requested by any department of government. The National Research Council organized by NAS serves as the principal operating agency to stimulate and support research.United StatesHistory, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Southwestern United States: The geographic area of the southwestern region of the United States. The states usually included in this region are Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and Utah.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Physiology, Comparative: The biological science concerned with similarities or differences in the life-supporting functions and processes of different species.Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of data through the application of computers.History of MedicineSchools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Computer Peripherals: Various units or machines that operate in combination or in conjunction with a computer but are not physically part of it. Peripheral devices typically display computer data, store data from the computer and return the data to the computer on demand, prepare data for human use, or acquire data from a source and convert it to a form usable by a computer. (Computer Dictionary, 4th ed.)Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Human Activities: Activities performed by humans.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)United States Environmental Protection Agency: An agency in the Executive Branch of the Federal Government. It was created as an independent regulatory agency responsible for the implementation of federal laws designed to protect the environment. Its mission is to protect human health and the ENVIRONMENT.HistoryEducation, Medical, Undergraduate: The period of medical education in a medical school. In the United States it follows the baccalaureate degree and precedes the granting of the M.D.Clinical Clerkship: Undergraduate education programs for second- , third- , and fourth-year students in health sciences in which the students receive clinical training and experience in teaching hospitals or affiliated health centers.EuropeRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Communicable DiseasesEcosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Molecular Biology: A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Famous PersonsPandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Medicine in ArtInternationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.High-Throughput Screening Assays: Rapid methods of measuring the effects of an agent in a biological or chemical assay. The assay usually involves some form of automation or a way to conduct multiple assays at the same time using sample arrays.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Great BritainDelivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.History of NursingNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.PaintingsWalesModels, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.EnglandEmbryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Nobel PrizeTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Encephalitis, St. Louis: A viral encephalitis caused by the St. Louis encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, ST. LOUIS), a FLAVIVIRUS. It is transmitted to humans and other vertebrates primarily by mosquitoes of the genus CULEX. The primary animal vectors are wild birds and the disorder is endemic to the midwestern and southeastern United States. Infections may be limited to an influenza-like illness or present as an ASEPTIC MENINGITIS or ENCEPHALITIS. Clinical manifestations of the encephalitic presentation may include SEIZURES, lethargy, MYOCLONUS, focal neurologic signs, COMA, and DEATH. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p750)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Mummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.History of DentistryNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.MuseumsCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Manuscripts, MedicalColonialism: The aggregate of various economic, political, and social policies by which an imperial power maintains or extends its control over other areas or peoples. It includes the practice of or belief in acquiring and retaining colonies. The emphasis is less on its identity as an ideological political system than on its designation in a period of history. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Sialyltransferases: A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.Historiography: The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Encephalitis Virus, St. Louis: A species of FLAVIVIRUS, one of the Japanese encephalitis virus group (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUSES, JAPANESE), which is the etiologic agent of ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS in the United States, the Caribbean, and Central and South America.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Reproductive History: An important aggregate factor in epidemiological studies of women's health. The concept usually includes the number and timing of pregnancies and their outcomes, the incidence of breast feeding, and may include age of menarche and menopause, regularity of menstruation, fertility, gynecological or obstetric problems, or contraceptive usage.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.ItalyEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Philosophy, MedicalDNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Extinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Hypericum: Genus of perennial plants in the family CLUSIACEAE (sometimes classified as Hypericaceae). Herbal and homeopathic preparations are used for depression, neuralgias, and a variety of other conditions. Hypericum contains flavonoids; GLYCOSIDES; mucilage, TANNINS; volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), hypericin and hyperforin.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Mythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.South AmericaBooksPaleontology: The study of early forms of life through fossil remains.GermanySpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.SculptureNorth AmericaPedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.AfricaTropical Climate: A climate which is typical of equatorial and tropical regions, i.e., one with continually high temperatures with considerable precipitation, at least during part of the year. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Mortuary Practice: Activities associated with the disposition of the dead. It excludes cultural practices such as funeral rites.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Earth (Planet): Planet that is the third in order from the sun. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the SOLAR SYSTEM.Awards and PrizesArtDevelopmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Age of Onset: The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.

