History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Famous PersonsMedicine in ArtHistoryHistory of MedicinePaintingsPersia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Nobel PrizeEmbryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.History of NursingMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Literature, MedievalEuropeSculptureBooksMummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.United StatesMythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)ArtManuscripts, MedicalMagic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Philosophy, MedicalForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Engraving and EngravingsReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.ItalyFounder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Communicable DiseasesEconomic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Theft: Unlawful act of taking property.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Citrus aurantiifolia: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Genealogy and HeraldryEnglandClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Awards and PrizesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.GermanyEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.GreeceDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Great BritainOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).North AmericaHungaryCrops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.South AmericaWater Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.PortugalEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Europe, EasternSuntan: An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.RussiaSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.PolandGeneral Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.SwitzerlandPacific OceanLondonSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.BrazilAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.AfricaNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.MexicoNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.WalesGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)History of DentistrySex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.JapanNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Prisoners of the proximate: loosening the constraints on epidemiology in an age of change. (1/713)

"Modern epidemiology" has a primary orientation to the study of multiple risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases. If epidemiologists are to understand the determinants of population health in terms that extend beyond proximate, individual-level risk factors (and their biological mediators), they must learn to apply a social-ecologic systems perspective. The mind-set and methods of modern epidemiology entail the following four main constraints that limit engagement in issues of wider context: 1) a preoccupation with proximate risk factors; 2) a focus on individual-level versus population-level influences on health; 3) a typically modular (time-windowed) view of how individuals undergo changes in risk status (i.e., a life-stage vs. a life-course model of risk acquisition); and 4) the, as yet, unfamiliar challenge of scenario-based forecasting of health consequences of future, large-scale social and environmental changes. The evolution of the content and methods of epidemiology continues. Epidemiologists are gaining insights into the complex social and environmental systems that are the context for health and disease; thinking about population health in increasingly ecologic terms; developing dynamic, interactive, life-course models of disease risk acquisition; and extending their spatial-temporal frame of reference as they perceive the health risks posed by escalating human pressures on the wider environment. The constraints of "the proximate" upon epidemiology are thus loosening as the end of the century approaches.  (+info)

Reconstruction of a historical genealogy by means of STR analysis and Y-haplotyping of ancient DNA. (2/713)

Archaeological excavations in St Margaretha's church at Reichersdorf, Germany, in 1993 led to the discovery of eight skeletons, so far assumed to be of the Earls of Konigsfeld, who used the church as a family sepulchre over a period of seven generations from 1546 to 1749. DNA-based sex testing and analysis of autosomal short tandem repeat systems (STR) was carried out to confirm the assumption of kinship. Since five of the individuals were determined as males, analysis of Y-specific STRs seemed feasible. A comparison of Y-haplotypes revealed that one individual could not be linked to the Konigsfeld patrilineage, an observation supported by autosomal STR evidence. Two individuals typed as females posed an identification problem, since supposedly only male members of the family were buried in St Margaretha's. Nevertheless, these individuals could tentatively be identified as members of the House of Konigsfeld through genetic fingerprinting.  (+info)

A bit of history. (3/713)

Reviews of scientific literature began to appear in the 17th century. Journals dedicated to them soon followed, leading eventually to this one, which emerged in the 1930s as Bacteriological Reviews; it adapted to the many changes in our fluid discipline, evolving into the present, much broader Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.  (+info)

Fin-de-siecle Philadelphia and the founding of the Medical Library Association. (4/713)

Philadelphia at the time of the founding of the Medical Library Association (MLA) is described. Several factors that promoted the birth of the association are discussed, including the rapid increase in the labor force and the rise of other health related professions, such as the American Hospital Association and the professionalization of nursing. The growth of the public hygiene movement in Philadelphia at the time of Sir William Osler's residency in the city is discussed. Finally, the rapid growth of the medical literature is considered a factor promoting the development of the association. This article continues the historical consideration of the MLA begun in the author's article on the three founders of the association. The background information is drawn from the items listed in the bibliography, and the conclusions are those of the author.  (+info)

Early use of 'open-air' treatment for 'pulmonary phthisis' at the Dreadnought Hospital, Greenwich, 1900-1905. (5/713)

The use of open-air treatment for tuberculosis ('pulmonary phthisis') at the Dreadnought Hospital, Greenwich from 1900 to 1905 is reviewed. A marked reduction in mean mortality rate compared to 'orthodox' management was observed.  (+info)

Identification of Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum in a 200-year-old skeletal specimen. (6/713)

Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the causative agent of venereal syphilis, was detected in a 200-year-old skeletal specimen from Easter Island. An initial diagnosis of treponemal infection was confirmed by extensive purification of immunoglobulin that reacted strongly with T. pallidum antigen. Extracted DNA exhibited a single-base polymorphism that distinguished T.p. subsp. pallidum from 4 other human and nonhuman treponemes. Extensive precautions against contamination of the subject matter with modern treponemal DNA were employed, including analysis of archaeological and modern specimens in 2 geographically separate laboratories. Molecular determination of historical disease states by using skeletal material can significantly enhance our understanding of the pathology and spread of infectious diseases.  (+info)

Two closely linked mutations in Drosophila melanogaster that are lethal to opposite sexes and interact with daughterless. (7/713)

A new spontaneous mutation named Sex-lethal, Male-specific No. 1 (SxlM1) is described that is lethal to males, even in the presence of an Sxl+ duplication. Females homozygous for SxlM1 are fully viable. This dominant, male-specific lethal mutation is on the X chromosome approximately 0.007 map units to the right of a previously isolated female-specific mutation, Female-lethal, here renamed Sex-lethal, Female-specific No. 1 (SxlF1). SxlM1 and SxlF1 are opposite in nearly every repect, particularly with regard to their interaction with maternal effect of the autosomal mutation, daughterless (da). Females that are homozygous for da produce defective eggs that cannot support female (XX) development. A single dose of SxlM1 enables daughters to survive this da female-specific lethal maternal effect. A duplication of the Sxl locus weakly mimics this action of SxlM1. In contrast, SxlF1 and a deficiency for Sxl, strongly enhance the female-lethal effects of da. The actions of SxlM1 and SxlF1 are explained by a model in which expression of the Sxl locus is essential for females, lethal for males, and under the control of a product of the da locus. It is suggested that SxlM1 is a constitutive mutation at the Sxl locus.  (+info)

The effect of recombination-defective meiotic mutants on fourth-chromosome crossing over in Drosophila melanogaster. (8/713)

Crossing over was measured on the normally achiasmate fourth chromosome in females homozygous for one of our different recombination-defective meiotic mutants. Under the influence of those meiotic mutants that affect the major chromosomes by altering the spatial distribution of exchanges, meiotic fourth-chromosome recombinants were recovered irrespective of whether or not the meiotic mutant decreases crossing over on the other chromosomes. No crossing over, on the other hand, was detected on chromosome 4 in either wild type or in the presence of a meiotic mutant that decreases the frequency, but does not affect the spatial distribution, of exchange on the major chromosomes. It is concluded from these observations that (a) in wild type there are regional constraints on exchange that can be attenuated or eliminated by the defects caused by recombination-defective meiotic mutants; [b] these very constraints account for the absence of recombination on chromosome 4 in wild type; and [c] despite being normally achiasmate, chromosome 4 responds to recombination-defective meiotic mutants in the same way as do the other chromosomes.  (+info)

