Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.
Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.
The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.
An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)
Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.
Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)
An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.
The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.
The science devoted to the comparative study of man.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.
The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.
The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.
Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.
The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.
Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.
The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The interrelationship of medicine and religion.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.
Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.
The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.
Communicable diseases are illnesses caused by pathogens that can be transmitted from person to person through various means such as respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or contact with contaminated surfaces.
Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.
Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.
Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Unlawful act of taking property.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).
Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.
A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.
A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).
The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.
The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.
Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.
The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.
Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.
The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)

John Collins Warren and his act of conscience: a brief narrative of the trial and triumph of a great surgeon. (1/2006)

On examination of the correspondence among the principals involved, as well as the original patent application being prepared by Morton, it has become possible to reconstruct some of the remarkable details attending the first use of ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hos pital in the autumn of 1846. At the time that Warren invited Morton to demonstrate the use of his "ethereal vapor" for anesthesia in a minor operation on Oct. 16, 1846, the exact chemical composition of the agent used was being held secret by Morton; Warren was clearly disturbed by this unethical use of a secret "nostrum." When the time arrived 3 weeks later for its possible use for a serious "capital" operation, Warren employed a simple stratagem of public confrontation to discover from Morton the true nature of the substance to be used. On being informed that it was pure unadulterated sulfuric ether, not some mysterious new discovery labeled "Letheon," Warren gave approval for its first use in a "capital" operation (low thigh amputation) on Nov. 7, 1846. Despite this revelation to the immediate participants, a veil of secrecy continued to surround the substance for many months, an anomalous situation evidently traceable to Morton's desire for personal reward from the discovery. It was this matter of secrecy, rather than priority for its discovery, that surrounded the early use of ether anesthesia with controversy and recrimination both in this country and abroad.  (+info)

The pneumococcus at the millennium: not down, not out. (2/2006)

In the 12 decades that will have elapsed between the first isolation of the pneumococcus and the coming millennium, much of fundamental biologic importance has been learned from the study of this bacterium and the diseases it causes. Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with the development of Gram's stain, the Quellung reaction, and many of the fundamentals of immunology. It has also played a significant role in the history of antimicrobial therapy. After a transitory period of euphoria engendered by the improved prognosis of pneumococcal pneumonia resulting from therapeutic advances, recognition that the newer treatments could not bring about the recovery of those sustaining early irreversible physiologic injury led to renewed interest in immunoprophylaxis. Added impetus to this approach has been fostered by the recent rapid increase in the number of pneumococcal isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents and in the magnitude of their resistance. Pneumococcal vaccines are increasingly relevant.  (+info)

Early theory and research on hemispheric specialization. (3/2006)

This article provides an account of early theory and research on hemispheric specialization. It begins by tracing theory and research on localization of function that set the stage for the discovery of hemispheric specialization. After that, it describes the studies of Paul Broca, John Hughlings-Jackson, and others on hemisphere specialization and reviews some of the proposed explanations for the phenomenon. It then turns to the study of hemispheric specialization and mental illness, and it ends by identifying some of the linkages between theory and research from the past and the present.  (+info)

An appreciation of A.E. Malloch, MB, MD (1844-1919): a forgotten surgical pioneer. (4/2006)

Dr. Archibald Edward Malloch was a surgeon whose life and work were greatly influenced by Joseph Lister and his revolutionary system of antiseptic surgery. This paper describes how a young Canadian medical man came to introduce Lister's system to North America in 1869 and studies his career in the light of Lister's surgical epoch.  (+info)

Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940. (5/2006)

In the last fifteen years, a large series of controlled clinical trials showed that vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries. It is less well known that vitamin A underwent two decades of intense clinical investigation prior to World War II. In the 1920s, a theory emerged that vitamin A could be used in "anti-infective" therapy. This idea, largely championed by Edward Mellanby, led to a series of at least 30 trials to determine whether vitamin A--usually supplied in the form of cod-liver oil--could reduce the morbidity and mortality of respiratory disease, measles, puerperal sepsis, and other infections. The early studies generally lacked such innovations known to the modern controlled clinical trial such as randomization, masking, sample size and power calculations, and placebo controls. Results of the early trials were mixed, but the pharmaceutical industry emphasized the positive results in their advertising to the public. With the advent of the sulfa antibiotics for treatment of infections, scientific interest in vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy waned. Recent controlled clinical trials of vitamin A from the last 15 y follow a tradition of investigation that began largely in the 1920s.  (+info)

Rapid economic growth and 'the four Ds' of disruption, deprivation, disease and death: public health lessons from nineteenth-century Britain for twenty-first-century China? (6/2006)

Rapid economic growth has always entailed serious disruption: environmental, ideological, and political. As a result the relationship between economic growth and public health is complex since such disruption always threatens to spill over into deprivation, disease and death. The populations of most current high-income, high-life expectancy countries of 'the West' endured several decades of severely compromised health when they first experienced industrialization in the last century Although health technologies have moved on, the social, administrative and political disruption accompanying economic growth can still impede the delivery of health improvements. The case history of 19th-century laissez-faire Britain is explored in some detail to demonstrate the importance of these social and political forces, particularly the relative vigour and participatory nature of local government, linking to recent work on the importance of social capital in development. For a country like China today, paradoxically, there is nothing that needs such careful planning as a 'free market' economy.  (+info)

Chemical hormesis: its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis. (7/2006)

Despite the long history of hormesis-related experimental research, no systematic effort to describe its early history has been undertaken. The present paper attempts to reconstruct and assess the early history of such research and to evaluate how advances in related scientific fields affected the course of hormesis-related research. The purpose of this paper is not only to satisfy this gap in current knowledge but also to provide a foundation for the assessment of how the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships may have affected the nature of the bioassay, especially with respect to hazard assessment practices within a modern risk assessment framework.  (+info)

Milestones in the research on tobacco mosaic virus. (8/2006)

