Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*40 allele family.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The degree of antigenic similarity between tissues of the mother and those of the FETUS. Maternal-fetal histocompatibility can determine the acceptance and health of the fetus.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*38 allele family.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Inbred CBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical and uniform, which makes them useful for scientific research, particularly in the areas of immunology and cancer.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at high levels in the BRAIN and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Inbred AKR mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are homozygous at all gene loci and have a high incidence of developing certain diseases, such as leukemia and autoimmune disorders, making them useful for research purposes in biomedicine.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Inbred strain A mice are genetically identical descendants of a single founder mouse, produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, primarily used in biomedical research for their genetic uniformity and experimental reproducibility.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
Inbred DBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically identical and share specific characteristics, including a high incidence of deafness, coat color (black and white), and susceptibility to certain diseases, which make them useful for research purposes in biomedical studies.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DR antigens. They are also referred to as the HLA-DR heavy chains.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.

Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis. (1/5762)

Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin-deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I-deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I-deficient arteries, and that of alpha-actin-positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect.  (+info)

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (2/5762)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (3/5762)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (4/5762)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (5/5762)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

Soluble HLA class I, HLA class II, and Fas ligand in blood components: a possible key to explain the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic blood transfusions. (6/5762)

The immunomodulatory effect of allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) has been known for many years. However, a complete understanding of the effects of ABT on the recipient's immune system has remained elusive. Soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I), HLA class II (sHLA-II), and Fas ligand (sFasL) molecules may play immunoregulatory roles. We determined by double-determinant immunoenzymatic assay (DDIA) sHLA-I, sHLA-II, and sFasL concentrations in different blood components. sHLA-I and sFasL levels in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for up to 30 days and in random-donor platelets are significantly (P <.001) higher than in other blood components and their amount is proportionate to the number of residual donor leukocytes and to the length of storage. Blood components with high sHLA-I and sFasL levels play immunoregulatory roles in vitro as in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR) and antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) activity, and induce apoptosis in Fas-positive cells. These data suggest that soluble molecules in blood components are functional. If these results are paralleled in vivo, they should be taken into account in transfusion practice. Blood components that can cause immunosuppression should be chosen to induce transplantation tolerance, whereas blood components that lack immunosuppressive effects should be preferred to reduce the risk of postoperative complications and cancer recurrence.  (+info)

Expanded tumor-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to human cancers induced by secondary anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activation. (7/5762)

Generation of tumor-reactive T cells in large numbers ex vivo is a requisite step in the adoptive immunotherapy of patients. We examined the immune responses of T cells derived from tumor vaccine-primed lymph nodes activated with anti-CD3 alone and with an anti-CD3/anti-CD28 combination. Nylon wool-purified CD3+ cells were isolated from vaccine-primed lymph nodes obtained from melanoma, renal cell, and head and neck cancer patients. In the absence of antigen-presenting cells, activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 greatly enhanced subsequent T-cell expansion in interleukin 2 (>100-fold), compared to anti-CD3 alone. CD4+ T cells were preferentially stimulated. In four of eight patients, we found evidence of CD4+ cellular responses to autologous tumors by cytokine release assays. Positively selected CD4+ cells activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 released greater amounts of cytokine (IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in response to autologous tumors compared to cells activated by anti-CD3 alone. The CD4+ reactivity was MHC class II restricted and appeared to be associated with the expression of class II molecules on the vaccinating tumor cells. The CD4+ T-cell responses to class II-restricted tumor-associated antigens in patients with renal cell cancers represent unique findings.  (+info)

Cytotoxicity is mandatory for CD8(+) T cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity. (8/5762)

Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a T cell-mediated skin inflammation induced by epicutaneous exposure to haptens in sensitized individuals. We have previously reported that CHS to dinitrofluorobenzene in mice is mediated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we show that CD8(+) T cells mediate the skin inflammation through their cytotoxic activity. The contribution of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to the CHS reaction was examined both in vivo and in vitro, using mice deficient in perforin and/or Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathways involved in cytotoxicity. Mice double deficient in perforin and FasL were able to develop hapten-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lymphoid organs but did not show CHS reaction. However, they did not generate hapten-specific CTLs, demonstrating that the CHS reaction is dependent on cytotoxic activity. In contrast, Fas-deficient lpr mice, FasL-deficient gld mice, and perforin-deficient mice developed a normal CHS reaction and were able to generate hapten-specific CTLs, suggesting that CHS requires either the Fas/FasL or the perforin pathway. This was confirmed by in vitro studies showing that the hapten-specific CTL activity was exclusively mediated by MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells which could use either the perforin or the Fas/FasL pathway for their lytic activity. Thus, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, commonly implicated in the host defence against tumors and viral infections, could also mediate harmful delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

Histocompatibility antigens Class II are a group of cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to foreign substances. They are expressed on the surface of various cells, including immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated T lymphocytes.

Class II histocompatibility antigens are encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II genes, which are located on chromosome 6 in humans. These antigens are composed of two non-covalently associated polypeptide chains, an alpha (α) and a beta (β) chain, which form a heterodimer. There are three main types of Class II histocompatibility antigens, known as HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

Class II histocompatibility antigens present peptide antigens to CD4+ T helper cells, which then activate other immune cells, such as B cells and macrophages, to mount an immune response against the presented antigen. Because of their role in initiating an immune response, Class II histocompatibility antigens are important in transplantation medicine, where mismatches between donor and recipient can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue.

Minor histocompatibility antigens (miHA) are proteins that exist in cells which can stimulate an immune response, particularly in the context of transplantation. Unlike major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens, which are highly polymorphic and well-known to trigger strong immune responses, miHA are generally less variable and may not be as immediately apparent to the immune system.

Minor histocompatibility antigens can arise from differences in genetic sequences that code for proteins outside of the MHC region. These differences can result in the production of altered or unique peptides that can be presented on the surface of cells via MHC molecules, where they may be recognized as foreign by the immune system.

In the context of transplantation, the recipient's immune system may recognize and attack donor tissues expressing these miHA, leading to graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This is particularly relevant in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), where the transferred stem cells can differentiate into various cell types, including immune cells that may recognize and attack the recipient's tissues.

Understanding miHA and their role in transplant rejection has led to the development of strategies to minimize graft rejection and GVHD, such as T-cell depletion or targeted therapies against specific miHA.

Histocompatibility antigens, class I are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." These antigens are composed of three polypeptides - two heavy chains and one light chain - and are encoded by genes in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6 in humans.

Class I MHC molecules present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T cells. This presentation allows the immune system to detect and destroy cells that have been infected by viruses or other intracellular pathogens, or that have become cancerous.

There are three main types of class I MHC molecules in humans: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. The term "HLA" stands for human leukocyte antigen, which reflects the original identification of these proteins on white blood cells (leukocytes). The genes encoding these molecules are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variants in the population, and matching HLA types is essential for successful organ transplantation to minimize the risk of rejection.

Histocompatibility antigens, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells. Histocompatibility antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are two main types of histocompatibility antigens: class I and class II. Class I antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells, while class II antigens are primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These antigens present pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

When foreign peptides are presented to T-cells by histocompatibility antigens, it triggers an immune response aimed at eliminating the threat. This is why histocompatibility antigens are so important in organ transplantation - if the donor's and recipient's antigens do not match closely enough, the recipient's immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and attack it.

Understanding the role of histocompatibility antigens has been crucial in developing techniques for matching donors and recipients in organ transplantation, as well as in diagnosing and treating various autoimmune diseases and cancers.

HLA-DQ antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) that are found on the surface of cells in our body. They are a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, which play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of proteins from outside the cell to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells. This presentation process is essential for initiating an appropriate immune response against potentially harmful pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

HLA-DQ antigens are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6p21.3 in the HLA region. Each individual inherits a pair of HLA-DQ genes, one from each parent, which can result in various combinations of HLA-DQ alleles. These genetic variations contribute to the diversity of immune responses among different individuals.

HLA-DQ antigens consist of two noncovalently associated polypeptide chains: an alpha (DQA) chain and a beta (DQB) chain. There are several isotypes of HLA-DQ antigens, including DQ1, DQ2, DQ3, DQ4, DQ5, DQ6, DQ7, DQ8, and DQ9, which are determined by the specific combination of DQA and DQB alleles.

Certain HLA-DQ genotypes have been associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune diseases, such as celiac disease (DQ2 and DQ8), type 1 diabetes (DQ2, DQ8), and rheumatoid arthritis (DQ4). Understanding the role of HLA-DQ antigens in these conditions can provide valuable insights into disease pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.

HLA-DR antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes. HLA-DR molecules present peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells, thereby initiating an immune response.

HLA-DR antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variants of these molecules in the human population. This diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented and recognized by the immune system. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.

In transplantation, HLA-DR compatibility between donor and recipient is an important factor in determining the success of the transplant. Incompatibility can lead to a heightened immune response against the transplanted organ or tissue, resulting in rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-DR types have been associated with increased susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis.

HLA-DQ beta-chains are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) molecule found on the surface of cells in the human body. The HLAs are a group of proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-DQ beta-chains are part of the HLA-DQ complex, which is a heterodimer made up of two polypeptide chains: an alpha chain (HLA-DQ alpha) and a beta chain (HLA-DQ beta). These chains are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region.

The HLA-DQ complex is involved in presenting peptides to CD4+ T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The peptides presented by the HLA-DQ complex are derived from proteins that have been processed within the cell, and they are used to help the CD4+ T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells.

Variations in the genes that encode the HLA-DQ beta-chains can affect an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II genes are a group of genes that encode cell surface proteins responsible for presenting peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, which are crucial in the adaptive immune response. These proteins are expressed mainly on professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. MHC Class II molecules present extracellular antigens derived from bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, facilitating the activation of appropriate immune responses to eliminate the threat. The genes responsible for these proteins are found within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 in humans (chromosome 17 in mice).

HLA-D antigens, also known as HLA class II antigens, are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the immune system. "HLA" stands for Human Leukocyte Antigen, which is a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans.

HLA-D antigens are primarily expressed by immune cells such as B lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but they can also be found on other cell types under certain conditions. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" by presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell that is crucial for mounting an immune response.

HLA-D antigens are divided into three subtypes: HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR. Each subtype has a specific function in presenting peptides to T lymphocytes. The genes that encode HLA-D antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variations of these genes in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a better match between an individual's immune system and the wide variety of pathogens they may encounter.

Abnormalities in HLA-D antigens have been associated with several autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. Additionally, certain variations in HLA-D genes can influence the severity of infectious diseases, such as HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C.

HLA-DRB1 chains are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules in the human body. The MHC class II molecules play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of foreign proteins to CD4+ T cells, which then stimulate an immune response.

HLA-DRB1 chains are one of the two polypeptide chains that make up the HLA-DR heterodimer, the other chain being the HLA-DRA chain. The HLA-DRB1 chain contains specific regions called antigen-binding sites, which bind to and present foreign peptides to CD4+ T cells.

The HLA-DRB1 gene is highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations or alleles of this gene in the human population. These variations can affect an individual's susceptibility or resistance to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. Therefore, the identification and characterization of HLA-DRB1 alleles have important implications for disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins in vertebrates that play a central role in the adaptive immune system. They are responsible for presenting peptide antigens to T-cells, which helps the immune system distinguish between self and non-self. The MHC is divided into two classes:

1. MHC Class I: These proteins present endogenous (intracellular) peptides to CD8+ T-cells (cytotoxic T-cells). The MHC class I molecule consists of a heavy chain and a light chain, together with an antigenic peptide.

