Histoplasmosis: Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Histoplasma: A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.HistoplasminBlastomycosis: A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.Lung Diseases, Fungal: Pulmonary diseases caused by fungal infections, usually through hematogenous spread.Itraconazole: A triazole antifungal agent that inhibits cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes required for ERGOSTEROL synthesis.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Amphotericin B: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic produced by Streptomyces nodosus obtained from soil of the Orinoco river region of Venezuela.Coccidioidomycosis: Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.Missions and Missionaries: To be used for articles pertaining to medical activities carried out by personnel in institutions which are administered by a religious organization.Eye Infections, Fungal: Infection by a variety of fungi, usually through four possible mechanisms: superficial infection producing conjunctivitis, keratitis, or lacrimal obstruction; extension of infection from neighboring structures - skin, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx; direct introduction during surgery or accidental penetrating trauma; or via the blood or lymphatic routes in patients with underlying mycoses.Dermatomycoses: Superficial infections of the skin or its appendages by any of various fungi.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Blastomyces: A genus of onygenacetous mitosporic fungi whose perfect state is Ajellomyces (see ONYGENALES). The species Blastomyces dermatitidis (perfect state Ajellomyces dermatitidis) causes blastomycosis.Immunocompetence: The ability of lymphoid cells to mount a humoral or cellular immune response when challenged by antigen.Laryngitis: Inflammation of the LARYNGEAL MUCOSA, including the VOCAL CORDS. Laryngitis is characterized by irritation, edema, and reduced pliability of the mucosa leading to VOICE DISORDERS such as APHONIA and HOARSENESS.Perissodactyla: An order of ungulates having an odd number of toes, including the horse, tapir, and rhinoceros. (Dorland, 27th ed)Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.El SalvadorMud Therapy: The therapeutic use of mud in packs or baths taking advantage of the absorptive qualities of the mud. It has been used for rheumatism and skin problems.Fluconazole: Triazole antifungal agent that is used to treat oropharyngeal CANDIDIASIS and cryptococcal MENINGITIS in AIDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Mediastinitis: Inflammation of the mediastinum, the area between the pleural sacs.Eye Infections, Parasitic: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Choroidal Neovascularization: A pathological process consisting of the formation of new blood vessels in the CHOROID.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Macular Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the RETINA usually of older adults which results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the MACULA LUTEA) because of damage to the retina. It occurs in dry and wet forms.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Choroiditis: Inflammation of the choroid.Migraine Disorders: A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)Aphorisms and Proverbs as Topic: Short popular sayings effectively expressing or astutely professing general truths or useful thoughts. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p97, p1556)Garlic: One of the Liliaceae used as a spice (SPICES) and traditional remedy. It contains alliin lyase and alliin, which is converted by alliin lyase to allicin, the pungent ingredient responsible for the aroma of fresh cut garlic.Allium: A genus of the plant family Liliaceae (sometimes classified as Alliaceae) in the order Liliales. Many produce pungent, often bacteriostatic and physiologically active compounds and are used as VEGETABLES; CONDIMENTS; and medicament, the latter in traditional medicine.MarylandOrgan Transplantation: Transference of an organ between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Government PublicationsTravel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.BooksGovernment Publications as Topic: Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.KentuckyWisconsinMycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Pneumonia, Bacterial: Inflammation of the lung parenchyma that is caused by bacterial infections.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Pulmonary Emphysema: Enlargement of air spaces distal to the TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES where gas-exchange normally takes place. This is usually due to destruction of the alveolar wall. Pulmonary emphysema can be classified by the location and distribution of the lesions.Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs.Respiratory Tract DiseasesLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.

Variations in acute multifocal histoplasmic choroiditis in the primate. (1/519)

Experimental histoplasmic choroiditis was produced in primates by intracarotid injections of living H. capsulatum organisms. The severity of the choroiditis varied with inoculum size, as well as with site of injection (common carotid vs. internal carotid artery). A reproducible model of histoplasmic choroiditis in primates was produced with an internal carotid injection of 5,000 to 10,000 organisms/lb. The clinical and histopathological course of this acute choroiditis over the first 30 days is presented.  (+info)

De novo lesions in presumed ocular histoplasmosis-like syndrome. (2/519)

Two patients with multifocal choroiditis similar or identical to POHS are presented. Colour photographs and fluorescein angiography document the occurrence of de novo lesions in the originally involved eye. The cases also demonstrate the development of new choroidal lesions within the originally involved eye, the early evolution of the "basic choroidal lesion", and the need for fluorescein angiography for visualizing the underlying choroidal lesion.  (+info)

Relatedness analyses of Histoplasma capsulatum isolates from Mexican patients with AIDS-associated histoplasmosis by using histoplasmin electrophoretic profiles and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. (3/519)