Beijerinck's (1898) recognition that the cause of tobacco mosaic disease was a novel kind of pathogen became the breakthrough which eventually led to the establishment of virology as a science. Research on this agent, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), has continued to be at the forefront of virology for the past century. After an initial phase, in which numerous biological properties of TMV were discovered, its particles were the first shown to consist of RNA and protein, and X-ray diffraction analysis of their structure was the first of a helical nucleoprotein. In the molecular biological phase of research, TMV RNA was the first plant virus genome to be sequenced completely, its genes were found to be expressed by cotranslational particle disassembly and the use of subgenomic mRNA, and the mechanism of assembly of progeny particles from their separate parts was discovered. Molecular genetical and cell biological techniques were then used to clarify the roles and modes of action of the TMV non-structural proteins: the 126 kDa and 183 kDa replicase components and the 30 kDa cell-to-cell movement protein. Three different TMV genes were found to act as avirulence genes, eliciting hypersensitive responses controlled by specific, but different, plant genes. One of these (the N gene) was the first plant gene controlling virus resistance to be isolated and sequenced. In the biotechnological sphere, TMV has found several applications: as the first source of transgene sequences conferring virus resistance, in vaccines consisting of TMV particles genetically engineered to carry foreign epitopes, and in systems for expressing foreign genes. TMV owes much of its popularity as a research mode to the great stability and high yield of its particles. Although modern methods have much decreased the need for such properties, and TMV may have a less dominant role in the future, it continues to occupy a prominent position in both fundamental and applied research.  (+info)

Scurvy is a disease caused by a deficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the diet. It is characterized by symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, joint pain, and bleeding gums. In severe cases, scurvy can lead to anemia, skin hemorrhages, and even death. Vitamin C is essential for the production of collagen, a protein that is important for the health of connective tissues such as skin, bones, and blood vessels. Without enough vitamin C, the body is unable to produce collagen, leading to the symptoms of scurvy. Scurvy was a common disease among sailors and pirates in the past, as their diets often lacked fresh fruits and vegetables, which are rich sources of vitamin C. Today, scurvy is rare in developed countries, as the diet is typically rich in vitamin C-containing foods. However, it can still occur in people with certain medical conditions or dietary restrictions that limit their intake of vitamin C.

In the medical field, "plague" refers to a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The disease is typically transmitted to humans through the bites of infected fleas that live on rodents. There are three main forms of plague: bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and septicemic plague. Bubonic plague is the most common form and is characterized by the development of painful, swollen lymph nodes (buboes) in the groin, armpit, or neck. Pneumonic plague is the most severe form and is characterized by the development of pneumonia (lung infection) that can be fatal if left untreated. Septicemic plague is a rare form that spreads rapidly through the bloodstream and can cause shock and organ failure. Plague is a serious and potentially life-threatening disease, but it is relatively rare in modern times. Treatment with antibiotics is usually effective if administered promptly. However, if left untreated, plague can be fatal.

In the medical field, communicable diseases are infections that can be transmitted from one person to another through various means such as direct contact, respiratory droplets, bodily fluids, or contaminated surfaces. These diseases can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and can affect people of all ages, genders, and backgrounds. Examples of communicable diseases include influenza, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, measles, mumps, rubella, chickenpox, hepatitis B and C, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and foodborne illnesses. These diseases can spread rapidly in crowded or poorly ventilated environments, and can cause serious health complications if left untreated. Preventing the spread of communicable diseases involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing, avoiding close contact with sick individuals, and getting vaccinated when possible. Healthcare professionals also play a crucial role in identifying and treating communicable diseases, as well as implementing public health measures to control their spread.

Smallpox is a highly contagious and deadly viral disease that has been eradicated worldwide through a global vaccination campaign led by the World Health Organization (WHO). The disease is caused by the Variola virus and is transmitted through the air by coughing, sneezing, or close personal contact with an infected person. Smallpox has two main forms: variola major and variola minor. Variola major is the more severe form and is characterized by high fever, severe headache, and a characteristic rash that spreads all over the body. Variola minor is less severe and has a milder course of illness. Smallpox was a major public health problem for centuries, causing millions of deaths worldwide. The first successful smallpox vaccine was developed in 1796 by Edward Jenner, and since then, vaccination has been the most effective way to prevent the disease. The last naturally occurring case of smallpox was reported in Somalia in 1977, and the disease was declared eradicated in 1980.

Periostitis is an inflammation of the periosteum, which is the layer of connective tissue that covers the bone. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, injury, or underlying medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis or osteoporosis. Symptoms of periostitis may include pain, swelling, and tenderness around the affected bone, as well as redness and warmth in the area. Treatment for periostitis typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the inflammation and may include medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or corticosteroids, as well as physical therapy or other supportive measures. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged bone.

DNA, Mitochondrial refers to the genetic material found within the mitochondria, which are small organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is a small circular molecule that is separate from the nuclear DNA found in the cell nucleus. Mitochondrial DNA is maternally inherited, meaning that a person inherits their mtDNA from their mother. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is diploid (contains two copies of each gene), mtDNA is haploid (contains only one copy of each gene). Mutations in mitochondrial DNA can lead to a variety of inherited disorders, including mitochondrial disorders, which are a group of conditions that affect the mitochondria and can cause a range of symptoms, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological problems.

In the medical field, neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors of cells that can occur in any part of the body. These growths can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They can cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, or difficulty moving the affected area. Examples of benign neoplasms include lipomas (fatty tumors), hemangiomas (vascular tumors), and fibromas (fibrous tumors). Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. They can cause a wide range of symptoms, depending on the location and stage of the cancer. Examples of malignant neoplasms include carcinomas (cancers that start in epithelial cells), sarcomas (cancers that start in connective tissue), and leukemias (cancers that start in blood cells). The diagnosis of neoplasms typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy (the removal of a small sample of tissue for examination under a microscope). Treatment options for neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Cholera is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It is primarily spread through contaminated water or food, and can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration, which can lead to death if left untreated. Symptoms of cholera include severe diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and a rapid heartbeat. Treatment typically involves rehydration therapy to replace fluids and electrolytes lost through diarrhea, as well as antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. Cholera is most common in developing countries with poor sanitation and limited access to clean water.

The smallpox vaccine is a live-attenuated vaccine that is used to prevent smallpox, a highly contagious and deadly viral disease. The vaccine is made from a weakened form of the variola virus, which causes smallpox. When administered, the vaccine triggers the body's immune system to produce antibodies that can protect against future infection with the virus. The smallpox vaccine is typically given as a series of two injections, with the second dose given 4-8 weeks after the first. The vaccine can cause side effects, including fever, headache, and a rash, but these are generally mild and temporary. Serious side effects are rare. The smallpox vaccine was one of the most effective vaccines ever developed, and it played a crucial role in the global eradication of smallpox in 1980. However, since smallpox has been eradicated, the vaccine is no longer widely used. It is only available in limited quantities for use in laboratory settings and in the event of a smallpox outbreak.

