History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Famous PersonsMedicine in ArtHistoryHistory of MedicinePaintingsPersia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Nobel PrizeEmbryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.History of NursingMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Literature, MedievalEuropeSculptureBooksMummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.United StatesMythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)ArtManuscripts, MedicalMagic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Philosophy, MedicalForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Engraving and EngravingsReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.ItalyFounder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Communicable DiseasesEconomic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Theft: Unlawful act of taking property.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Citrus aurantiifolia: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Genealogy and HeraldryEnglandClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Awards and PrizesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.GermanyEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.GreeceDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Great BritainOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).North AmericaHungaryCrops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.South AmericaWater Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.PortugalEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Europe, EasternSuntan: An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.RussiaSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.PolandGeneral Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.SwitzerlandPacific OceanLondonSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.BrazilAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.AfricaNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.MexicoNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.WalesGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)History of DentistrySex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.JapanNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)

John Collins Warren and his act of conscience: a brief narrative of the trial and triumph of a great surgeon. (1/2006)

On examination of the correspondence among the principals involved, as well as the original patent application being prepared by Morton, it has become possible to reconstruct some of the remarkable details attending the first use of ether anesthesia at the Massachusetts General Hos pital in the autumn of 1846. At the time that Warren invited Morton to demonstrate the use of his "ethereal vapor" for anesthesia in a minor operation on Oct. 16, 1846, the exact chemical composition of the agent used was being held secret by Morton; Warren was clearly disturbed by this unethical use of a secret "nostrum." When the time arrived 3 weeks later for its possible use for a serious "capital" operation, Warren employed a simple stratagem of public confrontation to discover from Morton the true nature of the substance to be used. On being informed that it was pure unadulterated sulfuric ether, not some mysterious new discovery labeled "Letheon," Warren gave approval for its first use in a "capital" operation (low thigh amputation) on Nov. 7, 1846. Despite this revelation to the immediate participants, a veil of secrecy continued to surround the substance for many months, an anomalous situation evidently traceable to Morton's desire for personal reward from the discovery. It was this matter of secrecy, rather than priority for its discovery, that surrounded the early use of ether anesthesia with controversy and recrimination both in this country and abroad.  (+info)

The pneumococcus at the millennium: not down, not out. (2/2006)

In the 12 decades that will have elapsed between the first isolation of the pneumococcus and the coming millennium, much of fundamental biologic importance has been learned from the study of this bacterium and the diseases it causes. Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with the development of Gram's stain, the Quellung reaction, and many of the fundamentals of immunology. It has also played a significant role in the history of antimicrobial therapy. After a transitory period of euphoria engendered by the improved prognosis of pneumococcal pneumonia resulting from therapeutic advances, recognition that the newer treatments could not bring about the recovery of those sustaining early irreversible physiologic injury led to renewed interest in immunoprophylaxis. Added impetus to this approach has been fostered by the recent rapid increase in the number of pneumococcal isolates resistant to antimicrobial agents and in the magnitude of their resistance. Pneumococcal vaccines are increasingly relevant.  (+info)

Early theory and research on hemispheric specialization. (3/2006)

This article provides an account of early theory and research on hemispheric specialization. It begins by tracing theory and research on localization of function that set the stage for the discovery of hemispheric specialization. After that, it describes the studies of Paul Broca, John Hughlings-Jackson, and others on hemisphere specialization and reviews some of the proposed explanations for the phenomenon. It then turns to the study of hemispheric specialization and mental illness, and it ends by identifying some of the linkages between theory and research from the past and the present.  (+info)

An appreciation of A.E. Malloch, MB, MD (1844-1919): a forgotten surgical pioneer. (4/2006)

Dr. Archibald Edward Malloch was a surgeon whose life and work were greatly influenced by Joseph Lister and his revolutionary system of antiseptic surgery. This paper describes how a young Canadian medical man came to introduce Lister's system to North America in 1869 and studies his career in the light of Lister's surgical epoch.  (+info)

Vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy, 1920-1940. (5/2006)

In the last fifteen years, a large series of controlled clinical trials showed that vitamin A supplementation reduces morbidity and mortality of children in developing countries. It is less well known that vitamin A underwent two decades of intense clinical investigation prior to World War II. In the 1920s, a theory emerged that vitamin A could be used in "anti-infective" therapy. This idea, largely championed by Edward Mellanby, led to a series of at least 30 trials to determine whether vitamin A--usually supplied in the form of cod-liver oil--could reduce the morbidity and mortality of respiratory disease, measles, puerperal sepsis, and other infections. The early studies generally lacked such innovations known to the modern controlled clinical trial such as randomization, masking, sample size and power calculations, and placebo controls. Results of the early trials were mixed, but the pharmaceutical industry emphasized the positive results in their advertising to the public. With the advent of the sulfa antibiotics for treatment of infections, scientific interest in vitamin A as "anti-infective" therapy waned. Recent controlled clinical trials of vitamin A from the last 15 y follow a tradition of investigation that began largely in the 1920s.  (+info)

Rapid economic growth and 'the four Ds' of disruption, deprivation, disease and death: public health lessons from nineteenth-century Britain for twenty-first-century China? (6/2006)

Rapid economic growth has always entailed serious disruption: environmental, ideological, and political. As a result the relationship between economic growth and public health is complex since such disruption always threatens to spill over into deprivation, disease and death. The populations of most current high-income, high-life expectancy countries of 'the West' endured several decades of severely compromised health when they first experienced industrialization in the last century Although health technologies have moved on, the social, administrative and political disruption accompanying economic growth can still impede the delivery of health improvements. The case history of 19th-century laissez-faire Britain is explored in some detail to demonstrate the importance of these social and political forces, particularly the relative vigour and participatory nature of local government, linking to recent work on the importance of social capital in development. For a country like China today, paradoxically, there is nothing that needs such careful planning as a 'free market' economy.  (+info)

Chemical hormesis: its historical foundations as a biological hypothesis. (7/2006)

Despite the long history of hormesis-related experimental research, no systematic effort to describe its early history has been undertaken. The present paper attempts to reconstruct and assess the early history of such research and to evaluate how advances in related scientific fields affected the course of hormesis-related research. The purpose of this paper is not only to satisfy this gap in current knowledge but also to provide a foundation for the assessment of how the concept of hormetic dose-response relationships may have affected the nature of the bioassay, especially with respect to hazard assessment practices within a modern risk assessment framework.  (+info)

Milestones in the research on tobacco mosaic virus. (8/2006)

Beijerinck's (1898) recognition that the cause of tobacco mosaic disease was a novel kind of pathogen became the breakthrough which eventually led to the establishment of virology as a science. Research on this agent, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), has continued to be at the forefront of virology for the past century. After an initial phase, in which numerous biological properties of TMV were discovered, its particles were the first shown to consist of RNA and protein, and X-ray diffraction analysis of their structure was the first of a helical nucleoprotein. In the molecular biological phase of research, TMV RNA was the first plant virus genome to be sequenced completely, its genes were found to be expressed by cotranslational particle disassembly and the use of subgenomic mRNA, and the mechanism of assembly of progeny particles from their separate parts was discovered. Molecular genetical and cell biological techniques were then used to clarify the roles and modes of action of the TMV non-structural proteins: the 126 kDa and 183 kDa replicase components and the 30 kDa cell-to-cell movement protein. Three different TMV genes were found to act as avirulence genes, eliciting hypersensitive responses controlled by specific, but different, plant genes. One of these (the N gene) was the first plant gene controlling virus resistance to be isolated and sequenced. In the biotechnological sphere, TMV has found several applications: as the first source of transgene sequences conferring virus resistance, in vaccines consisting of TMV particles genetically engineered to carry foreign epitopes, and in systems for expressing foreign genes. TMV owes much of its popularity as a research mode to the great stability and high yield of its particles. Although modern methods have much decreased the need for such properties, and TMV may have a less dominant role in the future, it continues to occupy a prominent position in both fundamental and applied research.  (+info)

*Albany Medical College

The Institute is named in honor of Alden March, a 19th-century physician. In 1899, famous physician and proclaimed "Father of ... Over its 170-year history, Albany Medical College has attracted and produced many leaders in medicine and research. Among its ... Chester Bidwell Darrall, Union Army Surgeon and Republican Congressman from Louisiana in the latter 19th Century. Segun Toyin ... Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden, noted for his pioneering surveying expeditions of the Rocky Mountains in the late 19th century. ...

*Timeline of 19th-century Muslim history

By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 13 percent of the total. Timeline of Muslim history. ... is issued on February 18 and constitutes the most important Ottoman reform measure of the nineteenth century. It guaranteed the ...

*History of 19th-century congressional redistricting in Ohio

For the last half of the century, it was the policy of the party in power in the legislature to secure the largest amount of ... The next change in the state constitution did not occur until the 20th century. At the time of the first apportionment in 1812 ... up to the last decade of the century, annual sessions were held, the general assembly adjourning to a date in the second year ...

*Bibliography of 18th-19th century Royal Naval history

This Bibliography covers sources for Royal Navy history through the 18th and 19th centuries. Some sources may be duplicated in ... of early warships of the English navy List of ships captured in the 18th century List of ships captured in the 19th century ... The naval history of Great Britain...Volume 2, Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, London p. 646, E'book -- (1837), The naval history of ... The naval history of Great Britain...Volume 5, Richard Bentley, London, p. 404, E'book -- (1837), The naval history of Great ...

*History of anatomy in the 19th century

The history of anatomy in the 19th century saw anatomists largely finalise and systematise the descriptive human anatomy of the ... Before the 19th century, most were bodies of executed criminals or, more rarely, corpses donated by relatives. The reason being ... Account of public destruction of an anatomy school Animation of 19th century illustrations showing head dissections. ... The Robbing of Graves for the Education of Physicians in Early Nineteenth Century American History. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ...

*History of the Jews in 19th-century Poland

History of the Jews in pre-18th-century Poland History of the Jews in 18th-century Poland History of the Jews in 19th-century ... they were still part of the debate over the future of Judaism in the 19th century. By the late 19th century, Haskalah and the ... Jewish Polish history during the 19th century: Official Russian policy would eventually prove to be substantially harsher to ... Poland History of the Jews in 20th-century Poland Jewish Polish history (1989-present) Dubnow, Simon (2000). History of the ...

*19th-century history of the Catholic Church in the United States

The 19th-century history of the Catholic Church in the United States was characterized by several unsuccessful attempts by ... "A Century of American Catholic History." US Catholic Historian (1987): 25-49. in JSTOR Woods, James M. A History of the ... During the 19th century, a wave of immigrants from Ireland, Germany, Italy, Eastern Europe and elsewhere swelled the number of ... In the latter half of the 19th century, the first attempt at standardizing discipline in the American Church occurred with the ...

*History of African Americans in Omaha in the 19th century

The history of African-Americans in Omaha in the 19th Century begins with "York", a slave belonging to William Clark of the ... After a short history of slavery in Nebraska, the first free black person to live in Omaha was Sally Bayne, who moved to Omaha ... Three black newspapers were formed in the city in the last part of the century founded by George F. Franklin, Thomas P. ... Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for the Study of African American Life and History in Charlotte, NC.. ...

*Music history of the United States in the late 19th century

Today, the vast majority of 19th century U.S. composers are all but lost to history. This was also the era when women composers ... During the 19th century, many composers born in the U.S. traveled to Europe for the music education. They then returned to the ... Major 19th century Tin Pan Alley hits included "Only a Bird in a Gilded Cage" and "After the Ball Is Over". Struble, John ... In the later decades of the 19th century, the music industry became dominated by a group of publishers and song-writers in New ...

*List of cities and counties in Virginia

"19th Century History". City of Norfolk History. Retrieved 31 January 2012. City of Norfolk. "17th Century History". City of ... "All About Suffolk: History". Suffolk: Community. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012. ... Select the map for December 31, 1634 (the earliest date available). "About Us: History". Highland County. Retrieved December 26 ... "City of Portsmouth, Virginia - History". City of Portsmouth. Retrieved 31 January 2012. City of Suffolk. " ...

