History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.History, 21st Century: Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Famous PersonsMedicine in ArtHistoryHistory of MedicinePaintingsPersia: An ancient civilization, known as early as 2000 B.C. The Persian Empire was founded by Cyrus the Great (550-529 B.C.) and for 200 years, from 550 to 331 B.C., the Persians ruled the ancient world from India to Egypt. The territory west of India was called Persis by the Greeks who later called the entire empire Persia. In 331 B.C. the Persian wars against the Greeks ended disastrously under the counterattacks by Alexander the Great. The name Persia in modern times for the modern country was changed to Iran in 1935. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p546 & Asimov, Words on the Map, 1962, p176)Leper Colonies: Residential treatment centers for individuals with leprosy.Civilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.Nobel PrizeEmbryology: The study of the development of an organism during the embryonic and fetal stages of life.Paleopathology: The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.History of NursingMedicine in Literature: Written or other literary works whose subject matter is medical or about the profession of medicine and related areas.Manuscripts as Topic: Compositions written by hand, as one written before the invention or adoption of printing. A manuscript may also refer to a handwritten copy of an ancient author. A manuscript may be handwritten or typewritten as distinguished from a printed copy, especially the copy of a writer's work from which printed copies are made. (Webster, 3d ed)Scurvy: An acquired blood vessel disorder caused by severe deficiency of vitamin C (ASCORBIC ACID) in the diet leading to defective collagen formation in small blood vessels. Scurvy is characterized by bleeding in any tissue, weakness, ANEMIA, spongy gums, and a brawny induration of the muscles of the calves and legs.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Anthropology: The science devoted to the comparative study of man.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.Eugenics: The attempt to improve the PHENOTYPES of future generations of the human population by fostering the reproduction of those with favorable phenotypes and GENOTYPES and hampering or preventing BREEDING by those with "undesirable" phenotypes and genotypes. The concept is largely discredited. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Neurology: A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.Books, Illustrated: Books containing photographs, prints, drawings, portraits, plates, diagrams, facsimiles, maps, tables, or other representations or systematic arrangement of data designed to elucidate or decorate its contents. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p114)Anatomy: A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Literature, MedievalEuropeSculptureBooksMummies: Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.United StatesMythology: A body of stories, the origins of which may be unknown or forgotten, that serve to explain practices, beliefs, institutions or natural phenomena. Mythology includes legends and folk tales. It may refer to classical mythology or to a body of modern thought and modern life. (From Webster's 1st ed)Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.History, Modern 1601-: The period of history from 1601 of the common era to the present.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)ArtManuscripts, MedicalMagic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Anthropology, Physical: The comparative science dealing with the physical characteristics of humans as related to their origin, evolution, and development in the total environment.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Philosophy, MedicalForecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Naval Medicine: The practice of medicine concerned with conditions affecting the health of individuals associated with the marine environment.Croatia: Created 7 April 1992 as a result of the division of Yugoslavia.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Skeleton: The rigid framework of connected bones that gives form to the body, protects and supports its soft organs and tissues, and provides attachments for MUSCLES.Psychoanalysis: The separation or resolution of the psyche into its constituent elements. The term has two separate meanings: 1. a procedure devised by Sigmund Freud, for investigating mental processes by means of free association, dream interpretation and interpretation of resistance and transference manifestations; and 2. a theory of psychology developed by Freud from his clinical experience with hysterical patients. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996).Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Engraving and EngravingsReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Numismatics: Study of coins, tokens, medals, etc. However, it usually refers to medals pertaining to the history of medicine.Fossils: Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Theology: The study of religion and religious belief, or a particular system or school of religious beliefs and teachings (from online Cambridge Dictionary of American English, 2000 and WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, 1997)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.ItalyFounder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Communicable DiseasesEconomic Development: Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Epidemiology: Field of medicine concerned with the determination of causes, incidence, and characteristic behavior of disease outbreaks affecting human populations. It includes the interrelationships of host, agent, and environment as related to the distribution and control of disease.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.Societies, Hospital: Societies having institutional membership limited to hospitals and other health care institutions.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Democracy: A system of government in which there is free and equal participation by the people in the political decision-making process.Periostitis: Inflammation of the periosteum. The condition is generally chronic, and is marked by tenderness and swelling of the bone and an aching pain. Acute periostitis is due to infection, is characterized by diffuse suppuration, severe pain, and constitutional symptoms, and usually results in necrosis. (Dorland, 27th ed)Theft: Unlawful act of taking property.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Th1-Th2 Balance: Homeostatic control of the immune system by secretion of different cytokines by the Th1 and Th2 cells. The concentration dependent binding of the various cytokines to specific receptors determines the balance (or imbalance leading to disease).Population Growth: Increase, over a specific period of time, in the number of individuals living in a country or region.Symbolism: A concept that stands for or suggests something else by reason of its relationship, association, convention, or resemblance. The symbolism may be mental or a visible sign or representation. (From Webster, 3d ed)Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Citrus aurantiifolia: A plant species of the genus CITRUS, family RUTACEAE that provides the familiar lime fruit. Its common name of lime is similar to the limetree (TILIA).Developmental Biology: The field of biology which deals with the process of the growth and differentiation of an organism.Genealogy and HeraldryEnglandClinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Awards and PrizesWorld Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.GermanyEcology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.GreeceDemography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Great BritainOceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).North AmericaHungaryCrops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Islam: A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.South AmericaWater Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.PortugalEducation, Medical: Use for general articles concerning medical education.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Emigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Europe, EasternSuntan: An induced skin pigment (MELANIN) darkening after exposure to SUNLIGHT or ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. The degree of tanning depends on the intensity and duration of UV exposure, and genetic factors.RussiaSequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cercopithecinae: A subfamily of the Old World monkeys, CERCOPITHECIDAE. They inhabit the forests and savannas of Africa. This subfamily contains the following genera: CERCOCEBUS; CERCOPITHECUS; ERYTHROCEBUS; MACACA; PAPIO; and THEROPITHECUS.Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Communicable Disease Control: Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Schools, Medical: Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.PolandGeneral Surgery: A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Cardiology: The study of the heart, its physiology, and its functions.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Arctic Regions: The Arctic Ocean and the lands in it and adjacent to it. It includes Point Barrow, Alaska, most of the Franklin District in Canada, two thirds of Greenland, Svalbard, Franz Josef Land, Lapland, Novaya Zemlya, and Northern Siberia. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p66)Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.Asia: The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.SwitzerlandPacific OceanLondonSocial Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.BrazilAge Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Life Expectancy: Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.AfricaNutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.MexicoNeoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.WalesGeologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)History of DentistrySex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Family Health: The health status of the family as a unit including the impact of the health of one member of the family on the family as a unit and on individual family members; also, the impact of family organization or disorganization on the health status of its members.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.JapanNatural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)

Prisoners of the proximate: loosening the constraints on epidemiology in an age of change. (1/451)

"Modern epidemiology" has a primary orientation to the study of multiple risk factors for chronic noncommunicable diseases. If epidemiologists are to understand the determinants of population health in terms that extend beyond proximate, individual-level risk factors (and their biological mediators), they must learn to apply a social-ecologic systems perspective. The mind-set and methods of modern epidemiology entail the following four main constraints that limit engagement in issues of wider context: 1) a preoccupation with proximate risk factors; 2) a focus on individual-level versus population-level influences on health; 3) a typically modular (time-windowed) view of how individuals undergo changes in risk status (i.e., a life-stage vs. a life-course model of risk acquisition); and 4) the, as yet, unfamiliar challenge of scenario-based forecasting of health consequences of future, large-scale social and environmental changes. The evolution of the content and methods of epidemiology continues. Epidemiologists are gaining insights into the complex social and environmental systems that are the context for health and disease; thinking about population health in increasingly ecologic terms; developing dynamic, interactive, life-course models of disease risk acquisition; and extending their spatial-temporal frame of reference as they perceive the health risks posed by escalating human pressures on the wider environment. The constraints of "the proximate" upon epidemiology are thus loosening as the end of the century approaches.  (+info)