By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 13 percent of the total. Timeline of Muslim history Birth of ... Timelines of Muslim history, 19th-century Islam). ... most important Ottoman reform measure of the nineteenth century ...
The history of anatomy in the 19th century saw anatomists largely finalise and systematise the descriptive human anatomy of the ... Before the 19th century, most were bodies of executed criminals or, more rarely, corpses donated by relatives. The reason being ... Account of public destruction of an anatomy school Animation of 19th century illustrations showing head dissections (Articles ... History of anatomy, 19th century in science). ... of Physicians in Early Nineteenth Century American History. ...
History of the Jews in 18th-century Poland History of the Jews in 19th-century Poland History of the Jews in 20th-century ... History of the Jews in Poland by period, 19th century in Poland, 19th-century Judaism). ... The history of the Jews in 19th-century Poland covers the period of Jewish-Polish history from the dismemberment of the Polish- ... they were still part of the debate over the future of Judaism in the 19th century. By the late 19th century, Haskalah and the ...
19th century in Ohio, 19th century in American politics). ... For the last half of the century, it was the policy of the ... The next change in the state constitution did not occur until the 20th century. At the time of the first apportionment in 1812 ... Century Publishing Co., 1900 (Copyright 1899). (Use mdy dates from August 2023, All articles with unsourced statements, ... up to the last decade of the century, annual sessions were held, the general assembly adjourning to a date in the second year ...
Works of naval history, Naval historians, History of the Royal Navy, Bibliographies of wars and conflicts, 19th-century history ... This Bibliography covers sources for Royal Navy history through the 18th and 19th centuries. Some sources may be duplicated in ... of early warships of the English navy List of ships captured in the 18th century List of ships captured in the 19th century ... The naval history of Great Britain (1797-1800). Vol. 2 (New six volume ed.). London: Macmillan. 1902. The naval history of ...
History of the Latter Day Saint movement, LGBT timelines, 19th-century timelines, 19th century in LGBT history). ... This is a timeline of LGBT Mormon history in the 19th century, part of a series of timelines consisting of events, publications ... The first known reference to female same-sex eroticism in Mormon history occurred in 1856, when a Salt Lake man noted in his ... Winkler, Douglas A. (May 2008). Lavender Sons of Zion: A History of Gay Men in Salt Lake City, 1950--1979. Salt Lake City, Utah ...
The history of African-Americans in Omaha in the 19th Century begins with "York", a slave belonging to William Clark of the ... Webarchive template wayback links, 19th century in Nebraska, African-American history in Omaha, Nebraska). ... After a short history of slavery in Nebraska, the first free black person to live in Omaha was Sally Bayne, who moved to Omaha ... Three black newspapers were formed in the city in the last part of the century. They were founded by George F. Franklin, Thomas ...
History of the Catholic Church in the United States 20th-century history of the Catholic Church in the United States History of ... History of Catholicism in the United States, Catholic Church in the United States, 19th century in the United States, 19th- ... "A Century of American Catholic History." US Catholic Historian (1987): 25-49. in JSTOR Woods, James M. A History of the ... During the 19th century, a wave of immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Italy, Eastern Europe, and elsewhere swelled the number of ...
American music history, 19th century in music, 19th century in the United States). ... Today, the vast majority of 19th century U.S. composers are all but lost to history. This was also the era when women composers ... During the 19th century, many composers born in the U.S. traveled to Europe for the music education. They then returned to the ... Major 19th century Tin Pan Alley hits included "Only a Bird in a Gilded Cage" and "After the Ball Is Over". Struble, John ...
Assassinations That Changed The World, History Channel Fox, Richard (2015). Lincoln's Body: A Cultural History. W. W. Norton & ... Abbott, John S. C. (1873). The History of Napoleon III. Emperor of the French. Boston: B. B. Russell. p. 665. Brahms, William ( ... Washington, DC: Regnery History. pp. 74, 77. ISBN 978-1-62157-073-8. "Texas Military Veterans Post Office". Congressional ... "Now He Belongs to the Ages - BackStory with the American History Guys". Abraham Lincoln died, according to press reports, with ...
"19th Century History". City of Norfolk History. Retrieved January 31, 2012. City of Norfolk. "17th Century History". City of ... "All About Suffolk: History". Suffolk: Community. Archived from the original on April 19, 2012. Retrieved January 31, 2012. " ... Select the map for December 31, 1634 (the earliest date available). "About Us: History". Highland County. Retrieved December 26 ... "City of Portsmouth, Virginia - History". City of Portsmouth. Archived from the original on February 14, 2012. Retrieved January ...
Franklin, H. (2020). 1810-1819, 19th century decade overview. Fashion History Timeline. Retrieved September 7, 2020 from https ... 19th Century Men's Suit (American) 19th Century Men's Suit Jacket (American) 19th Century Men's Suit Jacket Detail (American) ... The early 19th century saw a shift from 18th century Enlightenment ideologies of order, reason and rationalism to new values of ... Franklin, H. (2020). 1850-1859, 19th century decade overview. Fashion History Timeline. Retrieved September 10, 2020 from https ...
ISBN 978-0-19-533579-8. Published in the 20th century History of the Salem East India Marine Society: its original act of ... 1983 Published in the 19th century By-Laws and Regulations of the East India Marine Society, Salem: Cushing, 1800 "Salem East ... "19th-century-experiences". Connected: Peabody Essex Museum blog. Retrieved 25 February 2017. Walter Muir Whitehill (1949). " ... "History of the Building". North of Boston Library Exchange. Archived from the original on 3 April 2018. Retrieved 1 April 2014 ...
Chemise from Attica region, early 20th century. 19th century gloves. "History". pli.gr. Peloponnesian Folklore Foundation. ... PFF was founded in 1974 by Ioanna Papantoniou and it is located since 1981 in an early 20th century house belonging to ... The museum also holds a collection of 5,500 items linked with the history of fashion, including works by designers such as ...
See Rosedale > History > Governance (19th century) > . . .Pickering - Lythe Historically Rosedale was in the parish of ... 1923). 'Parishes: Middleton', A History of the County of York North Riding: Volume 2. Victoria County History. British History ... In the late 19th century the valley quickly became a major centre for iron-ore extraction. Mining took place from 1857 to 1928 ... In the 19th century Rosedale East Side was in the parish of Middleton and the wapentake of Pickering - Lythe , while Rosedale ...
In the second half of the 19th century, four of the largest breweries in the United States opened in Milwaukee: Miller Brewing ... Wisconsin Magazine of History, scholarly articles on Wisconsin history Women's suffrage in Wisconsin History of the Midwestern ... highly detailed history Campbell, Henry C. Wisconsin in Three Centuries, 1684-1905 (4 vols.: 1, 2, 3, 4, 1906), highly detailed ... In fact, during the mid 19th century, Wisconsin produced about one sixth of the wheat grown in the United States. However, ...