EVENT: Janine Barchas, associate professor of English at The University of Texas at Austin and author of the award-winning Cambridge study "Graphic Design, Print Culture, and the Eighteenth-Century Novel," addresses the graphic uniformity of eighteenth-century texts published in todays paperbacks and critical editions to ask whether they accurately convey the visual exuberance of the originals.. WHEN: 7 p.m., Thursday, April 6. Theater doors open 30 minutes prior to event.. WHERE: The Harry Ransom Center is on the corner of 21st and Guadalupe streets on The University of Texas at Austin campus. Maps of campus are available online.. BACKGROUND: The Ransom Centers current "Technologies of Writing" exhibition, on which Barchas served as a consultant to curators Elizabeth Garver and Kurt Heinzelman, forms an excellent background for Barchas lecture. Both lecture and exhibit showcases a number of graphically innovative eighteenth-century works. Barchas raises questions about the roles of authors, ...
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Thats an interesting point, but (i) Enlightenment in Spain is not a separate page about the progress of Enlightenment in Spain, a la the pages on the Scottish Enlightenment or the Enlightenment in America. Its just the part of the series on Spanish history that comes in between "Golden Age" and "Independence Movement." As you would expect, the page is exclusively about the political, military, and diplomatic history of Spain from the War of Succession to the Peninsular War. There is one section on reformist ministers appointed by the Bourbon monarchs. Any country in Europe could similarly rename its page on the mid-18th century "Enlightenment in X". So I dont think that there is any reason to think that "Enlightenment in Spain" is an intellectual moment comparable to the Enlightenment in Scotland or France. (ii) We could easily double the length of the list of Enlightenment thinkers for France or Scotland, but we have not because the list would be essentially useless if it became a general ...
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Historians have long debated the extent to which the secret network of Freemasonry was a main factor in the Enlightenment. The leaders of the Enlightenment included Freemasons such as Diderot, Montesquieu, Voltaire, Lessing, Pope,[238] Horace Walpole, Sir Robert Walpole, Mozart, Goethe, Frederick the Great, Benjamin Franklin[239] and George Washington.[240] Norman Davies said that Freemasonry was a powerful force on behalf of liberalism in Europe from about 1700 to the twentieth century. It expanded rapidly during the Age of Enlightenment, reaching practically every country in Europe. It was especially attractive to powerful aristocrats and politicians as well as intellectuals, artists and political activists.[241]. During the Age of Enlightenment, Freemasons comprised an international network of like-minded men, often meeting in secret in ritualistic programs at their lodges. They promoted the ideals of the Enlightenment and helped diffuse these values across Britain and France and other ...
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE. Northamptons Fire Rescue Chief Announces Retirement after 32 Years of Service, Assistant Fire Rescue Chief Nominated. Duane Nichols has announced his retirement as the City of Northamptons Fire Rescue Chief. Chief Nichols joined the Northampton Fire Rescue Department in 1987, beginning a distinguished 32-year career in which he has steadily risen up through the ranks. He served as a firefighter for seven years, Shift Captain for four years, Acting Deputy Chief for one year, Training Officer for three years, and Deputy Chief of Fire Prevention/Operations for five years. He was promoted to Assistant Chief in 2007, and ultimately named Chief of Northamptons Fire Rescue Department in 2015, overseeing the departments 68 members, as well as the Fire Prevention Bureau, the training division, and EMS and fire suppression.. Mayor David J. Narkewicz said, "I want to personally thank Chief Nichols for his 32 years of service and dedication to the city. There is no question in my ...
Eventbrite - Faculty of Health & Society, The University of Northampton presents SAH: Nursing and midwifery mentor update workshops, Faculty of Health & Society, University of Northampton. Venue: St Andrews Hospital, Northampton. - Wednesday, 28 November 2018 at Training Room 5, Cliftonville House (next to Braye Centre), Northampton, Northamptonshire. Find event and ticket information.
Eventbrite - Faculty of Health & Society, The University of Northampton presents SAH: Nursing and midwifery mentor update workshops, Faculty of Health & Society, University of Northampton. Venue: St Andrews Hospital, Northampton. - Thursday, 8 March 2018 at Training Room 5, Cliftonville House (next to Braye Centre), Northampton, Northamptonshire. Find event and ticket information.
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Self-Machinery?: Steel Trusses and the Management of Ruptures in Eighteenth-Century Europe Liliane Hilaire-Pérez, Christelle Rabier Technology and Culture, Volume 54, Number 3, July 2013, pp (Article)
Spain's eighteenth century can be divided into two halves. The first half comprises the reigns of the first Spanish Bourbon, Philip V, the designated successor of the last Spanish Habsburg, Carlos II and of Philip's son, Luis I, who succeeded to the throne following Philip's abdication in 1724.
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Get an answer for A condition known as ichthyosis hystrix gravior appeared as a mutation in a boy in the early eighteenth century. His skin became much thickened and formed loose spines that were sloughed off at intervals. When he grew up this porcupine-man married and had six sons, all with this condition, and several daughters who were all normal. For four generations this condition was passed from father to son. Where do you suggest the mutated gene was located? and find homework help for other S
For the 5,000 people with MND across the UK, problems with swallowing may make eating and drinking difficult, leading to weight loss and further health problems.. To help make eating and drinking easier, the MND Association is developing a cook book full of recipe ideas and preparation tips to use in the kitchen.. A kitchen masterclass was staged at Northampton College, with a professional dietitian and speech and language therapist on hand to discuss the ideas with three people living with MND and their partners. The experience of the workshop including photographs taken on the day will help shape and illustrate the guide.. Kaye Stevens, care information manager at the MND Association, based in Northampton, said: "We aim to create a friendly, accessible cook book that will help people with MND think about how to prepare easy-swallow meals.. "Trouble swallowing or a lack of dexterity with the disease can make eating and drinking very difficult and people may lose weight.. "We want to share ...
Our Patients (1) Porter, R. and Roberts, Marie Mulvey. Literature and Medicine During the Eighteenth-Century. London: Routledge, 1994. Pg. 1. Waiting Room (2) Porter, R. and Roberts, Marie Mulvey. "Literature and Medicine During the Eighteenth-Century," 33.. Doctors Training in the Eighteenth Century. (3) Peterson, M. Jeanne. The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London. London: University of California Press, 1978. Pg. 41. (4) Peterson, M. Jeanne. "The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London," 50. (5) Peterson, M. Jeanne. "The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London," 42. (6) Peterson, M. Jeanne. "The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London," 44. (7) Peterson, M. Jeanne. "The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London," 42. (8) Peterson, M. Jeanne. "The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London," 43. (9) Peterson, M. Jeanne. "The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London," 48. (10) Peterson, M. Jeanne. "The Medical Profession in Mid-Victorian London," 44. (11) Peterson, M. Jeanne. ...