Reconstruction of a historical genealogy by means of STR analysis and Y-haplotyping of ancient DNA. (2/451)

Archaeological excavations in St Margaretha's church at Reichersdorf, Germany, in 1993 led to the discovery of eight skeletons, so far assumed to be of the Earls of Konigsfeld, who used the church as a family sepulchre over a period of seven generations from 1546 to 1749. DNA-based sex testing and analysis of autosomal short tandem repeat systems (STR) was carried out to confirm the assumption of kinship. Since five of the individuals were determined as males, analysis of Y-specific STRs seemed feasible. A comparison of Y-haplotypes revealed that one individual could not be linked to the Konigsfeld patrilineage, an observation supported by autosomal STR evidence. Two individuals typed as females posed an identification problem, since supposedly only male members of the family were buried in St Margaretha's. Nevertheless, these individuals could tentatively be identified as members of the House of Konigsfeld through genetic fingerprinting.  (+info)

A bit of history. (3/451)

Reviews of scientific literature began to appear in the 17th century. Journals dedicated to them soon followed, leading eventually to this one, which emerged in the 1930s as Bacteriological Reviews; it adapted to the many changes in our fluid discipline, evolving into the present, much broader Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews.  (+info)

The original presentation of Boyle's law. (4/451)

The original presentation of what we know as Boyle's law has several interesting features. First, the technical difficulties of the experiment were considerable, because Boyle used a glass tube full of mercury that was nearly 2.5 m long, and the large pressures sometimes shattered the glass. Next, Boyle's table of results contains extremely awkward fractions, such 10/13, 2/17, 13/19, and 18/23, which look very strange to us today. This was because he calculated the pressure for a certain volume of gas by using simple multiplication and division, keeping the vulgar fractions. Boyle was not able to express the numbers as decimals because this notation was not in common use at the time. Finally, his contention that pressure and volume were inversely related depended on the reader's comparing two sets of numbers in adjacent columns to see how well they agreed. Today we would plot the data, but again orthogonal graphs were not in general use in 1662. When Boyle's data are plotted by using modern conventional methods, they strongly support his hypothesis that the volume and pressure of a gas are inversely related.  (+info)

Alexander Pope (1688-1744): his spinal deformity and his doctors. (5/451)

Alexander Pope was the towering figure of 18th century England. A poet and a wit he commanded unswerving loyalty from his friends and penetrating hatred from his enemies. His spinal deformity, either due to tuberculosis, trauma or congenital weakness, shaped his career. This brief report highlights the illness and the medical men who were involved in treating Alexander Pope.  (+info)

From Shakespeare to Defoe: malaria in England in the Little Ice Age. (6/451)

Present global temperatures are in a warming phase that began 200 to 300 years ago. Some climate models suggest that human activities may have exacerbated this phase by raising the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Discussions of the potential effects of the weather include predictions that malaria will emerge from the tropics and become established in Europe and North America. The complex ecology and transmission dynamics of the disease, as well as accounts of its early history, refute such predictions. Until the second half of the 20th century, malaria was endemic and widespread in many temperate regions, with major epidemics as far north as the Arctic Circle. From 1564 to the 1730s the coldest period of the Little Ice Age malaria was an important cause of illness and death in several parts of England. Transmission began to decline only in the 19th century, when the present warming trend was well under way. The history of the disease in England underscores the role of factors other than temperature in malaria transmission.  (+info)

Historical and cultural roots of drinking problems among American Indians. (7/451)

Roots of the epidemic of alcohol-related problems among many Native North Americans are sought in cultural responses to European arrival, the role of alcohol in frontier society, and colonial and postcolonial policies. Evidence from the historical record is considered within the framework of current social science. Initially, Native American's responses to alcohol were heavily influenced by the example of White frontiersmen, who drank immoderately and engaged in otherwise unacceptable behavior while drunk. Whites also deliberately pressed alcohol upon the natives because it was an immensely profitable trade good; in addition, alcohol was used as a tool of "diplomacy" in official dealings between authorities and natives. The authors argue that further research into the origins of modern indigenous people's problems with alcohol would benefit from an interdisciplinary "determinants of health" approach in which biological influences on alcohol problems are investigated in the context of the cultural, social, and economic forces that have shaped individual and group drinking patterns.  (+info)

Historical perspectives of cellular oxygen sensing and responses to hypoxia. (8/451)

The responses to acute and chronic hypoxia begin with oxygen sensing, and this historical perspective is written in line with this concept. The earliest pertinent work started with studies on fermentation in yeast in the 17th century, before the discovery of oxygen. It required 200 yr to localize the oxygen sensing within the cells and another 100 yr to discover the cellular oxidation reactions. Today, the consensus is that the mitochondrial respiratory chain is in part the site of oxygen sensing. In addition, membrane-bound NAD(P)H oxidase possibly takes part in oxygen sensing. Oxygen-sensing mechanisms occur in a tissue-specific fashion. For example, the carotid body responds to hypoxia promptly by eliciting a ventilatory response, whereas erythropoietin production in response to hypoxia requires more time, involving new expression of genes. The mechanism has therefore moved from the cells to genes.  (+info)