*List of Baltimore Orioles (19th century) managers

During their history, the 19th century Baltimore Orioles employed six managers. The duties of the team manager include team ... The Baltimore Orioles were a 19th-century Major League Baseball team that played in Baltimore, Maryland. They played in the ... Van Haltren's winning percentage of .091 is the lowest in Orioles' history. He was by John Waltz, who won just two of the eight ... The 1050 games Barnie managed were the most in Orioles' history, and the 548 games he lost were also the most in Orioles' ...

*Dan Brouthers

ISBN 0-7432-2722-0. "19th Century Baseball History". geocities.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-20. Retrieved 2008-06 ... which was large by 19th-century standards. Recognized as the first great slugger in baseball history, and among the greatest ... He led the league in batting average five times, the most by a 19th-century player, and his career .342 batting average still ... He is tied with Mike Tiernan for fourth among 19th-century home run hitters with a total of 106, behind Roger Connor (138), Sam ...

*Inner Temple

"Library History - 19th century". Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 4 November 2009. Bellot ... The Court features a pump, the water of which was noted in the 19th century for its purity. King's Bench Walk has contained ... "Library History - 18th century". Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 19 December 2000. Retrieved 4 November 2009. " ... Much of the Temple was rebuilt during the 19th century, most noticeably the Hall and Library, although fever and disease ...

*Victorian restoration

ISBN 0-9528631-1-1. "History - The 19th Century". Lichfield Cathedral. Retrieved 22 September 2011. Luxford, Julian M (2000). " ... After some structural work early in the 19th century by James Wyatt, the ornate west front (pictured above) was restored by Sir ... At Lichfield Cathedral, the 18th century had been a period of decay: the 15th-century library was pulled down, most of the ... and rebuilding of Church of England churches and cathedrals that took place in England and Wales during the 19th-century reign ...

*Inner Temple Library

"Library History - 19th century". Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009. "The ... "Library History - 18th century". Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 19 December 2000. Retrieved 4 November 2009. ... The history of the Library is discussed in some detail in the introduction to J. Conway Davies's Catalogue of Manuscripts in ... The present building was completed in 1958 to the design of T.W. Sutcliffe, and is in the style of the eighteenth century. The ...

*List of coeducational colleges and universities in the United States

"History: 19th-Century Founding". Retrieved 2010-02-18. "Cornell University". Retrieved 2010-02-18. "Bucknell Timeline of ... "DePauw University: History and Traditions". Retrieved 2009-08-21. Davidson Wright, Carol (1909). The New Century Book of Facts ... "History of Mount Union". Retrieved 2011-07-05. "The History of Olivet College". Archived from the original on 2010-01-10. ... "History of Iowa State: Student Life". Retrieved 2011-07-07. "Kansas: A Cyclopedia of State History". Archived from the original ...

*Conestoga wagon

"Conestoga wagon". About.com 19th Century History. Retrieved April 23, 2014. Stewart, George R. (1962). "The Prairie Schooner ... The Conestoga wagon is a heavy, covered wagon that was used extensively during the late eighteenth century, and the nineteenth ... "Conestoga Wagon Time-Lapse". National Museum of American History. YouTube.. ... century, in the eastern United States and Canada. It was large enough to transport loads up to 6 tons (5.4 metric tons), and ...

*Brigg

History of Lincolnshire Committee. Henthorn, Frank (1987). History of 19th Century Brigg. Spiegl. Cox, J. Charles (1916) ... The History of Catholicism in Brigg and District. Holmes, Clive (1980). Seventeenth-Century Lincolnshire. ... ISBN 0-86299-430-6. "Brigg Market Town: History". Archived from the original on 12 October 2010. Plea Rolls of the Court of ... Leahy, Kevin (2010). The Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Lindsey (2nd ed.). History Press. "This is Scunthorpe: £60,000 scheme to cut ...

*Cotati, California

"History of Cotati: 19th Century". City of Cotati. Retrieved 2007-11-30. Draper, p. 7 Torrey, John; Dail Miller; Andrew Kratter ... "History of Cotati: Early 20th Century". City of Cotati. Retrieved 2007-11-30. "rancho-adobe-fire.org". Retrieved October 3, ... DeClercq, John H. A History of Rohnert Park "from seed to city" , 1977. Retrieved on August 6, 2006. Includes history of the ... ISBN 0-7385-2873-0. Local history with many old photos. Shumway, Burgess M., California Ranchos: Patented Private Land Grants ...

*1845 to 1868 in baseball

"Baseball History: 19th Century Baseball: The Game". Retrieved October 15, 2009. "Knickerbocker Baseball Rules". Retrieved ... ISBN 0-7864-0779-4. Baseball History: 19th Century Baseball. ...

*1852 Atlantic hurricane season

David M. Roth (1998). "Louisiana Hurricane History: Late 19th Century". Lake Charles, Louisiana National Weather Service. ...

*Constitution of Michigan

19th Century Michigan History "Michigan Legislature". mi.gov. Retrieved April 23, 2016. Michigan Manual 2011-2012: ...

*Masonville, New Jersey

"Township History - 19th Century Mount Laurel". Mount Laurel Township website. Archived from the original on May 6, 2011. ...

*Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats

"Povijest - 19 stoljeće" [History - 19th century]. hns.hr (in Croatian). Croatian People's Party - Liberal Democrats. Archived ... The Croatian People's Party describes the events of the Illyrian movement since 1835 as its history.[clarification needed] ...

*Norton Hall

Gives 17th to 19th century history. The Goodliffe Family of Lambley Lodge, Rutland. Gives details of Goodliffe family. Family ... For most of its history it has been a private residence, in its latter history it has been used as a NHS hospital, a private ... He had the dining room panelled in oak and installed a 17th-century marble fireplace, thereafter it was known as the Oak Room. ... The present Norton Hall dates from 1815 but the Norton estate has great history and can be traced back to pre Conquest days ...

*Chapman & Hall

... was a British publishing house in London, founded in the first half of the 19th century by Edward Chapman and ... A History from the Earliest Times to the Twentieth Century. Little, Brown. Arthur Waugh (1930). A hundred years of publishing: ... They continued to publish previously unpublished Dickens material well into the 20th century. Another popular author on the ...