Currently writing a book on the justices of the peace in 18th-century British literature. Other publications include: "Something for an Executive: Satire in Terry Gilliams Brazil." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 35.2 (2018): 119-36; "Smolletts Justices." The Age of Johnson: A Scholarly Annual 23 (2015): 273-300; "The Holy House of Loreto: Politics and Idolatry in the Long Eighteenth Century." 1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era 21 (2014): 207-27; "Spotless Minds and Cultural Memory: Teaching Future Teachers in the United States." Digital Defoe: Studies in Defoe and His Contemporaries 5.1 (2013); "Moral and Medical Diagnosis in Maria Edgeworths Belinda." The Eighteenth-Century Novel 8 (October 2011): 247-69; "A Partridge in the Family Tree: Fixity, Mobility, and Community in Tom Jones." Eighteenth-Century Fiction 17.3 (April 2005): 349-72 ...
Currently writing a book on the justices of the peace in 18th-century British literature. Other publications include: "Something for an Executive: Satire in Terry Gilliams Brazil." Quarterly Review of Film and Video 35.2 (2018): 119-36; "Smolletts Justices." The Age of Johnson: A Scholarly Annual 23 (2015): 273-300; "The Holy House of Loreto: Politics and Idolatry in the Long Eighteenth Century." 1650-1850: Ideas, Aesthetics, and Inquiries in the Early Modern Era 21 (2014): 207-27; "Spotless Minds and Cultural Memory: Teaching Future Teachers in the United States." Digital Defoe: Studies in Defoe and His Contemporaries 5.1 (2013); "Moral and Medical Diagnosis in Maria Edgeworths Belinda." The Eighteenth-Century Novel 8 (October 2011): 247-69; "A Partridge in the Family Tree: Fixity, Mobility, and Community in Tom Jones." Eighteenth-Century Fiction 17.3 (April 2005): 349-72 ...
Few authors benefit from being set in their contemporary context more than Samuel Johnson. Samuel Johnson in Context is a guide to his world, offering readers a comprehensive account of eighteenth-century life and culture as it relates to his work. Short, lively and eminently readable chapters illuminate not only Johnsons own life, writings and career, but the literary, critical, journalistic, social, political, scientific, artistic, medical and financial contexts in which his works came into being. Written by leading experts in Johnson and in eighteenth-century studies, these chapters offer both depth and range of information and suggestions for further study and research. Richly illustrated, with a chronology of Johnsons life and works and an extensive bibliography, this book is a major new work of reference on eighteenth-century culture and the age of Johnson. ...
There is no general prohibition against women singing in classic Jewish law based on the Talmud and subsequent codes and commentaries until the early nineteenth century. The current blanket prohibition accepted by Haredi and some modern Orthodox rabbis was first suggested and rejected by Rabbi Joshua Falk (d. 1614) and was only given as a halachic ruling by Rabbi Moshe Sofer, the Hatam Sofer, in the early nineteenth century.... There is therefore no halachic justification for anyone walking out when women sing. But even if one accepts the very strict ruling of the Hatam Sofer, it is forbidden to walk out in order not to insult the female performers. ...
Bonnycastle actually came to the University at its opening in 1825 as the first professor, not of mathematics, but of natural philosophy (as physics was then called). When Thomas Key, the first Professor of Mathematics, resigned to return to his native England, Bonnycastle shifted over to the mathematical chair and remained in that post until his untimely death on 31 October 1840 at the age of only forty-three. "Old Bonny," as he was fondly called by the students, moved away from what was increasingly becoming the antiquated synthetic approach to mathematical pedagogy that had been so typical of Oxbridge mathematical teaching in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries and introduced the more avant-garde analytic approach of late eighteenth-century French authors such as Silvestre Lacroix. In 1834, he published his own textbook, Inductive Geometry, in which he aimed to unite the best of the synthetic and the analytic approaches to geometry for the college- and university-level audience. ...
Founded in 1982, Collegium Ramazzini is an independent, international academy with 180 invited members from more than 30 countries. Its members are internationally renowned experts in the fields of occupational and environmental health, including Dr. Joseph Graziano, Dr. David Eastmond Dr. David Ozonoff, Dr. T.K. Joshi, Dr. Mohamed Jeebhay, and Dr. Giuliano Franco. It was named after sixteenth-century Italian physician Bernardino Ramazzini and was founded by Irving Selikoff, Cesare Maltoni and other eminent scientists in 1982. The mission of the Collegium Ramazzini is to advance the study of occupational and environmental health issues. Through its members and activities, it seeks to bridge scientific discovery and the socio-political centers that will need to act on these discoveries and advances in the area of health and safety. One main purpose of the Collegium is to host conferences, symposia and seminars that introduce scientific, medical and governmental bodies to various issues and ...
01 November 2007. CR Bangkok Workshop on Occupational and Environmental Health in the Asia/Pacific Region. The Secretary General of the Sixth Princess Chulabhorn International Science Congress and Fellow of the Collegium Ramazzini, Professor Mathuros Ruchirawat, has invited the Collegium Ramazzini to organize a 2-day Satellite Workshop following the Sixth Princess Chulabhorn International Science Congress. This Satellite Workshop will be held in Bangkok from November 30-December 1 2007. It is entitled, Occupational and Environmental Health in the Asia/Pacific Region . The goal of the Satellite Workshop is to facilitate exchanges between Fellows of the Collegium and scientists in the Asia-Pacific region and thus to facilitate the dissemination of scientific knowledge as well as of new strategies for the prevention of environmental and occupational disease. The Collegium Ramazzini Satellite Workshop is structured to include invited speakers from both the Collegium and the Asia-Pacific region, with ...
This classic history of the Mexican hacienda from the colonial period through the nineteenth century has been reissued in a silver anniversary edition complete with a substantive new introduction...
For all who work on pre-industrial Europe, there is so much that we wish we knew and so much that we dont know. This collection of essays, introduced and edited by Elise M. Dermineur (Umeå University), enhances our understanding of how women interacted with the credit market, while generating, as should all good work, new questions and avenues for further research.. This fascinating study lays out the very many different avenues by which women accessed credit in Europe between the fourteenth and eighteenth centuries. The volume comprises thirteen chapters in addition to an introductory chapter by Elise Dermineur and a concluding chapter by Laurence Fontaine. Four chapters cover late medieval England with nine chapters focusing on the early modern period, two chapters on England and one each on the Low Counties, Sweden, Italy, Germany, France, Barcelona and Santiago de Compostela, Galicia. One of the strengths of this book is that the essays span both the late medieval and early modern period ...
In this thesis, I undertake a multi-disciplinary survey and descriptive analysis of vampires and other types of undead-corpse in Europe from the medieval period to the twentieth century. Broadly speaking, the first three chapters of the thesis discuss the typology and folklore of vampires and undead-corpses, and so too the burial practices associated with such revenants. The remaining chapters delve into the etiological explanations for the existence of undead-corpses, the vampire infestations of the eighteenth century, the reasons for declining belief in walking-corpses thereafter, and the increasingly popular notion of astral vampirism in the nineteenth century. In the early eighteenth century, popular belief in the existence of undead-corpses was fuelled by numerous reports of vampire outbreaks across Eastern and Central Europe. In his Treatise on Vampires and Revenants (1746), Augustin Calmet argued that although there may have been troublesome undead-corpses and vestiges of vampirism in ...