Professor Pococks subject is how the seventeenth century looked at its own past. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, one of the most important modes of studying the past was the study of the law - the historical outlook which arose in each nation was in part the product of its law, and therefore, in turn of its history. In clarifying the relation of the historical outlook of seventeenth-century Englishmen to the study of law, and pointing out its political implication, Pocock shows how historys ground was laid for a more philosophical approach in the eighteenth century.. ...
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AbeBooks.com: THE FOREST KING OR THE WILD HUNTER OF THE ADACA A TALE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY: NY 1878 Wheat & Cornett. Narrow s 12mo., 63pp., original illustrated wraps. Near Fine.
Read Medical Investigation in Seventeenth Century England - Papers Read at a Clark Library Seminar, October 14, 1967 (Charles W. Bodemer) for free • Full-text!
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Knowing the importance of having a masterpiece smile could win a student a $1,000 scholarship.. Masterpiece Smiles Orthodontics announces it has launched a scholarship program for 2018. To apply, applicants must submit a short Facebook post addressing the question, "How do you think a beautiful smile can help your future goal and life in general?". The video must be 60 seconds or less. It may be uploaded directly to Facebook or uploaded to another video-sharing service with a Facebook link to the video. Entry requires tagging Masterpiece Smiles Facebook page with the post.. Entrants must also email Masterpiece Smiles at [email protected] with "Scholarship Entry" as the subject and include their contact information including their phone number and a copy of their post.. Students must be attending college in either the fall or winter of 2018 to apply. Only one entry per applicant is permitted.. Videos will be judged on their content and overall acceptance from the community.. Entrants ...
But the 28 Lieberman 1993:490-3, 1999. See also Lieberman 1995; Pombejra 1990; Cushman 1993; Blussé 1999. Geography as destiny? 41 Bay of Bengal was only one major maritime arena. 29 This emphasis on China is crucial if we are to understand eighteenth century developments. In the late seventeenth century political turmoil in southern China ended when the Qing defeated the Ming. In 1683 Taiwan was conquered, and trade bans were consequently relaxed. This cleared the way for a surge in Chinese trade with Southeast Asia, as merchants from Fujian, Guangdong and Zhejiang (Chekiang) competed with the European companies for products such as pepper. 41 Bay of Bengal was only one major maritime arena. 29 This emphasis on China is crucial if we are to understand eighteenth century developments. In the late seventeenth century political turmoil in southern China ended when the Qing defeated the Ming. In 1683 Taiwan was conquered, and trade bans were consequently relaxed. This cleared the way for a surge ...
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, known as the father of microbiology, was the first to observe bacteria in 1676. He used one of the first compound microscopes and found what he called cavorting beasties in...
A wealth of literature has shed light on religious, philosophical, scientific and medical concepts of extraordinary bodies, wonders and monsters in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Lorraine Daston and Katharine Park have been tremendously influential with their Wonders and the order of nature (1998) and in many ways contributed to our understanding of emotions and the monstrous before 1750. One of their suggestions is that there was no disenchantment, or clear pattern of naturalization, of monsters in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Monstrous births were explained by natural causes, such as a narrow womb or an excess of seed, already by medieval writers whereas they could still be read as divine signs in the late seventeenth century. No linear story took monsters from an older religious framework to a newer naturalistic one or from prodigies to wonders to naturalized objects. Wonders eventually lost their position as cherished elements in European elite culture but ...
Source: PZO1110. Manacles can bind a Medium creature. A manacled creature can use the Escape Artist skill to slip free (DC 30, or DC 35 for masterwork manacles). Breaking the manacles requires a Strength check (DC 26, or DC 28 for masterwork manacles). Manacles have hardness 10 and 10 hit points.. Most manacles have locks; add the cost of the lock you want to the cost of the manacles.. For the same cost, you can buy manacles for a Small creature. For a Large creature, manacles cost 10 times the indicated amount, and for a Huge creature, 100 times the indicated amount. Gargantuan, Colossal, Tiny, Diminutive, and Fine creatures can be held only by specially made manacles, which cost at least 100 times the indicated amount.. False Manacles These manacles are nearly indistinguishable from standard manacles upon inspection (Perception DC 25). A wearer who knows the location of the secret catch can open them as a standard action; otherwise they act like masterwork manacles. Some appear to be of common ...
You can search across as many journals and collections as you wish. Each time you click on one of the boxes below, you can add a new parameter.. ...
Constraining the date of the last major event occurred in a fault is of paramount importance in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment when time-dependent models are considered. Eight of the twelve destructive earthquakes occurred in the eastern Betic Cordillera since sixteenth century, are located less than 10 km away from the Alhama de Murcia fault (AMF). Up to now, it has not been identified any geological evidence on the ground surface to associate these events with the activity of specific fault sections of the AMF. In this work we present the first geological evidence of the catastrophic 1674 event occurred at Lorca (SE Spain). The excavations carried out at La Torrecilla Creek exposed archaeological remains from the Islamic period (VIII-XIII centuries in this region) affected by 55 ± 20 cm offset by the AMF fault. This event reached intensity VIII and produced 30 fatalities at Lorca for an estimated population of 7300 inhabitants. This supports the occurrence of earthquakes with surface ...
An exquisite drink from the seventeenth century Straight to the recipe During the seventeenth century a meal was often concluded by drinking spiced wine to stimulate the digestion. Hippocras was such a drink, which was already known during the Middle Ages. But there were other kinds of spiced wine as well. Vin des dieux (wine of the gods) is such a spiced wine,…. Read More. ...
The burial of a young girl was found at Emlagh townland, near Dingle, County Kerry (Shee and OKelly, 1966). This girl was a bog body, whose hair, skin, and clothes were preserved naturally within a peat bog. Her clothing was a distinctly medieval style gown. Clothing design was probably slow to evolve in this part…
Domenico Bertoloni Meli: Mechanism. A visual, lexical, and conceptual history. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburg Press, 2011, xii + 188pp, $45.00 HB. ...
Many of the classic questions in zooarchaeology, from the cause of Pleistocene extinctions to the relationship of anthropogenic faunal resource depression to the transition of agriculture, are...
From afar, these pieces by artist Sagaki Keita seem to simply be monochrome replicas of classic masterpieces. Look very closely, though, and immense detail suddenly appears. Thousands of little doodles pile up and work together to create one large composition. For darker areas of a masterpiece such as the Mona Lisa or The Great Wave off Kanagawa, Keita arranges his doodles more densely, packing more lines into smaller spaces. Beyond impressively combining the large with the tiny, Keita also playfully contrasts playful doodles with some of art historys most sacred pieces. In Keitas meticulous ink drawings casual skillfully meets formal.. ...
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Desanis masterpiece. An at times strange book that left me wanting more. Pity that so few people have even hear of this masterpiece by Desani. You dont have to take my word for it, here is what Eliot had to say about it: In all my experience, I have not met with anything quite like it.…
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Here is my masterpiece tip on how to be really smart, intelligent, extra-capable, overachiever and successful. My way is:Masterpiece on overachieving abilitie…
The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) Concerning little animals Leeuwenhoeks 1677 paper, the famous letter on the protozoa , gives the first detailed description of protists and bacteria living in a range of environments. The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of a startlingly original experimental mind. Later scientists could not match the resolution and clarity of Leeuwenhoeks microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on the history of here ironing analysis biology; but work in the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoeks discovery of bacterial cells, with a resolution of sumerians settled less than 1 m. Leeuwenhoek delighted most in the forms, interactions and behaviour of i stand here ironing his little animalcules, which inhabited a previously unimagined microcosmos. English Meals. In these reflections on the scientific reach of Leeuwenhoeks ideas and observations, I equate ...