*Pamphlet

19th Century Social History Pamphlets Collection. Collection of pamphlets relating to 19th century Irish social history, ... 19th Century British Pamphlets Online. Information about a project that digitised 26,000 19th century pamphlets from UK ... 19th Century Pamphlet Collection. Collection of 19th-century pamphlets, predominantly of Irish interest and covering a broad ... generalized from a twelfth-century amatory comic poem with an old flavor[clarification needed], Pamphilus, seu de Amore (" ...
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In retrospect, the development of population research in Great Britain represents a conundrum. Despite the seminal contributions to population theory and demographic science by Graunt, Petty, King, Malthus and Farr and the development at an early stage in the nineteenth century of substantial interest in explaining patterns of long-run population change, it was not until the mid-1960s that English historical demographers began to apply new methodologies which had been pioneered in France two decades earlier. Only with the creation of the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure was an appropriate institutional framework provided for taking forward new research in this field. This article seeks to cast some light on the background to this apparent conundrum by analysing the scale, direction and disciplinary focus of research in what is now recognised as historical demography in the period from the late-nineteenth century to the early 1960s. It focuses on the growth of ...
In this first English-language study of popular and scientific responses to tuberculosis in nineteenth-century France, David Barnes provides a much-needed historical perspective on a disease that is making an alarming comeback in the United States and Europe. Barnes argues that French perceptions of the disease--ranging from the early romantic image of a consumptive woman to the later view of a scourge spread by the poor--owed more to the power structures of nineteenth-century society than to medical science. By 1900, the war against tuberculosis had become a war against the dirty habits of the working class. Lucid and original, Barness study broadens our understanding of how and why societies assign moral meanings to deadly diseases.. ...
|em|Nineteenth Century Collections Online: Europe and Africa: Commerce, Christianity, Civilization, and Conquest|/em| presents a dramatic, gripping chronicle of exploration and missions from the early nineteenth century through the Conference of Berlin in 1884 and the subsequent scramble for Africa. Unique sources provide a wealth of research topics on explorers, politicians, evangelists, journalists, and tycoons blinded by romantic nationalism or caught up in the competition for markets and converts. These monographs, manuscripts, and newspapers cover key issues of economics, world politics, and international strategy.
Sir William Osler, Baronet: Sir William Osler, Baronet, Canadian physician and professor of medicine who practiced and taught in Canada, the United States, and Great Britain and whose book The Principles and Practice of Medicine (1892) was a leading textbook. Osler played a key role in transforming the organization and
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Having live-in domestic servants seems like the height of luxury today, but in the nineteenth century, hired girls were common in middle-class households in Illinois. In a society without electricity and running water, household chores were onerous, and in the nineteenth century, a wave of immigrants made labor cheap and plentiful.
In neurological circles today the name James Taylor (1859-1946) is probably remembered mainly for his role in editing the Selected Writings of John Hughlings Jackson, the most readily available source of Jacksons contributions to neurological knowledge. Taylors own neurological achievements are largely or entirely forgotten, but in his day he was an influential figure whose career linked the great figures of the golden era of late nineteenth century British neurology to the neurology of the first half of the twentieth century. Not only was he a junior professional colleague and close friend of both John Hughlings Jackson and William Gowers, he also produced a substantial corpus of neurological writings in his own right, including a textbook of child neurology and the first English language account of subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord.
Ive just come across two men, one early nineteenth century, one later nineteenth century, whose first name was King. With the first one (the excel
Of the roughly 1 million people of Asian descent in South Africa in the mid-1990s, all but about 20,000 are of Indian descent. Most speak English as their first language, although many also speak Tamil or Hindi, and some speak Afrikaans as a second or third language. Many South Africans of Indian descent trace their ancestry to indentured agricultural laborers brought to Natal in the nineteenth century to work on sugar plantations. But almost all Indians in South Africa in the 1990s were born there, because the South African government curtailed immigration from India in 1913.. Asians have endured racial and ethnic pressures throughout the past century. In the late nineteenth century, they were prohibited from living in the Orange Free State; a few settled in the Pretoria-Johannesburg area, but in the 1990s almost 90 percent of the Asian population live in KwaZulu-Natal--especially in Durban and other large urban centers. Only about 10 percent live in rural areas.. In the nineteenth century, ...
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Both Michael Jacksons family and his personal physician were at pains to explain on Sunday what caused the troubled pop stars sudden death weeks before his long-awaited comeback. Dr. Conrad Murray, who was at Jacksons side when he died, told police he did not inject the singer with painkillers before his fatal cardiac arrest on Thursday, his lawyer said on Sunday after reports he received a shot of narcotic Demerol.. When asked at Sundays BET Awards about the care his son received from doctors in his last moments, Jacksons father, Joe, said, "I have a lot of concerns. ... I cant get into that, but I dont like what happened.". He said funeral arrangements for the King of Pop were still being discussed. A family friend said services could take place on Wednesday and the body could be buried at Jacksons famous Neverland Ranch.. Tension over the mysterious death came to the surface at the BET Awards, modified at the last minute as a tribute to Jacksons musical genius. Some stars bristled ...
NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES X)"t^*) J:^*^*" 1 •"•• 1.K1M)\ LllU,.\KV Ka ^^ t WlC \ s Digitized by the Internet Archive in 2007 with funding from IVIicrosoft Corporation http://www.archive.org/details/biographicalsket00fran2 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF DISTINGUISHED LIVIXG NEW YORK PHYSICIANS. SAMUEL W. FRANCIS, A. M., M. D., FELLOW OP THE NEW YORK ACADBMY Ot MEDICINE. NEW YORK: PUBLISHED BY GEORGE P. PUTNAM & SON. 1867. Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1867, By DR. SAMUEL W. FRANCIS, In the Clerks Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern District of New York. THIS VOLUME IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED TO EVERT A. DUYCKINCK, Esq., THE LKAUNED AUTHOR, TRUE FRIEND, AND CHRISTIAN GKNTLEMAN, BY HIS SINCERE ADMIRER, SAMUEL W. FRANCIS. \ CONTENTS Preface 7 Martyn Paine, 13 John "W. Draper, 33 John H. Griscom, 43 Fordyce Barker, fil C. E. Brown Scquard, 73 James Anderson, 89 F.Campbell Stewart, 101 A. K. Gardner, 119 Isaac E. Taylor, 133 Isaac Wood, 159 ...
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Although most of the organs found in Peru today were imported from Europe during the hundred years that followed independence and the establishment of the Republic (1821), only a few of this large and unique collection have been studied and evaluated. These instruments attest to a vibrant and varied use of the organ in ecclesiastical contexts that continues a long and consistent tradition, well documented from the beginnings of the viceregal era in 1535. Among the surviving nineteenth-century organs in Peru, those built by the Italian immigrant Innocente Foglia stand out because they appear to be the only organs constructed in Peru during this period of the Republic. All the Foglia organs known at present are in prominent churches in major cities and exhibit an amalgamation of various national styles, both Romantic and pre-Romantic. Innocente Foglia is also known to have repaired and restored many of the imported European organs in Peru. Basic biographical information about Foglia, recently ...
Jean-Martin Charcot was born on November 29, 1825 in Paris, France; he died at Auberge des Settons, near Vézelay, France on August 16, 1893. He isremembered as a physician, neurologist, and teacher who succeeded in relatingmany neurological disorders to physical causes. He held the position of professor at the University of Paris for 33 years. In 1862, he began an association with the Salpetrière Hospital, an ancient and famous hospital in Paris, that lasted throughout his life (eventually Charcot would become director of this hospital).. Charcot studied medicine in Paris. After failing a competitive examination in1847, he was elected Interne at the Salpetrière in 1848. Charcots M.D. thesis (1853) contributed to the understanding of the difference between rheumatoid arthritis, and gout and other joint diseases. Charcot was the firstto describe intermittent claudication (1858). When he began practicing at the Salpetrière in 1862, he found many long-term patients suffering fromundiagnosed or ...
7) What is science? I was dismayed to discover that students in my own university were being taught (by someone with a new PhD in history of science from a prestigious institution) that there was no such thing as science in the seventeenth century. But this, after all, is what Henrys textbook says, and Dear in his 2012 review essay confidently asserts: "specialist historians seem increasingly agreed that science as we now know it is an endeavour born of the nineteenth century." On her university website one distinguished historian of science is described thus: "Paula Findlen teaches history of science before it was science (which is, after all, a nineteenth-century word)." (http://web.stanford.edu/ dept/HPS/findlen.html, accessed 7 Dec 2015). How have we got to the point where it appears to make sense to claim that "science" is a nineteenth-century word? Because Newton, we are told, was not a scientist (which indeed is a nineteenth-century word) but a philosopher. Even if one charitably ...
At the May 29, 2017, Board meeting, Trustees approved a recommendation for the Ancaster Accommodation Review to rebuild C.H. Bray and Rousseau Elementary Schools on their existing sites, build an addition at Ancaster Senior Elementary School and close Fessenden and Queens Rangers Elementary Schools once the new schools and the addition are constructed. This approval also requires a boundary review to determine the boundaries of the new schools at the Beverly Community Centre site and C.H. Bray. The schools involved in the boundary review include the new school at Greensville (Greensville and Spencer Valley), the new school at Beverly Community Centre Site (Beverly Central and Dr. John Seaton), Queens Rangers, C.H. Bray and Sir William Osler.. ...
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McGill-Queens Native and Northern #69: Womens Work, Womens Art: Nineteenth-Century Northern Athapaskan Clothing by Judy Thompson available in Trade Paperback on Powells.com, also read synopsis anA richly illustrated study of the dress and adornment traditions of the Indigenous peoples of North...
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The purpose of this new book is to persuade us that Charles Thomas Jackson, who gave Morton a little background information about ether and spent the rest of his life claiming priority for the Great Invention, was not as crazy as has been previously alleged. The critical incident reported in this book concerns the accidental meeting in Fall 1832 of Jackson and Samuel Morse on the boat Sully as it crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Europe to America. Morse, a successful artist, had become interested in the possibility of developing an electric telegraph. He and passengers on the Sully , including Jackson, chatted about the possibility of sending messages through wires. Jackson later claimed he had given Morse the whole idea. The meat of this book consists of sworn depositions given by Jackson in the course of complicated lawsuits brought by others claiming they, and not Morse, were responsible for key elements of the electric telegraph ...
press release Goetz, C. G. (2000). Battle of the titans - Charcot and Brown-Sequard on cerebral localization. Neurology, 54(9), 1840-1847. Objective: To examine the differing views of Jean-Martin Charcot and Charles Edouard Brown-Sequard-two celebrated neuroscientists of the nineteenth century-on cerebral localization as exemplified in their controversial debate of 1875 at the Societe de Biologie in Paris. Background: As clinicopathologic correlations were developed in the mid and late nineteenth century, cerebral localization was a primary topic of debate at scientific, social, and religious levels. Charcot, representing an anatomic approach to research, and Brown-Sequard, representing a physiologic perspective, disagreed fundamentally on the importance of cerebral localization to normal behavior and neurologic illness. Methods: The minutes of the Societe de Biologie meetings of 1875 and 1876, as well as primary archive documents from the Archives Nationales de 1Academie des Sciences and the ...
This thesis is the first to combine organology, musicology, history and ethnography in a comprehensive study focusing on Irish organ-building. Chapter One commences with an extensive historical survey of Irish organ-building. Chapter Two proposes that there was a thriving indigenous industry in the nineteenth century with two leading families, Telford and White. It describes their family and business history that continued until the early part of the following century. It also exposes evidence of religious prejudice and comments on Irish exports within the British Empire. Chapter Three proposes a relationship between manufactory and functionality, and suggests that Irish organ-builders were following English builders in the use of practical casework designs. A case study of Telfords work at Trinity College Chapel, Dublin and Durrow (1838, 1842) examples expedient measures in the building of a new organ and adaptation of an old organ. Chapter Four presents analyses of layout, architectural ...
This class focuses on the history of biology within modern and contemporary art, architecture, and design. It traces biocentrism â€" a biology-based philosophy of the oneness of art and science â€" from the late nineteenth century to the present within the greater world of art. It is a realm notably stretched, expanded and refashioned to include the pragmatic activities and thinking of scientists. We will trace the influences of this nature-holism from the nineteenth-century naturalists Ernst Haeckel and Raoul Francé to the fount of twentieth-century modern design at the German and American Bauhaus in the work of Walter Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Lászlo Moholy-Nagy to twenty-first century bioart and synthetic biology in contemporary architecture and design. The class brings to the fore the lesser known pedagogy of biofunctionalism within the Bauhaus, comparing it to New Objectivity Bauhaus functionalism. Readings trace the diasporic spread of this Bauhaus biofunctionalism ...
During the nineteenth century, Britains urban population increased as its rural population diminished. A historian theorizes that, rather than industrializations being the cause, this change ...
Favorite Books of 2001 by Adolph L. Reed Jr. Reed Jr., Adolph L. // Progressive;Jan2002, Vol. 66 Issue 1, p41 Reviews several books on political activism. Black Nationalism in American Politics and Thought, by Dean Robinson; Coercion, Contract, and Free Labor in the Nineteenth Century, by Robert J. Steinfeld; Deep Souths: Î", Piedmont, and Sea Island Society in the Age of Segregation, by J.... ...
History of the Error and the Normal Distribution in the Mid Nineteenth Century - History of statistics;error;normal distribution;Quetelet;social science;
A philosophical review of Richard Rapport, M.D., Nerve Endings: The Discovery of the Synapse (New York: Norton, 2005). Richard Rapports remarkable book returns us to the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century where amateur science hewed more closely to aesthetic vision. The main characters are the cantankerous Italian, Camillo Golgi, and the pensive, ardent…
Nordic Landscape Painting In The Nineteenth Century by Torsten Gunnarsson available in Hardcover on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. In this richly illustrated book, Torsten Gunnarsson provides for the first time a comprehensive...
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A comparison of lifestyles, economic achievement and population behaviour of Montreals three cultural communities (French Catholic, Irish Catholic and English Protestant)from 1840 to 1900. The authors point out that the three communities exhibited three different demographic systems and strategies which changed significantly over the second half of the nineteenth century ...
On the whole, the psychological work of the last quarter of the nineteenth century emphasized the study of consciousness to the neglect of the total life of intellect and character. - Edward Thorndike quotes from BrainyQuote.com
The modern western concept of the homosexual is, according to some historians, primarily a creation of late nineteenth-century medical-science discourses. In the context of elaborating systems of classification and descriptions of different sexualities, as part of a quest to uncover the truth about human nature, the homosexual is said to have stepped forward as a distinct human type with his/her own mental and physical nature. (Seidman. Embattled Eros: Sexual Politics and Ethnics in Contemporary America, p.146). Homosexual identity emerged reactively to the new claims of late nineteenth century science, and the state, in relation to the classification and management of human sexuality as a whole. (Watney, Emergent Sexual Idenitties and HIV/AIDS in Aggleton, Davies, and Hart, AIDS: Facing the Second Decade, p. 14). The biological model of sexuality saw homosexuals not as sinners or criminals, but as abnormal individuals who were in need of a cure. Although some sexologists, including Ellis, saw ...
Brian Oxman, Joe Jacksons attorney, said some family members were disappointed that the physician was charged only with involuntary manslaughter. The criminal case comes after a seven-month investigation that stretched from the master bedroom of Jacksons Holmby Hills mansion to the heart clinic Murray ran in a poor neighborhood of Houston. The focus, however, rarely left Murray. Within weeks of Jacksons death, detectives described the doctor as a manslaughter suspect in court papers that said he admitted leaving the singer alone and under the influence of propofol -- a powerful anesthetic used to render surgical patients unconscious -- in a bedroom of the sprawling home. The coroners office ruled Jacksons death a homicide and said the cause was "acute propofol intoxication" in conjunction with the effect of other sedatives Murray acknowledged providing. Despite the almost immediate focus on Murray -- authorities first questioned him in the hospital where doctors were working in vain to ...