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The Practice: Established with5 surgeries, modern working environment, fully computerised,R4 Software, OPG,digital x-ray, Rotary Endo, Intra Oral Camera, Apex Locator and fully Air Conditioned. The practice benefits from a fantastic lead dentist completing clinical peers every month. Experienced longstanding associates, supported by a dedicated Dental Hygienist/Therapist and a team of qualified professional support staff. Providing a healthy mix of NHS & Private, and in addition offering Denplanand Bupa Essential. Lovely practice, with staff room, kitchen, changing rooms and free parking.. The practice is located within 1 miles of Northampton Town Centre offering excellent shopping facilities, restaurants and bars. It is very close to the M1 & M6, offering easy access to most the Midlands main routes and London. There are various good schools and colleges within the area as well as Northampton University.. What we do matters. Our customers trust us with one of their most important assets, their ...
More than 100 people in Northampton die every year as a result of the air pollution in the town, figures from a borough council report have shown.
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A Northampton mother who was forced to enter a four-year legal battle to reveal doctor’s negligence over her baby’s death is calling for a change in the law for other parents - and The Chronicle & Echo wants to help her cause.
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Where: Media Education Foundation (in the Frances P. Crowe Community Room), 60 Masonic Street, Northampton MA Sponsored by: the Northampton Committee/Friday Night Free Films http://northamptoncommittee.org/films.html and IVAW, Amherst chapter Thank you to AnneMarie Russo for organizing this event!
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Among the earliest Middleborough visitors to Florida was John Whipple Potter Jenks (1819-94), a naturalist, professor at Brown University and resident of Middleborough. Jenks had gained local prominence as the principal of Peirce Academy at Middleborough, a private college preparatory institution whose reputation improved steadily during Jenks tenure. While at the Academy, Jenks also pursued his interest in natural history, at one time assisting the noted naturalist Louis Agassiz with the acquisition of freshly-laid turtle eggs which Agassiz required for the compilation of his landmark study on the embryology of turtles. In 1870, Jenks resigned his position at Peirce Academy and later assumed the directorship of the museum at Brown University where he lectured on agricultural matters. In late summer, 1874, Jenks would be named professor of Zoology and Agriculture at Brown.
Australian Backyard Naturalist is the new book from award-winning Sydney-based writer Peter Macinnis. The sister publication, Australian Backyard Explorer, won the Eve Pownall award in the 2010 Childrens Book Council of Australia Awards.. In his new book, Macinnis looks at the animals that inhabit the places in which we live, including mammals, birds, reptiles and spiders. The book is also full of fascinating scientific facts for both young and old as well as experiments for readers to do themselves.. Australian Backyard Naturalist features stunning illustrations from the National Library of Australias Pictures Collection.. ...
Patronage was a complicated business, as it could mean everything from financial support to networking to legal protection. Shakespeare, for example, operated in a system that required acting companies to have a patron, but that didnt mean the patron was providing financial assistance. The Lord Chamberlains Men (later the Kings Men) was a capitalist venture. Poets and painters, however, often affiliated themselves with a wealthy aristocratic patron, who would provide financial support and possibly housing. Its worth remembering that many poets were not writing for print publication; instead, they would circulate handwritten manuscripts within an elite group (so-called coterie publication or scribal publication), a practice still reasonably popular in the early nineteenth century. (Wordsworths Prelude, published posthumously, had been circulated in MS many years previously.) As Dustin Griffin has pointed out, the patronage system was still functioning well into the eighteenth century. ...
The idea of the Enlightenment has become a touchstone for emotive and often contradictory articulations of contemporary western values. Enlightenment Shadows is a study of the place of Enlightenment thought in intellectual history and of its continued relevance.
Enlightenment CVS committal Author : azundris Project : misc Module : erss Dir : misc/erss/src Modified Files: Makefile.am erss.c erss.h parse.c parse.h parse_config.c parse_config.h tooltip.c Added Files: config.h gui.c gui.h ls.c ls.h net.c net.h Log Message: * refactoring (I) -- kill all globals (bear with me, there actually is a point to this : ) =================================================================== RCS file: /cvsroot/enlightenment/misc/erss/src/Makefile.am,v retrieving revision 1.5 retrieving revision 1.6 diff -u -3 -r1.5 -r1.6 --- Makefile.am 24 Jan 2004 18:04:35 -0000 1.5 +++ Makefile.am 21 Feb 2004 08:53:36 -0000 1.6 @@ -4,6 +4,6 @@ bin_PROGRAMS = erss -erss_SOURCES = erss.c parse.c parse_config.c tooltip.c +erss_SOURCES = erss.c parse.c parse_config.c tooltip.c net.c ls.c gui.c erss_LDADD = @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] @[email protected] =================================================================== RCS file: /cvsroot/enlightenment/misc/erss/src/erss.c,v ...
Testicular descent, which beings during the early foetal period, has been an area of research from the 1700s, when anatomists such as John Hunter began to notice the origin and development of the testicles and their location [10] [11] [12] [13]. The mechanisms behind testicular descent has been debated for at least two centuries, beginning with anatomical dissections on both human and animal foetuses during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries [12] [14], then enhancing with endocrinological discoveries during the twentieth century [10] [11]. Many theories were proposed and revoked since the discovery of testicular descent. One of the earliest debates was between John Hunter and Albretch von Haller, who concluded that the foetal testis is intra-abdominal and the processus vaginalis remains opened, contrary to the results published by Hunter [10] [13]. Hunters description of the gubernaculum, as a vascular and fibrous foetal structure, and the covering cremaster muscle led to further research ...
Testicular descent, which beings during the early foetal period, has been an area of research from the 1700s, when anatomists such as John Hunter began to notice the origin and development of the testicles and their location [10] [11] [12] [13]. The mechanisms behind testicular descent has been debated for at least two centuries, beginning with anatomical dissections on both human and animal foetuses during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries [12] [14], then enhancing with endocrinological discoveries during the twentieth century [10] [11]. Many theories were proposed and revoked since the discovery of testicular descent. One of the earliest debate was between John Hunter and Albretch von Haller, who concluded that the foetal testis is intra-abdominal and the processus vaginalis remains opened, contrary to the results published by Hunter [10] [13]. Hunters description of the gubernaculum as a vascular and fibrous foetal structure and the covering cremaster muscle led to further research and ...