2. MHC Class II: These proteins present exogenous (extracellular) peptides to CD4+ T-cells (helper T-cells). The MHC class II molecule is composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, together with an antigenic peptide.

MHC genes are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different alleles within a population. This diversity allows for better recognition and presentation of various pathogens, leading to a more robust immune response. The term "histocompatibility" refers to the compatibility between donor and recipient MHC molecules in tissue transplantation. Incompatible MHC molecules can lead to rejection of the transplanted tissue due to an activated immune response against the foreign MHC antigens.

HLA-DR serological subtyping refers to the identification and classification of specific variants or subtypes of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II DR antigens based on their reactivity with a panel of antibodies in serological assays. HLAs are cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting peptide antigens to T-cells. The HLA-DR molecules are involved in the presentation of foreign antigens, such as viruses and bacteria, to the immune system.

The serological subtyping of HLA-DR antigens is performed using a panel of antibodies with known specificity for different HLA-DR epitopes. The reactivity of an individual's HLA-DR antigens with these antibodies allows for the determination of their HLA-DR serological subtype. This information can be useful in various clinical settings, such as histocompatibility testing for organ transplantation and the diagnosis of certain autoimmune diseases.

It is important to note that HLA-DR serological subtyping has largely been replaced by molecular typing methods, which provide more precise and detailed information about HLA alleles. Molecular typing involves the direct sequencing or genotyping of HLA genes, allowing for the identification of specific HLA alleles and their associated amino acid sequences.

HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen) antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells in our body. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self." HLA antigens are encoded by a group of genes located on chromosome 6, known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are three types of HLA antigens: HLA class I, HLA class II, and HLA class III. HLA class I antigens are found on the surface of almost all cells in the body and help the immune system recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells. They consist of three components: HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C.

HLA class II antigens are primarily found on the surface of immune cells, such as macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells. They assist in the presentation of foreign particles (like bacteria and viruses) to CD4+ T cells, which then activate other parts of the immune system. HLA class II antigens include HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR.

HLA class III antigens consist of various molecules involved in immune responses, such as cytokines and complement components. They are not directly related to antigen presentation.

The genetic diversity of HLA antigens is extensive, with thousands of variations or alleles. This diversity allows for a better ability to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens. However, this variation can also lead to compatibility issues in organ transplantation, as the recipient's immune system may recognize the donor's HLA antigens as foreign and attack the transplanted organ.

Minor histocompatibility loci (MHL) refer to the genetic regions, excluding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), that contain genes encoding antigens capable of inducing an immune response. These antigens are present in various tissues and cells of the body and can be recognized as foreign by the immune system. In the context of transplantation, MHL mismatches between a donor and recipient can lead to graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) even when MHC matching has been achieved.

MHL antigens are typically peptides derived from proteins that result from polymorphisms in the genes encoding them. These peptides are presented on the cell surface by MHC molecules, allowing T cells to recognize and respond to them. Since there are many more minor histocompatibility loci than major histocompatibility loci, finding a donor who is fully matched at both MHL and MHC levels is extremely challenging.

In summary, minor histocompatibility loci are genetic regions outside the major histocompatibility complex that contain genes encoding antigens capable of inducing an immune response. These antigens can contribute to transplant rejection or GVHD in cases where there is a mismatch between donor and recipient.

H-2 antigens are a group of cell surface proteins found in mice that play a critical role in the immune system. They are similar to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex in humans and are involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to T cells, which is a crucial step in the adaptive immune response.

The H-2 antigens are encoded by a cluster of genes located on chromosome 17 in mice. They are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these proteins circulating in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented to T cells, thereby enhancing the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to a variety of pathogens.

The H-2 antigens are divided into two classes based on their function and structure. Class I H-2 antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells and consist of a heavy chain, a light chain, and a peptide fragment. They present endogenous peptides, such as those derived from viruses that infect the cell, to CD8+ T cells.

Class II H-2 antigens, on the other hand, are found primarily on professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. They consist of an alpha chain and a beta chain and present exogenous peptides, such as those derived from bacteria that have been engulfed by the cell, to CD4+ T cells.

Overall, H-2 antigens are essential components of the mouse immune system, allowing for the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

HLA-DP beta-chains are proteins that are encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene in humans. HLA, or Human Leukocyte Antigens, are a group of proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the body's immune system. They help the body recognize and distinguish between its own cells and foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

HLA-DP beta-chains are one part of the HLA-DP complex, which is a type of MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecules present pieces of proteins from outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The HLA-DP complex is composed of an alpha and beta chain, and the beta-chain is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene.

Variations in the HLA-DPB1 gene can affect an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. Additionally, HLA-DP beta-chains can be used as markers for tissue typing in organ transplantation to help match donors and recipients and reduce the risk of rejection.

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

HLA-DP antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. The HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-DP antigens are composed of two polypeptide chains, alpha and beta, which are encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in the human genome. These antigens are expressed on the surface of various cells, including B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages.

HLA-DP antigens present peptides to CD4+ T cells, which then become activated and help coordinate the immune response. The HLA-DP antigens have a wide range of peptide specificity, meaning they can bind and present a diverse array of peptides to the immune system.

Variation in HLA genes is common, and differences in these genes can affect an individual's susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the role of HLA-DP antigens in the immune response is important for developing new therapies and treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

HLA-B antigens are human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins found on the surface of cells that play an important role in the body's immune system. They are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present pieces of proteins from inside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell involved in immune responses.

HLA-B antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations or alleles of this gene in the human population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential HLA-B proteins to be expressed, which can help recognize and respond to a variety of foreign substances, such as viruses and cancer cells.

The HLA-B antigens are inherited from both parents, and an individual may express one or two different HLA-B antigens depending on their genetic makeup. The specific combination of HLA-B antigens that a person expresses can have implications for their susceptibility to certain diseases, as well as their compatibility with organ transplants.

HLA-A antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in our body. They are proteins that play an important role in the immune system by helping the body recognize and distinguish its own cells from foreign substances such as viruses, bacteria, and transplanted organs.

The HLA-A antigens are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which present peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). The CTLs then recognize and destroy any cells that display foreign or abnormal peptides on their HLA-A antigens.

Each person has a unique set of HLA-A antigens, which are inherited from their parents. These antigens can vary widely between individuals, making it important to match HLA types in organ transplantation to reduce the risk of rejection. Additionally, certain HLA-A antigens have been associated with increased susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

The H-Y antigen is a complex of historically significant, male-specific proteins that are encoded by genes on the Y chromosome. These antigens were first discovered through studies of tissue rejection in animal models and were later found to be important in the field of transplantation immunology.

In a medical definition, the H-Y antigen refers to a group of antigens that are expressed on the cell surface of nucleated cells in males, including those found in tissues such as skin, muscle, and blood cells. They are recognized by the immune system as foreign when transplanted into females, leading to a rejection response.

The H-Y antigen has been the subject of extensive research due to its role in sex determination and differentiation, as well as its potential implications for autoimmune diseases and cancer biology. However, it's worth noting that the clinical relevance of the H-Y antigen is limited, and its study is primarily of academic interest.

Histocompatibility is the compatibility between tissues or organs from different individuals in terms of their histological (tissue) structure and antigenic properties. The term is most often used in the context of transplantation, where it refers to the degree of match between the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and other proteins on the surface of donor and recipient cells.

A high level of histocompatibility reduces the risk of rejection of a transplanted organ or tissue by the recipient's immune system, as their immune cells are less likely to recognize the donated tissue as foreign and mount an attack against it. Conversely, a low level of histocompatibility increases the likelihood of rejection, as the recipient's immune system recognizes the donated tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Histocompatibility testing is therefore an essential part of organ and tissue transplantation, as it helps to identify the best possible match between donor and recipient and reduces the risk of rejection.

Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the cell-mediated immune system. They are responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells and cancer cells. When a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognizes a specific antigen presented on the surface of an infected or malignant cell, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes, which can create pores in the target cell's membrane and induce apoptosis (programmed cell death). This process helps to eliminate the infected or malignant cells and prevent the spread of infection or cancer.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Histocompatibility testing, also known as tissue typing, is a medical procedure that determines the compatibility of tissues between two individuals, usually a potential donor and a recipient for organ or bone marrow transplantation. The test identifies specific antigens, called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), found on the surface of most cells in the body. These antigens help the immune system distinguish between "self" and "non-self" cells.

The goal of histocompatibility testing is to find a donor whose HLA markers closely match those of the recipient, reducing the risk of rejection of the transplanted organ or tissue. The test involves taking blood samples from both the donor and the recipient and analyzing them for the presence of specific HLA antigens using various laboratory techniques such as molecular typing or serological testing.

A high degree of histocompatibility between the donor and recipient is crucial to ensure the success of the transplantation procedure, minimize complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I genes are a group of genes that encode proteins found on the surface of most nucleated cells in the body. These proteins play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting pieces of protein from inside the cell to T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell. This process allows the immune system to detect and respond to cells that have been infected by viruses or become cancerous.

MHC class I genes are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variations of these genes in the population. This diversity is important for the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens. The MHC class I proteins are composed of three main regions: the heavy chain, which is encoded by the MHC class I gene; a short peptide, which is derived from inside the cell; and a light chain called beta-2 microglobulin, which is not encoded by an MHC gene.

There are three major types of MHC class I genes in humans, known as HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. These genes are located on chromosome 6 and are among the most polymorphic genes in the human genome. The products of these genes are critical for the immune system's ability to distinguish between self and non-self, and play a key role in organ transplant rejection.

Surface antigens are molecules found on the surface of cells that can be recognized by the immune system as being foreign or different from the host's own cells. Antigens are typically proteins or polysaccharides that are capable of stimulating an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells such as T-cells.

Surface antigens are important in the context of infectious diseases because they allow the immune system to identify and target infected cells for destruction. For example, viruses and bacteria often display surface antigens that are distinct from those found on host cells, allowing the immune system to recognize and attack them. In some cases, these surface antigens can also be used as targets for vaccines or other immunotherapies.

In addition to their role in infectious diseases, surface antigens are also important in the context of cancer. Tumor cells often display abnormal surface antigens that differ from those found on normal cells, allowing the immune system to potentially recognize and attack them. However, tumors can also develop mechanisms to evade the immune system, making it difficult to mount an effective response.

Overall, understanding the properties and behavior of surface antigens is crucial for developing effective immunotherapies and vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer.

Neoplasm antigens, also known as tumor antigens, are substances that are produced by cancer cells (neoplasms) and can stimulate an immune response. These antigens can be proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules that are either unique to the cancer cells or are overexpressed or mutated versions of normal cellular proteins.

Neoplasm antigens can be classified into two main categories: tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs). TSAs are unique to cancer cells and are not expressed by normal cells, while TAAs are present at low levels in normal cells but are overexpressed or altered in cancer cells.

TSAs can be further divided into viral antigens and mutated antigens. Viral antigens are produced when cancer is caused by a virus, such as human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer. Mutated antigens are the result of genetic mutations that occur during cancer development and are unique to each patient's tumor.

Neoplasm antigens play an important role in the immune response against cancer. They can be recognized by the immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells such as T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which can then attack and destroy cancer cells. However, cancer cells often develop mechanisms to evade the immune response, allowing them to continue growing and spreading.

Understanding neoplasm antigens is important for the development of cancer immunotherapies, which aim to enhance the body's natural immune response against cancer. These therapies include checkpoint inhibitors, which block proteins that inhibit T cell activation, and therapeutic vaccines, which stimulate an immune response against specific tumor antigens.