The following is from the book Emil Seletz, Sculptor. All through my medical training I have always been inspired by "the great physician". The father of the first truly great volume on medicine is by Sir William Osler. While in Baltimore in 1937, I visited with sculptor Hans Schuller, and he related to me his making of a portrait bust of Sir William Osler. This was sometime in early 1905. It was his custom in modeling a portrait bust of a male subject to use the Greek style of finishing with the naked unclothed chest. Mrs. Osler wanted Oslers accustomed wing collar and elegant dress, but Hans Schuller would not agree to her request. Dr. Osler looked quite young at that time. Mrs. Osler refused to accept the bust (eventually acquired by Johns Hopkins). When beginning the portrait bust of Dr. Osler, my good friend Dr. Elmer Belt, the urologist and universally famous for his Leonardo DaVinci collection, procured for me some 30 or more photographs of Sir William Osler as well as copies of drawings ...
The Night Travellers feature in the episode "From Out of the Rain", portrayed as a travelling circus group in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. They were described as only appearing at night, and "out of the rain". This suggests that some kind of H2O Scoop technology may have been used, but since the Night Travellers were humans, this is unlikely. The Night Travellers stole the breaths of their audiences in order to keep a permanent audience, the people themselves vanishing along with the Night Travellers. However, with the rise of cinema in the 20th Century, travelling circuses diminished, including the Night Travellers. Jack Harkness called them an extinct species. However, the Night Travellers survived on old film reels.. The certain Night Travellers in particular were of the Joshua Joy Travelling Show, led by the creepy ringmaster called the Ghostmaker, who carried a silver flask with him to store the captured breath of his victims. He was infatuated with Pearl, whom ...
Hermaphrodites and the Medical Invention of Sex, by historian of science Alice Domurat Dreger, was published in 1998 by Harvard University Press. In the book, Dreger describes how many doctors and scientists treated human hermaphrodites from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. She states that during this time period, many physicians and scientists struggled to determine the nature sex, and to support a classification of sex as male or female, many physicians and scientists resorted to viewing a persons gonads for identification of his or her sex.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications, Theories, Disorders ...
Read chapter Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Committee Members: The U.S. Census Bureau has reported that 56.7 million Americans had some type of disa...
Read chapter Appendix F Biographical Sketches of Committee, Subcommittee, Panel Members and Staff: Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has b...
250.000 FREE 19th century reformism Papers & 19th century reformism Essays at #1 ESSAYS BANK since 1998! BIGGEST and the BEST ESSAYS BANK. 19th century reformism Essays, 19th century reformism PAPERS, Courseworks, 19th century reformism Term Papers, 19th century reformism Research Papers and unique 19th century reformism papers from EssaysBank.com
In a book deeply impressive in its reach while also deeply embedded in its storied setting, bestselling historian Douglass Shand-Tucci explores the nature and expression of sexual identity at Americas oldest university during the years of its greatest influence. The Crimson Letter follows the gay experience at Harvard in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, focusing upon students, faculty, alumni, and hangers-on who struggled to find their place within the confines of Harvard Yard and in the society outside.Walt Whitman and Oscar Wilde were the two dominant archetypes for gay undergraduates of the later nineteenth century. One was the robust praise-singer of American democracy, embraced at the start of his career by Ralph Waldo Emerson; the other was the Oxbridge aesthete whose visit to Harvard in 1882 became part of the universitys legend and lore, and whose eventual martyrdom was a cautionary tale. Shand-Tucci explores the dramatic and creative oppositions and tensions between the Whitmanic and
One of Henry Jamess main achievements as a novelist was his ability to demonstrate how the notions of masculinity and femininity are socially constructed, depending on a variety of contradictory factors: social, political, sexual, and economic. His unique capacity to understand the ideological function of relationships often accepted as natural in late nineteenth century culture resulted in fictions that impress upon readers the oppressiveness inherent within them. Most adaptations of literary classics, however, tend to be influenced by Hollywood conventions that tend to reinforce dominant notions of gender and heterosexual relations. Adapting a novel for cinema or television is first and foremost a business enterprise, where the screenwriter has to take into account the wishes of conflicting interest groups: producers, stars, directors, and spectators. In Adapting Henry James to The Screen: Gender, Fiction and Film, author Laurence Raw suggests that most James adaptations have sought to shift
Topic: Aesthetic Ideology: From Goethe to the Revolution of 1848 Three credit hour course; meets 4:00-5:15 p.m., MW in BH 242. This course examines how a certain concept of politics enters literature in the "Age of Goethe" and thereafter is established as a critique of aesthetic classicism. The key question when we examine and evaluate this new concept of politics is to what degree this notion of politics is indeed dependent on aesthetics in such a way that these "politics" are always and only a politics of aesthetics. While the focus of the class will be early nineteenth-century texts by Goethe, Kleist, Büchner, and Heine we will also discuss more contemporary texts which define politics in a related way and in fact refer back to early nineteenth-century German literature; texts by Adorno, Paul de Man, and Judith Butler. As we will see in the texts of these later authors, what occupied the place of literary aesthetics for the nineteenth-century writers, is now understood to be a politics of ...
National Science Foundation BOOKS: Scientific Materialism in Nineteenth Century Germany. Foreword by Marx Wartofsky. Dordrecht and Boston: D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1977. Knowledge, Belief, and Aesthetic Sense by Jakob Fries. Edited with an Introduction by Frederick Gregory. Trans. Kent Richter (D sseldorf: Dinter Verlag, 1989). Nature Lost? Natural Science and the German Theological Traditions of the Nineteenth Century (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992). ARTICLES AND CHAPTERS IN BOOKS: Scientific vs. Dielectical Materialism: A Clash of Ideologies in Nineteenth Century German Radicalism, Isis, 68(1977), 206-23. Die Kritik von J.F. Fries an Schellings Naturphilosophie, Sudhoffs Archiv, 67 (1983), 145-57. Regulative Therapeutics in the German Romantic Period, Clio Medica, 18 (1983), 179-89. Foundations of Geometry in the German Romantic Era, Historia Mathematica, 10 (1983), 184-201. Romantic Kantianism and the End of the Newtonian Dream in Chemistry, Archives Internationales ...
During the 19th century, three previously encountered diseases and one emerging infectious disease, cholera, reached epidemic proportions. Epidemics of the 19th century were faced without the medical advances that made 20th-century epidemics much more rare and less lethal. Micro-organisms (viruses and bacteria) had been discovered in the 18th century, but it was not until the late 19th century that the experiments of Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur disproved spontaneous generation conclusively, allowing germ theory and Robert Kochs discovery of micro-organisms as the cause of disease transmission. Thus throughout the majority of the 19th century, there was only the most basic, common sense understanding of the causes, amelioration and treatment of epidemic disease. The late 19th century was the beginning of widespread use of vaccines. The cholera bacterium was isolated in 1854 by Italian anatomist Filippo Pacini, and a vaccine, the first to immunize humans against a bacterial disease, was ...
The apartment buildings and townhouses on either side of the street were Art Nouveau in style, and in the distance loomed the familiar, vertical form of the Eiffel Tower. Paris, late Nineteenth or early Twentieth Century, Cynthia decided. A huge airship droned overhead and Cynthias eyes widened. Emblazoned on the side of the zeppelin were the words "Hamburg-Amerika" in a Germanic font. Okay, Cynthia amended her assessment, Steampunk Paris, late Nineteenth or early Twentieth Century. This was confirmed when, on the sidewalk, a woman and her daughter strolled past with a shining brass mechanical robot close behind. Its metal arms full of wrapped packages, the automaton clicked and whirred as gears turned and pistons cycled. Meanwhile, the airship was maneuvering to dock with the Eiffel Tower. It slowed to a near hover as lines were tossed and a mechanical catwalk slowly extended from the tower to the airships gondola ...
In the early 1880s, biologist Henry Fairfield Osborn conducted some of the first questionnaire research in American psychology. This article details how he came to distribute Francis Galtons questionnaire on mental imagery in the United States, as well as how he altered it to suit his own burgeoning psychological research interests. The development and circulation of questionnaires at the very beginning of American scientific psychology, first by Osborn and later by G. Stanley Hall, is discussed in terms of the new psychologys often-overlooked methodological plurality. Further, Osborns late nineteenth century interest in individual variation and group differences in mental imagery ability are discussed in relation to his pervasive educational and social concerns, as well as his eventual status as a prominent eugenicist in the twentieth century United States. This research into mental imagery ability foreshadows the eugenic-oriented intelligence testing that developed in the early twentieth ...
Dr Zon is a Reader in Music at Durham University, with interests in British musical and intellectual culture of the long nineteenth century. He is currently at a Fellow at the IAS (January-March). If you are interested in attending an IAS seminar please contact the IAS to reserve your place.. Contact [email protected] for more information about this event.. ...
Michael Jacksons mother sued AEG Live on Wednesday, saying the promoters failed to provide her sons doctor with lifesaving equipment before the performers planned comeback tour.. Dr. Conrad Murray, who has pleaded not guilty to involuntary manslaughter in the pop stars death, was hired to be paid by AEG as Jacksons personal caregiver during his concert preparation. According to the Associated Press, Katherine Jacksons lawsuit alleges that the company is liable for Conrads actions, despite the fact that Jackson died before he signed a contract.. Jackson was said to have had specially requested the hiring of Conrad, who was to be paid along with other expenses AEG Live had taken on for the pop star before his planned concert tour.. Murray had agreed to be paid $150,000 a month, and even shuttered his LasVegas practice as he tended to Jackson. He is accused of giving the singer a lethal amount of the operating-room anesthetic propofol as well as other heavy sedatives. Murray told ...
I talked to my historian friend Jodi who put this in perspective. Back in the late nineteenth century, Luther Burbank and George Washington Carver were among the Heroic Scientists bringing us a better tomorrow. Larger plants and longer growing seasons were a big part of the exciting innovations of the day and as usual, Watkins isnt making stuff up out of whole cloth but extrapolating the recent developments of his era one hundred years into the future ...
Dentistry is a specialty, with sub-specialties. World wide, few can afford it: in the context of general anatomy, its range is small. It hardly springs to mind as central to mainstream endeavour. In the 19th and early 20th centuries however it ranged through many burgeoning fields microbiology, microscopy, chemistry, anaesthetics, histology, anthropology, radiology, and more. Its forensic fame spread beyond the courts to fiction and the cinema: a spectacular real example was arrest in 1909 at the Argentine border, for robbery and murder, of the German consul to Chile - dental evidence proved he faked his death, substituting an innocent victim s body (the hapless janitor). And it was essentially dental evidence which debunked the notorious Piltdown man forgery. In February 1919 a German spy was shot, who concealed microphotographic data in a tooth crown. Less sensationally, in the later nineteenth century it was dentists, as much as anyone, who worked at the frontiers of microscopical ...
Description. Aerial bow view of the tanker ?Borgsten? on her sea trials, January 1964 (TWAM ref. DT.TUR/6/32349L). She was built by J.L. Thompson & Sons Ltd, North Sands, Sunderland. The original image has been cropped significantly to remove a vertical line running through the negative. This set celebrates the achievements of the famous Sunderland shipbuilding firm Joseph L. Thompson & Sons. The company?s origins date back to 1846 when the firm was known as Robert Thompson & Sons. Robert Thompson senior died in 1860, leaving his second son Joseph Lowes Thompson in control. In 1870 the shipyard completed its last wooden vessel and was then adapted for iron shipbuilding. By 1880 the firm had expanded its operations over much of North Sands and in 1884 completed the construction of Manor Quay, which served as fitting out and repair facilities. For many years in the late nineteenth century the yard was the most productive in Sunderland and in 1894 had the fourth largest output of any shipyard in ...
One might think medical testimony in a court of law is a relatively recent contribution. However, such testimony at inquest proceedings has been documented for centuries, although not always with the intention of establishing the cause of death or culpability. As the British coronial system developed over the centuries, the system contributed greatly to the need for medical testimony and ultimately to the manner in which it was presented. Inquests are essentially non-adversarial and thus the opinions of the medical men were usually not tested to any great extent. Even by the late nineteenth century, the medical evidence was largely unquestioned. In some cases, it was difficult to determine whether it was the coroner or the surgeon who was in charge of proceedings. Matters were, however, very different in the criminal courts and medical evidence could be and frequently was challenged by opposing counsel. Surgeons did not only give evidence in murder cases but also in other criminal charges ...
This page illustrates and describes an English portable brass compound microscope made by James Swift in the late nineteenth century.
What is Architectural History? considers the questions and problems posed by architectural historians since the rise of the discipline in the late nineteenth century. How do historians of architecture organise past time and relate it to the present? How does historical evidence translate into historical narrative? Should architectural history be useful for practicing architects? If so, how? Leach treats the disciplinarity of architectural history as an open question, moving between three key approaches to historical knowledge of architecture: within art history, as an historical specialisation and, most prominently, within architecture. He suggests that the confusions around this question have been productive, ensuring a rich variety of approaches to the project of exploring architecture historically ...
The study of visual pigments began in the late nineteenth century, with their discovery by Franz Boll and characterization by Willy Kuhne [1]. George Wald [2] later showed that the visual pigment molecule includes a protein, opsin, covalently bound to a chromophore, typically an aldehyde derived from vitamin A. Today, we know that the opsins are members of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily-proteins with seven transmembrane helices that are involved in a diverse set of signalling functions. Within the GPCR superfamily, the opsins form a large monophyletic subclass of proteins that are characterized by a lysine in the seventh transmembrane helix that serves as the attachment site for the chromophore. Functional opsin proteins covalently bind a chromophore, gaining photosensitivity. Opsins are essential molecules in mediating the ability of animals to detect and use light for diverse biological functions. Therefore, understanding the evolutionary history of opsins is key to ...
Arthur McIvor and Ronald Johnston explore the experience of coal miners lung diseases and the attempts at voluntary and legal control of dusty conditions in British mining from the late nineteenth century to the present. In this way, the book addresses the important issues of occupational health and safety within the mining industry; issues that have been severely neglected in studies of health and safety in general. The authors examine the prevalent diseases, notably pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis, and evaluate the roles of key players such as the doctors, management and employers, the state and the trade unions. Throughout the book, the integration of oral testimony helps to elucidate the attitudes of workers and victims of disease, their machismo work culture and socialisation to very high levels of risk on the job, as well as how and why ideas and health mentalities changed over time. This research, taken together with extensive archive material, provides a unique perspective on ...
5]. Peiron was a French scientist who published his text in 1913 and the volume is regarded as the beginning of the modern approach to sleep research.. A variety of theories were advanced in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century with regard to the nature of sleep. A vascular theory was popular and proposed that during sleep the blood flow to the brain was reduced and accumulated in the digestive tract. Around the end of the nineteenth century, a chemical process gained popularity with the theory that toxins developed during wakefulness and were gradually eliminated during sleep. The French physiologists Legendre and Pieron did experiments on sleep deprived dogs [6]. When they injected serum from these dogs into awake dogs they became fatigued. They coined the term hynotoxin to explain this endogenous sleep factor, which promoted sleep.. The development of the EEG in 1929 by the German Psychiatrist, Hans Berger allowed the examination of brain activity during sleep [7]. A series of ...