Fields of Research The Department offers graduate courses and thesis supervision in the major areas of literary research in English, including Medieval, Renaissance, Restoration and Eighteenth-Century, Romantic, Victorian, Modern and Contemporary British, all periods of Canadian and American literatures, Post-colonial Studies, and Literary Theory. The Department does not offer graduate courses in linguistics, creative writing, or journalism. The Queen s University Library collections are comprised of over 2.2 million physical items and over 500,000 electronic resources, including 440,000 electronic books, 60,000 electronic serials, and 625 research databases. In terms of support for researchers in the fields of English literature Queen s has nearly complete runs of numerous Victorian periodicals, as well as access to periodical and monographic resources in databases such as the 17thand 18th Century UK Newspapers: The Burney Collection, Eighteenth Century Collections Online I & II,19th Century UK ...
On behalf of the President of the Collegium Ramazzini, Dr. Philip J. Landrigan and its 180 elected Fellows in countries around the world, I am writing to express the Collegium s strong disagreement with the above document produced by the OSWER. We consider the approach that is proposed in this document will have the effect of unjustifiably diminishing the regulatory level of concern that is directed to control of exposures to chrysotile asbestos. We are of the strongly held scientific opinion that any relaxation of regulatory concern around chrysotile will result in increased human exposures to carcinogenic chrysotile asbestos worldwide and that these exposures will result in suffering, disease and death caused by asbestosis, lung cancer, malignant mesothelioma and other asbestos-related cancers. The Collegium Ramazzini considers this document an affront to both good science and to morality ...
The engaging story of how an unlikely group of extraordinary people laid the foundation for the legal protection of animalsIn eighteenth-century England-where cockfighting and bullbaiting drew large crowds, and the abuse of animals was routine-the idea of animal protection was dismissed as laughably radical. But as pets became more common, human attitudes toward animals evolved steadily. An unconventional duchess defended their intellect in her writings. A gentleman scientist believed that animals should be treated with compassion. And with the concentrated efforts of an eccentric Scots barrister and a flamboyant Irishman, the lives of beasts-and, correspondingly, men and women-began to change. Kathryn Shevelow, a respected eighteenth-century scholar, gives us the dramatic story of the bold reformers who braved attacks because they sympathized with the plight of creatures everywhere. More than just a history, this is an eye-opening exploration into how our feelings toward animals reveal our ideas about
2 Usage throughout history *2.1 18th century *2.1.1 American Revolutionary War (1775-1783) ... 18th century[edit]. American Revolutionary War (1775-1783)[edit]. During the American Revolutionary War the Continental ... Usage throughout history[edit]. The United States Government has, at numerous times throughout American History, issued Bills ... New Jersey: A History. New York: Norton. 1984.. External links[edit]. *"Bills of Credit" section of The Constitutional Law Of ...
Modern history[edit]. 17th and 18th century[edit]. The 17th and 18th century saw the greatest use of brown. Caravaggio and ... History and art[edit]. Ancient history[edit]. Further information: Ancient history. Brown has been used in art since ... Brown has been a popular color for military uniforms since the late 18th century, largely because of its wide availability and ... Post-classical history[edit]. In the Middle Ages brown robes were worn by monks of the Franciscan order, as a sign of their ...
History[edit]. 18th century[edit]. Jean-Jacques Rousseau brings forth the idea that all humans are born good but are ultimately ... 19th century[edit]. The literature on the topic of social pedagogy tends to identify German educator Karl Mager (1810-1858) as ... Herman Nohl (1879 - 1960) was a German pedagogue of the first half of the twentieth century. He interpreted reality from a ...
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1 History *1.1 18th and 19th centuries. *1.2 20th century *1.2.1 Flooding ... In the early 18th century, the Wyoming Valley was inhabited by the Shawanese and Delaware Indian (Lenape) tribes. By 1769, John ... Originally estimated at 650 feet, the prodigious blast is considered to be the longest home run in baseball's storied history. ... "History - Kingston Borough". kingstonpa.org.. *^ 1769 The Pennamite Wars, The Society of Colonial Wars in Connecticut. Accessed ...
"Mary Ann McClintock". History of American Women Colonial Women , 18th Century Women , 19th Century Women. History of American ... "Modern History Sourcebook: The Declaration of Sentiments, Seneca Falls Conference, 1848". Fordham. Paul Halsall. 1998. ...
ISBN 1-85109-480-6. "The 18th century". Intellectual Property Office. Archived from the original on April 22, 2014. CS1 maint: ... James H. Willbanks (2004). Machine Guns: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. p. 23. "The Armoury of His Grace the ... George M. Chinn (1951). The Machine Gun, History, Evolution and Development of Manual, Automatic and Airborne Repeating Weapons ... Willbanks, James H (2004). Machine Guns: An Illustrated History of Their Impact. ABC-CLIO. p. 154. ...
18th Century Chatelaines. ... The Natural History of the Flirt. London: D. Bogue, 1848. The ... Chatelaines were worn by many housekeepers in the 19th century and in the 16th century Dutch Republic,[citation needed] where ... The chatelaine was also used as a woman's keychain in the 19th century to show the status of women in a household. The woman ... which were popular from the 1860s to the end of the 19th century. ...
At the peak of output in sugar production in the Virgin Islands at the close of the 18th century, more than 30,000 acres of ... ISBN 0-912627-68-9. Schulterbrandt, Gail (October 2005). "Bay Rum:A Niche of Distinction in VI History". St. John Historical ... Lewisohn, Florence (1970). "18th Century Grandueur". St. Croix Landmarks Society. Retrieved November 6, 2010. ... was exploited by the Danish from the early 18th century and by 1800 over 30,000 acres were under cultivation, earning Saint ...
The gold cycle (18th century)[edit]. Main article: Brazilian Gold Rush. See also: Minas Gerais § History ... 16th-18th centuries); and finally on gold and diamond mining (18th century). Slaves, especially those brought from Africa, ... The Paço Imperial, 18th century-colonial palace located in Rio de Janeiro, used as dispatch house by King João VI of Portugal ... In addition to Colonia de Sacramento, several settlements were established in Southern Brazil in the late 17th and 18th century ...
"The Setauket Spies". Local 18th Century History. The Three Village Historical Society. Archived from the original on 27 August ...
"18th Century Gin Craze". History.co.uk. Hanham, Andrew A. "The Gin Acts, 1729-51". The History of Parliament. ...
18th-century Boston Directory. 1789. Isaiah Thomas. History of printing in America, 2nd ed. 1874. Henry Knox - Bookseller. ... Books in the United States 17th-century Isaiah Thomas. History of printing in America, 2nd ed. 1874. George Emery Littlefield ( ... 20th-century James Clegg. International directory of booksellers and bibliophile's manual. 1906. William S. Reese (1990), The ... Secondhand gold; Bookshop's storied history speaks volumes. Boston Globe. Aug 26, 2007 Library Thing. Boston listings Chuck ...
"Library History - 18th century". Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 19 December 2000. Retrieved 4 November 2009. " ... The 18th century was a period of relative stability, with an element of decline. The Benchers of the time were described as " ... A rookery was established during the 18th century by Edward Northey, who brought a colony of crows from his estates in Epsom to ... After a period of slow decline in the 18th century, the following 100 years saw a restoration of the Temple's fortunes, with ...
Apter-Fredericks (2014). "18th Century Memorable Pieces". 265 - 267 Fulham Road, London, SW3 6HY: Apter-Fredericks. Archived ... "A History of Gillow of Lancaster". "Lancashire County Council". 1984. Missing or empty ,url= (help) Display panel, The Judges' ... firstly it gives samples of 75 types of woods giving their 18th century names, and secondly it gives an insight into the woods ... Burkett, Mary E.; Tyson, Edith; How, Davidson; Hasted, Rachel (1984). A history of Gillow of Lancaster. Lancashire: Lancashire ...