Blindness prevention programmes: past, present, and future. (1/2140)

Blindness and visual impairment have far-reaching implications for society, the more so when it is realized that 80% of visual disability is avoidable. The marked increase in the size of the elderly population, with their greater propensity for visually disabling conditions, presents a further challenge in this respect. However, if available knowledge and skills were made accessible to those communities in greatest need, much of this needless blindness could be alleviated. Since its inception over 50 years ago, and beginning with trachoma control, WHO has spearheaded efforts to assist Member States to meet the challenge of needless blindness. Since the establishment of the WHO Programme for the Prevention of Blindness in 1978, vast strides have been made through various forms of technical support to establish national prevention of blindness programmes. A more recent initiative, "The Global Initiative for the Elimination of Avoidable Blindness" (referred to as "VISION 2020--The Right to Sight"), launched in 1999, is a collaborative effort between WHO and a number of international nongovernmental organizations and other interested partners. This effort is poised to take the steps necessary to achieve the goal of eliminating avoidable blindness worldwide by the year 2020.  (+info)

A brief history of the Japan Society for Cell Biology. (2/2140)

The Japan Society for Cell Biology (JSCB) was first founded in 1950 as the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry under the vigorous leadership of Seizo Katsunuma, in collaboration with Shigeyasu Amano and Satimaru Seno. The Society was provisionally named as above simply because cell biology had not yet been coined at that time in Japan, although in prospect and reality the Society was in fact for the purpose of pursuing cell biology. Later in 1964, the Society was properly renamed as the Japan Society for Cell Biology. After this renaming, the JSCB made great efforts to adapt itself to the rapid progress being made in cell biology. For this purpose the Society's constitution was created in 1966 and revised in 1969. According to the revised constitution, the President, Executive Committee and Councils were to be determined by ballot vote. The style of the annual meetings was gradually modified to incorporate general oral and poster presentations in addition to Symposia (1969-1974). The publication of annual periodicals in Japanese called Symposia of the Japan Society for Cellular Chemistry (1951-1967) and later Symposia of the Japan Society for Cell Biology (1968-1974) was replaced by a new international journal called Cell Structure and Function initiated in 1975. This reformation made it possible for the Society to participate in the Science Council of Japan in 1975 and finally in 1993 to acquire its own study section of Cell Biology with grants-in-aid from the Ministry of Education and Science, Japan. The JSCB hosted the 3rd International Congress on Cell Biology (ICCB) in 1984 and the 3rd Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology (APOCB) Congress in 1998, thus contributing to the international advancement of cell biology. Now the membership of JSCB stands at approximately 1,800 and the number of presentations per meeting is 300 to 400 annually. Although a good number of interesting and important findings in cell biology have been reported from Japan, the general academic activity of the JSCB is far less than one might expect. This is simply due the fact that academic activity in the field of cell biology in Japan is divided among several other related societies such as the Japan Society for Molecular Biology and the Japan Society for Developmental Biology, among others.  (+info)

Circulation Research: origin and early years. (3/2140)

Circulation Research, first published in 1953, was created by the American Heart Association as "the authoritative new journal for investigators of the basic sciences as they apply to the heart and circulation." This review of the early years of the journal highlights the contributions of the first four Editors: Carl J. Wiggers, Carl F. Schmidt, Eugene M. Landis, and Julius H. Comroe, Jr. The success of Circulation Research is seen not only in the high quality of the articles published in its pages but also in the remarkable improvements in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease that have occurred over the past half century.  (+info)

In memoriam: Professor G.N. Ramachandran (1922-2001). (4/2140)

Few scientists contribute an idea of such clarity and power that it appears in all the discipline's textbooks and bears the author's name. For the contribution to be relevant and universally employed almost forty years after it first appeared is even less common. Structural biology lost the author of such an idea with the death of G.N. Ramachandran, whose picture appears on the cover of this issue of Protein Science. His seminal contribution is described in remembrances of Professor Ramachandran's life and career by colleague and co-author of the 1963 paper, C. Ramakrishnan. A perspective by George D. Rose follows, which articulates the enduring impact of that work.  (+info)

Intermediate care--a challenge to specialty of geriatric medicine or its renaissance? (5/2140)