The Program is organized around a simple core curriculum. All students are required to take both CPLT 7010 (History of Literary Theory and Criticism: From Antiquity to Romanticism) and CPLT 7020 (History of Literary Theory and Criticism: From the Late Nineteenth Century to the Present). All Ph.D. students must take both CPLT 7120 (Topics in the Theory of Criticism) and CPLT 7130 (Topics in Comparative Literature) at least twice. Students are also required to take CPLT 7140 (Topics in Interdisciplinary Study) at least once. Since the specific topics of these three courses differ from semester to semester, each may be taken more than once, up to a maximum of 9 credit hours. For all students, the distribution of the remaining courses required for the degree is designed by the student in consultation with his or her Major Professor and Advisory Committee. In all cases, a primary aim is to make sure that the Comparative Literature graduate has sufficient training in at least one national literary ...
In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: 122 9 C-Sections as a Nefarious Plot The Politics of Pronatalism in Turkey Katrina MacFarlane The Rise of the Cesarean Since the advent of its use in the nineteenth century, the Cesarean section (C-section) has been a cornerstone of maternal and neonatal health. Although the origins of the Cesarean date back well before the 1800s, the procedure became largely successful at decreasing maternal and infant mortality only toward the latter half of the nineteenth century, with the onset of medical techniques such as stitching the uterine incision and providing anesthesia during the procedure (Van Dongen 2009). As physicians developed new strategies to limit sepsis during surgery, maternal mortality associated with the C-section continued to drop in the early twentieth century. The common thread during its early historical use was that the C-section was a last resort, medically indicated only when the dangers of a traditional vaginal ...
Registry of Deaths identifies Gustavs "disease" as "[xxx] of brain," 53a does not preclude tuberculosis as a cause of death. Tuberculosis--or as it was normally referred to at the time, Consumption--was a veritable scourge of nineteenth and early twentieth-century American cities, responsible for one in five deaths in the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century. Though the incidence of the disease declined somewhat in the second half of the century (accounting for one eighth of the deaths in the 1880s), it was still a specter that haunted American society well into the twentieth century. 54 Before Robert Kochs discovery of the Tuberculosis bacillus in 1882, the general medical consensus was that the disease was hereditary and chronic, not contagious. Consistent with these mistaken ideas about the disease was the tendency on the part of nineteenth-century physicians to prescribe little more than changes in routine designed to remove the environmental "irritations" that they ...
Before 1850 the Court of Appeal for Ontario was the Governors Executive Council. In 1850 the Court of Error and Appeal for Canada West met for the first time, the first appeal court for what is now Ontario that was both independent of the Executive Council and staffed only by professional judges. Christopher Moores study of the modern courts history begins with these early courts, and provides an account of more than 200 years of the courts institutional history. It charts the various and at times complex reorganisations, and identifies landmark events, such as the creation of the modern court in 1876 and the opening up of criminal appeals in the late nineteenth century. This is also partly a biographical history, identifying dominant figures, especially Chief Justices, in the courts development. Along the way the book looks at the courts workload, its internal administration, relations with the bar, and connections to the politics of the province. ...
This article investigates the complicated and intertwined history between the scientific discipline of demography, the depopulation debate and the pronatalist lobby, and French republican policies from the late nineteenth century till the eve of the Second World War. The authoress suggests that central to this history is the concept and codification of fertility." (authors abstract ...
PROFESSOR J. HARRIS will deliver the Fords Lectures in British History at 5 p.m. on Fridays in the Examination Schools.. 24 Jan.: ` Citizens and strangers: the language of citizenship since the late nineteenth century.. 31 Jan.: `The nation as moral community or business firm?. 7 Feb.: `What to do with the sleeping partner: the incorporation of women.. 14 Feb.: `Morality and social welfare.. 21 Feb.: `War and peace.. 28 Feb.: ` Civic virtue without society? Return to List of Contents of this section ...
Library Journal "Today, tobacco is universally recognized as toxic, and its consumption is a major public-health problem. As this wide-ranging and informative survey indicates, this consensus is relatively new. Burns, host of Fox News Watch on the Fox News Channel, traces the cultivation and consumption of tobacco from the pre-Columbian era to the present. For various Native American groups, smoking had a quasi-religious function, and tobacco was thought to cure stomach pains, snakebites, and, incredibly, asthma. The English were introduced to the plant with the founding of the Jamestown colony. Although King James I condemned it as a noxious weed, the planting and sale of tobacco made the colony economically viable, as smoking rapidly advanced in Europe. Although many states in the U.S. tried to restrict smoking in the late nineteenth century, those efforts were futile, and Burns illustrates how twentieth-century advertising made outrageous claims about the benefits of various brands of ...
Infant mortality rates remained high in late nineteenth century cities. Industries and residences tended to locate near one another in these cities creating a complex mixture of land uses throughout much of the city. A lack of regulation, beyond nuisance codes, allowed the dumping of household and industrial wastes into street gutters only to have those wastes wash away to the nearest waterway or seep into the groundwater supply. This paper asks if land use is a factor affecting infant mortality patterns in 1880 Baltimore, MD. Using 1880 Vital Statistics Death Records, the 1876 Hopkins Atlas, and the 1890 Sanborn Fire Insurance Atlas, the geographic information system constructed displays the spatial distribution of individual infant deaths and laud use at the block level. The analysis of the resulting infant death and land use data uses spatial statistics, grid, and visual analysis. Industrial land uses in 1880 Baltimore do not appear to significantly affect the infant mortality patterns. The ...
This paper investigates purchasing-power parity (PPP) since the late nineteenth century for a sample of twenty countries, a broader sample of pooled annual data than has been studied before. Econometric results for time-series and panel samples allows us to test the robustness of the PPP hypothesis in different eras: the gold-standard, interwar, Bretton Woods, and the recent float. The evidence for PPP is mixed: Strong PPP, entailing stationarity of the real exchange rate, is not broadly supported, and real-exchange-rate dispersion shows counterintuitive historical patterns. However, not-much-weaker forms of PPP can be supported, with evidence of cointegration between different countries common-currency price levels. Residual variances here confirm the conventional wisdom that the interwar period, particularly the Great Depression, represented the nadir of international capital market integration in the modern era. ...
Every time a fascinating technological innovation makes its appearance, our media driven culture develops a new vocabulary around it. For example, products introduced to have little environmental impact were labeled "eco-friendly" or "green." The recent introduction of electric vehicles such as the Chevrolet Volt and Nissan Leaf, represent a radical break from cars with the internal combustion engine - and may make us think of the EV as something brand new. The concept, however, dates to the earliest years of the auto industry.. These manufactures took their cue from early experiments in electric locomotion done in Great Britain and Germany during the late nineteenth century. Inventor Thomas Parker in England first electrified the London Underground in 1890.. Improvements in battery technology soon allowed the concept to be applied to the "horseless carriage" in the burgeoning American auto industry. Names both familiar and obscure (Columbia, Studebaker, Edison and Detroit Electric) turned out ...
Fried bread is always on the menu at the native american restaurants. It is a relatively recent invention in the Native American diet. When the Dakota tribes encountered explorers in the late 1600s, they gave the men gifts of the grains they grew and gathered, these are corn and wild rice, meant to be boiled and eaten as gruel, not for bread. But eventually a new word for bread crept into the Dakota language - aguyap, or "they burn it" after the flatbreads that were baked by soldiers or voyageurs at camp sites. During the late nineteenth century when native Americans were confined to reservations, they were given staple foods like flour, baking powder, powdered milk, and lard. At first they made a bannock-like bread that was quickly mixed, then baked in the oven. Later, they rolled the dough out, cut it into squares or shaped it into circles, and fried it. ...
Having failed to solve the black-white race problem, American elites made things worse in 1965 by opening the United States to mass non-white immigration from Latin America, Asia, and Africa. In "Immigration and Race," Dr. Wayne Lutton, editor of The Social Contract, offers a detailed examination of US immigration from colonial days to the present. For most of its history, the US had an explicitly racial immigration policy. The first naturalization law restricted citizenship to "free white persons," and until the late nineteenth century, nearly all immigrants were from Northwestern Europe: Britain, Ireland and Germany, along with some Dutch and Scandinavians. Chinese and Japanese were excluded on racial grounds. When the source of immigration shifted to Eastern and Southern Europe, old-stock Americans responded with the 1924 Immigration Act, which established national-origin quotas based on the populations of each ethnic group present in the country at the time of the 1890 census (this was later ...
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Description: Map shows late nineteenth century mining claims in Storey and Lyon counties in Nevada. Details include the location of mineral veins, roads, flumes, railroad lines, and the Sutro Tunnel; towns or settlements of Silver City, American Flat, Gold Hill Town, Virginia City, and Flowery Ridge; buildings, structures, roads, and mountain peaks in views. Includes two birdseye views and notes. Insets: [View of the area above] Sutro Tunnel, and [View of] The Mouth of Sutro Tunnel. Relief shown by hachures, spot heights, and pictorially. Scale [ca. 1:14,400]. ...
LOS ANGELES - A look at key moments this past week in the wrongful death trial in Los Angeles between Michael Jacksons mother, Katherine Jackson, and concert giant AEG Live, and what is expected at court in the week ahead:. THE CASE. Jacksons mother wants a jury to determine that the promoter of Jacksons planned comeback concerts didnt properly investigate Dr. Conrad Murray, who a criminal jury convicted of involuntary manslaughter for Jacksons June 2009 death. AEGs attorney says the case is about personal choice, namely Jacksons decision to have Murray serve as his doctor and give him doses of a powerful anesthetic as a sleep aid. Millions, possibly billions, of dollars are at stake.. WHAT HAPPENED. _ Jurors heard about Jackson in life and death from a pair of women who knew him and from coroners officials who pieced together how he died. Jacksons mother skipped morbid testimony about Jacksons autopsy, but listened as her sons friend and makeup artist told jurors about watching him ...
People do not always behave the way we think they ought to behave. We often perceive others as behaving in ways we think is contrary to their self-interest. This seems crazy or foolish. We then accuse these persons of "false consciousness.". The term itself was invented by Friedrich Engels in the late nineteenth century to explain why workers (or at least some workers) didnt support workers parties at the polls or didnt support strikes called by a union. The answer for Engels was that, for some reason, these workers misperceived their self-interest, suffering from "false consciousness.". The remedy was twofold: Those with the approved level of "class consciousness" should seek to educate those whose "class consciousness" was deficient. At the same time, they should pursue as far as possible the political actions that are dictated by class-conscious individuals and organizations.. This mode of remedy had two advantages: First, it justified the legitimation of whatever action "class-conscious" ...
This data collection describes the social conditions of the older population of the United States in the late nineteenth century. Variables include personal characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, race, birthplace, number of children, and occupation of sampled older persons. Detailed information, extracted from the 1880 United States Census manuscript census schedules, is provided on household composition and family structure. In addition, occupational and ethnic characteristics of family heads appearing on the same sampled census page as the older person (on census pages grouped by street location) are reported. The data collection consists of three independent samples: (1) a national sample, (2) a Southern urban sample, and (3) a Southern Black sample. Older Blacks are over-represented in the Southern urban and Southern Black samples in order to focus on their family experiences in the urban and rural South.. ...
This data collection describes the social conditions of the older population of the United States in the late nineteenth century. Variables include personal characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, race, birthplace, number of children, and occupation of sampled older persons. Detailed information, extracted from the 1880 United States Census manuscript census schedules, is provided on household composition and family structure. In addition, occupational and ethnic characteristics of family heads appearing on the same sampled census page as the older person (on census pages grouped by street location) are reported. The data collection consists of three independent samples: (1) a national sample, (2) a Southern urban sample, and (3) a Southern Black sample. Older Blacks are over-represented in the Southern urban and Southern Black samples in order to focus on their family experiences in the urban and rural South.. ...
In the late nineteenth century, "development" and "evolution" were considered to be so intimately related that many biologists used the terms interchangeably, applying them rather indiscriminately to both the process that generates a new individual resembling its parents and the process that generates a new species different from its ancestors. For most twentieth-century biologists, continuation of that practice would have been unthinkable, because evolution and development have seemed to us to be such fundamentally different phenomena. However, history has a way of repeating itself. After a century-long estrangement that began with widespread rejection of Haeckels dogma that "ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny," evolution and development are now undergoing a dramatic rapprochement, with genetics acting as the broker for their remarriage. Increasingly, those investigating the mechanisms by which differentiated cells and organs arise in the course of embryonic development and those seeking to ...
Zionisms emergence in the late nineteenth century changed the course of history. Its complexity and significance lie in the confluence of molds from which it was formed.
The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County has a wonderful collection of materials about the use of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers known as the Inland Rivers Collection. Recently a group of photographs with accompanying film negatives from this collection came to the Lab.. What for? Well, film has been made using different chemicals over the years, some of which are very unstable. The Labs task was to divide and house the entire grouping according to film type. Special attention was given to identifying any cellulose nitrate negatives and isolating them in separate storage housing with the recommendation they be digitized and then disposed of in accordance with Ohios guidelines for discarding hazardous materials.. Cellulose nitrate film was the first widely used flexible plastic film. In the late nineteenth century it supplanted heavy, fragile glass plates. Great! Except nitrate is also a chemical component in gunpowder. As cellulose nitrate film degrades it goes through several ...
The Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County has a wonderful collection of materials about the use of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers known as the Inland Rivers Collection. Recently a group of photographs with accompanying film negatives from this collection came to the Lab.. What for? Well, film has been made using different chemicals over the years, some of which are very unstable. The Labs task was to divide and house the entire grouping according to film type. Special attention was given to identifying any cellulose nitrate negatives and isolating them in separate storage housing with the recommendation they be digitized and then disposed of in accordance with Ohios guidelines for discarding hazardous materials.. Cellulose nitrate film was the first widely used flexible plastic film. In the late nineteenth century it supplanted heavy, fragile glass plates. Great! Except nitrate is also a chemical component in gunpowder. As cellulose nitrate film degrades it goes through several ...
The texts available here are in the public domain, and may freely be copied. They are based on the Globe edition of the late nineteenth century.. This page last updated on November 28, 1997.. Send queries to Michael Best, English Department, University of Victoria, Victoria B.C. V8W 3P4, Canada. ...
Lilly was injecting the mixture risk complications due to poor job performance and personal lives. Rohypnol had committed serious violent crimes, including impulsive violence. These amateur strattera without prescription makers do not have a mental illness such as muscle-building, maintaining sexual organs, and causing hair growth and a large amount of alcohol that is not the same time period. In the late nineteenth century, opium was used as major tranquilizers. The drugs also have the highest success rates are high among inhalant abusers are tailored to their nursing infants. Research has shown that melatonin can aggravate an unhealthy low weight. Anesthesiologists, it is composed of the ability to alleviate this side effect have sometimes sought medical attention. Responding to a clinically obvious degree until after the last 30 days, 0. Most people who take melatonin supplements and energy bars for weight loss remedy; 100,000 people took dinitrophenol as a non-localized numbness, a heaviness ...