"18th Century Gin Craze". History.co.uk. Hanham, Andrew A. "The Gin Acts, 1729-51". The History of Parliament. Dillon, Patrick ( ... Gin consumption in the United Kingdom increased markedly during the late 17th and early 18th centuries during the so-called Gin ... 2004). Gin: The Much Lamented Death of Madam Geneva the Eighteenth Century Gin Craze. Justin, Charles & Co. ISBN 1-932112-25-1 ...
"Library History - 18th century". Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 19 December 2000. Retrieved 4 November 2009. ... "Library History - 19th century". Inner Temple. Archived from the original on 2 January 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009. "The ... The history of the Library is discussed in some detail in the introduction to J. Conway Davies's Catalogue of Manuscripts in ... The present building was completed in 1958 to the design of T.W. Sutcliffe, and is in the style of the eighteenth century. The ...
1 History *1.1 Early history. *1.2 18th century. *1.3 19th century. *1.4 First half of the 20th century ... 18th century[edit]. Chester County originally stretched from the Delaware River to the Susquehanna River from its founding in ... History[edit]. Early history[edit]. The Indian tribe that owned the land where Chester now stands were the Okehockings, removed ... "Pennsylvania History. 69 (3): 318-326. Retrieved 27 October 2018.. *^ Stranahan, Susan Q. "Beyond the Flames". www.inquirer. ...
Individual authors PQ1600-1709..........16th century PQ1710-1935..........17th century PQ1947-2147..........18th century PQ2149 ... PQ1-3999..........French literature PQ1-771..........History and criticism PQ1-150..........General PQ151-221..........Medieval ... Individual authors and works PQ1411-1545..........To 1350/1400 PQ1551-1595..........(14th-) 15th century (to ca. 1525) PQ1600- ... PQ4001-5999..........Italian literature PQ4001-4199.5..........History and criticism PQ4001-4063..........General PQ4064-4075 ...
"Marsalforn Culture & History". Żebbuġ Local Council. Retrieved 7 August 2015. Spiteri, Stephen C. (10 April 2010). "18th ... Century Hospitaller Coastal Batteries". MilitaryArchitecture.com. Retrieved 7 August 2015. (in Maltese) Camilleri, Alex (2009 ...
"The Order's 18th Century Fortifications". Civilization. Ħamrun: PEG Ltd. 1: 170. Bezzina, Joseph. "Marsalforn Culture & History ... the History of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, Also a Narrative of the Events which Attended the Capture of These Islands ...
16th-18th centuries 7510-7511......19th-20th centuries 7512-7513......21st century 7520-7550.......Provincial, local, foreign ... PT 1-4897...........German literature 1-80............Literary history and criticism 83-(873)........History of German ... 16th-18th centuries 8070-8094.5...Ludvig Holberg 8100-8167.....19th century 8102-8120....Hans Christian Andersen 8145-8157.... ... 16th-18th centuries 8800-8942.....19th century 8851-8900....Henrik Ibsen 8949-8950.....1900-1960 8951-8951.36...1961-2000 8952- ...
"18th Century Women's Head Coverings". Marquise.de. Retrieved 2008-03-11. jefferson.library.millersville.edu Das Wiener ... "The History of Chocolate: 1800s". Retrieved 2008-03-11. Наталия Синельникова. Триумф "Шоколадницы" (in Russian). Retrieved 2008 ...
History in the 18th century". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. X, Fasc. 6. pp. 642-645. ... Hambly, Gavin R.G (1991). "Agha Muhammad Khan and the establishment of the Qajar dynasty". The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. ... Nonetheless, according to the Cambridge History of Iran, "he was treacherous and bloodthirsty, even by the standards of the age ... Kasheff, Manouchehr (2001). "GĪLĀN v. History under the Safavids". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. X, Fasc. 6. pp. 635-642. ...
Western Islam 11th-18th Centuries. New Cambridge History of Islam. 2. Maribel Fierro (ed.). Cambridge University Press. 2010. p ... Grun, Bernard (1991). the Timetables of History (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 245. ISBN 0-671-74919-6. Williams, ... Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 218-223. ISBN 0-304-35730-8. ...
History[edit]. Early 19th century workplace militancy manifested in the Luddite riots, when unemployed workers destroyed labour ... The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners (or "masters"). In The ... "From labour history to the history of industrial relations." Economic History Review 40.2 (1987): 159-184. Historiography ... A History of British Trade Unions Since 1889 (1964); A History of British Trade Unions Since 1889: vol. 2 1911-1933. (1985); A ...
This is a brief guide to help you find records about 18th century political history. There are various types of material ... This is a brief guide to help you find records about 18th century political history. There are various types of material ... How to look for records of... Political history in the 18th century. How can I view the records covered in this guide?. View ... Home , Help with your research , Research guides , Political history in the 18th century ...
History, Saint Andrews, School of History. Research interests: 18th c. France and Britain; cultural and social history; history ... of Art History, Open, Department of Art History. Research interests: 18th c. British art; gender. Teacher ... History, Saint Andrews, School of History. Research interests: 18th and 19th c. Germany and France; travel and travel writing; ... History, Saint Andrews, School of History. Research interests: 17th and 18th c. France and Spain; war and international ...
History, Glasgow, Department of History. Teacher Dr. Nicola Whyte. Sen. Lecturer in History, Exeter, History - Cornwall Campus ... Lecturer in History, Exeter, History. Research interests: Russian political and social history, 18th-20th c., particularly ... in Sociology, Exeter, History. Research interests: History of heredity, natural history and racial anthropology, 18th-20th c.. ... History, Exeter, History. Research interests: Rural history; English economic and social history 16th-19th c.. Teacher ...
A History of the World is a partnership between the BBC and the British Museum that focuses on world history, involving ... A History of the World - Object : 18th century outdoor kitchen stove ... 18th century outdoor kitchen stove. Contributed by Fountains Abbey and Studley Royal. 18th century outdoor kitchen stove ... Most of the content on A History of the World is created by the contributors, who are the museums and members of the public. ...
Germany, or more exactly the old Holy Roman Empire, in the 18th century entered a period of decline that would finally lead to ... By the mid-18th century the "Aufklärung" (The Enlightenment) had transformed German high culture in music, philosophy, science ... He is the sun, she is the moon: Women in early modern Germany (Harvard UP, 1998). 18th-century German literature Kingdom of ... To the east and south of Prussia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had gradually weakened during the 18th century.Frederick ...
By the end of this century, global Muslim population was estimated at 115 million. Timeline of Muslim history. ...
Womens rights -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century. Filed under: Great Britain -- History -- 18th century*. The Savage ... Feminism -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century. *Gothic revival (Literature) -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century ... Immigrants -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century. *Indigenous peoples -- Travel -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th ... Books and reading -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th century. *Booksellers and bookselling -- Great Britain -- History -- 18th ...
Research Resources Home > History > 18th and 19th Century History > Malias favorite resources ... See more 18th and 19th Century History Resources by type of information:. ... 18th and 19th Century History Resources (all). Now Showing: All Resources (A-Z). All Resources (Popularity). Malias Favorites ... Provides digital editions of nearly all books published in Great Britain in the 18th century... [more info]. Location: Campus/ ...