Black and white marble join contemporary interior design with the eighteenth century outline of the building. A fashionable checkered floor hiding the new heating system complements the ionic capitals and black architraves. Baudelo Abbey is a testimony of monastic architecture during the Counter-Reformation in modern day Belgium. The original Cistercian abbey was founded in the early twelfth century near Klein Sinaai - an allegorical desert to the north-east of Ghent. During the years of the Calvinist Ghent Republic (1577-1584) both the abbey and its refugium within the city walls were destroyed. Some years after the fall of the City Republic the monks returned from their exile in Cologne. A new abbey was built on the site of the earlier refugium. The church was constructed in a late Gothic style in the early seventeenth century and underwent an internal redesign by Pieter van Reijsschoot in the second half of the eighteenth century. The recent reactivation of the redundant Baudelo Abbey church ...
Seventeenth/eighteenth periodic report submitted by Norway under article 9 of the international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discriminationContentlinkintHoveddel1IntroductionlinkintHoveddel2GenerallinkintHoveddel3II. Informat...
Long ago when reading a lengthy, serious, and technical book was considered an agreeable and even entertaining way of passing the time, Richard Burtons The Anatomy of Melancholy was a best seller. This was a curious fate for a superannuated medical treatise written in the early seventeenth century not by a doctor but by a reclusive clergyman and scholar at the University of Oxford who set out to write on melancholy and made it the occasion to take up much else as well. During his lifetime the book went through six editions. From 1621 to 1651 it grew considerably in bulk, starting at 353,369 words and finally attaining 516,384 (a seventh edition with no revisions was published in 1660 shortly before Burtons death). It was not reprinted during the eighteenth century, but there must have been many copies still available from the previous century. Samuel Johnson told Boswell that it was "the only book that ever took him out of bed two hours sooner than he wished to rise.". In the early nineteenth ...
It is grand deception -- but a masterpiece nevertheless. That is William M. Harnett`s astonishing tableau of painted realism The Old Violin (1886), recently acquired by the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. A striking example of trompe-l`oeil (French for ``fool the eye``) art, Harnett`s most famous work created a sensation when first exhibited more than a century ago.
January 11 - The Royal Society name Robert Hooke Curator by Office for life. In 1665 Hooke published Micrographia, a book describing his microscopic and telescopic observations, and some original work in biology. Hooke coined the term cell for describing biological organisms, the term being suggested by the resemblance of plant cells to monks cells. The hand-crafted, leather and gold-tooled microscope he used to make the observations for Micrographia, originally constructed by Christopher White in London, is on display at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, DC. Micrographia also contains Hookes, or perhaps Boyle and Hookes, ideas on combustion. Hookes experiments led him to conclude that combustion involves a substance that is mixed with air, a statement with which modern scientists would agree, but that was not widely understood, if at all, in the seventeenth century. Hooke went on to conclude that respiration also involves a specific component of the air. March 6 - ...
Those preserved animals you dissected in science class are now also artwork that prices up to $20,000 yen or $250. Iori Tomita, a 28 year old Japanese artist, transforms dead animal carcasses into colorful art through a long and tedious scientific process that can take him months, even a year.. Designboom reports that Tomita removes the skins of animals preserved in formaldehyde then soaks the creatures in a mixture of blue stain, ethyl alcohol, and glacial acetic acid. He then breaks down the protein and muscles through the enzyme trypsin to give them a ghostly transparent look. The bones are then soaked in potassium hydroxide and dye and preserved as stained masterpieces in glycerin.. Tomita first learned his trade as a fisherman and has cultivated a niche where science meets art and skeletons meet artistic immortalization.. "People may look at my specimens as an academic material, a piece of art, or even an entrance to philosophy," Tomita said on his website. "There is no limitation to how ...
In addition to the Masterpieces, Godiva will also offer a wide range of Godiva Tablets and Gifting boxes, crafted with premium Belgian chocolate.. On a global scale, Godiva will be partnering with retailers in North America, China, UK, Netherland, Sweden, Turkey and Saudi Arabia during the first year of launch.. Pladis UK and Ireland managing director Jon Eggleton said: "Godiva combines nine decades of traditional chocolate artistry with the latest innovation to offer a sensory experience that is loved by consumers worldwide.. "We are confident this launch will delight discerning UK chocolate lovers.". The launch is reported to be part of Godivas ambition to become a $2bn brand over the next five years, by expanding its presence in the premium global chocolate market and doubling chocolate sales.. Godiva is part of the Pladis group, a global biscuit and confectionery company with operations in 130 countries across Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Americas.. ...
This interdisciplinary volume of essays brings together a team of leading early modern historians and literary scholars in order to examine the changing conceptions, character, and condemnation of heresy in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England. Definitions of heresy and heretics were the subject of heated controversies in England from the English Reformation to the end of the seventeenth century. These essays illuminate the significant literary issues involved in both defending and demonising heretical beliefs, including the contested hermeneutic strategies applied to the interpretation of the Bible, and they examine how debates over heresy stimulated the increasing articulation of arguments for religious toleration in England. Offering fresh perspectives on John Milton, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and others, this volume should be of interest to all literary, religious and political historians working on early modern English culture.. ...
Travis Lampe. With more than 30 artists in tow, Outré Gallery pays tribute to Hieronymus Boschs masterwork "Within The Garden of Earthly Delights" in a new group show. Each artist has taken aspects of the work and crafted a piece within their own sensibilities, whether a few characters in the painting, an entire panel, or just one of its themes. The line-up includes Allison Sommers, Alex Eckman-Lawn, Alex Kuno, Hi-Fructose co-founder Annie Owens, Bill Crisafi, Brackmetal, Brandi Milne, Brad Gray, Charles Schneider, Davor Gromilovic, Ian Ferguson, Jesse Jacobi, Kiko Capile, Medusa Wolf, Meagan Magpie Rogers, Moon Patrol, Nathan Reidt, Paul Barnes, Parker S. Jackson, Peca, Travis Lampe, and several others.. ...
Bulletin Board: A Post From the Community | The Clarendon Hills Park District will be fighting cabin fever on Thursday mornings this winter, with a new Munchkin Masterpieces class. Parents and their children ages 2/12 to 3 years of age will head out to the Community Center at 9 a.m. for 45 minutes of arts, crafts, stories, music and fun! Please dress to get messy! We'll explore color, shapes and textures using different mediums. This class will begin on January 25 and runs through March 1. There is a $60.00 resident ($75.00 non-resident) fee per couple. Maria Tobin, a Community Center Supervisor, has developed some new and fun ...
The eighteenth century has often been viewed as a period of relative decline in the field of microscopy, as interest in microscopes seemed to wane after an intense period of discovery in the seventeenth century. As such, developments in the field during the Enlightenment have been largely overlooked. This book therefore fills a considerable gap in the study of this life science, providing a thorough analysis of what the main concerns of the field were and how microscopists learned to communicate with each other in relevant ways in order to compare results and build a new discipline.Employing a substantial body of contemporary literature from across Europe, Marc J. Ratcliff is able to present us with a definitive account of the state of research into microscopy of the period. He brings to light the little known work of Louis Joblot, re-evaluates the achievements of Abraham Trembley and gives new weight to Otto-Friedrich M llers important contributions. The book also connects changes in instrument design