Beta-2 microglobulin (β2M) is a small protein that is a component of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. It is found on the surface of almost all nucleated cells in the body and is involved in presenting intracellular peptides to T-cells for immune surveillance.

β2M is produced at a relatively constant rate by cells throughout the body and is freely filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys. Under normal circumstances, most of the filtrated β2M is reabsorbed and catabolized in the proximal tubules of the nephrons. However, when the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is decreased, as in chronic kidney disease (CKD), the reabsorption capacity of the proximal tubules becomes overwhelmed, leading to increased levels of β2M in the blood and its subsequent appearance in the urine.

Elevated serum and urinary β2M levels have been associated with various clinical conditions, such as CKD, multiple myeloma, autoimmune disorders, and certain infectious diseases. Measuring β2M concentrations can provide valuable information for diagnostic, prognostic, and monitoring purposes in these contexts.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Antigen presentation is the process by which certain cells in the immune system, known as antigen presenting cells (APCs), display foreign or abnormal proteins (antigens) on their surface to other immune cells, such as T-cells. This process allows the immune system to recognize and mount a response against harmful pathogens, infected or damaged cells.

There are two main types of antigen presentation: major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and MHC class II presentation.

1. MHC class I presentation: APCs, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-cells, process and load antigens onto MHC class I molecules, which are expressed on the surface of almost all nucleated cells in the body. The MHC class I-antigen complex is then recognized by CD8+ T-cells (cytotoxic T-cells), leading to the destruction of infected or damaged cells.
2. MHC class II presentation: APCs, particularly dendritic cells and B-cells, process and load antigens onto MHC class II molecules, which are mainly expressed on the surface of professional APCs. The MHC class II-antigen complex is then recognized by CD4+ T-cells (helper T-cells), leading to the activation of other immune cells, such as B-cells and macrophages, to eliminate the pathogen or damaged cells.

In summary, antigen presentation is a crucial step in the adaptive immune response, allowing for the recognition and elimination of foreign or abnormal substances that could potentially harm the body.

Gene frequency, also known as allele frequency, is a measure in population genetics that reflects the proportion of a particular gene or allele (variant of a gene) in a given population. It is calculated as the number of copies of a specific allele divided by the total number of all alleles at that genetic locus in the population.

For example, if we consider a gene with two possible alleles, A and a, the gene frequency of allele A (denoted as p) can be calculated as follows:

p = (number of copies of allele A) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Similarly, the gene frequency of allele a (denoted as q) would be:

q = (number of copies of allele a) / (total number of all alleles at that locus)

Since there are only two possible alleles for this gene in this example, p + q = 1. These frequencies can help researchers understand genetic diversity and evolutionary processes within populations.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

Isoantigens are antigens that are present on the cells or tissues of one individual of a species, but are absent or different in another individual of the same species. They are also known as "alloantigens." Isoantigens are most commonly found on the surface of red blood cells and other tissues, and they can stimulate an immune response when transplanted into a different individual. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the isoantigens as foreign and mounts a defense against them. Isoantigens are important in the field of transplantation medicine, as they must be carefully matched between donor and recipient to reduce the risk of rejection.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. Viral antigens are antigens that are found on or produced by viruses. They can be proteins, glycoproteins, or carbohydrates present on the surface or inside the viral particle.

Viral antigens play a crucial role in the immune system's recognition and response to viral infections. When a virus infects a host cell, it may display its antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This allows the immune system to recognize and target the infected cells for destruction, thereby limiting the spread of the virus.

Viral antigens are also important targets for vaccines. Vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless form of a viral antigen to the body, which then stimulates the production of antibodies and memory T-cells that can recognize and respond quickly and effectively to future infections with the actual virus.

It's worth noting that different types of viruses have different antigens, and these antigens can vary between strains of the same virus. This is why there are often different vaccines available for different viral diseases, and why flu vaccines need to be updated every year to account for changes in the circulating influenza virus strains.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Immunologic cytotoxicity refers to the damage or destruction of cells that occurs as a result of an immune response. This process involves the activation of immune cells, such as cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, which release toxic substances, such as perforins and granzymes, that can kill target cells.

In addition, antibodies produced by B cells can also contribute to immunologic cytotoxicity by binding to antigens on the surface of target cells and triggering complement-mediated lysis or antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by activating immune effector cells.

Immunologic cytotoxicity plays an important role in the body's defense against viral infections, cancer cells, and other foreign substances. However, it can also contribute to tissue damage and autoimmune diseases if the immune system mistakenly targets healthy cells or tissues.

HLA-B7 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in our body. The HLAs are proteins that help our immune system recognize and fight off foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. Specifically, HLA-B7 is a class I HLA antigen, which presents peptides from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response.

HLA-B7 has been identified as one of the many different HLA types that can be inherited from our parents. It is located on chromosome 6 and has several subtypes. The HLA-B7 antigen is associated with certain diseases, such as ankylosing spondylitis, a type of arthritis that affects the spine. However, having this HLA type does not necessarily mean that a person will develop the disease, as other genetic and environmental factors are also involved.

It's important to note that HLA typing is used in organ transplantation to match donors and recipients and reduce the risk of rejection. Knowing a patient's HLA type can help identify compatible donors and improve the chances of a successful transplant.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Immunogenetics is the study of the genetic basis of immune responses. It involves the investigation of the genetic factors that control the development, function, and regulation of the immune system, as well as the genetic mechanisms underlying immune-mediated diseases such as autoimmune disorders, allergies, and transplant rejection. This field combines immunology, genetics, and molecular biology to understand how genes contribute to immune response variability among individuals and populations.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Histocompatibility antigen H-2D is a type of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule found in mice. It is a transmembrane protein located on the surface of nucleated cells, which plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. The primary function of H-2D is to present endogenous peptide antigens to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs).

H-2D molecules are encoded by genes within the H-2D region of the MHC on chromosome 17. These genes have multiple alleles, resulting in a high degree of polymorphism, which contributes to the diversity of the immune response among different mouse strains. The peptide-binding groove of H-2D molecules is formed by two alpha helices and eight beta pleats, creating a specific binding site for antigenic peptides.

The peptides presented by H-2D molecules are derived from intracellular proteins that undergo degradation in the proteasome. These peptides are then transported into the endoplasmic reticulum, where they bind to H-2D molecules with the assistance of chaperone proteins like tapasin and calreticulin. The H-2D-peptide complex is then transported to the cell surface for presentation to CD8+ T cells.

Recognition of H-2D-peptide complexes by CD8+ T cells leads to their activation, proliferation, and differentiation into effector CTLs. Activated CTLs can recognize and eliminate virus-infected or malignant cells displaying specific H-2D-peptide complexes, thereby playing a critical role in the cell-mediated immune response.

In summary, histocompatibility antigen H-2D is a polymorphic MHC class I molecule in mice that presents endogenous peptide antigens to CD8+ T cells, contributing significantly to the adaptive immune response and the elimination of infected or malignant cells.

Isoantibodies are antibodies produced by the immune system that recognize and react to antigens (markers) found on the cells or tissues of another individual of the same species. These antigens are typically proteins or carbohydrates present on the surface of red blood cells, but they can also be found on other cell types.

Isoantibodies are formed when an individual is exposed to foreign antigens, usually through blood transfusions, pregnancy, or tissue transplantation. The exposure triggers the immune system to produce specific antibodies against these antigens, which can cause a harmful immune response if the individual receives another transfusion or transplant from the same donor in the future.

There are two main types of isoantibodies:

1. Agglutinins: These are IgM antibodies that cause red blood cells to clump together (agglutinate) when mixed with the corresponding antigen. They develop rapidly after exposure and can cause immediate transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.
2. Hemolysins: These are IgG antibodies that destroy red blood cells by causing their membranes to become more permeable, leading to lysis (bursting) of the cells and release of hemoglobin into the plasma. They take longer to develop but can cause delayed transfusion reactions or hemolytic disease of the newborn in pregnant women.

Isoantibodies are detected through blood tests, such as the crossmatch test, which determines compatibility between a donor's and recipient's blood before transfusions or transplants.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

HLA-A2 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule, which is found on the surface of cells in our body. HLA molecules are responsible for presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) from inside the cell to the immune system's T-cells, helping them distinguish between "self" and "non-self" proteins.

HLA-A2 is one of the most common HLA class I antigens in the Caucasian population, with an estimated frequency of around 50%. It presents a variety of peptides to T-cells, including those derived from viruses and tumor cells. The presentation of these peptides can trigger an immune response, leading to the destruction of infected or malignant cells.

It is important to note that HLA typing is crucial in organ transplantation, as a mismatch between donor and recipient HLA antigens can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. Additionally, HLA-A2 has been associated with certain autoimmune diseases and cancer types, making it an area of interest for researchers studying these conditions.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a range of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling pathway or changing the cell's behavior. There are various types of receptors, including ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and enzyme-linked receptors.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies or T-cells, as foreign and potentially harmful. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or even non-living substances like pollen, chemicals, or toxins. An antigen typically contains epitopes, which are the specific regions that antibodies or T-cell receptors recognize and bind to.

3. T-Cell: Also known as T lymphocytes, T-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity, a part of the adaptive immune system. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs). T-cells recognize antigens presented to them by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) via their surface receptors called the T-cell receptor (TCR). Once activated, T-cells can proliferate and differentiate into various effector cells that help eliminate infected or damaged cells.

Transplantation Immunology is a branch of medicine that deals with the immune responses occurring between a transplanted organ or tissue and the recipient's body. It involves understanding and managing the immune system's reaction to foreign tissue, which can lead to rejection of the transplanted organ. This field also studies the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection and the potential risks and side effects associated with their use. The main goal of transplantation immunology is to find ways to promote the acceptance of transplanted tissue while minimizing the risk of infection and other complications.

Skin transplantation, also known as skin grafting, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of healthy skin from one part of the body (donor site) and its transfer to another site (recipient site) that has been damaged or lost due to various reasons such as burns, injuries, infections, or diseases. The transplanted skin can help in healing wounds, restoring functionality, and improving the cosmetic appearance of the affected area. There are different types of skin grafts, including split-thickness grafts, full-thickness grafts, and composite grafts, which vary in the depth and size of the skin removed and transplanted. The success of skin transplantation depends on various factors, including the size and location of the wound, the patient's overall health, and the availability of suitable donor sites.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a condition that can occur after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), where the donated immune cells (graft) recognize the recipient's tissues (host) as foreign and attack them. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs, particularly the skin, gastrointestinal tract, and liver.

Acute GVHD typically occurs within 100 days of transplantation and is characterized by symptoms such as rash, diarrhea, and liver dysfunction. Chronic GVHD, on the other hand, can occur after 100 days or even years post-transplant and may present with a wider range of symptoms, including dry eyes and mouth, skin changes, lung involvement, and issues with mobility and flexibility in joints.

GVHD is a significant complication following allogeneic HSCT and can have a substantial impact on the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis. Preventative measures, such as immunosuppressive therapy, are often taken to reduce the risk of GVHD, but its management remains a challenge in transplant medicine.

The HLA-B40 antigen is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) serotype that is part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. These molecules are found on the surface of most nucleated cells and play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting peptides to T-cells.

The HLA-B40 antigen specifically refers to a group of related HLA-B alleles that share a common epitope, which is a specific region of the molecule that can be recognized by antibodies. The HLA-B40 antigen includes several different HLA-B alleles, such as HLA-B*40:01, HLA-B*40:02, and HLA-B*40:06, among others.