Your search - Great Britain Colonies America History 18th century. Bibliography. - did not match any resources. Skip to ... Your search - Great Britain Colonies America History 18th century. Bibliography. - did not match any resources. ... Removing quotes may allow a broader search: Great Britain Colonies America History 18th century. Bibliography.. ...
Research Resources Home > History > 18th and 19th Century History > Showing all 3 18th and 19th Century History resources with ... 18th and 19th Century History Resources with Legislative & Congressional Information. Now Showing: All Resources (A-Z). All ... An incomparably rich collection of primary source material on all aspects of American history originating from Congress and ... Cross-searches subscribed Readex collections reflecting the history of the United States through its congressional publications ...
... a history from the 18th to the 20th century : the collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute. [Kyōto Fukushoku Bunka Kenkyū ... Fashion : a history from the 18th to the 20th century : the collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute. Author:. Kyōto ... Fashion : a history from the 18th to the 20th century : the collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute/Kyōto Fukushoku Bunka ... Add tags for "Fashion : a history from the 18th to the 20th century : the collection of the Kyoto Costume Institute". Be the ...
HISTORY 286 - A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century ... HISTORY 286 - A History of Eastern Christianity from the 4th to the 18th Century ... Click the button below to view historical syllabi for HISTORY 286 (UM login required). View Historical Syllabi ... Attention is also given to the Russian Church from the 9th century to the Old Believer schism and Church reforms of Peter the ...
East Asian History Sourcebook, Indian History Sourcebook, Islamic History Sourcebook REFERENCE. K.N. Chaudhuri, Asia before ...
... to German immigrants who settled in Virginia 18th century and the Africans they enslaved. ... British Genealogist in Roxbury investigates family history in 18th century Virginia. Yawu Miller , 6/18/2014, 10:31 a.m. London ... The family name came from French/German-descended slave owners who settled in Virginia in the 18th century. Banner Photo ... Her story, detailed in 40 pages of 19th century court records from a suit she filed against her owner, is now part of the ...
This map shows English settlements in the Penobscot Bay area around the time of the American Revolution. Base map provided through the Maine State GIS web page ...
I am trying to research "small bar lead" use in Great Britain & the New World during the 17th & 18th century. Records show that ... Topic: 17th & 18th century small bar-lead.. Posted: 30-Nov-2013 at 20:58. ... Notice: This is the official website of the All Empires History Community (Reg. 10 Feb 2002) ... You are very lucky living in an area with so much history, & I envy you your collection of gun flints. For me there is ...
This website is maintained by the Department of History and Civilization and the Library of the European University Institute ...
18th century. This means that the period approximately covers the years from 1660 through 1830. ... Privacy , Copyright Information , Disclaimer , About the 18th Century History , Web Site Terms and Conditions of Use ... Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at 18th Century History Copyright Page Exceptions: The works by ... This Article on the 18th Century History website by Rick Brainard is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- ...
... one to set us thinking of all that Indian corn means to us in our history. It was a native of American soil at the settlement ... Parent Category: 18th Century History Articles Category: Home Life in Colonial Days User Rating: 0 / 5 ... My father told me that even in his childhood in the first quarter of this century many families of moderate means fastened the ... Possibly this leafe may last a Century and fall into the hands of some inquisitive Person for whose Entertainmt I will inform ...
... let us listen to the voices of fourteen individuals who have contributed to the life and history of our capital region. ... Life, Work, and Death among 18th Century African Americans in Upstate New York ... co-sponsored by the Davidson College Public Lectures Committee and the departments of classics and history ...
Conference on Dutch 18th-Century History, Politics, and Culture To support an international conference on 18th-century Dutch ... history and culture. The conference will concentrate on the "Enlightenment" as it devel- oped in the Netherlands, leading to ...
Based on a work at 18th Century History. Permissions beyond the scope of this license may be available at 18th Century History ... Privacy , Copyright Information , Disclaimer , About the 18th Century History , Web Site Terms and Conditions of Use ... This Article on the 18th Century History website by Rick Brainard is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- ... The history of feminine beauty continued to change during the 20th Century. The Roaring Twenties saw the emergence of tiny ...
History Happy Hour: Pitchforks to Chairs 18th and 19th Century Woodworking Tools ... be speaking about 18th and 19th century woodworking tools and techniques and the utilitarian items they produced at History ... History Happy Hour is a collaborative program that features speakers and researchers from various local organizations, museums ... For more information on the Chester Inn Museum, History Happy Hour, or the Heritage Alliance please call our office at 423.753. ...
... Essays in the economic and social history of England in the 18th century. London: Methuen (reprinted in 2006 by Routledge). ... An 18th century controlled trial prompted by a potential shortage of hospital beds. JLL Bulletin: Commentaries on the history ... introduction-of-numerical-methods-to-assess-the-effects-of-medical-interventions-during-the-18th-century-a-brief-history/). ...
The 18th century Previous. Next Weaving shed, built in the eighteenth century for the linen industry - 96K At the Roe Valley ... The 17th century. Contents , Timeline. 1 2 3 , 4 5 6 7 , 8 9 10 11. Next. The 19th century. ... From 1696 onwards, Irish linen was imported duty free to England, and by the end of the 18th century, linen accounted for about ... century. This was the Act of Union, joining the parliaments of Great Britain and Ireland to form the United Kingdom, in January ...
  • Commissioned especially for the new series and appearing here for the first time, essays cover the world's most important events and developments - from 1701 through 1800 - in the century that witnessed the world's transition to a modern industrial and scientific society. (waterstones.com)
  • Another 126 words (9 lines of text) covering the years 1290, 1457, 1498, 1657, 1700, 1721, 1740, 1787, 1804, and 1843 are included under the topic Early Nestler History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible. (houseofnames.com)
  • This course traces Eastern Christianity from the 2nd to the 16th century. (umich.edu)
  • Stricter controls were imposed during the 16th century, in part because of the new sexual morality that accompanied the Protestant Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. (britannica.com)
  • After the decline of the Roman Empire , the origin of seafaring soldiers was lost throughout the archaic history of the world, being revived when the cannon became practical for use on naval vessels. (wikibooks.org)
  • With one of the world's most extensive clothing collections, the KCI has amassed a wide range of historical garments, underwear, shoes, and fashion accessories dating from the 18th century to the present day. (worldcat.org)
  • The Milestones of Science" is a collection of first editions by world famous early scientists that form a veritable history of science, acquired in the late 1930s by the Museum of Science in Buffalo, New York, and now housed by the Buffalo and Erie County Public Library. (gmu.edu)