The specialism of geriatric medicine has developed considerably in the last half of the twentieth century. In Great Britain it has emerged from its sombre beginnings in Victorian poor law institutions to become one of the largest specialities in medicine encompassing a wide range of disciplines and interests. More recently, there has been a parallel development in "intermediate care" a sweeping phrase that encompasses a wide diversity of practices in a plethora of venues. Although there is considerable attraction in minimising the duration of hospital stay by older people, there is a real risk of intermediate care being used as a euphemism for indeterminate neglect. For older people to benefit from appropriate treatment and care, the lessons learnt by earlier generations of geriatricians, and supported by the international evidence base should not be disregarded. Elderly people need a full multi-disciplinary assessment (comprehensive geriatric assessment) and continued involvement of skilled and trained personnel in their continuing care (geriatric evaluation and management). The recommendations of the British Geriatrics Society on intermediate care are commended and should be adhered to by all planners and providers of intermediate care. There is considerable logic in developing ways in which the two developments can be integrated to build upon the best features of both.  (+info)

Rheumatic fever in the 21st century. (6/2140)

In the first half of the twentieth century, the group A streptococcus (GAS) was established as the sole etiologic agent of acute rheumatic fever (ARF). In the century's latter half, the clinical importance of variation in the virulence of strains of GAS has become clearer. Although still obscure, the pathogenesis of ARF requires primary infection of the throat by highly virulent GAS strains. These contain very large hyaluronate capsules and M protein molecules. The latter contain epitopes that are cross-reactive with host tissues and also contain superantigenic toxic moieties. In settings where ARF has become rare, GAS pharyngitis continues to be common, although it is caused by GAS strains of relatively lower virulence. These strains, however, colonize the throat avidly and stubbornly. Molecularly distinct pyoderma strains may cause acute glomerulonephritis, but they are not rheumatogenic, even though they may secondarily colonize and infect the throat. Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of GAS pharyngitis and ARF are reviewed with particular reference to the prevalence of the latter in the community.  (+info)

Access to dental care: a historical review of medicaid eligibility growth and dental productivity decline. (7/2140)

The present dilemma in providing dental services to the indigent and Medicaid recipients throughout this nation has generated considerable controversy as to the evolution of the problem. Most states recognize that there are deficiencies in the provision of dental services to these populations and are seeking resolutions. While state licensing board practices and dental professional society politics have been the object of criticism as contributing to if not causing of this problem, other rational and statistically valid explanations for the current difficulty exist. As an explanation for access to care issues, this paper explores the decline in the national numbers of dental practitioners and concomitant dental productivity. Furthermore, it relates those parameters to the dramatic rise in the utilization and demand for dental services resulting from a robust economy, population growth trends, and changes in state and federal Medicaid legislation that increase numbers of Medicaid-eligible recipients. While these general trends are national in scope and application, the state of North Carolina and its experience will be used to fully explore the impact of these trends at the state and local level.  (+info)

History and importance of antimalarial drug resistance. (8/2140)

The emergence of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to widely used antimalarial drugs such as chloroquine (CQ) has made malaria control and treatment much more difficult. This is particularly dramatic for Africa, as few affordable alternatives are available. Drug pressure has been identified as one of the key factors for the emergence and spread of resistance. The contribution of the extensive use and misuse of antimalarial drugs to the selection of resistant parasites became particularly evident during the Global Malaria Eradication campaign, launched by World Health Organization (WHO) in 1955. The first reports confirming P. falciparum resistance to CQ came almost simultaneously in the early 1960s from South America and South-East Asia, where direct or indirect (through use of medicated cooking salt) mass drug administration (MDA) had been implemented. Similar approaches were very limited in Africa, where P. falciparum resistance to CQ was first reported from the eastern region in the late 1970s and spread progressively west. Most African countries still rely heavily on CQ as first-line treatment despite various levels of resistance, although some states have changed to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) as the first-line drug. Unfortunately, the predicted SP useful therapeutic life might be very short, probably because of its prolonged half-life, causing a higher probability of selecting resistant strains and a consequent fast development of resistance. CQ resistance is not evenly distributed and important differences can be found within and between countries. It seems to have spread more rapidly in East than in West Africa. Considering the high level of CQ use in West Africa, other factors such as intensity of transmission, population immunity or population movements should be considered when explaining the different levels of resistance. Understanding such factors may help us in devising strategies to contain the spread of drug resistance.  (+info)