"19th century knitting". Knittypedia.com. Retrieved 27 September 2017. Rudnick, Kara (November 2013 - January 2014). "The ... Users, Ravelry.com (requires registration) History 101 A history of knitting by Julie Theaker. History of knitting website with ... Stroud, Glouchestire, UK: The History Press, 2014. ISBN 978-0750955966 Macdonald, Anne L., No Idle Hands: The Social History of ... The 21st century has seen a resurgence of knitting. This resurgence coincided with the growth of the internet, as well as the ...
"History (19th century)". Early Gaelic Harp. Archived from the original on 25 November 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2007 - via ... In the early 19th century, even as the old Gaelic harp tradition was dying out, a new harp was developed in Ireland. It had gut ... A New History of Ireland, prehistoric and early history. Daibhi OCoinin (2005). Oxford University Press. J. Keay & Julia Keay ... Scotland's Music: A History of the Traditional and Classical Music of Scotland from Early Times to the Present Day. John Purser ...
Sagarra, Eda (1977). A Social History of Germany: 1648-1914. pp. 140-154, 341-45. ISBN 9780841903326. For details on the life ... Prussia underwent major social change between the mid-17th and mid-18th centuries as the nobility declined as the traditional ... Sagarra, Eda (1977). A Social History of Germany: 1648-1914. pp. 37-55, 183-202. Marion W. Gray, Productive men, reproductive ... 137-179 Perkins, J. A. (April 1986), "Dualism in German Agrarian Historiography", Comparative Studies in Society and History, ...
"History: 19th century". Sheffield Forgemasters. Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2021. "History: ... 20th century". Sheffield Forgemasters. Archived from the original on 11 May 2016. Retrieved 1 April 2021. Tomlinson, Heather (5 ...
By the early 19th century, it was a small kingdom and a tributary to the Oyo Empire. Like many West African states, Onim ... Since the 19th century, Lagos gradually transformed into a melting pot of Africans and Europeans. In 1869, the Cathedral Church ... In Britain's early 19th-century fight against the transatlantic slave trade, its West Africa Squadron or Preventative Squadron ... Agawu, Kofi (2014). "19th century Lagos". Representing African Music: Postcolonial Notes, Queries, Positions. Routledge. p. 12 ...
"History: 19th century". Sheffield Forgemasters International. Archived from the original on 23 August 2010. Retrieved 26 August ... is located on the site of a 19th-century iron foundry and showcases the city's history of steel manufacturing and includes a ... In the 19th century, the city saw a huge expansion of its traditional cutlery trade, when stainless steel and crucible steel ... The population of the town grew rapidly throughout the 19th century; increasing from 60,095 in 1801 to 451,195 by 1901. The ...
"Jerusalem architectural history". islamic-architecture.info. Archived from the original on 2012-08-03. Retrieved 2011-09-29. " ... The process started in the mid-19th century and by the early 20th century had entirely transformed the city. Prior to the 19th ... 19th century in Jerusalem, 19th century in Ottoman Syria). ... In the mid-19th century, with an area of only one square ... The expansion of Jerusalem in the 19th century, also referred to as the departure from the walls, was the process of building ...
ISBN 978-3-936000-12-2. Heller, J. G. (1942). As Yesterday When it is Past: a History of the I.M. Wise Temple KKBY, 1842-1942. ... Until the 19th century the roles of the chazzanim in America were similar to the ones they played in the old world during the ... The modern Reform Cantorate is seen as a result of developments that took place during the 19th century, largely in Europe. The ... By mid-century, the situation resembled the one that prevailed in Europe. As in the services being held in Germany and France, ...
"Nether Stowey Lock-up". 19th Century Prison History. Retrieved 24 December 2019. Historic England. "Alton (1374689)". National ... The majority of surviving village lock-ups date from the 18th and 19th centuries when rural communities struggled to police ... 1908). "Parishes: Barton in the Clay". A History of the County of Bedford. Vol. 2. London: Victoria County History. pp. 308-313 ... "Wirksworth County Lock Up House". Prison History. Retrieved 15 March 2020. "The History". Wirksworth: The Old Lockup B&B. ...
ISBN 0-7432-2722-0. "19th Century Baseball History". geocities.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2008-06 ... which was large by 19th-century standards. Recognized as the first great slugger in baseball history, and among the greatest ... He led the league in batting average five times, the most by a 19th-century player, and his career .342 batting average still ... He is tied with Mike Tiernan for fourth among 19th-century home run hitters with a total of 106, behind Roger Connor (138), Sam ...
Armstrong (1998), p. 37 Keogh, Daire (Summer 1998). "An Unfortunate Man". 18th - 19th Century History. 5 (2). Retrieved 21 ... 18th-century Irish people, 19th-century Irish people, Activists from County Antrim). ... In the best era of his country's history a soldier in her cause, and in the worst of times, still faithful to it: ever true to ... When an Ulster History Circle Blue Plaque marking Hope's birthplace (and installed with the support of the Ulster-Scots Agency ...
ISBN 978-0-85772-765-7. "Hanging, 19th century". Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Sermeh doozi, luxury ancient Iranian embroidery ... "The History of Pateh". Pateh Serah. Archived from the original on September 16, 2014. Kendrick, A.F. (1937). Brief Guide to the ... History of the Persian embroidery Examples of the Persian embroidery (Articles with short description, Short description ... Sarshar, Houman M. (2014-09-17). The Jews of Iran: The History, Religion and Culture of a Community in the Islamic World. ...
"River Police Station, Newcastle". 19th Century Prison History. Retrieved 3 May 2021. "Tyne and Wear Archives Service Catalogue ... Ward's Directory of Newcastle-on-Tyne, 1910 "British Police History". british-police-history.uk. Retrieved 29 April 2021. ...
Inventing the 19th Century. London: British Library. pp. 82-3. ISBN 0-7123-0881-4. "William IV (1765-1837)". History. BBC. ... Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 261-263. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2. Met ... Years of the 19th century in the United Kingdom, 1837 by country, 1837 in Europe, 1830s in the United Kingdom). ... ISBN 0-14-102715-0. "History of the Church in the British Isles". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2013. ...
Planning History: A Few of the Late 19th and 20th Century Places you Should Know ... This is part one in a blog series examining the history of public lands in the United States and their shifting role in the ... Earlier blogs have explored books and journals for finding out about the basics of planning history. In this blog I add to this ... Earlier blogs have explored books and journals for finding out about the basics of planning history. In this blog I add to this ...
The Age of Reason: Europe from the 17th to the Early 19th Centuries ... The more you site specific examples from the seventeenth-century account of the events, the more compelling your argument will ...
Prior literature studying railway accounting during the 19th and 20th centuries defends the thesis of lack of reliability of ... History of Accounting eJournal. Subscribe to this fee journal for more curated articles on this topic ... Accounting Quality in Railway Companies During the 19th and 20th Centuries: The Case of Spanish NORTE and MZA. Accounting and ... Prior literature studying railway accounting during the 19th and 20th centuries defends the thesis of lack of reliability of ...