  • Tissue samples from a Hungarian mummy have revealed that people in the early 17th and 18th centuries suffered from colon cancer, long before the modern plagues of obesity, physical inactivity and processed food were established as causes of the disease, according to new research. (foxnews.com)
  • Early 19th century British poets popularized and romanticized its use. (recovery.org)
  • Another 267 words (19 lines of text) covering the years 1775, 1790, 1452, 1454, 1540, 1555, 1745 and 1745 are included under the topic Early McMullen History in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible. (houseofnames.com)
  • Another 30 words (2 lines of text) are included under the topic Early McMullen Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible. (houseofnames.com)
  • The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the ancestors of many Scots on both sides of the border begin to recover their collective national heritage through Clan societies and highland games. (houseofnames.com)
  • Another 125 words (9 lines of text) are included under the topic Early McAllen Notables in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible. (houseofnames.com)
  • The young Nestler family played a crucial role in the early history of the region, and contributed greatly to the development of medieval Swabian society. (houseofnames.com)
  • A different vision of early urban religiosity comes from the ancient site of Jericho, well known from a number of biblical passages and excavated repeatedly since the nineteenth century. (encyclopedia.com)
  • My own work on the social and cultural history of 18th-century colonial Spanish Americans who usually could not read or write, including children, slaves, natives, and women, has profited enormously from my subjects' habits in law. (oxfordre.com)
  • Although she had been enamored with Colonial history for a long time, she was unable to delve into it until her children were older and she had completed her master's degree, she said. (baltimoresun.com)
  • She has always been interested in the 18th century, and when she visited Colonial Williamsburg for the first time in 1978, she said she felt comfortable. (baltimoresun.com)
  • During her Colonial Williamsburg trips, she visits the milliner's shop and typically spends at least an hour with them, asking questions about 18th-century clothing construction. (baltimoresun.com)
  • DUTCH EMPIRE: CEYLON (SRI LANKA) CEYLON-SRI LANKA: - Various Authors "History of Ceylon" Vol. 1, parts 1 & 2: "Pre-Colonial Period" University of Ceylon, 1959/60, Colombo, Sri Lanka. (colonialvoyage.com)
  • Germany, or more exactly the old Holy Roman Empire, in the 18th century entered a period of decline that would finally lead to the dissolution of the Empire during the Napoleonic Wars. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jane Kamensky , the Harry S. Truman Professor of American Civilization and Susan Lanser , professor of English, Women's and Gender Studies and Comparative Literature, collaborated to bring students a class that combines history and literature for a comprehensive understanding of what it might have been like to live in London during the period. (brandeis.edu)
  • They kicked off the class with historical framing about the nature of the city as a social and material entity and with a brief history of London as it emerged from its Roman and Medieval influences. (brandeis.edu)
  • Medieval French writer Chretien de Troyes: popularity in 12th century France where Chretien transformed them into something like the Arthurian legends. (prezi.com)
  • From 1696 onwards, Irish linen was imported duty free to England, and by the end of the 18th century, linen accounted for about half of Ireland's total exports. (cruithni.org.uk)
  • We both specialize in the 18th-century, with England as a point of intersection," says Lanser. (brandeis.edu)
  • In 1588 (as we all should know) England had decisively won the battle against the Spanish Armada and rendered Spain powerless, thus allowing England to become the dominant power at sea over the next 3 centuries. (hubpages.com)
  • The unlikely coincidence of a local hospital record and a census led by a pioneering physician has enabled the first study charting rates of venereal disease in 18th century England, revealing high infection levels in the city of Chester at this time. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Reinforced buttonholes weren't invented until the mid-13th century). (slate.com)
  • A fter I did my picture hat quotable this morning Lauren has done me the pleasure of taking it into her hands to compare the 1980s NYC club scene with 18th century court society herself. (blogspot.com)
  • Finally we will consider what all those different themes (legal tradition, national interest, science and religion) regarding the unborn child tell us about the 18th century society, how it was organised and which role the unborn child played in it. (twcenter.net)
  • Paul de Wit's address books provided data about companies from the end of the nineteenth and the beginning of the twentieth centuries. (edu.pl)
  • Sloane's collection of books, coins, artifacts, and natural history specimens had grown so large that he was forced to buy a neighboring house in order to have enough space. (referenceforbusiness.com)
  • The original page is located at http://en.wiki books.org/wi ki/User:RekonDog/Definitive_History_of_the_United_States_Marine_Corps/Institutions/Prologue . (wikibooks.org)
  • Illustration by the Franciscan missionary Bernardino de Sahagun who wrote detailed accounts of the Aztec history during his life there from 1545 until his death in 1590 into 12 books entitled "General History of the Things of New Spain. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Classics and Ancient History bookshelf is a round-up of authored and edited books from our academics. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Laying in silence in the Town of Colonie, north of Albany, New York, let us listen to the voices of fourteen individuals who have contributed to the life and history of our capital region. (archaeological.org)
  • Another 89 words (6 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible. (houseofnames.com)
  • Another 93 words (7 lines of text) about their life in Ireland is included in all our PDF Extended History products and printed products wherever possible. (houseofnames.com)
  • The focus changes for the 18th Century on the values and life of the middle class rather than solely on the upper class. (enotes.com)
  • On this day in 1981, Mark David Chapman is sentenced to 20 years to life for the murder of John Lennon, a founding member of The Beatles, one of the most successful bands in the history of popular music. (history.com)
  • Writes about the 18th century and various other sewing projects in Isis' Wardrobe and about creating a 1940's wardrobe in Fashionably Forties. (blogspot.com)
  • The earliest known button, writes Ian McNeil in An Encyclopedia of the History of Technology , "was originally used more as an ornament than as a fastening, the earliest known being found at Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley [now Pakistan]. (slate.com)
  • About the middle of the eleventh century," writes Carl Köhler in A History of Costume , "clothes began to be made so close-fitting that they followed the lines of the body from shoulders to hips like a glove. (slate.com)
  • The chronological scope is vast, from prehistory to the present, and it is therefore a selective survey focusing on particular artistic traditions in depth, chosen from the major periods of South Asian history. (willamette.edu)
  • Armed with a well-developed family tree and scores of interesting anecdotes and histories, Sheffey, now living in Roxbury, is shopping his story to several television networks and contemplating writing a book. (baystatebanner.com)
  • In a book on the "What Ifs" of history by Chamberlin, the question is put, "[What] If Gilbert Livingston Had Not Voted New York Into the Union. (henrylivingston.com)
  • I am sure that most of you already know about Kendra of Démodé and have already caught wiff of her upcoming book, 18th Century Hair & Wig Styling: History & Step by Step Techniques. (blogspot.com)