  • she will be equipped with laboratories, 21st century science equipment and satellite communications, she will host cutting-edge science projects of international relevance while serving as vehicle for improving wider public engagement with and understanding of science. (timetoeatthedogs.com)
  • While most of Billington's admired bridges were built in the 20th century (by men born in the 19th), he also pays tribute to Christian Menn, designer of Boston's Zakim Bunker Hill Bridge, completed in 2002 -- an asymmetrical cable stayed bridge that has become a regional landmark. (mit.edu)
  • The greatest baseball team of the 20th century began the 21st century and their 77th season at Yankee Stadium with a tip of the cap to tradition and to history. (travel-watch.com)
  • In the first half of the 20th century, thousands of Jewish refugees escaping from the 1917 Russian Revolution arrived in China. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the early 20th century, press relations were inconsistent. (britannica.com)
  • This surgery will remain the standard operation to treat breast cancer until into the 20th century. (healthline.com)
  • In the 20th Century drying and bagging of hops went on much as it had done in previous centuries on the great majority of hop farms. (oastandhopkilnhistory.com)
  • Discussion of the industry took up much time on Parliamentary Committtees The decline in hop growing and drying, started in the 19th Century, went on remorselessly in the 20th Century. (oastandhopkilnhistory.com)
  • Hop drying subsidiaries of major brewers were a large presence in 20th Century operations, leading the way in installing modern machinery. (oastandhopkilnhistory.com)
  • Kelley was to become one of the most influential and effective social reformers of the 20th century. (nclnet.org)
  • Whereas the 20th century and the last decade of the 19th were marked by big, landscape-altering inventions like the automobile, the airplane, and commercialization of electric power, the breakthroughs of the next century promise to be tiny. (csmonitor.com)
  • The identification of the double helix, a landmark of 20th-century science, led to genome mapping and may herald an era of widespread engineering of anything with a genetic code: animals, plants, humans. (csmonitor.com)
  • Objective To demonstrate how changes in tobacco flue-curing practices in the 20th century increased levels of tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in tobacco smoke. (bmj.com)
  • However, it has to be said that if our predecessors had not collected so broadly, many species would currently be unknown to us, lost in the accelerating pace of environmental degradation of the 20th century. (actionbioscience.org)
  • 14.00) Undoubtedly, the 20th century has witnessed some of the most significant economic events in modern history. (bartleby.com)
  • Some of our "founding fathers" of educational administration around the turn of the 20th century actually supported the "Science of Eugenics" as it is called. (blogspot.in)
  • Henri Bergson was one of the most popular philosophers of the early 20th century, but he remains a cult figure today. (blogspot.com)
  • As described through the credit card history timeline, department stores and oil companies paved the way for the modern credit card. (prweb.com)
  • He is the author of The Vulnerable Planet and co-editor of Hungry for Profit (2000), Capitalism and the Information Age (1998), and In Defense of History (1996). (monthlyreview.org)
  • Detailing the ways in which two diasporic authors "re-visit history" and "re-negotiate identity", this thesis grapples with the complexity of these notions and explores the boundaries of displacement and the search for new home-spaces. (sun.ac.za)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{History, 21st century. (who.int)
  • In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, however, some international Jewish groups have helped Chinese Jews rediscover their Jewish heritage and reconnect with their Jewish roots. (wikipedia.org)
  • As early as the 13th century, those with hearing loss were using hollowed out horns of animals such as cows and rams as primitive hearing devices. (embs.org)
  • I learned the importance of history at an early age - my father, the late Horace Mann Bond, taught at several black colleges and universities. (splcenter.org)
  • Joel Greenberg recorded an oral history with EFF-Austin early board members John Quarterman, Ed Cavazos, and Jon Lebkowsky. (effaustin.org)
  • We invite and encourage you to take advantage of these great opportunities to learn a little bit more about another culture and our shared American history," said Jason Benitez, director of Multicultural Affairs. (union.edu)
  • Now we continue with the Transitional genre of typography, so-called because of its intermediate position between old style and modern -- as we continue the brief History of Typography. (graphic-design.com)
  • Vicini, P. (2006) Computer Simulations in Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics: Rediscovering Systems Physiology in the 21st Century, in Computer Applications in Pharmaceutical Research and Development (ed S. Ekins), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. (wiley.com)
  • You can find Eduardo no in the download Booklife: Strategies and Survival Tips for the 21st Century Writer with his DJ visitors, but this landfill with the Envelop administration' involves of another physiology. (actplatinum.com)