The present paper analyzes the histoplasmin electrophoretic profiles and the randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum isolated from Mexican patients with AIDS-associated histoplasmosis. Clinical isolates from Guatemala, Colombia, and Panama, as well as H. capsulatum isolates from different sources in nature, were also processed. All histoplasmin samples shared four antigenic fractions of 200, 49, 10.5, and 8.5 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). According to their percentage of relatedness, based on SDS-PAGE histoplasmin electrophoretic image analysis, H. capsulatum isolates were divided in two groups: group A contained all AIDS-associated isolates studied and two human reference strains from Mexican histoplasmosis patients without AIDS; group B included bat guano, infected bat, and cock excreta isolates from the State of Guerrero, Mexico, plus three human histoplasmosis strains from Guatemala, Panama, and Colombia. Polymorphic DNA patterns evaluated by RAPD-PCR showed three major bands of 4.4, 3.2, and 2.3 kb in most H. capsulatum isolates studied. Four groups were related by DNA polymorphisms: group I was formed by most of the AIDS-associated H. capsulatum isolates studied, one human histoplasmosis strain from Colombia, two human reference strains from Mexican patients without AIDS, and one human histoplasmosis strain from Guatemala. Group II consisted of only a single strain from Panama. Group III included three strains: one from a Mexican patient with AIDS and two isolated from nature in Guerrero (cock excreta and bat guano). The last, group IV, consisted of only one strain isolated from an infected bat, captured in Guerrero. A tight relationship between phenotypic and genotypic characterization was observed, and both analyses could be useful tools for typing H. capsulatum from different sources and geographic origins.  (+info)

Aetiological study of the presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands. (4/519)

AIM: To investigate whether presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome in the Netherlands is caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and whether other risk factors might play a role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. METHODS: 23 patients were clinically diagnosed as having presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome based on the following criteria: peripapillary atrophy, punched out lesions, a macular disciform lesion or scar in one eye without vitritis. As controls, 66 sex and age matched healthy volunteers were used. Serum samples from both patients and controls were tested for the presence of antibodies against H capsulatum, Toxoplasma gondii, Toxocara canis et cati, Ascaris sp, and for the presence of antigens of Cryptococcus neoformans. Serum samples were also tested for the presence of autoantibodies against retinal or choroidal proteins. To investigate other risk factors, patients and controls were asked to fill in a health and travel related questionnaire. Ten patients with ocular toxoplasmosis were used as a disease control group. RESULTS: None of the patients with presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome or controls had circulating antibodies directed against H capsulatum. No risk factors could be identified and no indications for autoimmunity and no evidence for the role of the other infectious agents could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: In a Dutch group of patients fulfilling the criteria of a disease currently named presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, no risk factors or relation with the fungus H capsulatum could be detected.  (+info)

Endemic mycoses: a treatment update. (5/519)

Endemic mycoses remain a major public health problem in several countries and they are becoming increasingly frequent with the spread of HIV infection. Amphotericin B remains the drug of choice during the acute stage of life-threatening endemic mycoses occurring in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts. Ketoconazole is effective in non-AIDS patients with non-life-threatening histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, or paracoccidioidomycosis. Itraconazole is the treatment of choice for non-life-threatening Histoplasma capsulatum or Blastomyces dermatitidis infections occurring in immunocompetent individuals and is the most efficient secondary prophylaxis of histoplasmosis in AIDS patients. Itraconazole is also effective in lymphocutaneous and visceral sporotrichosis, in paracoccidioidomycosis, for Penicillum marneffei infection, and is an alternative to amphotericin B for Histoplasma duboisii infection. Coccidioidomycosis may be effectively treated with prolonged and sometimes life-long itraconazole or fluconazole therapy. Fluconazole has relatively poor efficacy against histoplasmosis, blastomycosis and sporotrichosis. New antifungal agents have been tested in vitro or in animal models and may soon be evaluated in clinical trials.  (+info)

Complex requirements for nascent and memory immunity in pulmonary histoplasmosis. (6/519)

The presence of functional T cells is often required for successful resolution of infections with intracellular pathogens, yet the mechanisms by which they contribute to elimination of the invading pathogen in primary and secondary immunity are only partly understood. We report that increased mortality of naive alpha/beta TCR+ or CD4+ T cell-depleted mice infected with the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum is associated with impairment of IFN-gamma production. Upon secondary infection, mice concomitantly depleted of CD4+ and CD8+ cells exhibit decreased survival beyond day 25 of rechallenge, whereas elimination of either T cell subset or B cell deficiency does not result in accelerated mortality compared with controls. Remarkably, despite a decrease of H. capsulatum CFU in lungs of CD4+ plus CD8+-deficient mice, a progressive increase in spleen CFU is observed. The ability to control fungus growth in lungs is associated with vigorous TNF-alpha, but not IFN-gamma, production by bronchoalveolar lavage cells. In contrast, spleen cells from CD4+ plus CD8+-deficient mice are unable to produce TNF-alpha. Thus, the cellular and molecular requirements for protective immunity vary between primary and secondary infection. Furthermore, in secondary histoplasmosis, a sharp contrast can be drawn between lungs and spleens in their reliance upon T cells to control fungal replication. The opposing activities of these organs can be ascribed in part to differential production of TNF-alpha.  (+info)