The HLA-B40 antigen has been associated with susceptibility to certain diseases, including some forms of cancer and autoimmune disorders. However, the specific role of this antigen in disease susceptibility is not fully understood and is an area of ongoing research.

Beta-globulins are a group of proteins found in the beta region of a serum protein electrophoresis, which is a laboratory test used to separate and identify different types of proteins in the blood. This group includes several important proteins such as:

1. Beta-lipoproteins: These are responsible for transporting fat molecules, including cholesterol, throughout the body.
2. Transferrin: A protein that binds and transports iron in the blood.
3. Complement components: These proteins play a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection and inflammation.
4. Beta-2 microglobulin: A protein involved in the functioning of the immune system, elevated levels of which can be found in various conditions such as kidney disease and autoimmune disorders.
5. Hemopexin: A protein that binds and transports heme (a component of hemoglobin) in the blood.

It is important to note that any significant increase or decrease in beta-globulins can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as liver disease, kidney disease, or an autoimmune disorder. Therefore, abnormal results should be further evaluated by a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

Histocompatibility, maternal-fetal, refers to the compatibility between the human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) and other antigenic proteins expressed on the fetal tissues and those present in the mother's immune system. The HLAs are a group of proteins encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and play a crucial role in the recognition and presentation of foreign peptides to the immune cells.

During pregnancy, the fetal tissues express paternal HLA antigens that can be recognized as non-self by the mother's immune system. However, the maternal-fetal interface, which includes the placenta and decidua, has several mechanisms to prevent the activation of the maternal immune response against the fetus. These mechanisms include the expression of unique HLA molecules (HLA-G, -C, and -E) by the trophoblast cells, which have immunomodulatory functions, as well as the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and the suppression of pro-inflammatory responses.

Despite these immune tolerance mechanisms, in some cases, the maternal immune system may still recognize the fetal tissues as foreign and mount an immune response, leading to pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia, recurrent miscarriage, or intrauterine growth restriction. The degree of histocompatibility between the mother and fetus can influence the risk of these complications, with a higher degree of mismatch increasing the risk.

In transplantation medicine, the concept of histocompatibility is critical in matching donors and recipients to minimize the risk of rejection. However, in pregnancy, the unique immune environment at the maternal-fetal interface allows for the coexistence of two genetically distinct individuals without the need for full histocompatibility.

Cytotoxicity tests, immunologic are a group of laboratory assays used to measure the immune-mediated damage or destruction (cytotoxicity) of cells. These tests are often used in medical research and clinical settings to evaluate the potential toxicity of drugs, biological agents, or environmental factors on specific types of cells.

Immunologic cytotoxicity tests typically involve the use of immune effector cells, such as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or natural killer (NK) cells, which can recognize and kill target cells that express specific antigens on their surface. The tests may also involve the use of antibodies or other immune molecules that can bind to target cells and trigger complement-mediated cytotoxicity.

There are several types of immunologic cytotoxicity tests, including:

1. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) assays: These tests measure the ability of CTLs to recognize and kill target cells that express specific antigens. The test involves incubating target cells with CTLs and then measuring the amount of cell death or damage.
2. Natural killer (NK) cell assays: These tests measure the ability of NK cells to recognize and kill target cells that lack self-antigens or express stress-induced antigens. The test involves incubating target cells with NK cells and then measuring the amount of cell death or damage.
3. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays: These tests measure the ability of antibodies to bind to target cells and recruit immune effector cells, such as NK cells or macrophages, to mediate cell lysis. The test involves incubating target cells with antibodies and then measuring the amount of cell death or damage.
4. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) assays: These tests measure the ability of complement proteins to bind to target cells and form a membrane attack complex that leads to cell lysis. The test involves incubating target cells with complement proteins and then measuring the amount of cell death or damage.

Immunologic cytotoxicity tests are important tools in immunology, cancer research, and drug development. They can help researchers understand how immune cells recognize and kill infected or damaged cells, as well as how to develop new therapies that enhance or inhibit these processes.

HLA-A1 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecule that plays an important role in the immune system. The HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-A1 antigen is one of several different types of HLA-A molecules, and it is determined by a specific set of genes located on chromosome 6. The HLA-A1 antigen is expressed on the surface of some cells in the human body and can be detected through laboratory testing.

The HLA-A1 antigen is associated with certain diseases or conditions, such as an increased risk of developing certain types of cancer or autoimmune disorders. It is also used as a marker for tissue typing in organ transplantation to help match donors and recipients and reduce the risk of rejection.

It's important to note that the presence or absence of HLA-A1 antigen alone does not determine whether someone will develop a particular disease or experience a successful organ transplant. Other genetic and environmental factors also play a role in these outcomes.

HLA-B35 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins that play an important role in the body's immune system. They are found on the surface of cells and help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-B35 antigen is one of many different types of HLA-B antigens, which are located on chromosome 6 in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. The HLA-B35 antigen is encoded by the HLA-B gene and is expressed as a transmembrane glycoprotein.

The HLA-B35 antigen is found in approximately 15-20% of the Caucasian population, but it is less common in other populations. It has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain diseases, including HIV infection and some types of cancer. However, the presence of the HLA-B35 antigen does not necessarily mean that a person will develop these diseases, as many other factors are also involved.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are a group of specialized cells in the immune system that play a critical role in initiating and regulating immune responses. They have the ability to engulf, process, and present antigens (molecules derived from pathogens or other foreign substances) on their surface in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. This presentation of antigens allows APCs to activate T cells, which are crucial for adaptive immunity.

There are several types of APCs, including:

1. Dendritic cells (DCs): These are the most potent and professional APCs, found in various tissues throughout the body. DCs can capture antigens from their environment, process them, and migrate to lymphoid organs where they present antigens to T cells.
2. Macrophages: These large phagocytic cells are found in many tissues and play a role in both innate and adaptive immunity. They can engulf and digest pathogens, then present processed antigens on their MHC class II molecules to activate CD4+ T helper cells.
3. B cells: These are primarily responsible for humoral immune responses by producing antibodies against antigens. When activated, B cells can also function as APCs and present antigens on their MHC class II molecules to CD4+ T cells.

The interaction between APCs and T cells is critical for the development of an effective immune response against pathogens or other foreign substances. This process helps ensure that the immune system can recognize and eliminate threats while minimizing damage to healthy tissues.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and responding to potentially harmful substances such as viruses, bacteria, and other foreign invaders. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes (B-cells) and T-lymphocytes (T-cells).

B-lymphocytes produce antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy foreign substances. When a B-cell encounters a foreign substance, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies. These antibodies bind to the foreign substance, marking it for destruction by other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes, on the other hand, are involved in cell-mediated immunity. They directly attack and destroy infected cells or cancerous cells. T-cells can also help to regulate the immune response by producing chemical signals that activate or inhibit other immune cells.

Lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow and mature in either the bone marrow (B-cells) or the thymus gland (T-cells). They circulate throughout the body in the blood and lymphatic system, where they can be found in high concentrations in lymph nodes, the spleen, and other lymphoid organs.

Abnormalities in the number or function of lymphocytes can lead to a variety of immune-related disorders, including immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmune disorders, and cancer.

The "Graft versus Leukemia (GvL) Effect" is a term used in the field of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to describe a desirable outcome where the donor's immune cells (graft) recognize and attack the recipient's leukemia cells (host). This effect occurs when the donor's T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and other immune cells become activated against the recipient's malignant cells.

The GvL effect is often observed in patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), where the donor and recipient are not genetically identical. The genetic disparity between the donor and recipient creates an environment that allows for the recognition of host leukemia cells as foreign, triggering an immune response against them.

While the GvL effect can be beneficial in eliminating residual leukemia cells, it can also lead to complications such as graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's healthy tissues. Balancing the GvL effect and minimizing GvHD remains a significant challenge in allo-HSCT.

A "Graft versus Host Reaction" (GVHR) is a condition that can occur after an organ or bone marrow transplant, where the immune cells in the graft (transplanted tissue) recognize and attack the recipient's (host's) tissues as foreign. This reaction occurs because the donor's immune cells (graft) are able to recognize the host's cells as different from their own due to differences in proteins called human leukocyte antigens (HLAs).

The GVHR can affect various organs, including the skin, liver, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. Symptoms may include rash, diarrhea, jaundice, and respiratory distress. The severity of the reaction can vary widely, from mild to life-threatening.

To prevent or reduce the risk of GVHR, immunosuppressive drugs are often given to the recipient before and after transplantation to suppress their immune system and prevent it from attacking the graft. Despite these measures, GVHR can still occur in some cases, particularly when there is a significant mismatch between the donor and recipient HLAs.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Immune tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or specific immune tolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness or non-reactivity of the immune system towards a particular substance (antigen) that has the potential to elicit an immune response. This occurs when the immune system learns to distinguish "self" from "non-self" and does not attack the body's own cells, tissues, and organs.

In the context of transplantation, immune tolerance refers to the absence of a destructive immune response towards the transplanted organ or tissue, allowing for long-term graft survival without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. Immune tolerance can be achieved through various strategies, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, costimulation blockade, and regulatory T cell induction.

In summary, immune tolerance is a critical mechanism that prevents the immune system from attacking the body's own structures while maintaining the ability to respond appropriately to foreign pathogens and antigens.

A clone is a group of cells that are genetically identical to each other because they are derived from a common ancestor cell through processes such as mitosis or asexual reproduction. Therefore, the term "clone cells" refers to a population of cells that are genetic copies of a single parent cell.

In the context of laboratory research, cells can be cloned by isolating a single cell and allowing it to divide in culture, creating a population of genetically identical cells. This is useful for studying the behavior and characteristics of individual cell types, as well as for generating large quantities of cells for use in experiments.

It's important to note that while clone cells are genetically identical, they may still exhibit differences in their phenotype (physical traits) due to epigenetic factors or environmental influences.

CD8 antigens are a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells called cytotoxic T lymphocytes or cytotoxic T cells. These cells play a critical role in the adaptive immune response, which is the specific and targeted response of the immune system to foreign substances (antigens) that invade the body.

CD8 antigens help cytotoxic T cells recognize and respond to infected or abnormal cells, such as those that have been infected by a virus or have become cancerous. When a cytotoxic T cell encounters a cell displaying a specific antigen bound to a CD8 molecule, it becomes activated and releases toxic substances that can kill the target cell.

CD8 antigens are also known as cluster of differentiation 8 antigens or CD8 receptors. They belong to a larger family of proteins called major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) molecules, which present antigens to T cells and play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to distinguish between self and non-self.

A Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed (LCTM) is not a standardized medical test with a universally accepted definition. However, in some contexts, it may refer to a laboratory procedure where both T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes are cultured together from a sample of peripheral blood or other tissues. This test is sometimes used in research or specialized diagnostic settings to evaluate the immune function or to study the interactions between T-cells and B-cells in response to various stimuli, such as antigens or mitogens.

The test typically involves isolating lymphocytes from a sample, adding them to a culture medium along with appropriate stimulants, and then incubating the mixture for a period of time. The resulting responses, such as proliferation, differentiation, or production of cytokines, can be measured and analyzed to gain insights into the immune function or dysfunction.

It's important to note that LCTM is not a routine diagnostic test and its use and interpretation may vary depending on the specific laboratory or research setting.