What do we need? A new fair! When do we want it? Now! Actually, no thanks, its the last thing, especially at the moment, after the slew of fairs, auctions, biennials and a documenta (enough in itself, from what I read anyway). Masterpiece London Art Antiques Design 2012 (the 3rd to date) is rather soothing on the eye (and belly) though the name is a misnomer, even with a $93,000,000.00 Caravaggio, 1571-1610 (Saint Augustine) on view. Weighing down such an historic painting of interest is a slightly less expensive but insipid Hirst sculptural thing-y covered in gold, which would be better served by a pigeon.. As one of the sponsors/participants is a restaurant company, there are more restaurants and menu choices than fine art works. But any fair that exhibits classic Jags and Ferraris alongside British Mod, Picasso and vintage Marc Newson is not a bad thing, no matter how you look. Artists you dont see enough of like Graham Sutherland, L.S. Lowry drawings and paintings of landscapes and people ...
evitable than our reaching back to the beginning of the seventeenth century and endeavoring to select, among the thousands of Englishmen who emigrated or even thought of emigrating to this country, those who possessed the genuine heart and sinew of the permanent settler. Oliver Cromwell, for instance, is said to have thought of emigrating hither in 1637. If he had joined his friends John Cotton and Roger Williams in New England, who can doubt that the personal characteristics of my brave Oliver would today be identified with the American qualities which we discover in 1637 on the shores of Massachusetts Bay? And what an American settler Cromwell would have made! If we turn from physical and moral daring to the field of theological and political speculation, it is easy today to select, among the writings of the earliest colonists, certain radical utterances which seem to presage the very temper of the late eighteenth century. Pastor John Robinsons farewell address to the ...
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REPEAT PERFORMANCE / Welles Rare Masterpiece Restored / Film based on Kafkas `The Trial opens at the Castro For Orson Welles, making films was nearly always a Promethean struggle -- an endless battle to raise money, maintain his independence and protect his work from meddling studio executives. LOGIC OF A NIGHTMAREThe Trial wasnt a commercial hit -- few of Welles films were -- but in many ways its his most personal. Looking back at Welles career and the struggles he had to keep his work intact, it makes sense that he would identify so strongly with Joseph Ks paranoia. Instead of setting the film in the small, claustrophobic offices that Kafka described, he used vast spaces that emphasized the characters desolation and helplessness. Welles knew that the actor was a closeted homosexual, Jaglom says, and used that quality in Perkins to suggest another texture in Joseph K, a fear of exposure. PSYCHO CONNECTIONPsycho had come out only two years earlier, and Perkins role as cross
Description: Ravel s Tombeau de Couperin, a suite for piano, was published in 1918 by Durand. Its first performance was in the Salle Gaveau in Paris in April, 1919. Shortly afterwards Ravel scored four of the six movements of the piano suite for small orchestra, composed of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and horns in pairs, English horn, trumpet, harp, and strings, The new version was introduced in America in 1920. The four orchestrated movements, Prelude, Forlane, Menuet, and Rigaudon, have no programmatic content and the titles identify the forms used. Le Tombeau de Couperin is a souvenir of World War I. Each movement is dedicated to the memory of a French soldier fallen in battle. The Tombeau form dates from the seventeenth century and is a musical homage to Francois Couperin, clavecinist of Louis XIV, and one of the great names of French music. The separate movements, cast in eighteenth century dance forms often used by Qouperin have been described as tonal wreaths, not too ...
I need a clear distinction about magical ranged weapons and ammo. Im using bow and arrows as an example.. If you have a masterwork bow with normal arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is +0. Also if you have a normal bow with masterwork arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is +0. And then if you have a masterwork bow with masterwork arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is +0 because the bonuses do not stack.. If you have a +1 bow with normal arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is also +1. Also if you have a normal bow with +1 arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is also +1. And then if you have a +1 bow with +1 arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is also +1 because the bonuses do not stack.. And finally if you have a +2 bow with +1 arrows the to hit modifier is +2 and the damage modifier is also +2 because the bonuses do not stack but you take the higher bonus. Let me know ...
Artworks essential to history and the history of art, masterpieces bear witness to the wealth of the Louvres collections and the wide range of artistic practices used around the world and through the ages.. Back to all selections ...
|span style=||span style=color: #444343;||span style=font-family: times new roman,serif;||span style=font-size: 12pt;|Youre the Starlet is the second layer of our Seven Layer Masterpiece. This palette includes 28 beautiful purple and blue shade
This is Nymph 05 by Jallen art collection of Whistler Contemporary Gallery represented by Whistler Contemporary Gallery - Masterpiece Online
Cheryl Esposito welcomes Kute Blackson, a new generation firestarter inspiring a global revolution in Consciousness. | Encore: Your Next Masterpiece: You. on Leading Conversations | VoiceAmerica - The Leader in Internet Media
Realmyst has by far the best graphics of all fthe Myst games.I have played every Myst game available. The Walkthrough for Realmyst is a little different than that of the original Myst game, but most of it is the same. Of course, the last chapter of Realmyst is brand new.Once you have played Realmyst, you will never go back to the original game or to The Masterpiece version. Happy gaming ...
Architect Frank Lloyd Wrights fantastic masterpiece house in Pennsylvania, built for the Kaufmann family in the 1930s. I think its just amazing that this house was built so long ago and still is modern and spectacular. Love it. Take a look at the entire house here ...
Compositing is about making complex, visual masterpieces driven by your creative vision. Master compositing to be able to deepen your understanding of color, light, & movement
Amsterdam City Masterpiece Limited Design Oblong Mouse Pad by Cases & Mousepads wangjiang maoyi: Amazon.ca: Cell Phones & Accessories
There are 260 calories in 1 roll (2.5 oz) of Masterpiece Cinnaroll, frozen. Youd need to walk 68 minutes to burn 260 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
There are 40 calories in 1 tablespoon (0.5 fl.oz) of KC Masterpiece Marinades, Honey Teriyaki. Youd need to walk 10 minutes to burn 40 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
Craigslist Masterpiece Theatre™ is a new web series by scratchframe. Every episode is based on a real ad from CL. Here is the original ad for Movers
History[edit]. 16th-17th Century[edit]. Prior to Dessie's foundation, the major settlement in this area was Wasal, first ... 19th Century[edit]. Emperor Yohannes IV was camping in the highlands to the west of the Chefa Valley in 1882 on an expedition ... 20th Century[edit]. Dessie's location led to the telegraph line the Italians constructed between 1902 and 1904 from Asmara ... "Local History in Ethiopia" (pdf) The Nordic Africa Institute website (accessed 2 February 2008) ...
Modern history[edit]. 17th and 18th century[edit]. The 17th and 18th century saw the greatest use of brown. Caravaggio and ... History and art[edit]. Ancient history[edit]. Further information: Ancient history. Brown has been used in art since ... Post-classical history[edit]. In the Middle Ages brown robes were worn by monks of the Franciscan order, as a sign of their ... 19th and 20th century[edit]. Brown was generally hated by the French impressionists, who preferred bright, pure colors. The ...
2 History *2.1 Exploration of Louisiana *2.1.1 17th-century explorers. *2.2 Summary chronology ... This practice built upon the 17th-century precedent when Louis XIV paid for transport and dowries for about 800 filles du roi ( ... In the 17th century, the ministers Richelieu and later Colbert advanced colonial politics. Louis XIV and his ministers were ... Toward the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the 18th, the colonists on the Gulf of Mexico were left almost ...
"19th Century History". City of Norfolk History. Retrieved 31 January 2012. City of Norfolk. "17th Century History". City of ... "All About Suffolk: History". Suffolk: Community. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012. Retrieved 31 January 2012. ... Select the map for December 31, 1634 (the earliest date available). "About Us: History". Highland County. Retrieved December 26 ... "City of Portsmouth, Virginia - History". City of Portsmouth. Retrieved 31 January 2012. City of Suffolk. " ...