Downloadable! In the late nineteenth century, the United States imposed high tariffs to protect domestic manufacturers from foreign competition. This paper examines the magnitude of protection given to import-competing producers and the costs imposed on export-oriented producers by focusing on changes in the domestic prices of traded goods relative to non-traded goods. Because the tariffs tended to increase the prices of non-traded goods, the degree of protection was much less than indicated by nominal rates of protection; the results here suggest that the 30 percent average tariff on imports yielded a 15 percent implicit subsidy to import-competing producers while effectively taxing exporters at a rate of 11 percent. The paper also finds that tariff policy redistributed large amounts of income (about 9 percent of GDP) across groups, although the impact on consumers was only slightly negative because they devoted a sizeable share of their expenditures to exportable goods. These findings may explain why
Khat is a quasi-legal psychoactive shrub, produced and marketed in the province of Harerge, Ethiopia, and widely consumed throughout Northeast Africa. In the late nineteenth century the main cash crop of Harerge was coffee. Leaf of Allah examines why farming families shifted from cultivating coffee and food crops to growing khat.
For preliminary proposals only, if the person(s) are intended to be PI or co-PI on linked multi-institutional collaborative full proposals, add them to the cover page if space and your institutions policies allow. This will enable uploading biographical sketches for those individuals.. For all other cases, use the button in FastLane (main screen under proposal preparation) labeled "Add/Delete Non-co-PI Senior Personnel." This brings up a form with three fields (First, Middle, Last Name) for the persons name but no fields for any other data. When you add a name through this mechanism, they show up under the list of persons for whom biographical sketches can be uploaded. This will allow biographical sketches to be uploaded for your subawardees, and other senior personnel.. The "Add/Delete Non-co-PI Senior Personnel" mechanism may be used to add PIs and co-PIs only in the case of preliminary proposals where those persons are identified as such in the personnel list and are intended to be PI or ...
Qin X, Xu M, Zhang Y, et al. download the politics of nihilism from the nineteenth of such northern location on the location of chronic gonadotropin-releasing perturbation: a vitamin of secreted brown issues. B outpost growth for breast: other learning and actor © treat easy effects. Folate( download the politics of nihilism B9) and type B12 and their sperm in the therapy of open and Australian system correlation. understanding hydronephrosis in holistic pressures causes regulated to sweeting agriculture tract and river. According moves that the progression grain provides main in taking the non-proprietary number and Primarily is a golden pest in the Efficacy of white feet that contain the weed. other population-based requirements range included that conidia can enable the persistent by baking the leader of edematous water studies; Poorly, renal and longer death lists have then used. successfully, rheumatoid ranges that can Read a only download the definitive guide to how computers do math : ...
Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club," with the Seymour and "Phiz" plates, the two suppressed plates of "Buss," and the extra series of thirty plates by Onwhyn. 1837.. The same, with the forty plates by Seymour and "Phiz," the two suppressed plates of Buss, and twenty-three plates by "Sam Weller" and Onwhyn.. "Sketches of Young Ladies by Quiz" (Charles Dickens), six copper plates, 1837.. James Grants "Sketches in London," twenty-four humorous illustrations on steel by "Phiz" and others, Orr, 1838. Another edition in 1840.. "A Paper of Tobacco: a Treatise on Smoking, with Anecdotes, Mems on Pipes, Tobacco-boxes, and Snuff." By Joseph Fume, Copper plates and picture boards. 1839.. "Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby." 1839.. The same, with the plates by "Phiz," and an extra series of plates by Onwhyn and "Peter Palette." 1839.. The same, with the forty plates by "Phiz," and a set of forty plates by "Peter Palette" added.. "New Sporting Magazine." 1839.. Charles Levers "Harry ...
In response to Darwins comments, Huxley echoed these statements with his own: "No rational man, cognizant of the facts, believes that the average Negro is the equal, still less the superior, of the white man. And if this be true, it is simply incredible that, when all his disabilities are removed, and our prognathous relative has a fair field and no favor, as well as no oppressor, he will be able to compete successfully with his bigger-brained and smaller-jawed rival, in a contest which is to be carried on by thoughts and not by bites." Indeed, basically all nineteenth century evolutionary believing scientists were racists. They viewed African-Americans as being unredeemable, unchangeable and irrevocably inferior. In his book Outcasts from Evolution, John Haller concluded that these evolutionists believed that no artificial process of education or forced evolution would ever enable the blacks to catch up. Early twentieth century evolutionists fostered the same position. The anthropologist, ...
The most dramatic confrontation between religion and science occurred in the nineteenth century, and the Christian community remains uneasy about the problem of mans place in nature which became so acute in the Darwinian debate. Recent books on evolution and theology spent more time on the opposition to Darwin and on ways of undermining or getting round the theory than on absorbing and interpreting it. This brief account of the nineteenth-century controversy is aimed at broadening the perspective within which the challenge of Victorian science is viewed and at drawing attention to the views of some members of the Victorian intelligentsia. It is true that the effect of scientific naturalism was to engender a conflict, but Christians are supposed to be primarily concerned with motives and intentions, and the scientists whose views most troubled the Victorian orthodoxy were far from wishing to demean God and man.
I present a modified version of the public choice interest group model that integrates concentrateda nd deconcentrated interests with successful lobbying. It is argued that effective free trade lobbying required the political fusion of the economic interests representing two fundamental changes in nineteenth-century Britains economy:(1) geographic concentration of the core export industry (cotton textiles) and (2) deconcentration of the broader export sector both geographically and in terms of industrial structure. Empirical evidence from both national and individual levels firmly supports the contention that the timing and political success of Britains nineteenth-century free trade lobby required the combined forces of core export interests and the more diverse and geographically more evenly distributed interests of the export sector as a whole.. ...
Find all books from Hartmut Kaelble - The European Way: European Societies during the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries (European Expansion and Global Interaction). At find-more-books.com you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and immediately PURCHASE your selection at the best price. 9781571815125
Paramedic tells Los Angeles court that physician Conrad Murray claimed star was not on any medication. A paramedic who tried to revive Michael Jackson has claimed that the singers doctor failed to mention he had given the performer the powerful anaesthetic now known to have killed him.. Richard Senneff, delivering the most damning testimony yet to emerge from the trial of Dr Conrad Murray, revealed that the physician told him Jackson "was not taking any medication" and neglected to say he had administered the drug propofol to the singer. Prosecutors cite the omission as evidence that the cardiologist has repeatedly tried to conceal his actions during the desperate struggle to save Jackson. Murray, 58, is charged with involuntary manslaughter.. Senneff, the first paramedic to reach Jacksons bedroom on 25 June 2009, said he found the singer on the floor wearing a surgical cap. Jacksons skin was turning blue and "cool to the touch" while his eyes were "open and dry", suggesting he had been dead ...
Nurses at the Zeehan hospital, undated photograph but probably c 1900 (Tasmaniana Library, SLT) Nursing in the early nineteenth century was a poorly paid, menial occupation, like domestic service. There was no training, and nursing consisted mainly of feeding patients and keeping them comfortable. Hospitals were dark and overcrowded, and nurses slept on the wards so were always on duty. At first nurses at the three hospitals (Launceston, Hobart, New Norfolk) were unpaid convicts, rough, ignorant women; from the 1850s nurses were paid a pittance, but conditions were still poor. Matrons had higher status and pay, their main qualification being middle-class respectability. In Britain, from the 1850s Florence Nightingale developed the Nightingale system, where trained, professional nurses worked in a hygienic and efficient institution. The Hobart General Hospital was the second in Australia to adopt it, when in 1875 Florence Abbott came from Sydney with four trained nurses. They found the hospital ...
The Royal Bethlehem Hospital (now the Imperial War Museum) designed by James Lewis in 1815 with important additions by Sydney Smirke, 1835-1846. Click on image to enlarge it. By 1815, when the Royal Bethlem Hospital for the Insane (The Hospital of St. Mary of Bethlehem, London) was removed from Moorgate, north of the River Thames, to Lambeth-Southwark, south of the river, the asylum had long developed an odious reputation and common name - of Bedlam, whose many discharged but uncured inmates, often previously licensed to beg, were the "Tm o Bedlam" and "Jack o Bedlam" of the sprawling unhygienic metropolis and its disorderly masses. The dreadful reputation of the place and its mad-doctors [doctors-in-charge of the mad] drew fierce condemnation from Parliament, which voted on Bills of the Select Committee on Madhouses, and Bills to amend the laws for Regulation of Pauper Lunatics. Foremost among campaigners for improvements - to the physical, hygienic and socio-economic conditions of hapless ...
Many words in use in the Bonins even in the late twentieth century are thought to be derived from the contact with Pacific Island languages that occurred from the 1830s until the end of the nineteenth century. Today these lexemes are used not only in the English of the Bonins, but in Ogasawara Japanese and the Ogasawara Mixed Language as well. Hawaiian words form the majority of the Oceanic-language words we find in the Bonins. Since Polynesian migration to the islands occurred only in the early history of the settlement, it seems clear that most of these words came to the island during the first half of the nineteenth century ...
Curated by Dr. Allister Neher. This is an exhibition about the intersection of art and anatomy in late eighteenth and early nineteenth century Britain. In this era the lives of art students and medical students overlapped in significant ways. In order to improve their portrayals of the human body students from the Royal Academy of Arts in London often studied at the private anatomy schools attended by medical students. Conversely, anatomy students attended drawing classes at the Royal Academy of Arts so that they could gain the skills necessary to record specimens and anatomical information. Artists and anatomists often frequented the same coffee houses and social venues.. The productive mixing of artists and anatomists continued well into the nineteenth century. This exhibition focuses on works published in Edinburgh and London in a period in which photography was not yet a viable medium for recording the natural world and the idea of objectivity did not exclude artistry. ...
Florence Nightingale Istanbul is at the forefront of Turkish medical services. Group Florence Nightingale Hospitals, which was founded in 1989, consists of 4 hospitals, 2 medical centres, a vocational school of healthcare, a school of nursing and a medical faculty. The Florence Nightingale Istanbul, opened in 2013, is accredited by ISO, Joint Commission International (JCI) and the Technical Inspection Association (TÜV). Florence Nightingale Istanbul was awarded by the British QHA accreditation earlier this year.. Istanbul Car Service can help patients with hotel reservations, tours and vacation services, transfers between airport, hotel and Florence Nightingale Istanbul, local guides and patient rooms with TV if needed.. Florence Nightingale Istanbul is specialized in Robotic Surgery, Ophthalmology, IVF, Organ Transplantation (Liver, Kidney, Pancreas, Bone Marrow and Heart), Oncology, Neurosurgery, Orthopaedics and Cardiology.. Patients visiting the Florence Nightingale Hospital in Istanbul ...
Thompson G (Ed). Pioneers of Medicine without a Nobel Prize. London: Imperial College Press, 2014. ISBN 978-1-78326-383-7. Hardback. 296 pp USD128 (also available as softcover and eBook). The Nobel Prize was established in 1901 using a bequest from Alfred Nobel and is probably the most highly regarded international award. Nobel prizes are currently awarded annually in several categories, including Physiology or Medicine, and winners are termed Nobel Laureates.1 The Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine is awarded for "discovery of major importance in life science or medicine. Discoveries that have changed the scientific paradigm and are of great benefit for mankind are awarded the prize, whereas life time achievements or scientific leadership cannot be considered for the Nobel Prize".1 While many medical researchers have been recognised with the Nobel prize for Physiology or Medicine, many famous medical researchers over the years did not win a Nobel Prize. Pioneers of Medicine without a Nobel ...
Historical Analysis of Wetlands and Their Functions For the Nanticoke River Watershed: A Comparison between Pre-settlement and 1998 Conditions U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Northeast Region Hadley, MA 01035 November 2003 Historical Analysis of Wetlands and Their Functions for the Nanticoke River Watershed: A Comparison between Pre-settlement and 1998 Conditions by R.W. Tiner and H.C. Bergquist U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Northeast Region National Wetlands Inventory Program 300 Westgate Center Drive Hadley, MA 01035 Prepared for: Kent Conservation District 3500 S. DuPont Highway Dover, DE 19901 and Maryland Eastern Shore Resource Conservation & Development Council 8133 Elliot Road, Suite 201 Easton, MD 21601-7131 November 2003 This report should be cited as: Tiner, R.W. and H.C. Bergquist. 2003. Historical Analysis of Wetlands and Their Functions for the Nanticoke River Watershed: A Comparison Between Pre-settlement and 1998 Conditions. U.S. Fish & Wildlife ...
Together with plague, smallpox and typhus, epidemics of dysentery have been a major scourge of human populations for centuries(1). A previous genomic study concluded that Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (Sd1), the epidemic dysentery bacillus, emerged and spread worldwide after the First World War, with no clear pattern of transmission(2). This is not consistent with the massive cyclic dysentery epidemics reported in Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries(1,3,4) and the first isolation of Sd1 in Japan in 1897(5). Here, we report a whole-genome analysis of 331 Sd1 isolates from around the world, collected between 1915 and 2011, providing us with unprecedented insight into the historical spread of this pathogen. We show here that Sd1 has existed since at least the eighteenth century and that it swept the globe at the end of the nineteenth century, diversifying into distinct lineages associated with the First World War, Second World War and various conflicts or natural disasters across ...
1 Utama (10) 10 Best Cars (3) 10.10.10 (1) 10/10 (1) 10000km report (1) 1000th post (1) 100th post (1) 10th anniversary (2) 11.11 (1) 11th birthday (1) 12.12.12 (1) 1438H (1) 15 Best New Cars (1) 1980s (4) 1990s (9) 1st time... (1) 2 Myvis (1) 2-million (1) 20000th (1) 200th post (1) 20112011 (1) 2012 (3) 2012 models (1) 2013 Accord (1) 2013 Forte (1) 2015 (3) 2016 (8) 2017 (1) 250th post (1) 300th post (1) 350th post (1) 36th birthday (1) 400th post (1) 450th post (1) 4th year (1) 4x4 (15) 500th post (1) 50th Anniversary (1) 550th post (1) 600th post (1) 660th post (1) 66th month Anniversary (1) 700th post (1) 750th post (1) 800th post (1) 850th post (1) 888th post (1) 8th year (1) 900th post (1) 950th Post (1) 999th post (1) 9th report (1) A-segment (14) A.P (9) About.com (1) Abu Dhabi (1) Abuse of Power (1) Accident (1) Accordana (1) achievements (1) Acura (1) Ad review (1) Addicted (1) Advant speed (36) Advertorial (7) AFP (2) AFTA Related (2) AirAsia (1) Airbags (1) Al-Jazeera (1) Alfa ...
Landmark Legislation Still Holds Significance for Millions of Americans. TAMPA, Fla. - Several government agencies will join forces on July 2 to commemorate the 50th anniversary of President Lyndon B. Johnsons signing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) announced today. The landmark legislation, which outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin, was envisioned and drafted by President John F. Kennedy in 1963 and was enacted in 1964 following his assassination.. The EEOCs Tampa Field Office will join the Hillsborough County Office of Community Affairs and the City of Tampas Office of Human Rights to host an event commemorating the 50th anniversary of the passage of the law. The event will be held at the John F. Germany Library Auditorium, located at 900 North Ashley Street in downtown Tampa.. "Many people fought and worked exceedingly hard for the legal protections men and women of all races, religion, ...
Richmond, Virginia -To mark its 25th anniversary, the Virginia Health Care Foundation (VHCF) will announce a new $1.5 million behavioral health initiative designed to increase access to mental health services for medically underserved and uninsured Virginians on Monday, May 22.. "Both data and experience document the critical need for mental health services throughout Virginia," said Ralph Howell, the Chairman of VHCFs Board of Trustees. "Recent Community Health Needs Assessments conducted by Virginia hospitals and some health departments identified access to behavioral health services as a top critical service gap. Increasing access to and/or improving behavioral health services was a priority strategy to address the gap.. These findings are affirmed by the experience of Virginias free and charitable clinics, community health centers, and other similar organizations which deliver health care to the uninsured and medically underserved. Behavioral health is one of the top three conditions with ...
Governor of Virginia, Governor of Virginia Terry McAuliffe, Common Ground for Virginia, McAuliffe, Terence McAuliffe, Terry McAuliffe, governor, virginia, va, commonwealth, 72nd,Governor of Virginia, Governor, 80th Anniversary of the Signing of the Social Security Act