  • The European Commission has drawn support from consumer organizations and privacy advocates, but the archivists have received backing from other European professionals who rely on record-keeping, including genealogists and history professors. (taipeitimes.com)
  • Traditional decision making processes and models are falling behind the fast pace of this new century, both for individuals and organizations. (pickthebrain.com)
  • Established in the 1980's, it houses a large collection of family histories and genealogy books which were donated by the Arizona State Genealogical Society. (familysearch.org)
  • Several thousand donated family histories, books on various genealogical topics and geographical areas, and genealogical periodicals. (familysearch.org)
  • Most books about the history of humanity pursue either a historical or a biological approach, but Dr. Yuval Noah Harari breaks the mold with this highly original book. (audible.com)
  • Vastu Science for 21st Century is the latest contribution by the author, Prof. B. B. Puri, after an overwhelming response to his earlier books titled Vedic Architecture and Art of Living, Applied Vastu Shastra in Modern Architecture and Vastu Shastra for Mass Housing. (exoticindiaart.com)
  • If the kill count disparity were in truth as it is presented, and if there weren't two world wars crowding the history books, the answer to "who profits" would more solidly lie in the realm of "white supremacy", but that angle is weak. (goodmenproject.com)
  • From examining the role evolving humans have played in the global ecosystem to charting the rise of empires, Sapiens integrates history and science to reconsider accepted narratives, connect past developments with contemporary concerns, and examine specific events within the context of larger ideas. (audible.com)
  • Under the direction of the enterprising Paley as the network's longtime chairman, CBS made media history beginning in the late 1920s. (britannica.com)
  • His seminal book Marx's Ecology (Monthly Review Press, 2000) discusses the place of ecological issues within the intellectual history of Marxism and on the philosophical foundations of a Marxist ecology, and has become a major point of reference in ecological debates. (monthlyreview.org)
  • This leaflet by John A. Lupton discusses how incorporating legal records into programming at your museum, historical society, or site gives your audience a new and innovative perspective on local history. (site-ym.com)
  • The health of the public during the twenty-first century can be assured only through the cooperation and collaboration of many individuals in diverse institutional settings, each of which has important contributions to make to this important and challenging endeavor. (nap.edu)
  • By the time of the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, only a few Chinese Jews were known to have maintained the practice of their religion and culture though the Kaifeng synagogue survived for around seven centuries until 1860. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is a specialist in Chinese History in a wide range of topics ranging from the globalization affects urban life to popular culture to American views of Asia. (bartleby.com)
  • The UK today is a diverse patchwork of native and immigrant cultures, possessing a fascinating history and dynamic modern culture, both of which remain hugely influential in the wider world. (wikitravel.org)
  • This unique and innovative volume provides solid grounding to understandings of Israel's history, politics, culture, and possibilities for the future. (indigo.ca)
  • He is influenced by nineteen century European romantic painting which he layers with hip-hop culture and his art evolves from fictional history to real history painting. (pechakucha.org)
  • The history of the Columbia Broadcasting System (CBS) began in 1927 when talent agent Arthur Judson, unable to obtain work for any of his clients on the radio programs carried by the National Broadcasting Company (NBC), established his own network, United Independent Broadcasters. (britannica.com)
  • 17.95) The Work of Nations: Preparing Ourselves for 21st Century Capitalism. (bartleby.com)
  • Huell learns the full history of the sign from the people who work to preserve this icon. (kcet.org)
  • Susan Wooden can work miracles with history. (baltimoresun.com)
  • It Sorry is why dreams are averted in the natural three diseases and how to Work into moving the 10X Rule a download Booklife: Strategies and Survival Tips for the 21st. (actplatinum.com)
  • This article is about lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history in Turkey . (wikipedia.org)
  • This publication gives a history of biological warfare (BW) from the prehistoric period through the present, with a section on the future of BW. (gpo.gov)
  • But despite these failures of the technical aspects of evolutionary knowledge, Kropotkin offers a vision of Earth's history and biological evolution as a single duration. (blogspot.com)
  • In addition to regular issues of Viewpoint and the British Journal for the History of Science, and our active conference programme, membership benefits will shortly be expanded to include a dedicated members' area of the BSHS website. (bshs.org.uk)