Graft rejection is an immune response that occurs when transplanted tissue or organ (the graft) is recognized as foreign by the recipient's immune system, leading to the activation of immune cells to attack and destroy the graft. This results in the failure of the transplant and the need for additional medical intervention or another transplant. There are three types of graft rejection: hyperacute, acute, and chronic. Hyperacute rejection occurs immediately or soon after transplantation due to pre-existing antibodies against the graft. Acute rejection typically occurs within weeks to months post-transplant and is characterized by the infiltration of T-cells into the graft. Chronic rejection, which can occur months to years after transplantation, is a slow and progressive process characterized by fibrosis and tissue damage due to ongoing immune responses against the graft.

CD (cluster of differentiation) antigens are cell-surface proteins that are expressed on leukocytes (white blood cells) and can be used to identify and distinguish different subsets of these cells. They are important markers in the field of immunology and hematology, and are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases.

CD antigens are designated by numbers, such as CD4, CD8, CD19, etc., which refer to specific proteins found on the surface of different types of leukocytes. For example, CD4 is a protein found on the surface of helper T cells, while CD8 is found on cytotoxic T cells.

CD antigens can be used as targets for immunotherapy, such as monoclonal antibody therapy, in which antibodies are designed to bind to specific CD antigens and trigger an immune response against cancer cells or infected cells. They can also be used as markers to monitor the effectiveness of treatments and to detect minimal residual disease (MRD) after treatment.

It's important to note that not all CD antigens are exclusive to leukocytes, some can be found on other cell types as well, and their expression can vary depending on the activation state or differentiation stage of the cells.

HLA-C antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells in the human body. They are part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, which play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells.

HLA-C antigens are responsible for presenting peptide fragments from inside the cell to CD8+ T cells, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This presentation allows the CTLs to recognize and destroy infected or damaged cells, helping to prevent the spread of viruses and other pathogens.

Like other HLA antigens, HLA-C antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these molecules in the human population. This diversity allows for a better match between an individual's immune system and the pathogens they encounter, increasing the chances of mounting an effective immune response. However, this same diversity can also make it more challenging to find compatible organ donors for transplantation.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Dendritic cells (DCs) are a type of immune cell that play a critical role in the body's defense against infection and cancer. They are named for their dendrite-like projections, which they use to interact with and sample their environment. DCs are responsible for processing antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response) and presenting them to T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune system's response to infection and cancer.

DCs can be found throughout the body, including in the skin, mucous membranes, and lymphoid organs. They are able to recognize and respond to a wide variety of antigens, including those from bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. Once they have processed an antigen, DCs migrate to the lymph nodes, where they present the antigen to T cells. This interaction activates the T cells, which then go on to mount a targeted immune response against the invading pathogen or cancerous cells.

DCs are a diverse group of cells that can be divided into several subsets based on their surface markers and function. Some DCs, such as Langerhans cells and dermal DCs, are found in the skin and mucous membranes, where they serve as sentinels for invading pathogens. Other DCs, such as plasmacytoid DCs and conventional DCs, are found in the lymphoid organs, where they play a role in activating T cells and initiating an immune response.

Overall, dendritic cells are essential for the proper functioning of the immune system, and dysregulation of these cells has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

Antigens are substances that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies by B-lymphocytes. Differentiation refers to the process by which cells mature and become more specialized in their functions. In the context of B-lymphocytes, differentiation involves the maturation of naive B-cells into plasma cells that are capable of producing large amounts of antibodies in response to an antigenic stimulus.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters an antigen, it becomes activated and begins to differentiate into a plasma cell. During this process, the B-cell undergoes several changes, including an increase in size, the expression of new surface receptors, and the production of large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigen. These antibodies are then released into the bloodstream, where they can bind to the antigen and help to neutralize or eliminate it.

Overall, the differentiation of B-lymphocytes in response to antigens is a critical component of the adaptive immune system, allowing the body to mount targeted responses to specific pathogens and other foreign substances.

An epitope is a specific region on an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) that is recognized and bound by an antibody or a T-cell receptor. In the case of T-lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity, epitopes are typically presented on the surface of infected cells in association with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.

T-lymphocytes recognize and respond to epitopes through their T-cell receptors (TCRs), which are membrane-bound proteins that can bind to specific epitopes presented on the surface of infected cells. There are two main types of T-lymphocytes: CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, and CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells.

CD4+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class II molecules, which are typically expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-cells. CD4+ T-cells help to coordinate the immune response by producing cytokines that activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class I molecules, which are expressed on the surface of almost all nucleated cells. CD8+ T-cells are able to directly kill infected cells by releasing cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes that can induce apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cell.

In summary, epitopes are specific regions on antigens that are recognized and bound by T-lymphocytes through their T-cell receptors. CD4+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class II molecules, while CD8+ T-cells recognize epitopes presented in the context of MHC class I molecules.

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) found on the surface of cells, or viruses, that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. In the context of protozoa, antigens refer to the specific proteins or other molecules found on the surface of these single-celled organisms that can trigger an immune response in a host organism.

Protozoa are a group of microscopic eukaryotic organisms that include a diverse range of species, some of which can cause diseases in humans and animals. When a protozoan infects a host, the host's immune system recognizes the protozoan antigens as foreign and mounts an immune response to eliminate the infection. This response involves the activation of various types of immune cells, such as T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and target the protozoan antigens.

Understanding the nature of protozoan antigens is important for developing vaccines and other immunotherapies to prevent or treat protozoan infections. For example, researchers have identified specific antigens on the surface of the malaria parasite that are recognized by the human immune system and have used this information to develop vaccine candidates. However, many protozoan infections remain difficult to prevent or treat, and further research is needed to identify new targets for vaccines and therapies.

'Tumor cells, cultured' refers to the process of removing cancerous cells from a tumor and growing them in controlled laboratory conditions. This is typically done by isolating the tumor cells from a patient's tissue sample, then placing them in a nutrient-rich environment that promotes their growth and multiplication.

The resulting cultured tumor cells can be used for various research purposes, including the study of cancer biology, drug development, and toxicity testing. They provide a valuable tool for researchers to better understand the behavior and characteristics of cancer cells outside of the human body, which can lead to the development of more effective cancer treatments.

It is important to note that cultured tumor cells may not always behave exactly the same way as they do in the human body, so findings from cell culture studies must be validated through further research, such as animal models or clinical trials.

The "Graft vs Tumor Effect" is a term used in the field of transplantation medicine, particularly in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). It refers to the anti-tumor activity exhibited by donor immune cells (graft) against residual malignant cells (tumor) in the recipient's body.

After HSCT, the donor's immune system is reconstituted in the recipient's body. If the donor and recipient are not identical, there may be differences in their major and minor histocompatibility antigens, which can lead to a graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) where the donor's immune cells attack the recipient's tissues. However, these same donor immune cells can also recognize and target any residual tumor cells in the recipient's body, leading to a graft vs tumor effect.

This effect can contribute to the elimination of residual malignant cells and reduce the risk of relapse, particularly in hematological malignancies such as leukemia and lymphoma. However, it is important to balance this effect with the risk of GVHD, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, strategies such as donor selection, graft manipulation, and immunosuppressive therapy are used to optimize the graft vs tumor effect while minimizing GVHD.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Chromium isotopes are different forms of the chemical element Chromium (Cr), which have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. This results in each isotope having a different atomic mass, although they all have the same number of protons (24) and therefore share the same chemical properties.

The most common and stable chromium isotopes are Chromium-52 (Cr-52), Chromium-53 (Cr-53), Chromium-54 (Cr-54), and Chromium-56 (Cr-56). The other less abundant isotopes of Chromium, such as Chromium-50 (Cr-50) and Chromium-51 (Cr-51), are radioactive and undergo decay to become stable isotopes.

Chromium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. It is also used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of stainless steel and other alloys.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. Receptors play a crucial role in signal transduction, enabling cells to communicate with each other and respond to changes in their environment.
2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the immune system and stimulate an immune response. Antigens can be foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, or pollen, or they can be components of our own cells, such as tumor antigens in cancer cells. Antigens are typically bound and presented to the immune system by specialized cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs).
3. T-Cell: T-cells, also known as T lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. T-cells are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are two main types of T-cells: CD4+ helper T-cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. Helper T-cells assist other immune cells, such as B-cells and macrophages, in mounting an immune response, while cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected or cancerous cells.
4. Alpha-Beta: Alpha-beta is a type of T-cell receptor (TCR) that is found on the surface of most mature T-cells. The alpha-beta TCR is composed of two polypeptide chains, an alpha chain and a beta chain, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The alpha-beta TCR recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of APCs. This interaction is critical for initiating an immune response against infected or cancerous cells.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

HLA-B27 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of white blood cells. HLAs are proteins that help the body's immune system distinguish its own cells from foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

HLA-B27 is a specific type of HLA-B antigen, which is part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. The presence of HLA-B27 antigen can be inherited from parents to their offspring.

While most people with the HLA-B27 antigen do not develop any health problems, this antigen is associated with an increased risk of developing certain inflammatory diseases, particularly spondyloarthritis, a group of disorders that affect the joints and spine. Examples of these conditions include ankylosing spondylitis, reactive arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, and enteropathic arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease. However, not everyone with HLA-B27 will develop these diseases, and many people without the antigen can still develop spondyloarthritis.

The Fluorescent Antibody Technique (FAT) is a type of immunofluorescence assay used in laboratory medicine and pathology for the detection and localization of specific antigens or antibodies in tissues, cells, or microorganisms. In this technique, a fluorescein-labeled antibody is used to selectively bind to the target antigen or antibody, forming an immune complex. When excited by light of a specific wavelength, the fluorescein label emits light at a longer wavelength, typically visualized as green fluorescence under a fluorescence microscope.

The FAT is widely used in diagnostic microbiology for the identification and characterization of various bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. It has also been applied in the diagnosis of autoimmune diseases and certain cancers by detecting specific antibodies or antigens in patient samples. The main advantage of FAT is its high sensitivity and specificity, allowing for accurate detection and differentiation of various pathogens and disease markers. However, it requires specialized equipment and trained personnel to perform and interpret the results.

HLA-B38 Antigen is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a designation for a specific type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) protein. HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-B38 antigen is one of many different types of HLA-B antigens, which are a part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. These molecules present pieces of proteins from inside the cell to immune cells called T-cells, triggering an immune response if the protein is identified as foreign.

The HLA-B38 antigen is encoded by a specific gene variant known as HLA-B*38. This gene variant is relatively common in some populations and can be inherited from one or both parents. It has been associated with certain diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and certain types of cancer, but its role in these conditions is not fully understood.

It's important to note that HLA typing is a complex process that involves identifying specific genetic variations in the HLA genes. The presence or absence of a particular HLA antigen like HLA-B38 does not necessarily indicate the presence or absence of a particular disease, but may be one factor among many that contribute to an individual's overall risk.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

The thymus gland is an essential organ of the immune system, located in the upper chest, behind the sternum and surrounding the heart. It's primarily active until puberty and begins to shrink in size and activity thereafter. The main function of the thymus gland is the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells), which are crucial for cell-mediated immunity, helping to protect the body from infection and cancer.

The thymus gland provides a protected environment where immune cells called pre-T cells develop into mature T cells. During this process, they learn to recognize and respond appropriately to foreign substances while remaining tolerant to self-tissues, which is crucial for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Additionally, the thymus gland produces hormones like thymosin that regulate immune cell activities and contribute to the overall immune response.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens refer to specific proteins expressed by polyomaviruses that can induce cellular transformation and lead to the development of cancer. These antigens are called large T antigen (T-Ag) and small t antigen (t-Ag). They manipulate key cellular processes, such as cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and malignant transformation.