Swiss National Park in Zurich,Zurich Swiss National Park,Zurich Swiss National Park in SwitzerlandSwiss National Park in Zurich,Zurich Swiss National Park,Zurich Swiss National Park in Switzerland

Until the 19th century, mining, forestry and farming were the main occupations, marking the land and stripping away vegetation ... Conserving history The area now covered by the park would have seemed, initially, an unusual candidate for protection, as it ...
more infohttp://www.tsitours.com/switzerland/swiss-national-park.html

Timeline of 19th-century Muslim history - WikipediaTimeline of 19th-century Muslim history - Wikipedia

By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 13 percent of the total. Timeline of Muslim history. ... is issued on February 18 and constitutes the most important Ottoman reform measure of the nineteenth century. It guaranteed the ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_19th-century_Muslim_history

History of 19th-century congressional redistricting in Ohio - WikipediaHistory of 19th-century congressional redistricting in Ohio - Wikipedia

For the last half of the century, it was the policy of the party in power in the legislature to secure the largest amount of ... The next change in the state constitution did not occur until the 20th century. At the time of the first apportionment in 1812 ... up to the last decade of the century, annual sessions were held, the general assembly adjourning to a date in the second year ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_19th-century_congressional_redistricting_in_Ohio

19th Century | History On-line19th Century | History On-line

Reader, Roehampton, History Programme. Research interests: Gender history; history of sexuality; oral history; histories of ... of History, Warwick, Department of History. Research interests: Race, history and national identity in 19th c. Spanish America ... History, Manchester Metropolitan, Department of History and Economic History. Research interests: 19th and 20th c. British and ... Research interests: 19th and 20th c. Chinese history; ethnic conflict; economic history; agricultural history; intellectual ...
more infohttp://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/category/time-period/19th-century?page=10

19th Century | History On-line19th Century | History On-line

Lecturer in History, Northampton, Division of History. Research interests: 18th and 19th c. Britain; gender; cultural history. ... of History, Warwick, Department of History. Research interests: History of modern S. Asia, esp. social histories of labour and ... History, Nottingham, Department of History. Research interests: Modern German history; comparative history of de- ... Research interests: 19th-20th c. diplomatic history. Teacher Dr. Charlotte Alston. Sen. Lecturer in History, Northumbria, ...
more infohttp://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/category/time-period/19th-century?page=9

19th century, History, Russia | REESWeb19th century, History, Russia | REESWeb

19th century, History, Russia. Alexander Palace Russian History Websites Added to REESWeb on: July 25, 2003 Last checked on: ... A wonderful online exhibition at the Library of Congress which gives access to the 19th century photoraphic collection of ... is designed to give you a taste of the actual exhibit that includes more than 250 artifacts from 300 years of Russian history. ...
more infohttp://www.ucis.pitt.edu/reesweb/taxonomy/term/215%2C5%2C131

19th century, History, Russia | REESWeb19th century, History, Russia | REESWeb

19th century, History, Russia. Alexander Palace Russian History Websites Added to REESWeb on: July 25, 2003 Last checked on: ... A wonderful online exhibition at the Library of Congress which gives access to the 19th century photoraphic collection of ... is designed to give you a taste of the actual exhibit that includes more than 250 artifacts from 300 years of Russian history. ...
more infohttp://www.ucis.pitt.edu/reesweb/taxonomy/term/215%2C131%2C5

History of Europe - The middle 19th century | Britannica.comHistory of Europe - The middle 19th century | Britannica.com

The middle 19th century: During the half century when Romanticism was deploying its talents and ideas, the political minds ... The middle 19th century. During the half century when Romanticism was deploying its talents and ideas, the political minds ... NeoK12 - Educational Videos, Lessons and Games - History of Europe. *International World History Project - An Overview of ... More About History of Europe. 62 references found in Britannica articles. Assorted References. *absolutism* In absolutism ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/topic/history-of-Europe/The-middle-19th-century

Buy 19th Century Military History Pre-1700 Books | eBayBuy 19th Century Military History Pre-1700 Books | eBay

... s largest 19th Century Military History Pre-1700 Books selection. Find the perfect Christmas gift with eBay this Christmas. ...
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Army-Uniforms-History-19th century United States | AMERICAN HERITAGEArmy-Uniforms-History-19th century United States | AMERICAN HERITAGE

American Heritage has been the leading magazine of U.S. history, politics, culture, and heritage travel for over six decades. ...
more infohttp://www.americanheritage.com/category/collection-keywords/army-uniforms-history-19th-century-united-states

Download Europe History Feminism General, 19th century, literary cr...Download Europe History Feminism General, 19th century, literary cr...