English Science and Culture in the 19th Century. Category: 19th century The 19th century in English history crowned the effects ... 19th century Category. ENGLAND AT THE BEGINNING OF THE 19th CENTURY. THE PERIOD OF NAPOLEONIC WARS. Category: 19th century The ... Category: 19th century By the middle of the 19th century Britain established her industrial superiority in the world as well as ... ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL CHANGES IN ENGLAND IN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES. Category: 19th century One of the most significant ...
19th century controlled trials to test whether belladonna prevents scarlet fever. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of ... al-Razi 10th century CE;Tibi 2005).. Other people recognised centuries ago that, if treatment comparisons were going to be fair ... Some accounts of the use of unbiased treatment allocation appear early in the 19th century. In his 1816 Edinburgh doctoral ... Tibi S (2005). Al-Razi and Islamic medicine in the 9th Century. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history of treatment ...
Natural History & Taxidermy. Old Master & 19th Century Art. Orientalist Paintings. Philately, Numismatics, Stylomania. ... 20 th -21 st Centuries Art Deco. Comic Strips. Contemporary African Art. Design. Generation 21 by Artcurial. Impressionist & ...
Henderson chronicled a crucial period in Canadian history. British colonialism was boosting Quebecs population, driving ... In the late 19th century, he was one of the most prominent photographers in Canada, shooting lively urban scenes and idyllic ... The Explorer: 19th-Century Quebec In Photos. Alexander Henderson spent decades photographing the provinces dazzling landscapes ... But this exhibit, more than a century after his death, is the first major museum retrospective in his adopted home country. ...
Series: American popular history and culture (Routledge (Firm)American popular history and culture (Routledge (Firm))Material ... Series: Cambridge history of medicineMaterial type: Text; Format: print ; Literary form: Not fiction Language: English ... The medical history of early Singapore / by Lee Yong Kiat. by Lee Yong Kiat , Southeast Asian Medical Information Center , ... Explaining epidemics and other studies in the history of medicine / Charles E. Rosenberg. by Rosenberg, Charles E. ...
The Balkan Wars of the late 19th century were preceded by the successful Greek War of Independence. All of these events signal ... The rise of of nationalism in the Ottoman Empire was primarily a 19th century affair; the systematic Ottoman response was the ... For a detailed analysis of the 19th century see [Crisis of the Ottoman Empire]( amazon.com/Crisis-Ottoman-Empire-Zeitschrift- ... The Ottoman Empire was in a state of decline, both internal and external, during the 18th and 19th centuries, accelerating ...
... winter semester 2016/2017 , Last update: 30.01 ... Global History I: History of Brazil in the 19th and 20th Century, Part 1 ... Module 15: History outside Europe (7.5 ECTS-Credits, 4 h). *Teacher training programme History, Social Studies and Civic ... Compulsory Module 3: Global History (10 ECTS-Credits, 4 h). *Bachelors Programme History according to the curriculum 2015 (180 ...
... social and economic history, and historic relations between civilisations and cultures around the world. ... 16th to 19th centuries Discuss the Renaissance, Colonialism, the Enlightenment, the Industrial Revolution, etc. ... History & Civilisations. A place to discuss military, social and economic history, and historic relations between civilisations ... 20th century Discuss the events of the 20th century (WWI, WWII, the Cold War, etc.). ...
Although dating from the Middle Ages, the autograph album became very popular in the latter part of the 19th century. They were ... Artificial collection of personal papers, official documents, and correspondence from the 19th and 20th centuries, collected by ... It is not known if she later matriculated at a college, nor is her subsequent career or work history. This scrapbook documents ... Over his life, he maintained a passion for linguistics and in his spare time studied the history of alphabets and letter forms ...
... Estud. pesqui. psicol. [online]. 2021, ... Palavras-chave : history of psychology; history of psychiatry; onanism; masturbation; sexual psychopathy; Albert Moll. ... the main field explored in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The article, first part of a two-part study, intends to ... This study intends to resume the history of the concept of masturbation with the focus on how it unfolded from a fundamental ...
... and online publications on art history available to read, download and/or search for free. ... 19th-Century Architecture for the American Wing: Sullivan and Wright." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, v. 30, no. 5 (June- ... "Nineteenth-Century American Folk Art ." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 . See ... 19th-Century Architecture for the American Wing: Sullivan and Wright." Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, v. 30, no. 5 (June- ...
19th century[edit]. Norway celebrates its National Day on May 17 to commemorate the adoption of the 1814 Eidsvoll Code, which ... Norway and Denmark in the 11th century, to the Industrial Revolution of the mid-19th century. ... From the late 19th to the early 20th century, Nordic explorers revealed the last blank spots on the globe. Finland-Swedish ... In the late 19th century, the Swedish government lifted many guild laws and allowed free enterprise, as well as railway ...
Switzerland -- History -- 19th century -- Fiction Category. Text. EBook-No.. 1448. Release Date. Sep 1, 1998. ...
History. 19th-Century Educator Alexander Twilight Broke Racial Barriers,…. * Outdoors & Recreation. In a Classic Vermont ... 2. 19th-Century Educator Alexander Twilight Broke Racial Barriers, but Only Long After His Death. Its Complicated. History ... 19th-Century Educator Alexander Twilight Broke Racial Barriers, but Only Long After His Death. Its Complicated. ... 2. How a Senate Staffer From Norwich Helped Right the Wrong Done to J. Robert Oppenheimer History ...
Science--History--19th century * - Torpedoes * - Confederate States of America--Foreign relations--Great Britain ...
19th century art market collecting practices italian art neoclassical Society for the History of Collecting transcultural ... ANN: Collecting Neoclassical Tuscan Sculptures in the Early 19th Century America (Society for the History of Collecting/Online ... 20th century art Apply Now archives Art dealers art history artists art law Art Market art market practices art markets art ... Collecting Neoclassical Tuscan Sculptures in the Early 19th Century America. Michele Amedei, Università di Firenze ...
Public history. Oral history. 19th and 20th century United States history. History of museums, history of anthropology. ... The Craft of History. Graduate Courses. Theory and Method of Oral History. Museum and Historic Site Interpretation. ... Before graduate school, Redman worked at the Field Museum of Natural History, Science Museum of Minnesota, and History Colorado ... "Bodies of Knowledge: Philadelphia and the Dark History of Collecting Human Remains." Perspectives on History: The Newsmagazine ...