The large T antigen is a multifunctional protein that plays a crucial role in viral replication and transformation. It has several domains with different functions:

1. Origin binding domain (OBD): Binds to the viral origin of replication, initiating DNA synthesis.
2. Helicase domain: Unwinds double-stranded DNA during replication.
3. DNA binding domain: Binds to specific DNA sequences and acts as a transcriptional regulator.
4. Protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) binding domain: Recruits PP1 to promote viral DNA replication and inhibit host cell defense mechanisms.
5. p53-binding domain: Binds and inactivates the tumor suppressor protein p53, promoting cell cycle progression and preventing apoptosis.
6. Rb-binding domain: Binds to and inactivates the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), leading to deregulation of the cell cycle and uncontrolled cell growth.

The small t antigen shares a common N-terminal region with large T antigen but lacks some functional domains, such as the OBD and helicase domain. Small t antigen can also bind to and inactivate PP1 and pRb, contributing to transformation. However, its primary role is to stabilize large T antigen by preventing its proteasomal degradation.

Polyomavirus transforming antigens are associated with various human cancers, such as Merkel cell carcinoma (caused by Merkel cell polyomavirus) and some forms of brain tumors, sarcomas, and lymphomas (associated with simian virus 40).

"CBA" is an abbreviation for a specific strain of inbred mice that were developed at the Cancer Research Institute in London. The "Inbred CBA" mice are genetically identical individuals within the same strain, due to many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a homozygous population, making them valuable tools for research because they reduce variability and increase reproducibility in experimental outcomes.

The CBA strain is known for its susceptibility to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, which makes it a popular choice for researchers studying those conditions. Additionally, the CBA strain has been widely used in studies related to transplantation immunology, infectious diseases, and genetic research.

It's important to note that while "Inbred CBA" mice are a well-established and useful tool in biomedical research, they represent only one of many inbred strains available for scientific investigation. Each strain has its own unique characteristics and advantages, depending on the specific research question being asked.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Immunodominant epitopes refer to specific regions or segments on an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that are particularly effective at stimulating an immune response. These epitopes are often the parts of the antigen that are most recognized by the immune system, and as a result, they elicit a strong response from immune cells such as T-cells or B-cells.

In the context of T-cell responses, immunodominant epitopes are typically short peptide sequences (usually 8-15 amino acids long) that are presented to T-cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. The T-cell receptor recognizes and binds to these epitopes, triggering a cascade of immune responses aimed at eliminating the pathogen or foreign substance that contains the antigen.

In some cases, immunodominant epitopes may be the primary targets of vaccines or other immunotherapies, as they can elicit strong and protective immune responses. However, in other cases, immunodominant epitopes may also be associated with immune evasion or tolerance, where the immune system fails to mount an effective response against a pathogen or cancer cell. Understanding the properties and behavior of immunodominant epitopes is therefore crucial for developing effective vaccines and immunotherapies.

Purinergic P2X5 receptors are a type of ionotropic purinergic receptor that are activated by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and related nucleotides. They belong to the P2X receptor family, which includes seven subtypes (P2X1-7) that form trimeric channels permeable to cations such as calcium, sodium, and potassium.

The P2X5 receptor is composed of three identical subunits that contain two transmembrane domains, an intracellular N-terminus, and a large extracellular loop with conserved amino acid residues involved in ATP binding. The activation of P2X5 receptors leads to the opening of the ion channel, resulting in membrane depolarization and the initiation of downstream signaling pathways.

P2X5 receptors are widely expressed in various tissues, including the nervous system, immune system, and cardiovascular system. In the nervous system, they play important roles in pain sensation, neuroinflammation, and synaptic plasticity. In the immune system, P2X5 receptors regulate the activation and migration of immune cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells. In the cardiovascular system, they contribute to the regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure.

Dysregulation of P2X5 receptor function has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, targeting P2X5 receptors represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these conditions.

Malocclusion, Angle Class II is a type of dental malocclusion where the relationship between the maxilla (upper jaw) and mandible (lower jaw) is such that the lower molar teeth are positioned posteriorly relative to the upper molar teeth. This results in an overbite, which means that the upper front teeth overlap the lower front teeth excessively. The classification was proposed by Edward Angle, an American orthodontist who is considered the father of modern orthodontics. In this classification system, Class II malocclusion is further divided into three subclasses (I, II, and III) based on the position of the lower incisors relative to the upper incisors.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a laboratory technique used to amplify specific regions of DNA. It enables the production of thousands to millions of copies of a particular DNA sequence in a rapid and efficient manner, making it an essential tool in various fields such as molecular biology, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and research.

The PCR process involves repeated cycles of heating and cooling to separate the DNA strands, allow primers (short sequences of single-stranded DNA) to attach to the target regions, and extend these primers using an enzyme called Taq polymerase, resulting in the exponential amplification of the desired DNA segment.

In a medical context, PCR is often used for detecting and quantifying specific pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites) in clinical samples, identifying genetic mutations or polymorphisms associated with diseases, monitoring disease progression, and evaluating treatment effectiveness.

HLA-DR1 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances. The HLA-DR1 antigen is encoded by the HLA-DRB1*01 gene and is expressed on the surface of various cells, including B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells.

HLA-DR1 is one of several HLA antigens that can be associated with specific diseases or conditions. For example, it has been found to be more common in individuals with certain autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Additionally, the presence of HLA-DR1 may influence the outcome of organ transplantation, as it can affect the likelihood of rejection.

It's important to note that while HLA typing can provide useful information for medical purposes, such as matching donors and recipients for organ transplants or identifying genetic susceptibility to certain diseases, it does not definitively predict the development of a particular disease or the outcome of treatment.

A radiation chimera is not a widely used or recognized medical term. However, in the field of genetics and radiation biology, a "chimera" refers to an individual that contains cells with different genetic backgrounds. A radiation chimera, therefore, could refer to an organism that has become a chimera as a result of exposure to radiation, which can cause mutations and changes in the genetic makeup of cells.

Ionizing radiation, such as that used in cancer treatments or nuclear accidents, can cause DNA damage and mutations in cells. If an organism is exposed to radiation and some of its cells undergo mutations while others do not, this could result in a chimera with genetically distinct populations of cells.

However, it's important to note that the term "radiation chimera" is not commonly used in medical literature or clinical settings. If you encounter this term in a different context, I would recommend seeking clarification from the source to ensure a proper understanding.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

CD4 antigens, also known as CD4 proteins or CD4 molecules, are a type of cell surface receptor found on certain immune cells, including T-helper cells and monocytes. They play a critical role in the immune response by binding to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells and helping to activate T-cells. CD4 antigens are also the primary target of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes AIDS, leading to the destruction of CD4-positive T-cells and a weakened immune system.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure where hematopoietic stem cells (immature cells that give rise to all blood cell types) are transplanted into a patient. This procedure is often used to treat various malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting the hematopoietic system, such as leukemias, lymphomas, multiple myeloma, aplastic anemia, inherited immune deficiency diseases, and certain genetic metabolic disorders.

The transplantation can be autologous (using the patient's own stem cells), allogeneic (using stem cells from a genetically matched donor, usually a sibling or unrelated volunteer), or syngeneic (using stem cells from an identical twin).

The process involves collecting hematopoietic stem cells, most commonly from the peripheral blood or bone marrow. The collected cells are then infused into the patient after the recipient's own hematopoietic system has been ablated (or destroyed) using high-dose chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. This allows the donor's stem cells to engraft, reconstitute, and restore the patient's hematopoietic system.

HSCT is a complex and potentially risky procedure with various complications, including graft-versus-host disease, infections, and organ damage. However, it offers the potential for cure or long-term remission in many patients with otherwise fatal diseases.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte, which are large granular innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the host's defense against viral infections and malignant transformations. They do not require prior sensitization to target and destroy abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells or tumor cells. NK cells recognize their targets through an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that detect the alterations in the cell surface molecules of potential targets. Upon activation, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforins and granzymes to induce target cell apoptosis, and they also produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines to modulate immune responses. Overall, natural killer cells serve as a critical component of the innate immune system, providing rapid and effective responses against infected or malignant cells.

'Inbred AKR mice' is a strain of laboratory mice used in biomedical research. The 'AKR' designation stands for "Akita Radioactive," referring to the location where this strain was first developed in Akita, Japan. These mice are inbred, meaning that they have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a genetically homogeneous population with minimal genetic variation.

Inbred AKR mice are known for their susceptibility to certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, making them valuable models for studying these diseases and testing potential therapies. They also develop age-related cataracts and have a higher incidence of diabetes than some other strains.

It is important to note that while inbred AKR mice are widely used in research, their genetic uniformity may limit the applicability of findings to more genetically diverse human populations.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Antibody specificity refers to the ability of an antibody to bind to a specific epitope or antigenic determinant on an antigen. Each antibody has a unique structure that allows it to recognize and bind to a specific region of an antigen, typically a small portion of the antigen's surface made up of amino acids or sugar residues. This highly specific binding is mediated by the variable regions of the antibody's heavy and light chains, which form a pocket that recognizes and binds to the epitope.

The specificity of an antibody is determined by its unique complementarity-determining regions (CDRs), which are loops of amino acids located in the variable domains of both the heavy and light chains. The CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with the epitope on the antigen. The precise fit between the antibody's binding site and the epitope is critical for specificity, as even small changes in the structure of either can prevent binding.

Antibody specificity is important in immune responses because it allows the immune system to distinguish between self and non-self antigens. This helps to prevent autoimmune reactions where the immune system attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Antibody specificity also plays a crucial role in diagnostic tests, such as ELISA assays, where antibodies are used to detect the presence of specific antigens in biological samples.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Inbred A mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among individuals within the strain, making them useful for research purposes where a consistent genetic background is desired. The Inbred A strain is maintained through continued brother-sister mating. It's important to note that while these mice are called "Inbred A," the designation does not refer to any specific medical condition or characteristic. Instead, it refers to the breeding practices used to create and maintain this particular strain of laboratory mice.

Oligopeptides are defined in medicine and biochemistry as short chains of amino acids, typically containing fewer than 20 amino acid residues. These small peptides are important components in various biological processes, such as serving as signaling molecules, enzyme inhibitors, or structural elements in some proteins. They can be found naturally in foods and may also be synthesized for use in medical research and therapeutic applications.

Melanoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes. It typically occurs in the skin but can rarely occur in other parts of the body, including the eyes and internal organs. Melanoma is characterized by the uncontrolled growth and multiplication of melanocytes, which can form malignant tumors that invade and destroy surrounding tissue.

Melanoma is often caused by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, but it can also occur in areas of the body not exposed to the sun. It is more likely to develop in people with fair skin, light hair, and blue or green eyes, but it can affect anyone, regardless of their skin type.

Melanoma can be treated effectively if detected early, but if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body and become life-threatening. Treatment options for melanoma include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, depending on the stage and location of the cancer. Regular skin examinations and self-checks are recommended to detect any changes or abnormalities in moles or other pigmented lesions that may indicate melanoma.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Immunologic capping is a biological process that occurs in immune cells, particularly B lymphocytes and neutrophils. It refers to the redistribution and clustering of immunoglobulin receptors or antibodies on the cell surface upon engagement with their specific antigens. This phenomenon leads to the formation of a cap-like structure at one pole of the cell, which is then internalized by endocytosis, followed by the degradation of the antigen-antibody complex in lysosomes. Immunologic capping helps regulate immune responses and contributes to the elimination of antigens from the cell surface.