Immunodiagnosis of histoplasmosis in a compromised host. (7/519)

Three serological tests for the diagnosis of histoplasmosis were compared for sensitivity and specificity in serum from blood bank donors, patients with histoplasmosis, and infected or noninfected immunosuppressed patients. The histoplasmin latex agglutination test was positive in 9% of the normal patients, 33% of the histoplasmosis patients, and 61% of the noninfected immunosuppressed patients. Since the test is prone to many false-positive results in patients with inflammatory diseases or non-Histoplasma infections, it has limited potential as a screening test among compromised patients. Immunodiffusion and counterimmunoelectrophoresis using a mycelial antigen were found to be more sensitive than either test using a combined yeast and mycelial antigen or a pure yeast phase antigen. Counterimmunoelectrophoresis at pH 7.2 proved to be the test of choice for serodiagnosis of histoplasmosis, resolving 85% of the immunocompetent infected patients and 100% of the infected immunosuppressed patients. Results indicated that counterimmunoelectrophoresis in conjunction with immunodiffusion could be used as a screening protocol to determine infection in incoming patients in a cancer hospital.  (+info)

Activities of sordarins in murine histoplasmosis. (8/519)

Sordarins are new antifungals which inhibit fungal protein synthesis by blocking elongation factor 2. Three compounds were evaluated in a murine model of histoplasmosis. Immune-competent mice were infected intravenously with 10(6) to 10(8) CFU of Histoplasma capsulatum yeast cells. Mice were treated either orally with sordarins or fluconazole from day 2 through 8 after infection or intraperitoneally with amphotericin B during the same period. Protection was measured by increased rates of survival for 30 days after infection or reduction of lung or kidney tissue counts 9 days after infection. All three of the antifungal drugs tested were protective compared with controls. Sordarins were effective at doses as low as 2 mg/kg of body weight/day. This novel class of drugs compared favorably with amphotericin B and fluconazole for the treatment of histoplasmosis.  (+info)

  • Histoplasmosis is caused by H.capsulatum, which is found in the stool of birds and bats and in soil contaminated by their stool, such as that near roosts, chicken coops, barns, caves, and underneath bridges. (dp.ua)
  • But histoplasmosis can be serious for people with weakened immune systems or who have chronic diseases, or for infants. (umm.edu)
  • Histoplasmosis may mimic lung cancer and sarcoidosis. (medscape.com)
  • Histoplasmosis may also occur in the wake of a solid organ transplant, such as a heart, lung, or kidney transplant. (umm.edu)
  • The lung is usually the main organ affected by histoplasmosis. (thelondonclinic.co.uk)
  • Disseminated histoplasmosis in five immunosuppressed patients: clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic perspectives. (medigraphic.com)
  • Acute histoplasmosis may not need treatment or may need three months of treatment if symptomatic (itraconazole 200 mg twice daily for 3 months, as compared to 12 months with blastomycosis). (medscape.com)
  • Fluconazole has better penetration to the eye and CNS but is not as effective overall as itraconazole in the treatment of Histoplasmosis. (wordpress.com)
  • Treatment of histoplasmosis requires prolonged antifungal therapy. (akcchf.org)
  • Antifungal therapy to prevent reactivation of histoplasmosis during immunosuppressive therapy, or transition of mediastinal adenitis to fibrosing mediastinitis, although controversial, is not recommended. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, travelers to endemic areas are at risk for histoplasmosis because airborne spores can travel hundreds of feet. (medscape.com)
  • Many people living in mild climates can become infected with histoplasmosis. (umm.edu)
  • Disseminated histoplasmosis is rare and can be fatal: risk factors for it include being immunocompromised, through AIDS/HIV or because of the immunosuppressive drugs taken to prevent rejection of an organ transplant. (thelondonclinic.co.uk)
  • Ball S. Histoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS. (medigraphic.com)
  • They can also help to increase the appetite of cats or dogs with histoplasmosis. (wordpress.com)
  • This information will be used to design a larger study investigating if and how this test may be used to monitor response to treatment, determine required duration of treatment, and monitor for disease reoccurrence in dogs with histoplasmosis. (akcchf.org)
  • The incidence of histoplasmosis in Spain has increased in recent years, primarily due to migration of humans from endemic regions and secondarily due to travelers returning from these regions. (springer.com)
  • Histoplasmosis is a particular risk for people with occupations such as farming, construction or archaeology in the areas where the disease is widespread. (thelondonclinic.co.uk)
  • To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of canine histoplasmosis in Italy with lesion confined to the central nervous system. (avmi.net)
  • Colonic histoplasmosis presenting as colon cancer in the non-immunocompromized patient. (medigraphic.com)