Freak shows -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century. Filed under: Freak shows -- Great Britain -- History -- 19th century* ... Filed under: Great Britain -- History -- 19th century*. The History of England During the Thirty Years Peace, 1816-1846. (2 ... Filed under: Great Britain -- History -- 13th century*. The History of England, From the Accession of Henry III to the Death of ... Filed under: Great Britain -- History -- 14th century*. The History of England, From the Accession of Henry III to the Death of ...
ART-3250 - 18th or 19th Century Art This is a lecture-based course on 18th or 19th century art which studies artwork in its ... ART-4295 - Special Topics in Art History Investigation of a particular topic, problem or issue in Art History with emphasis on ... It focuses on the painting, sculpture, photography, graphic arts of the 18th or 19th century. May be repeated up to 6 credit ... ART-2201 - History of Western Art: Ancient to Medieval An introduction to art and architecture as social products of a global ...
translation history, colonial history, 19th century translations in India. connect with others working in the area of ... translation historiography, periodical studies, Chinese studies (19th-early 20th century), intellectual history, silent-era ... Translation History (France 17th 18th century; Baghdad 9th century) Translation of Science and Philosophy; Arabic concepts of ... with a focus on 20th century France and Italy), intellectual history and translation, multilingualism and translation, ...
Articles on History of Wind Power This page was prompted by a technical question about early electricity-generating wind ... Traditional Windmills in Germany at the turn of the 19th Century. September 6, 2022. ... History of Wind Power - in North America - Internationally - Museums with Wind Exhibits - North American Open-Air Museums - ... The history of wind energy is a broad subject and many have written about it. Ive pulled together a list of sources, books, ...
This article delves into the fascinating history and evolution of handcuffs, tracing their origins, significant milestones, and ... Handcuffs are an iconic symbol of law enforcement and have been used for centuries to restrain individuals who pose a threat to ... 18th and 19th Centuries:. Innovations and Improvements: The modern handcuff, as we know it today, began to take shape in the ... In the early 19th century, the Darby handcuff, named after its inventor Sir William Parker Darby, gained popularity. It ...
Professor of Eighteenth-Century British History. Department of History 17th-19th c. British Social and Cultural History; Crime ... Reader in Modern History. Department of History 19th & 20th-century Britain, Germany and Italy; social policy; legal history ... Senior Lecturer in Modern British and Irish History. Department of History History of modern Britain and Ireland, history of ... Senior Lecturer in Ancient Near Eastern History and Literature. Department of History History, literature, and cultures of the ...
Publication History:. Published online:. 31 October 2011. Spanish, 19th - 20th century, male. ... History painting, portraits, landscapes, seascapes.. Juan Martínez Abades studied at the Escuela Especial de Pintura, Escultura ... Landscapes with figures, natural history (animals/insects).. John White Abbott took up painting initially as a hobby but became ...
Slave Trade In The 16th And 19th Century. 643 Words , 3 Pages. Throughout the 16th and 19th centuries, slave trade had become ... In the 21st century people believe that slavery is a historical relic, but the truth is history always finds a way to repeat ... From mid-15th century to the end of the 19th century, in order to provide labor, the western colonial countries took a large ... Ap World History Research Paper. 748 Words , 3 Pages. In the 16th century, European continue to arrive in Africa. Castle was ...
Prominent 19th Century Artists of Color. February is Black History Month, where we as a nation take... ... Art History. overstockArt.com. Renoirs Inner Circle: Luncheon of the Boating Party. Posted by Kara ... Kara graduated from Emporia State University with a BA in History. She enjoys researching a variety of historical topics, from ... which was considered to be the most important art history periodical in France. The man he is conversing with is the poet, ...
  • Prior literature studying railway accounting during the 19th and 20th centuries defends the thesis of lack of reliability of accounting figures. (ssrn.com)
  • The advent of fair treatment allocation schedules in clinical trials during the 19th and early 20th centuries. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • Scientific advances in the late 19th and early 20th centuries resulted in the prevention and control of many infectious diseases, particularly in industrialized nations. (cdc.gov)
  • This study intends to resume the history of the concept of masturbation with the focus on how it unfolded from a fundamental concept for general medicine to a later important concept in the context of the first medical and psychological studies of human sexuality, especially studies of sexual perversions, the main field explored in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (bvsalud.org)
  • This challenge changed in the 19th and 20th centuries because of economic development and improvements initiated largely by the Industrial Revolution -- public health and hygiene, the advent of antibiotics and vaccinations, and, driving these, the consolidation of the germ theory of disease (1). (cdc.gov)
  • The period of greatest peace and prosperity was in the mid-18th century, the half century during and after the so-called Tulip Period of 1718-1730. (stackexchange.com)
  • Innovations and Improvements: The modern handcuff, as we know it today, began to take shape in the late 18th century. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Reports of events involving the birth and development of Homeopathy during the 18th century. (bvs.br)
  • Notorious in the mid-18th century as a place where the insane, destitute, and hopelessly ill were admitted with little hope of being released, Charcot described the Salpêtrière as the " grand asylum of human misery . (medscape.com)
  • So, several outbreaks of malaria occurred as far north as Massachusetts since the end of the 18th century, throughout the 19th century. (cdc.gov)
  • Horace Greeley, The American Conflict: A History of the Great Rebellion in the United States of America, 1860-65: its Causes, Incidents, and Results: Intended to exhibit especially its moral and political phases with the drift and progress of American opinion respecting human slavery from 1776 to the close of the War for the Union. (tufts.edu)
  • In the late 19th century, he was one of the most prominent photographers in Canada, shooting lively urban scenes and idyllic rural landscapes in a sweeping style reminiscent of the great Romantic painters. (macleans.ca)
  • The roots of U.S. occupational safety and health regulation date back to the late 19th century. (cdc.gov)
  • The story of labor during the late 19th century up until the passage of the Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) Act of 1970 is a troubling one, riddled with industrial accidents and tragedies. (cdc.gov)
  • These gains build on progress that began for some countries in the late 19th century. (who.int)
  • In the late 19th century and the earlier part of the 20th century, waterpipe tobacco smoking was popular among older men in the Middle East who used primarily the harsh non-flavored referred to as Ajami tobacco. (who.int)
  • The sugarcane industry caused a peak in Vieques' economic growth in the late 19th century, however, sugarcane is no longer commercially grown on the island. (cdc.gov)