A hybridoma is a type of hybrid cell that is created in a laboratory by fusing a cancer cell (usually a B cell) with a normal immune cell. The resulting hybrid cell combines the ability of the cancer cell to grow and divide indefinitely with the ability of the immune cell to produce antibodies, which are proteins that help the body fight infection.

Hybridomas are commonly used to produce monoclonal antibodies, which are identical copies of a single antibody produced by a single clone of cells. These antibodies can be used for a variety of purposes, including diagnostic tests and treatments for diseases such as cancer and autoimmune disorders.

To create hybridomas, B cells are first isolated from the spleen or blood of an animal that has been immunized with a specific antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response). The B cells are then fused with cancer cells using a chemical agent such as polyethylene glycol. The resulting hybrid cells are called hybridomas and are grown in culture medium, where they can be selected for their ability to produce antibodies specific to the antigen of interest. These antibody-producing hybridomas can then be cloned to produce large quantities of monoclonal antibodies.

Trinitrobenzenes are not typically referred to in the context of medical definitions, as they are chemical compounds that do not have direct relevance to medical fields. However, I can provide you with some general information about trinitrobenzenes.

Trinitrobenzenes are a group of chemical compounds consisting of a benzene ring (a cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) with three nitro groups (-NO2) attached to it. The most common and well-known compound in this group is 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNB). These compounds are highly explosive and have been used in military and industrial applications for their energetic properties.

In a medical or clinical context, trinitrobenzenes may be encountered only if someone is exposed to these chemicals in an occupational or accidental setting. Exposure can lead to local skin irritation, eye damage, or respiratory issues. Chronic exposure or high-dose acute exposure might cause more severe health problems, including damage to the liver and kidneys. However, trinitrobenzenes are not used as therapeutic agents or diagnostic tools in medicine.

Leukemia is a type of cancer that originates from the bone marrow - the soft, inner part of certain bones where new blood cells are made. It is characterized by an abnormal production of white blood cells, known as leukocytes or blasts. These abnormal cells accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells, leading to a decrease in red blood cells (anemia), platelets (thrombocytopenia), and healthy white blood cells (leukopenia).

There are several types of leukemia, classified based on the specific type of white blood cell affected and the speed at which the disease progresses:

1. Acute Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress rapidly, with symptoms developing over a few weeks or months. They involve the rapid growth and accumulation of immature, nonfunctional white blood cells (blasts) in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Originates from lymphoid progenitor cells, primarily affecting children but can also occur in adults.
- Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Develops from myeloid progenitor cells and is more common in older adults.

2. Chronic Leukemias - These types of leukemia progress slowly, with symptoms developing over a period of months to years. They involve the production of relatively mature, but still abnormal, white blood cells that can accumulate in large numbers in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. The two main categories are:
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Affects B-lymphocytes and is more common in older adults.
- Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) - Originates from myeloid progenitor cells, characterized by the presence of a specific genetic abnormality called the Philadelphia chromosome. It can occur at any age but is more common in middle-aged and older adults.

Treatment options for leukemia depend on the type, stage, and individual patient factors. Treatments may include chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Lymphoma is a type of cancer that originates from the white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the immune system. These cells are found in various parts of the body such as the lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. Lymphoma can be classified into two main types: Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).

HL is characterized by the presence of a specific type of abnormal lymphocyte called Reed-Sternberg cells, while NHL includes a diverse group of lymphomas that lack these cells. The symptoms of lymphoma may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, night sweats, weight loss, and fatigue.

The exact cause of lymphoma is not known, but it is believed to result from genetic mutations in the lymphocytes that lead to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Exposure to certain viruses, chemicals, and radiation may increase the risk of developing lymphoma. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on various factors such as the type and stage of the disease, age, and overall health of the patient. Common treatments include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplantation.

T-lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. The two main types of T-lymphocytes are CD4+ and CD8+ cells, which are defined by the presence or absence of specific proteins called cluster differentiation (CD) molecules on their surface.

CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, play a crucial role in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages, to mount an immune response against pathogens. They also produce cytokines that help regulate the immune response.

CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells, directly kill infected cells or tumor cells by releasing toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes.

The balance between these two subsets of T-cells is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and mounting effective immune responses against pathogens while avoiding excessive inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, the measurement of T-lymphocyte subsets is essential in diagnosing and monitoring various immunological disorders, including HIV infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

'DBA' is an abbreviation for 'Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes,' but in the context of "Inbred DBA mice," it refers to a specific strain of laboratory mice that have been inbred for many generations. The DBA strain is one of the oldest inbred strains, and it was established in 1909 by C.C. Little at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University.

The "Inbred DBA" mice are genetically identical mice that have been produced by brother-sister matings for more than 20 generations. This extensive inbreeding results in a homozygous population, where all members of the strain have the same genetic makeup. The DBA strain is further divided into several sub-strains, including DBA/1, DBA/2, and DBA/J, among others.

DBA mice are known for their black coat color, which can fade to gray with age, and they exhibit a range of phenotypic traits that make them useful for research purposes. For example, DBA mice have a high incidence of retinal degeneration, making them a valuable model for studying eye diseases. They also show differences in behavior, immune response, and susceptibility to various diseases compared to other inbred strains.

In summary, "Inbred DBA" mice are a specific strain of laboratory mice that have been inbred for many generations, resulting in a genetically identical population with distinct phenotypic traits. They are widely used in biomedical research to study various diseases and biological processes.

Macromolecular substances, also known as macromolecules, are large, complex molecules made up of repeating subunits called monomers. These substances are formed through polymerization, a process in which many small molecules combine to form a larger one. Macromolecular substances can be naturally occurring, such as proteins, DNA, and carbohydrates, or synthetic, such as plastics and synthetic fibers.

In the context of medicine, macromolecular substances are often used in the development of drugs and medical devices. For example, some drugs are designed to bind to specific macromolecules in the body, such as proteins or DNA, in order to alter their function and produce a therapeutic effect. Additionally, macromolecular substances may be used in the creation of medical implants, such as artificial joints and heart valves, due to their strength and durability.

It is important for healthcare professionals to have an understanding of macromolecular substances and how they function in the body, as this knowledge can inform the development and use of medical treatments.

HLA-DR alpha-chains are a type of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II protein that is found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes. The HLA-DR alpha-chain combines with an HLA-DR beta-chain to form a heterodimer, which then associates with another heterodimer (HLA-DR alpha/beta + HLA-DR beta/alpha) to create an HLA-DR tetramer.

These tetramers play a critical role in the adaptive immune response by presenting peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells. The peptides are derived from extracellular proteins that have been processed and loaded onto the HLA-DR molecules within the antigen-presenting cell.

The binding of the CD4+ T cell receptor (TCR) to the HLA-DR-peptide complex results in T cell activation, which leads to the production of cytokines and the initiation of an immune response against the presented antigen. Genetic variations in HLA-DR alpha-chains can influence individual susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases and other immune-mediated disorders.

CD3 antigens are a group of proteins found on the surface of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. The CD3 antigens are composed of several different subunits (ε, δ, γ, and α) that associate to form the CD3 complex, which is involved in T-cell activation and signal transduction.

The CD3 complex is associated with the T-cell receptor (TCR), which recognizes and binds to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells. When the TCR binds to an antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that lead to T-cell activation and the initiation of an immune response.

CD3 antigens are important targets for immunotherapy in some diseases, such as certain types of cancer. For example, monoclonal antibodies that target CD3 have been developed to activate T-cells and enhance their ability to recognize and destroy tumor cells. However, CD3-targeted therapies can also cause side effects, such as cytokine release syndrome, which can be serious or life-threatening in some cases.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a type of cytokine, which are signaling molecules that mediate and regulate immunity, inflammation, and hematopoiesis. Specifically, IL-2 is a growth factor for T cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response. It is primarily produced by CD4+ T cells (also known as T helper cells) and stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of activated T cells, including effector T cells and regulatory T cells. IL-2 also has roles in the activation and function of other immune cells, such as B cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells. Dysregulation of IL-2 production or signaling can contribute to various pathological conditions, including autoimmune diseases, chronic infections, and cancer.

Antigens are substances that trigger an immune response in the body, leading to the production of antibodies. Antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules found on the surface of cells or viruses.

Viral antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of viruses. When a virus infects a cell, it may display viral antigens on the surface of the infected cell. This can alert the immune system to the presence of the virus and trigger an immune response.

Tumor antigens are antigens that are present on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens may be unique to the cancer cells, or they may be similar to antigens found on normal cells. Tumor antigens can be recognized by the immune system as foreign, leading to an immune response against the cancer cells.

It is important to note that not all viral infections lead to cancer, and not all tumors are caused by viruses. However, some viruses have been linked to an increased risk of certain types of cancer. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) has been associated with an increased risk of cervical, anal, and oral cancers. In these cases, the virus may introduce viral antigens into the cells it infects, leading to an altered presentation of tumor antigens on the surface of the infected cells. This can potentially trigger an immune response against both the viral antigens and the tumor antigens, which may help to prevent or slow the growth of the cancer.

Experimental leukemia refers to the stage of research or clinical trials where new therapies, treatments, or diagnostic methods are being studied for leukemia. Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.

In the experimental stage, researchers investigate various aspects of leukemia, such as its causes, progression, and potential treatments. They may conduct laboratory studies using cell cultures or animal models to understand the disease better and test new therapeutic approaches. Additionally, clinical trials may be conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel treatments in human patients with leukemia.

Experimental research in leukemia is crucial for advancing our understanding of the disease and developing more effective treatment strategies. It involves a rigorous and systematic process that adheres to ethical guidelines and scientific standards to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings.

Immunoglobulins (Igs), also known as antibodies, are glycoprotein molecules produced by the immune system's B cells in response to the presence of foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. These Y-shaped proteins play a crucial role in identifying and neutralizing pathogens and other antigens, thereby protecting the body against infection and disease.

Immunoglobulins are composed of four polypeptide chains: two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains, held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of these chains form the antigen-binding sites, which recognize and bind to specific epitopes on antigens. Based on their heavy chain type, immunoglobulins are classified into five main isotypes or classes: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has distinct functions in the immune response, such as providing protection in different body fluids and tissues, mediating hypersensitivity reactions, and aiding in the development of immunological memory.

In medical settings, immunoglobulins can be administered therapeutically to provide passive immunity against certain diseases or to treat immune deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, and other conditions that may benefit from immunomodulation.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein that is normally produced in small amounts during fetal development. In adults, low levels of CEA can be found in the blood, but elevated levels are typically associated with various types of cancer, particularly colon, rectal, and breast cancer.

Measurement of CEA levels in the blood is sometimes used as a tumor marker to monitor response to treatment, detect recurrence, or screen for secondary cancers in patients with a history of certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that CEA is not a specific or sensitive indicator of cancer and can be elevated in various benign conditions such as inflammation, smoking, and some gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings.

CD80 (also known as B7-1) is a cell surface protein that functions as a costimulatory molecule in the immune system. It is primarily expressed on antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. CD80 binds to the CD28 receptor on T cells, providing a critical second signal necessary for T cell activation and proliferation. This interaction plays a crucial role in the initiation of an effective immune response against pathogens and tumors.

CD80 can also interact with another receptor called CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4), which is expressed on activated T cells. The binding of CD80 to CTLA-4 delivers a negative signal that helps regulate the immune response and prevent overactivation, contributing to the maintenance of self-tolerance and preventing autoimmunity.