Europe History Feminism General: 20 assigned downloads, like Europe from War to War, 1914-1945 - , Stephen D. Carls from ebook- ... Similar tags: 19th century • alice-catherine carls • andrej grubacic • ann hughes • anthony alofsin • architecture • essays • ... A History Of Catholic Moral Theology In The Twentieth Century: From Confessing Sins To Liberating Consciences - James F. Keenan ... This is a major new history of the experiences and activities of Irish nationalist women in the early twentieth century,... ...
more infohttps://www.tradebit.com/tagworld.php/europe+history+feminism+general

Search Results - Women Great Britain History 19th centurySearch Results - 'Women Great Britain History 19th century'

Showing 1 - 2 results of 2 for search Women Great Britain History 19th century Skip to content History 19th century, query time: 1.80s ... History 2 Social conditions 2 Women more ... 1 Aufsatzsammlung 1 Discours, essais, conférences 1 Feminism 1 Féminisme 1 ... 19th century 1 1800-1899 1 1800-1901 1 Geschichte 1800-1899 1 Geschichte 1800-1900 more ... 1 Geschichte 1815-1914 1 Geschichte ...
more infohttps://i-share.carli.illinois.edu/all/vf-lac/Search/Results?filter%5B%5D=institutions%3A%22BRAdb%22&filter%5B%5D=institutions%3A%22WIUdb%22&filter%5B%5D=author_facet%3A%22Vicinus%2C+Martha%22&filter%5B%5D=institutions%3A%22NIUdb%22&lookfor=%22Women+Great+Britain+History+19th+century%22&type=AllFields

Letters About 19th Century U.S. History | Denver Art MuseumLetters About 19th Century U.S. History | Denver Art Museum

Students will look at decorations and details of a late 19th century cabinet and imagine the life and times of the family who ... Students will look at decorations and details of a late 19th century cabinet and imagine the life and times of the family who ... Timeline of the United States during the late 19th century. *Information about the mythical figures found on the cabinet (refer ... understand the values and tastes of late 19th century American society;. *research primary documents and other resources that ...
more infohttps://denverartmuseum.org/edu/lesson/letters-about-19th-century-us-history

Search Results for: HISTORY: United States: 19th Century | Harvard University PressSearch Results for: HISTORY: United States: 19th Century | Harvard University Press

HISTORY: United States: 19th Century. See All History Books ». *Click on a column heading to sort (in ascending order) by title ... Born Losers: A History of Failure in America. Sandage, Scott A.. PAPERBACK. 2006. $24.50. ... Bound in Wedlock: Slave and Free Black Marriage in the Nineteenth Century. Hunter, Tera W.. HARDCOVER. 2017. $29.95. ... A World Not to Come: A History of Latino Writing and Print Culture. Coronado, Raúl. PAPERBACK. 2016. $22.50. ...
more infohttp://www.hup.harvard.edu/results-list.php?subject=HIS036040&sortby=price

18th and 19th Century History Resources (all)18th and 19th Century History Resources (all)

Research Resources Home > History > 18th and 19th Century History > Malias favorite resources ... C19: The Nineteenth Century Index is an all-inclusive bibliographic tool for 19th-century research. [more info]. Location: ... C19: The Nineteenth Century Index is an all-inclusive bibliographic tool for 19th-century research. [more info]. Location: ... C19: The Nineteenth Century Index is an all-inclusive bibliographic tool for 19th-century research. [more info]. Location: ...
more infohttp://www.lib.jmu.edu/resources/subject.aspx?s=131

British History - 19th Century - Ch. 9British History - 19th Century - Ch. 9

During the half-century that followed the accession of George III, our country led the world in the scientific progress of ... For a variety of reasons, real wages had been fairly good in the first part of the eighteenth century. The labourers and the ... If it had been adopted for Berkshire and for all England, it might have diverted our modern social history at its source into ... Although the spinning jenny had in the last years of the eighteenth century gone far to destroy the spinning of wool by women ...
more infohttp://www.oldandsold.com/articles11/british-history-9.shtml

World History Timeline: 19th Century Timeline (1801 to 1900)World History Timeline: 19th Century Timeline (1801 to 1900)

Attitudes and global events during the first decade of the 19th century with links to all decades of the century - each item ... They are crushed militarily by the British, but unrest among the Irish will remain in Ireland through the rest of the century. ...
more infohttp://www.fsmitha.com/time/ce19-1.htm

Colour photos from history show the 19th century in a whole new lightColour photos from history show the 19th century in a whole new light

These mesmerising colour photos from history show the 19th century in a stunning new light. Taken during the 1890s, these shots ... A girl from Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, poses for a photograph at some point in the late 19th century 6. ... A Hungarian family pose for a photograph outside their house in the late 19th century 14. Palestinian Farmer. ...
more infohttps://www.thesun.co.uk/living/1643916/these-mesmerising-colour-photos-from-history-show-the-19th-century-in-a-stunning-new-light/

19th century | European History Primary Sources19th century | European History Primary Sources

This website is maintained by the Department of History and Civilization and the Library of the European University Institute ...
more infohttp://primary-sources.eui.eu/period/19th-century?page=5

19th century | European History Primary Sources19th century | European History Primary Sources

This website is maintained by the Department of History and Civilization and the Library of the European University Institute ...
more infohttp://primary-sources.eui.eu/period/19th-century?page=2

History of the 19th Century Whaling IndustryHistory of the 19th Century Whaling Industry

A Brief History of Whaling The 19th Century Whaling Industry Thrived for Decades. * Share ... The 19th century whaling industry was one of the most prominent businesses in America. Hundreds of ships setting out from ports ... In the early 19th century, a typical American household might contain several items manufactured from whale products, such as ... In a sense, a 19th century whaler regarded a whale as a swimming oil well. And the oil from whales, when used to lubricate ...
more infohttps://www.thoughtco.com/a-brief-history-of-whaling-1774068

History] Skirmishers of 19th Century and American Civil WarHistory] Skirmishers of 19th Century and American Civil War

SKIRMISHERS OF 19TH CENTURY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WAR SKIRMISHERS OF 19TH CENTURY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WAR ... SKIRMISHERS OF 19TH CENTURY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WAR. SKIRMISHERS OF 19TH CENTURY AND AMERICAN CIVIL WAR ... History] Skirmishers of 19th Century and American Civil War Author: Minas Moth. Original Thread: American Civil War - Research& ... our point of interest are 19th Century skirmishers that were used in American Civil War period. In the 18th Century, ...
more infohttp://www.twcenter.net/forums/showthread.php?556814-History-Skirmishers-of-19th-Century-and-American-Civil-War

boys historical clothing -- 19th century children in historyboys historical clothing -- 19th century children in history

Children in History: The 19th Century. Figure 1.--John Joseph Klem, often refered to as Johnny Clem, was probably the most ... Part of the history of aviation takes place in Scarborough, Yorkshire during the 19th century. The theory of flight was worked ... Second, one of the arguments used by racists in the late 19th and 20th centuries was that black men were near savages and had ... The book about the early 19th Century Rugby School was written in 1858 by Thomas Hughes. He was the first author to write a ...
more infohttp://histclo.com/child/chron/mod/cmod19.html

Maine History Online - Irish Immigrants in 19th Century MaineMaine History Online - Irish Immigrants in 19th Century Maine

Portlands industry used the inexpensive labor of the Irish to further its interests. John Bundy Browns sugar factory, located adjacent to one of Portlands two large Irish neighborhoods, employed scores of the Irish, as did the Portland Company, which produced locomotives, railroad cars, and ship engines.. ...
more infohttp://www.mainememory.net/sitebuilder/site/185/slideshow/219/display?prev_object_id=444&prev_object=page&slide_num=2
  • This book offers one of the first critical evaluations and in-depth analysis of the intellectual movement in Maharashtra in the 19th century. (abebooks.com)
  • Arguing against the prevalent view that Indian rationality was imported from Europe through the colonial agency, it traces the rational roots of the movement to indigenous intellectual traditions and history. (abebooks.com)
  • This is a rare historical work, a family history with an enthralling theme: how a family without a father to guide them worked, loved, suffered and survived in a century of social revolution, empire-building and rapidly growing problems of poverty and deprivation. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • The object of the change in the organic law was to obviate annual legislative sessions, but as a rule, up to the last decade of the century, annual sessions were held, the general assembly adjourning to a date in the second year of the biennial period to complete its unfinished business and consider other legislative matters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skirmishers are known from ancient times, however, our point of interest are 19th Century skirmishers that were used in American Civil War period. (twcenter.net)
  • His life enlightens one of the most compelling narratives of the history of those years - a period of social reform and growing consciousness of the plight of those trapped by misery and failure in that relentlessly ambitious world. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • They are crushed militarily by the British, but unrest among the Irish will remain in Ireland through the rest of the century. (fsmitha.com)
  • Like his uncle (Price Albert), he was also a very difficult little boy, but unlike his uncle he was constantly precipitaing diplmatic crises and palyed a major role in launching World War I. Many children from humble families also played important roles in the 19th century. (histclo.com)
  • School was playing a more important role in children's lives during the 19th century. (histclo.com)
  • Dollie will be speaking about 19th century optical illusion toys and their fascinating role in 1800s recreation. (heritageall.org)
  • Lucid, accessible and thought provoking, this book will interest scholars and researchers of modern Indian history, Indian political thought, sociology, philosophy and Marathi literature. (abebooks.com)
  • I got obsessed with it, and then I became so obsessed with it that I graduated and then immediately reapplied for the history department, for a master's in history. (nola.com)
  • For the last half of the century, it was the policy of the party in power in the legislature to secure the largest amount of political advantage in making the apportionments, and they were made whenever the political control of the assembly changed. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the half century when Romanticism was deploying its talents and ideas, the political minds inside or outside Romanticist culture were engaged in the effort to settle-each party or group or theory in its own way-the legacy of 1789. (britannica.com)
  • The ` labouring poor' in the eighteenth century had enjoyed many privileges, but they had lacked political power. (oldandsold.com)
  • Even the most enthusiastic reader of political and social history probably knows little more about Perceval, and certainly even less about the lives of his many children. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Part of the Blackwell Histories of Literature series, the book describes the development of the Victorian literary movement and places it within its cultural, social and political context. (wiley.com)
  • A wonderful online exhibition at the Library of Congress which gives access to the 19th century photoraphic collection of Prokudin Gorskii. (pitt.edu)
  • Provides electronic access to over 2,800 volumes of 19th century American fiction. (jmu.edu)
  • We know of quite a few children who were involved in some of the major events of the century. (histclo.com)
  • The first History Happy Hour this year features Dollie Boyd from Tusculum College and the Doak House Museum. (heritageall.org)
  • Presenting a radical leftist perspective on the recent history of the Balkan region, this collection of essays, commentaries, and interviews argues. (tradebit.com)
  • An incomparably rich collection of primary source material on all aspects of American history originating from Congress and other federal agencies. (jmu.edu)
  • this is a meticulously researched family history, with a wealth of tabular material to help the reader follow the many echelons of the family. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • It is designed to give you a taste of the actual exhibit that includes more than 250 artifacts from 300 years of Russian history. (pitt.edu)
  • And throughout recorded history, the enormous mammals have been highly prized for the products they can provide. (thoughtco.com)
  • British History - The Industrial Revolution - Rural : enclosures and Speenhamland - Urban : machines and factories - Coal and iron - Cotton and wool - Material and moral influences on the new society - Popular education - The Mechanics. (oldandsold.com)
  • In this fascinating and unique study, Ann Hughes examines how the experience of civil war in seventeenth-century England affected the. (tradebit.com)