  • The 19th century in English history crowned the effects of the Industrial Revolution. (england-history.org)
  • This article describes old towns and other remnants in the Nordic countries from the unification of Sweden, Norway and Denmark in the 11th century, to the Industrial Revolution of the mid-19th century. (wikivoyage.org)
  • Our results suggest that Lm-CC1 45 spread worldwide from North America following the Industrial Revolution through two 46 waves of expansion, coinciding with the transatlantic livestock trade in the second half of 47 the 19th century and the rapid growth of cattle farming in the 20th century. (cdc.gov)
  • The world enters the 21st century with hope but also with uncertainty. (who.int)
  • With vision, commitment and successful leadership, the report argues, the world could end the first decade of the 21st century with notable accomplishments. (who.int)
  • Compressing the time required to accomplish major and tangible results is the task for leadership in the 21st century. (who.int)
  • The new tobacco use trend of the 21st century is "Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking" (WTS). (who.int)
  • The discovery of a form of low-grade systemic and chronic inflammation ("metaflammation"), linked to inducers (broadly termed "anthropogens") associated with modern man-made environments and lifestyles, suggests an underlying basis for chronic disease that could provide a 21st-century equivalent of the germ theory. (cdc.gov)
  • Methods to ensure that like will be compared with like in fair treatment comparisons were proposed at least as early as the 17th century. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • The medical history of early Singapore / by Lee Yong Kiat. (who.int)
  • The lecture focuses on the presence of masterpieces by Tuscan sculptors such as Lorenzo Bartolini, Luigi Pampaloni and Domenico Menconi in collections of eminent American and non-American personalities in the U.S. of the early 19th Century. (artmarketstudies.org)
  • The research, based on studies made in archives held in the U.S. as well as in Florence, will reveal new perspectives on transnational and artistic/art market exchanges between U.S. and Tuscany in the early 1800s and, in time, open new perspectives on the history of American collectibles at that time. (artmarketstudies.org)
  • The early history of infectious diseases was characterized by sudden, unpredictable outbreaks, frequently of epidemic proportion. (cdc.gov)
  • In the early 19th century, the Darby handcuff, named after its inventor Sir William Parker Darby, gained popularity. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • During the early 20th century, several additional techniques were used to improve outcome for the repair of VVF. (medscape.com)
  • Le Fort I osteotomy was popularized by Considering the psychological aspects, Obwegeser in the midt20th century as a neuroticism may have a negative effect standard procedure in maxillofacial surgery on the early postoperative phase but not to correct dentofacial deformities [ 4,5 ]. (who.int)
  • Yet, a historical perspective of quarantine can contribute to a better understanding of its applications and can help trace the long roots of stigma and prejudice from the time of the Black Death and early outbreaks of cholera to the 1918 influenza pandemic ( 2 ) and to the first influenza pandemic of the twenty-first century, the 2009 influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 outbreak ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Sweden has the world's longest continuous census records, started in the 17th century for conscription to the army, as well as the world's oldest central bank, founded in 1668. (wikivoyage.org)
  • In the 16th century, Sweden broke away from the Kalmar Union. (wikivoyage.org)
  • Suprapubic access to the bladder can be traced back to the 16th century. (medscape.com)
  • Caroline works on the neglected history of Indigenous American travellers to Europe in the sixteenth century. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • A form of waterpipe used in India in the sixteenth century was made from a coconut shell as the water reservoir, with a bamboo reed inserted through the top. (who.int)
  • Denmark has been a sovereign kingdom since the 8th century, and its flag was adopted during the 13th century, as the world's first known national flag that is still in use. (wikivoyage.org)
  • Most medieval literature is from the 13th century or later, consisting of provincial laws, letters, and chronicles. (wikivoyage.org)
  • The territories that became Finland were pagan, with few Christian churches, and scarce written records, until Swedish kings went on crusades to Christianize and annex Finland in the 12th and 13th centuries. (wikivoyage.org)
  • As some of them were built in the 12th to 14th centuries, when paganism was still remembered, they might give a clue about the architecture of Old Norse temples, of which none remain today. (wikivoyage.org)
  • The history of quarantine-not in its narrower sense, but in the larger sense of restraining the movement of persons or goods on land or sea because of a contagious disease-has not been given much attention by historians of public health. (cdc.gov)
  • Colonizing the body : state medicine and epidemic disease in nineteenth-century India / David Arnold. (who.int)
  • The Smithsonian at war: Museums in US society during World War II ," Journal of the History of Collections , January 2019. (umass.edu)
  • The famed 19th century French physician made myriad enduring contributions to the field. (medscape.com)
  • Reports of Homepathic developments during the 19th century, including exceptional characters involved within that period. (bvs.br)
  • African pioneers of modern medicine : Nigerian doctors of the nineteenth century / Adelola Adeloye. (who.int)
  • His interests concern the presence of U.S as well as French painters and sculptors in Florence in the first half of the nineteenth century. (artmarketstudies.org)
  • Nineteenth-Century Homeopathic Repertories Predict Increased Urinary Excretion of Bile in Cholestasis but Not in Non-Cholestatic Infant Jaundice. (bvsalud.org)
  • For centuries, these practices have been the cornerstone of organized responses to infectious disease outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Again, also here in yellow fever, it's important to note that open cisterns, usually indicative of poor living conditions, were common in the homes of the Mississippi gulf coast, for, during the centuries of time that those outbreaks happened--so, it, so again the coincidence between poor sanitation conditions and the prevalence of those diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Remarkable gains in health, rapid economic growth and unprecedented scientific advance - all legacies of the 20th century - could lead to a new era of human progress. (who.int)
  • He received his B.A. in anthropology and history from the University of Minnesota, Morris and an M.A. and Ph.D. in American history at the University of California, Berkeley. (umass.edu)
  • He also helped to organize Berkeley's Japanese American Confinement Sites Oral History Project and San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge Oral History Project. (umass.edu)
  • Perspectives on History: The Newsmagazine of the American Historical Association , September 15, 2022. (umass.edu)