Montague Summers, an author of scholarly works on the English drama of the 17th century, published a six-volume collection of ... The History of the Nun: or, the Fair Vow-Breaker (1688) The History of The Servant (disputed) The Lover-Boy of Germany ( ... Summers was fiercely passionate about the work of Behn and found himself incredibly devoted to the appreciation of 17th century ... "17th Century Women". University of Calgary. Retrieved 30 October 2015. "The Disappointment". Poetry Foundation. Retrieved 21 ...
Ligden Khan of Northern Yuan Chahar Mongols early 17th century: after a series of raids on China proper, the Ming court paid ... History of the Great Qing Tai-Ju Emperor). Tokio. History of Imperial China portal International relations portal. ... Grove Press, N.Y. ISBN 978-0-8021-1827-1. Luvsandanzan (17th century). Алтан товч (Altan Tobchi). Mongolia. Check date values ... ISBN 0-8165-1051-2. A short History of the Chinese, By L. Carrington Goodrich p.169 Laird, Thomas (2006). The Story of Tibet: ...
Folio from the Davis Album". 17th Century Mughals & Marathas. Archived from the original on 2013-12-03. History of India : in ... Safdarjung Banks Findly 1993, p. 39 Pletcher, edited by Kenneth (2011). The History of India (1st ed.). Chicago: Britannica ...
early-mid 17th century. O'Hart, John. Irish Pedigrees. Dublin: James Duffy and Co. 5th edition, 1892. Secondary sources Begley ... 142-9 Cronnelly, Richard F., Irish Family History, Part II: A History of the Clan Eoghan, or Eoghanachts. Dublin: Goodwin, Son ... Ó Cléirigh in the early-mid 17th century, where his own father is given as Amlaíb (mac Cathail). The most commonly accepted ... appearing in the 12th century Caithréim Chellacháin Chaisil, and in records compiled in the 14th-16th centuries as being the ...
"17th Century Speaker's downfall". BBC News. 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2014-05-29. Hochman, Stanley. McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of ... The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 198-200. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2. Jeaffreson, John Cordy (1867). A Book ... 7 September - English pirate Henry Every perpetrates one of the most profitable raids in history with the capture of the Grand ... Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. p. 287. ISBN 0-304-35730-8. ...
Harris, Ann Sutherland (2005). "The Dutch Republic". 17th-century Art & Architecture. Laurence King Publishing. ISBN 978- ... Feminism and Art History. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 173-181. Kahr, Madlyn Millner (1978). "Judith Leyster: The Rejected Offer ... Women's Roles Through History Series. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 9780313322105. Broude, Norma; Garrard, Mary D. (1997). " ... Looking Back, Moving Forward: 25 Years of Women's Studies History: 1 & 2. Women's Studies Quarterly Series (25th ed.). Feminist ...
early-mid 17th century. Ó Corráin, Donnchadh, "Caithréim Chellacháin Chaisil: History or Propaganda?", in Ériu 25 (1974): 1-69 ... Cronnelly, Richard F., Irish Family History, Part II: A History of the Clan Eoghan, or Eoghanachts. Dublin: Goodwin, Son, and ... and in fact one Uainide mac Cathail appears as a mid-10th-century king of Uí Chairpre in the 12th century propaganda tract ... probably indicating the family were still of some prominence in the first decades of the 12th century, even if they are noted ...
Town of 17th century). 1981: Semblanzas, Testimonios y Apólogos (Portraits, Testimonials and Fables). Poems 1948: Candil, ... Since then he was Head of the Colonial History and the Republican History Departments of the same institute. He was a Lecturer ... History of Paraguaná and Punto Fijo). 1978: Historia del Guárico (History of Guárico). 1978: El Mocho Hernández. Papeles de su ... Books of History 1949: Zaraza, Biografía de un Pueblo (Zaraza, Biography of a Town). 1951: Origen y Formación de algunos ...
Individual authors PQ1600-1709..........16th century PQ1710-1935..........17th century PQ1947-2147..........18th century PQ2149 ... PQ1-3999..........French literature PQ1-771..........History and criticism PQ1-150..........General PQ151-221..........Medieval ... Individual authors and works PQ1411-1545..........To 1350/1400 PQ1551-1595..........(14th-) 15th century (to ca. 1525) PQ1600- ... PQ4001-5999..........Italian literature PQ4001-4199.5..........History and criticism PQ4001-4063..........General PQ4064-4075 ...
1 History *1.1 17th century: Colonial times. *1.2 18th century: the American Revolution ... 17th century: Colonial times[change , change source]. Lower Manhattan in 1660, when it was part of New Amsterdam. The large ... "History of WaHI: Evacuation Day". March 1997. Retrieved 11 January 2011.. *↑ EyeWitness to History "The Inauguration of George ... 18th century: the American Revolution[change , change source]. A 1776 illustration by an unknown artist of the fire that ...
Throughout history they have allowed for discussion on a widespread and influential level. "British Pamphlets, 17th Century." ... During the 16th century and continuing for a short while in the early 17th century in England there was rise in the use of ... 17th Century. The Newberry. Web. 14 March 2015. http://www.newberry.org/british-pamphlets-17th-century Raymond, Joad. Pamphlets ... They contained much of the propaganda of the 17th century in the midst of the religious and political turmoil. They were also ...
"Cossack Navy 16th - 17th Centuries". Web Cite. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. "Text of the agreement on oath ... The current history of the Ukrainian Naval Forces began on 1 August 1992, when it was formally established by order of the ... Ukraine's naval history can be traced to the Zaporizhian Sich Cossacks, who would frequently raid Ottoman settlements along the ... "Ukrainian Navy History". globalsecurity.org. 27 March 2014. Retrieved 14 May 2016. "Ukrainian Navy". globalsecurity.org. 26 ...
"Swords History - 17th Century AD". www.knightsedge.com. Retrieved 16 November 2012. "History of Indian swords". www. ... Created during the Mughal period, the pata's use in warfare appears to be mostly restricted to the 17th and 18th century when ...
Miłobędzki, Adam (1980). Polish Architecture of 17th Century. Vol. 1. Polish Scientific Publishers PWN. pp. 495, 499. OCLC ... Magocsi, Paul Robert (2010). History of Ukraine: The Land and Its Peoples. University of Toronto Press. p. 357. Kohlrausch, ... "The 19th Century Medical Clinic of Collegium of the Jagiellonian University in Kraków. An Outline of Conservation Problems in ... Stanley-Little, Cerita (2009). The Great Lablache: Nineteenth Century Operatic Superstar His Life and His Times. Xlibris. p. ...
Volume 1: Antiquitity-17th Century. Amsterdam, The Netherlands / Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 294. ... History and Historiography of Linguistics: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the History of the Language ... However, the history of Romance languages, as we know it, makes the first assumption rather problematic. While the Roman Empire ... Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. Entry nulla in Vocabolario Treccani (in Italian) R. ...
In the 17th century it was common for local people to descend the cliffs to collect seabirds and pick samphire. The birds were ... "Isle of Wight Festival History - 1970". www.isleofwightfestival.com. Archived from the original on 11 March 2009. Retrieved ... "Freshwater in the 17th Century". www.virgin.net. Archived from the original on 26 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-12. "Isle of ...
16th & 17th Century English Literature: 1958. Jack Edgar Myers, Professor Emeritus of Botany and Zoology and Director, ... U.S. History: 1958. Carl Bridenbaugh, Deceased. U.S. History: 1958, 1962, 1968. Ellen Brown, Professor Emeritus of Medicine, ... 16th & 17th Century English Literature: 1958, 1961. Hans Frauenfelder, Director, Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos, New ... 16th and 17th Century English Literature: 1958. Charles Augustus Baylis, Deceased. Philosophy: 1958. James MacArthur Beale, ...
"The 17th Century". Ayton.id.au. Retrieved 2014-08-13. "Italian States in the Seventeenth Century". History.wisc.edu. Retrieved ... "The Ninth Century". Orlok.com. Retrieved 2014-08-13. Embree, A. Encyclopedia of Asian history - Volume 2 p. 82: "rebellion ... "Climatic fluctuation and natural disasters in Arabia between mid-17th and early 20th Centuries". GeoJournal. 37: 176-180. 1995- ... Rotberg, Robert I.; Rabb, Theodore K. (14 July 2014). "Climate and History: Studies in Interdisciplinary History". Princeton ...
2 History *2.1 Ancient. *2.2 17th century. *2.3 19th century. *2.4 20th century ... 17th century[edit]. Philosopher and physician Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682) was fascinated by dreams and described his own ... History[edit]. Ancient[edit]. Early references to the phenomenon are found in ancient Greek writing. For example, the ... 19th century[edit]. In 1867, the French sinologist Marie-Jean-Léon, Marquis d'Hervey de Saint Denys anonymously published Les ...
16th & 17th Century English Literature: 1930. Thomas Temple Hoopes, Deceased. Fine Arts Research: 1930. Bryn Jakob Hovde, ... German & East European History: 1930. Edward Lee Howes, Deceased. Medicine: 1930, 1931. Helen Rose Hull, Deceased. Fiction: ... 16th & 17th Century English Literature: 1930. Appointed as Boswell, Eleanore. John Paul Nafe, Deceased. Psychology: 1930. ... British History: 1930. Mark Wessel (musician), Deceased. Music Composition: 1930, 1932. Francis R. White, Deceased. Fine Arts: ...