  • Apart from the obvious need to preserve these collections for science (which sometimes runs contrary to the need to make them accessible to the public), all natural history collections are fundamentally concerned with three concepts. (actionbioscience.org)
  • America, the President observes, stands at a pivotal moment in its history. (worldcat.org)
  • At the edge of a new century, we must decide between two visions of America. (worldcat.org)
  • This is a history of hate in America - not the natural discord that characterizes a democracy, but the wild, irrational, killing hate that has led men and women throughout our history to extremes of violence against others simply because of their race, nationality, religion or lifestyle. (splcenter.org)
  • In today's constantly evolving world of technology, we must be able to connect our visitors with history through a variety of methods, not just traditional exhibitions and displays," said Hillary Hardwick, vice president of marketing communications with AHC. (prosoundnetwork.com)
  • shows that the integration of 21st Century technology increases student achievement and engagement if effectively implemented, integrated, and individualized. (bartleby.com)
  • Roma would also be singled out for collective punishment throughout the twentieth century, victims of public cruelty orchestrated with official connivance, targeted because of their pariah status and their ethnicity. (opendemocracy.net)
  • The grim genealogy of Roma persecution stretches from officially sanctioned 'Gypsy-hunts' and edicts of banishment in the seventeenth century to mass extermination in the mid-twentieth century Holocaust, and persecution and expulsion in the course of ethnic cleansing at the end of the millennium. (opendemocracy.net)
  • The twentieth century closed with the last Balkan war, and the Roma in Kosovo were caught between, and victimised by paramilitary combatants from both sides. (opendemocracy.net)
  • It is the year the eminent British historian Edward Gibbon published the first volume of his classic history, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire . (mskousen.com)
  • Though a small minority, Chinese Jews have had an open presence in the country since the arrival of the first Jewish immigrants during the 8th century CE. (wikipedia.org)
  • China's Jewish communities have been ethnically diverse ranging from the Jews of Kaifeng and other places during the history of Imperial China , who, it is reported, came to be more or less totally assimilated into the majority Han Chinese populace due to widespread intermarriage. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of a community of Jewish immigrants in China is consistent with the history of the Jewish people during the first and second millennia CE, which saw them disperse and settle throughout the Eurasian landmass, with an especially large concentration of Jews settling throughout Central Asia . (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite their peculiarities, they all share the deep-seated hatred and resentment that has given life to the Klan and terrorized minorities and Jews in this country for more than a century. (splcenter.org)
  • But history won't let me ignore current events. (splcenter.org)
  • A series of events, including concerts, exhibits and a formal ball, are scheduled in the coming weeks in honor of Black History Month. (union.edu)
  • Stewart said the events are designed to provide parents with a clear understanding of the Red Oaks School's distinctive educational vision and central mission: to lay the foundation for students to be "engaged global citizens, equipped with 21st century skills. (newjerseyhills.com)
  • As a volume in the History of Schools and Schooling series, this book seeks to look to the past for what it can teach us today. (peterlang.com)
  • The USA is 6-1-0 all-time against the Netherlands and will meet the Dutch for only the fourth time in the 21st century on Sunday. (ussoccer.com)
  • By the late 30th century, robots existed in similar numbers to humans on Earth, and the high number of robot voters caused Richard Nixon's head to win the presidential elections of year 3000 by exactly one vote. (theinfosphere.org)
  • Check out our Black History Month special edition, celebrating the achievements of women in Black history, in this week's print edition. (theskanner.com)
  • Yet the archivists say the right to be forgotten, as it has become known, could complicate the collection and digitization of mundane public documents - birth reports, death notices, real-estate transactions and the like - that form a first draft of history. (taipeitimes.com)
  • It provides a powerful foundation and historical background to economic thought by offering the histories of the individuals that most contributed to modern schools of economics and public policy. (mskousen.com)
  • In addition, military historians and students, and professors and students engaged in military studies and/or the history of warfare and weapons may want a copy of this publication. (gpo.gov)
  • Wooden joins a group of historians and living history interpreters as a board member of Jerusalem Mill. (baltimoresun.com)
  • There is nothing new about this kind of anti-Roma racism: the parallels with antisemitic violence in the last century are worthy of note. (opendemocracy.net)

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