  • A significant milestone in handcuff history was the introduction of the modern rotating, double-locking mechanism by American inventor W. V. Adams in the 1860s. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Our areas of expertise reach from ancient history to contemporary history, encompassing European, Asian, African and American history and including history of the Humanities and epistemology. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Indigenous (especially Aztec-Mexica), Spanish American and Atlantic history. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • The worst mining accident in American history also happened that day. (cdc.gov)
  • In Nordic historiography, the Middle Ages and Nordic history (superseding Nordic prehistory) are considered to have begun in the mid-11th century, with the establishment of Christianity, the unification of Sweden, Denmark and Norway, and a gradual increase of written records. (wikivoyage.org)
  • A third book, The Museum: A Short History of Crisis and Resilience was published by NYU Press in 2022. (umass.edu)
  • The Museum: A Short History of Crisis and Resilience (New York: NYU Press, 2022). (umass.edu)
  • History Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for historians and history buffs. (stackexchange.com)
  • The detailed and exceptionally clear 1948 report of the British Medical Research Council's randomised trial of streptomycin for pulmonary tuberculosis is rightly regarded as a landmark in the history of clinical trials ( MRC 1948 ). (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • In fact, for half a century before the MRC trial and Fisher's writings, some medical practitioners wishing to evaluate the effects of treatments had used alternate allocation to assemble similar groups of patients, and so ensure that like would be compared with like. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • For the next two and a half centuries, it was an aggressive power that waged war on eastern Europe, mostly in the Balkans, advancing as far as Hungary and Rumania, to the southern borders of Poland and Russia. (stackexchange.com)
  • Regional conflicts have replaced the global wars of the first half of the 20th century as a source of continued misery. (who.int)
  • The Universal Declaration of Human Rights - now half a century old - is only a tantalizing promise for far too many. (who.int)
  • The history of these diseases provides a valuable perspective for evaluating current trends. (cdc.gov)
  • the epidemiology and natural history of many infectious diseases were described, and successful control measures were initiated. (cdc.gov)
  • In the new millennium, the centuries-old strategy of quarantine is becoming a powerful component of the public health response to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Sarah Gregory] Would you give us a brief history of mosquito diseases in the U.S., then? (cdc.gov)
  • However, the resulting declines in infections in the 20th century were matched by a rise in chronic, noncommunicable diseases, for which there is no single underlying etiology. (cdc.gov)
  • The Museum traces how cultural institutions responded to episodes of crisis over the past century in the United States. (umass.edu)
  • Discuss each country's great contributions to the world and most famous individuals in history. (eupedia.com)
  • Other people recognised centuries ago that, if treatment comparisons were going to be fair, like must be compared with like. (jameslindlibrary.org)
  • Discuss the history and origins of the (Proto-)Indo-European people. (eupedia.com)
  • Click on a year below to learn more about the important people and events in the history of One Health. (cdc.gov)
  • Henderson chronicled a crucial period in Canadian history. (macleans.ca)
  • This is also a time for reflection and looking back at our history. (cdc.gov)
  • A review of the literature on the history, safety and effectiveness of current bleaching techniques 1 revealed that the first documented use of tooth whitening agents dated back to the mid 1800s and described the use of oxalic acid. (bvsalud.org)
  • The second focus highlights the constitutional and political changes, the economic, social and political problems of Brazil in this century. (uibk.ac.at)
  • One of the most significant things about the industrial development of the eighteenth century was the requirement of extensive capital to carry on industrial undertakings on the larger scale which now became the rule. (england-history.org)
  • After a brief presentation of the structural conditions emerging during the colonial period and which should have an effect long time after, the lecture focusses on the political and socio-economic development after winning its independence in the 19th century. (uibk.ac.at)
  • Other news items are relevant to the history of wind turbine development. (wind-works.org)
  • Reports envolving the homeopathic development events, 21th century. (bvs.br)
  • A place to discuss military, social and economic history, and historic relations between civilisations and cultures around the world. (eupedia.com)
  • From the 8th to the 11th century, the Norse became notorious during the Viking Age as pirates, mercenaries and colonists across Europe. (wikivoyage.org)
  • Laura's main research interest lies in twentieth century Jewish political history, which largely pivots around core questions of Jewish migration from Europe to North America and the Middle East. (sheffield.ac.uk)
  • Since the 1800s, scientists have noted the similarity in disease processes among animals and humans, but human and animal medicine were practiced separately until the 20th century. (cdc.gov)
  • The history of wind energy is a broad subject and many have written about it. (wind-works.org)
  • Before graduate school, Redman worked at the Field Museum of Natural History, Science Museum of Minnesota, and History Colorado. (umass.edu)
  • Although modern history of orthognathic surgery patients with dysmorphophobia (feeling started in the 1970s, as it gradually became unattractive despite having almost normal a routine choice, with benefits such as imt appearance) may benefit from surgery, the provement of mastication and reduction of initial treatment should be psychiatric rather facial pain and more stable results even in than surgical [ 12 ]. (who.int)
  • Handcuffs are an iconic symbol of law enforcement and have been used for centuries to restrain individuals who pose a threat to public safety or are suspected of committing a crime. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • The complex and controversial history of this centuries-old public health strategy offers guidance for its future use. (cdc.gov)
  • By the middle of the 19th century Britain established her industrial superiority in the world as well as her dominant position in world trade. (england-history.org)
  • Professor "Sam" Redman studies U.S. social, cultural, and intellectual history. (umass.edu)
  • While at Berkeley, Redman served as the Lead Interviewer for the Rosie the Riveter / World War II Homefront Oral History Project. (umass.edu)
  • This article delves into the fascinating history and evolution of handcuffs, tracing their origins, significant milestones, and technological advancements that have shaped their design and functionality. (beforeitsnews.com)
  • Deep Hanging Out as Historical Research Methodology: The National Anthropological Archives at the Smithsonian Institution, " History of Anthropology Review . (umass.edu)
  • Here we analysed 2,021 Lm-CC1 43 isolates collected from 40 countries, since the first Lm isolation to the present day, to 44 define its evolutionary history and population dynamics. (cdc.gov)
  • The 'metropolis of capitalism', as Karl Marx called England increased the number of its cotton-spinning and weaving factories from 1932 to 2483 during the 50s and 60s of the 19th century. (england-history.org)