16th & 17th Century English Literature: 1929. Alfred Barnaby Thomas, Deceased. U.S. History: 1929. Randall Thompson, Deceased. ... 16th & 17th Century English Literature: 1929. Thomas Woody, Deceased. Education and Russian Studies: 1929. Full name: Woody, ... U.S. History: 1929, 1949. Lois Whitney, Deceased. 18th Century English Literature: 1929. Gordon Thomas Whyburn, Deceased. ... 17th Century English Literature: 1929. Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur, Deceased. German & Scandinavian Literature: 1929. Samuel Brody ...
Granaries in Grudziądz seen from the left riverside of the Vistula river, 13th-17th century ... Geological history[edit]. The history of the River Vistula and its valley spans over 2 million years. The river is connected to ... History of floods on the River Vistula History of floods on the River Vistula (Hydrological Sciences Journal) ... built in the 14th century, line the banks of the Vistula.[33] In the 15th century the city of Gdańsk gained great importance in ...
By the end of this century, global Muslim population had grown to 11 per cent of the total. Timeline of Muslim history. ...
History Stories 17th-Century Londoners Died of Fright, Itch and Grief. By Jennie Cohen // December 5, 2011 ... www.history.com/news/17th-century-londoners-died-of-fright-itch-and-grief ... Life was hard for 17th-century Londoners-and death came both often and mysteriously. Nowhere is this more apparent than in John ... 17th-Century Londoners Died of Fright, Itch and Grief. * Author. Jennie Cohen ...
History from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and more. ... Research within librarian-selected research topics on 17th Century U.S. ... 17th Century U.S. History. Specific subcategories. * People in 17th Century U.S. History (10) ...
Revision history of "Nabels, Eduard (17th century)". View logs for this page. ... Browse history. From year (and earlier):. From month (and earlier):. all. January. February. March. April. May. June. July. ... Retrieved from "http://gameo.org/index.php?title=Nabels,_Eduard_(17th_century)" ...
History of Western Theatre: 17th Century to Now/Caroline. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Western_Theatre:_17th_Century_to_Now/Caroline&oldid= ...
History of Western Theatre: 17th Century to Now/German Post-WWII. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikibooks.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Western_Theatre:_17th_Century_to_Now/German_Post-WWII& ... The history of Christian anti-Judaism is embodied in the institution represented by the symbol of the pope. That is, as I ... it involves the struggles of the new farmers to survive without succumbing to this century-old form of enslavement by the likes ...
History and Recipes by Peter C.D. Brears (Paperback, 1985). Shop with confidence on eBay! ... Find great deals for Food and Cooking in 17th Century Britain: ... item 5 Food and Cooking in 17th Century Britain: History and Re ... item 3 Food and Cooking in 17th Century Britain: History and Recipes By Peter C.D. Bre -Food and Cooking in 17th Century ... item 6 Food and Cooking in 17th Century Britain: History and Recipes by Peter C.D. Brea -Food and Cooking in 17th Century ...
I am trying to research "small bar lead" use in Great Britain & the New World during the 17th & 18th century. Records show that ... Topic: 17th & 18th century small bar-lead.. Posted: 30-Nov-2013 at 20:58. ... Notice: This is the official website of the All Empires History Community (Reg. 10 Feb 2002) ... You are very lucky living in an area with so much history, & I envy you your collection of gun flints. For me there is ...
Vinogradov, V. V. is the author of Vinogradov: History of the Russian Literary Language from the 17th to the 19th Centuries, ... Vinogradov: History of the Russian Literary Language from the 17th to the 19th Centuries ... Vinogradov: History of the Russian Literary Language from the 17th to the 19th Centuries ...
Corpus Linguistics and 17th-Century Prostitution : Computational Linguistics and History. : Bloomsbury Academic, 2016.. RIS:. ... Corpus Linguistics and 17th-century Prostitution : Computational Linguistics and History. Bloomsbury Academic, 2016.. APA:. ... Corpus Linguistics and 17th-Century Prostitution : Computational Linguistics and History Helen Baker , Anthony McEnery ... 2016). Corpus Linguistics and 17th-Century Prostitution : Computational Linguistics and History. Bloomsbury Academic.. Chicago: ...
... ... For the first half of the 17th century the city was the center of shipping commerce in the Caribbean Sea and was well known for ...
National Museum of Natural History presents Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake. Editor . July 31, ... National Museum of Natural History presents Written in Bone: Forensic Files of the 17th-Century Chesapeake an exhibition on ... National Museum of Natural History announces Mud Masons of Mali *National Museum of Natural History presents Genome: Unlocking ... It was particularly fun to apply the latest advances in skeletal research to the study of Colonial American history." ...
Cultural History of the Netherlands Through Interpretation of 17th-19th Century Dutch Tiles (Implementation) ... To support a traveling exhibition of seventeenth- to nineteenth-century Dutch tiles in an examination of Dutch decorative arts ...
An exciseman of the 17th century leads an attack on smugglers. Original artwork from Look and Learn no. 535 (15 April 1972). - ... An exciseman of the 17th century leads an attack on smugglers. Active selection: *. My selection (2018-02-20) 0 ... An exciseman of the 17th century leads an attack on smugglers. Original artwork from Look and Learn no. 535 (15 April 1972).. ... History, art and culture images , Look and Learn collections , Look and Learn. ...
Home > GCSE > History > Why did witch trials increase in the 16th and 17th centuries? ... Why did witchcraft trials increase in the 16th and 17th centuries?*Mass Hysteria*Witch hunts began in 1640s*Matthew Hopkins= ... See all History resources »See all Crime and punishment through time (OCR History A) resources ». ...
2018 Copyright Museum of the History of Science. All rights reserved. The contents of this site may not be reproduced in any ...
History[edit]. 16th-17th Century[edit]. Prior to Dessies foundation, the major settlement in this area was Wasal, first ... 19th Century[edit]. Emperor Yohannes IV was camping in the highlands to the west of the Chefa Valley in 1882 on an expedition ... 20th Century[edit]. Dessies location led to the telegraph line the Italians constructed between 1902 and 1904 from Asmara ... "Local History in Ethiopia" (pdf) The Nordic Africa Institute website (accessed 2 February 2008) ...
16th/17th centuries[edit]. The Tudor period again saw fears of French invasion, and coastal defences were strengthened. Gun ... 18th/19th centuries[edit]. The beginning of this period coincided with smuggling which was rife throughout the South Coast of ... 20th century[edit]. In the First World War the town became host to some 65,000 Belgian refugees fleeing the conflict. ... The history of Folkestone stretches back to prehistoric times, with evidence of human habitation dating to the Mesolithic and ...
One course in History of Philosophy (B); 17th and 18th Century; e.g.. *321 History of Modern Philosophy ... One course in History of Philosophy (A): Ancient and Medieval; e.g.. *320 History of Ancient Philosophy ...
Pre-17th Century:. Childhood wasnt emphasized or seen as a phase of life. Children only had a 25% chance to make it past age 5 ... History. Societies views on children have changed and evolved. In development classes we would look into how society viewed ... Post-17th Century:. Something shifted societies views in children. Physicians began to care for infants more, in the past it ... In some ways we are stuck in the 17th century expecting children to know everything right away, to act like adults, or to be ...
The following account is intended to give a brief overview of the history of the condition. ... Goiter is a health condition with a long-standing history, due to its visible symptoms and high prevalence in historical times ... 17th-19th Century. In 1656, a famous anatomist named Thomas Wharton discovered the exact anatomical structure of the endocrine ... Early Centuries. Aetius mentioned the use of surgery to treat goiter in the 6th century, believing that it was a hernia of the ...
Architecture -- Poland , Poznań -- History -- 17th century The Resource Architecture -- Poland , Poznań -- History -- 17th ... Context of Architecture -- Poland , Poznań -- History -- 17th century Subject of. * Muratorzy wielkopolscy drugiej połowy XVII ... Data Citation of the Concept Architecture -- Poland , Poznań -- History -- 17th century. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML ... 1 Items that are about the Concept Architecture -- Poland , Poznań -- History -- 17th century ...
The Resource Architecture -- Italy , Sicily -- History -- 17th century Label Architecture -- Italy , Sicily -- History -- 17th ... Context of Architecture -- Italy , Sicily -- History -- 17th century Subject of. * Dimore feudali in Sicilia fra Seicento e ... Data Citation of the Concept Architecture -- Italy , Sicily -- History -- 17th century. Copy and paste the following RDF/HTML ... 1 Items that are about the Concept Architecture -- Italy , Sicily -- History -- 17th century ...
A History of the Foot Professor Joanna Bourke FBA. Thursday, 14 May 2020 - 6:00PM ... Plague certainly was the disease of the 17th century, and not only of that century, because it had been the most feared disease ... and continued to grow throughout the rest of the 17th century, so that by the end of the century one in ten English people ... By the 17th century governments had evolved a coherent policy to attempt to prevent outbreaks and to deal with the effects of ...
History of Science. Thwarting and exploiting Nazi science. *. SCI COMMUN. News at a glance ...
  • Prior to Dessie's foundation, the major settlement in this area was Wasal, first mentioned in an early 16th-century Italian itinerary. (wikipedia.org)
  • But leprosy declined precipitously during the 16th century. (livescience.com)
  • Its decline during the 16th century may have been a result of disease resistance within the human population, the researchers speculate. (livescience.com)
  • By the 16th century, the Royal College of Physicians in London had been established but it was not an easy time in the history of medicine as the forces of conservatism fought a rearguard action against the inevitability of change. (hubpages.com)
  • That such a high proportion of taxpayers paid on their movables presumably reflects the depths to which land values had sunk by the early 16th century. (british-history.ac.uk)
  • Stricter controls were imposed during the 16th century, in part because of the new sexual morality that accompanied the Protestant Reformation and the Counter-Reformation. (britannica.com)
  • I've been getting e-mails asking me to record something by the 16th century humanist Erasmus. (apple.com)
  • Plague certainly was the disease of the 17th century, and not only of that century, because it had been the most feared disease since its reappearance in western Europe in the 1340s, which we know as the Black Death. (gresham.ac.uk)
  • It is hardly surprising that it developed this symbolic significance, given the numbers of its victims during the epidemics which erupted periodically throughout the late Middle Ages, initially in both its pneumonic and bubonic forms, but by the 17th century pneumonic plague seems to have disappeared and it was the bubonic form of the disease which was prevalent. (gresham.ac.uk)
  • A search for evidence of the 16th and 17th century plague victims buried at London's infamous Bedlam burial ground - the first not to be associated with a parish church, near the Bethlem Hospital which responded to the crisis - has been launched ahead of the excavation of thousands of skeletons beneath Liverpool Street. (culture24.org.uk)
  • books.google.com - Cattle Plague: A History is the most comprehensive general study of the history of cattle plague or rinderpest yet attempted, of which there has not been a book in English since 1866. (google.com)
  • Cattle Plague: A History being the result of some eight years' fulltime work and over thirty years' interest. (google.com)
  • History Of Watermelon is match and guidelines that suggested for you, for ideas about you search. (dcdcapital.com)
  • or if you are enthusiastic about similar pictures of History Of Watermelon, you are absolve to flick through search feature that situated on top this site or arbitrary post section at below of the post. (dcdcapital.com)
  • In the 13th century, it became part of the Cinque Ports , and with it the privileges of a wealthy trading port. (wikipedia.org)
  • By returning to the medical discoveries of the Greeks and Romans concerning prosthetics, the Renaissance proved to be a rebirth in the history of prosthetics. (amputee-coalition.org)
  • The Baroque period of the 17th century incorporates some of the ideals of the Renaissance period, but not all of them. (blogspot.com)
  • Organised by the Centre for Renaissance and Early Modern Studies, University of York, in collaboration with the University of Rey Juan Carlos, Madrid (URJC), and IULCE (the University Institute 'La Corte en Europa') of the Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM). (york.ac.uk)
  • The 'Renaissance' as a phenomenon in European history is best understood as a series of social, political, and cultural. (merlot.org)
  • His research publications focus on legal and maritime history between 1300 and 1800 and on the interaction between Western European empires a. (indigo.ca)
  • Nor was Canon Carrigan aware of Nicholas Comberford, his important contribution to 17th-century life, and his place in the Inchiholohan or Castleinch branch of the family. (blogspot.co.uk)
  • Rome's only contribution to the history of medicine was its development of an elaborate public health system, entailing garbage and sewage disposal, public baths, and a good fresh water supply. (hubpages.com)
  • This Black Social History is design for the education of all races about Black People Contribution to world history over the past centuries, even though its well hidden from the masses so that our children dont even know the relationship between Black People and the wealth of their history in terms of what we have contributed to make this world a better place for all. (blogspot.com)
  • Later, medicine was taught at new universities established in Cambridge, Oxford, Bologna, Montpellier and Paris - where, in the 14th century, anatomy lessons often included the public dissection of human corpses but the teaching of surgery was prohibited by the Church. (hubpages.com)
  • At the beginning of the eighteenth century the harbour finally became a reality, and Folkestone, like most settlements on the south coast, became involved in smuggling . (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyzing the literary market as a key articulation of the association, Turnovsky explores how in eighteenth-century polemics a rhetoric of commercial authorship came to signify independence for intellectuals. (jhu.edu)
  • Accounts of the literary market in the eighteenth century have typically hinged on the struggles of writers to support themselves in what David Pottinger characterized as the "primitive business conditions of the ancien régime . (jhu.edu)
  • Illustration by the Franciscan missionary Bernardino de Sahagun who wrote detailed accounts of the Aztec history during his life there from 1545 until his death in 1590 into 12 books entitled "General History of the Things of New Spain. (cdc.gov)
  • But the circumstances made it hard for Americans to ignore the brutal history that formed that sound and that continues to infuse it with meaning. (brooklynrail.org)
  • This entry was posted on Sunday, July 27th, 2008 at 21:53 and is filed under Early Modern , Economic History , Europe , reading notes . (wordpress.com)
  • Offered as HIST 321 [EU P ] and EUST 321) The economic history of pre-modern Europe is usually understood as the singular and exceptional rise of the first modern economy. (amherst.edu)
  • Yet recent research in economic history and shifts in the world economy have provided new perspectives to reconsider the rise of the European economy. (amherst.edu)
  • The first record of a successful thyroid surgery was in the 10th century, performed by Albucasis, who removed a large goiter from a man under opium sedation. (news-medical.net)
  • However, it was the coming of the railways in mid-19th century that proved to be the town's future: with it came the tourist trade, and the two industries, port and seaside resort, were the making of its prosperity until changes in tourist opportunities in the mid twentieth century brought about its present somewhat depleted fortunes. (wikipedia.org)
  • To support a traveling exhibition of seventeenth- to nineteenth-century Dutch tiles in an examination of Dutch decorative arts and the way in which they reflect the taste, values, beliefs, activities, and artistic production of thisperiod. (neh.gov)
  • Like the Quakers, newly arriving immigrants groups who practiced their Roman Catholic faith were attacked throughout the city in the mid-nineteenth century. (hsp.org)
  • An exciting opportunity at the recently founded 'Center for Art and Architectural History of Port Cities'-a collaboration between the Museo e Real Bosco di Capodimonte in Naples and the Edith O'Donnel Institute of Art History at the University of Texas at Dallas, with the participation of the Université Paris-Sorbonne. (york.ac.uk)
  • Secondly, Sir John Soane, the Regency architect and one of the leading architects in England was also a great influence on the Greek revival movement of American 19th century. (hubpages.com)
  • The Stuart or Stewart period of England was a dramatic period in history, while a great deal was contributed to the arts, to innovations in industry, science and the humanities. (wikihow.com)
  • These documents mention the names of household items, housewares, clothing, which is especially important from the point of view of contemporary study both of the history of the language as well as the history of the Turkic clans' settling in Crimea. (doaj.org)
  • The rise and fall of National Socialism is one of the most intensively-studied topics in European history. (merlot.org)