In summary, CD80 is an important antigen involved in the regulation of the adaptive immune response by modulating T cell activation and proliferation through its interactions with CD28 and CTLA-4 receptors.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. These interactions can trigger a variety of responses within the cell, such as starting a signaling cascade or changing the cell's metabolism. Receptors play crucial roles in various biological processes, including communication between cells, regulation of immune responses, and perception of senses.

2. Antigen: An antigen is any substance (usually a protein) that can be recognized by the adaptive immune system, specifically by B-cells and T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as microorganisms (like bacteria, viruses, or fungi), pollen, dust mites, or even components of our own cells (for instance, in autoimmune diseases). An antigen's ability to stimulate an immune response is determined by its molecular structure and whether it can be recognized by the receptors on immune cells.

3. B-Cell: B-cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a critical role in the adaptive immune system, particularly in humoral immunity. They originate from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens. Each B-cell has receptors on its surface called B-cell receptors (BCRs) that can recognize a unique antigen. When a B-cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated, undergoes proliferation, and differentiates into plasma cells that secrete large amounts of antibodies to neutralize or eliminate the antigen.

Ovalbumin is the major protein found in egg white, making up about 54-60% of its total protein content. It is a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of around 45 kDa and has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. Ovalbumin is a single polypeptide chain consisting of 385 amino acids, including four disulfide bridges that contribute to its structure.

Ovalbumin is often used in research as a model antigen for studying immune responses and allergies. In its native form, ovalbumin is not allergenic; however, when it is denatured or degraded into smaller peptides through cooking or digestion, it can become an allergen for some individuals.

In addition to being a food allergen, ovalbumin has been used in various medical and research applications, such as vaccine development, immunological studies, and protein structure-function analysis.

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is the genetic material present in the cells of organisms where it is responsible for the storage and transmission of hereditary information. DNA is a long molecule that consists of two strands coiled together to form a double helix. Each strand is made up of a series of four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - that are linked together by phosphate and sugar groups. The sequence of these bases along the length of the molecule encodes genetic information, with A always pairing with T and C always pairing with G. This base-pairing allows for the replication and transcription of DNA, which are essential processes in the functioning and reproduction of all living organisms.

Chromium radioisotopes are unstable isotopes or variants of the chemical element chromium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes have an excess of energy and particles, making them unstable and capable of emitting ionizing radiation in the form of gamma rays or subatomic particles such as alpha or beta particles.

Chromium has several radioisotopes, including chromium-50, chromium-51, and chromium-53, among others. Chromium-51 is one of the most commonly used radioisotopes in medical applications, particularly in diagnostic procedures such as red blood cell labeling and imaging studies.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their potential radiation hazards.

HLA-DR3 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances. The HLA-DR3 antigen is encoded by the DRB1*03:01 gene and is commonly found in individuals with certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and celiac disease.

The HLA-DR3 antigen plays a role in presenting pieces of proteins (peptides) to CD4+ T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that helps coordinate the immune response. The presentation of specific peptides by the HLA-DR3 antigen can lead to an abnormal immune response in some individuals, resulting in the development of autoimmune diseases.

It's important to note that having the HLA-DR3 antigen does not guarantee that a person will develop an autoimmune disease, as other genetic and environmental factors also play a role.

Graft survival, in medical terms, refers to the success of a transplanted tissue or organ in continuing to function and integrate with the recipient's body over time. It is the opposite of graft rejection, which occurs when the recipient's immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it, leading to its failure.

Graft survival depends on various factors, including the compatibility between the donor and recipient, the type and location of the graft, the use of immunosuppressive drugs to prevent rejection, and the overall health of the recipient. A successful graft survival implies that the transplanted tissue or organ has been accepted by the recipient's body and is functioning properly, providing the necessary physiological support for the recipient's survival and improved quality of life.

A "cell line, transformed" is a type of cell culture that has undergone a stable genetic alteration, which confers the ability to grow indefinitely in vitro, outside of the organism from which it was derived. These cells have typically been immortalized through exposure to chemical or viral carcinogens, or by introducing specific oncogenes that disrupt normal cell growth regulation pathways.

Transformed cell lines are widely used in scientific research because they offer a consistent and renewable source of biological material for experimentation. They can be used to study various aspects of cell biology, including signal transduction, gene expression, drug discovery, and toxicity testing. However, it is important to note that transformed cells may not always behave identically to their normal counterparts, and results obtained using these cells should be validated in more physiologically relevant systems when possible.

Papain is defined as a proteolytic enzyme that is derived from the latex of the papaya tree (Carica papaya). It has the ability to break down other proteins into smaller peptides or individual amino acids. Papain is widely used in various industries, including the food industry for tenderizing meat and brewing beer, as well as in the medical field for its digestive and anti-inflammatory properties.

In medicine, papain is sometimes used topically to help heal burns, wounds, and skin ulcers. It can also be taken orally to treat indigestion, parasitic infections, and other gastrointestinal disorders. However, its use as a medical treatment is not widely accepted and more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy.

CD1 antigens are a group of molecules found on the surface of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells and B cells. They play a role in the immune system by presenting lipid antigens to T cells, which helps initiate an immune response against foreign substances such as bacteria and viruses. CD1 molecules are distinct from other antigen-presenting molecules like HLA because they present lipids rather than peptides. There are five different types of CD1 molecules (CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, and CD1e) that differ in their tissue distribution and the types of lipid antigens they present.

Immunologic receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells that recognize and bind to specific molecules, known as antigens, on the surface of pathogens or infected cells. This binding triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that activate the immune cell and initiate an immune response.

There are several types of immunologic receptors, including:

1. T-cell receptors (TCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of T cells and recognize antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.
2. B-cell receptors (BCRs): These receptors are found on the surface of B cells and recognize free antigens in solution.
3. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs): These receptors are found inside immune cells and recognize conserved molecular patterns associated with pathogens, such as lipopolysaccharides and flagellin.
4. Fc receptors: These receptors are found on the surface of various immune cells and bind to the constant region of antibodies, mediating effector functions such as phagocytosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC).

Immunologic receptors play a critical role in the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells, and dysregulation of these receptors can lead to immune disorders and diseases.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

Adoptive immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that involves the removal of immune cells from a patient, followed by their modification and expansion in the laboratory, and then reinfusion back into the patient to help boost their immune system's ability to fight cancer. This approach can be used to enhance the natural ability of T-cells (a type of white blood cell) to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

There are different types of adoptive immunotherapy, including:

1. T-cell transfer therapy: In this approach, T-cells are removed from the patient's tumor or blood, activated and expanded in the laboratory, and then reinfused back into the patient. Some forms of T-cell transfer therapy involve genetically modifying the T-cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) that recognize specific proteins on the surface of cancer cells.
2. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy: This type of adoptive immunotherapy involves removing T-cells directly from a patient's tumor, expanding them in the laboratory, and then reinfusing them back into the patient. The expanded T-cells are specifically targeted to recognize and destroy cancer cells.
3. Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine: DCs are specialized immune cells that help activate T-cells. In this approach, DCs are removed from the patient, exposed to tumor antigens in the laboratory, and then reinfused back into the patient to stimulate a stronger immune response against cancer cells.

Adoptive immunotherapy has shown promise in treating certain types of cancer, such as melanoma and leukemia, but more research is needed to determine its safety and efficacy in other types of cancer.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

Autoantigens are substances that are typically found in an individual's own body, but can stimulate an immune response because they are recognized as foreign by the body's own immune system. In autoimmune diseases, the immune system mistakenly attacks and damages healthy tissues and organs because it recognizes some of their components as autoantigens. These autoantigens can be proteins, DNA, or other molecules that are normally present in the body but have become altered or exposed due to various factors such as infection, genetics, or environmental triggers. The immune system then produces antibodies and activates immune cells to attack these autoantigens, leading to tissue damage and inflammation.

HLA-DR4 is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II histocompatibility antigen, which is found on the surface of white blood cells. It is encoded by the HLA-DRA and HLA-DRB1 genes, located on chromosome 6. The HLA-DR4 antigen includes several subtypes, such as DRB1*04:01, DRB1*04:02, DRB1*04:03, DRB1*04:04, DRB1*04:05, DRB1*04:06, DRB1*04:07, DRB1*04:08, DRB1*04:09, DRB1*04:10, DRB1*04:11, and DRB1*04:12.

The HLA-DR4 antigen plays a crucial role in the immune system by presenting peptides to CD4+ T cells, which then stimulate an immune response. This antigen is associated with several autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. However, it's important to note that having the HLA-DR4 antigen does not necessarily mean that a person will develop one of these conditions, as other genetic and environmental factors also contribute to their development.

Immunologic memory, also known as adaptive immunity, refers to the ability of the immune system to recognize and mount a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposure to a pathogen or antigen that it has encountered before. This is a key feature of the vertebrate immune system and allows for long-term protection against infectious diseases.

Immunologic memory is mediated by specialized cells called memory T cells and B cells, which are produced during the initial response to an infection or immunization. These cells persist in the body after the pathogen has been cleared and can quickly respond to future encounters with the same or similar antigens. This rapid response leads to a more effective and efficient elimination of the pathogen, resulting in fewer symptoms and reduced severity of disease.

Immunologic memory is the basis for vaccines, which work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of a pathogen or its components, inducing an initial response and generating memory cells that provide long-term protection against future infections.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

A lymphocyte transfusion is not a standard medical practice. However, the term "lymphocyte transfusion" generally refers to the infusion of lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, from a donor to a recipient. This procedure is rarely performed and primarily used in research or experimental settings, such as in the context of adoptive immunotherapy for cancer treatment.

In adoptive immunotherapy, T lymphocytes (a subtype of lymphocytes) are collected from the patient or a donor, activated, expanded in the laboratory, and then reinfused into the patient to enhance their immune response against cancer cells. This is not a common procedure and should only be performed under the guidance of experienced medical professionals in specialized centers.

It's important to note that lymphocyte transfusions are different from stem cell or bone marrow transplants, which involve the infusion of hematopoietic stem cells to reconstitute the recipient's entire blood and immune system.

Leukocytes, also known as white blood cells (WBCs), are a crucial component of the human immune system. They are responsible for protecting the body against infections and foreign substances. Leukocytes are produced in the bone marrow and circulate throughout the body in the bloodstream and lymphatic system.

There are several types of leukocytes, including:

1. Neutrophils - These are the most abundant type of leukocyte and are primarily responsible for fighting bacterial infections. They contain enzymes that can destroy bacteria.
2. Lymphocytes - These are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying virus-infected cells, as well as cancer cells. There are two main types of lymphocytes: B-lymphocytes and T-lymphocytes.
3. Monocytes - These are the largest type of leukocyte and help to break down and remove dead or damaged tissues, as well as microorganisms.
4. Eosinophils - These play a role in fighting parasitic infections and are also involved in allergic reactions and inflammation.
5. Basophils - These release histamine and other chemicals that cause inflammation in response to allergens or irritants.

An abnormal increase or decrease in the number of leukocytes can indicate an underlying medical condition, such as an infection, inflammation, or a blood disorder.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Immunotherapy is a type of medical treatment that uses the body's own immune system to fight against diseases, such as cancer. It involves the use of substances (like vaccines, medications, or immune cells) that stimulate or suppress the immune system to help it recognize and destroy harmful disease-causing cells or agents, like tumor cells.

Immunotherapy can work in several ways:

1. Activating the immune system: Certain immunotherapies boost the body's natural immune responses, helping them recognize and attack cancer cells more effectively.
2. Suppressing immune system inhibitors: Some immunotherapies target and block proteins or molecules that can suppress the immune response, allowing the immune system to work more efficiently against diseases.
3. Replacing or enhancing specific immune cells: Immunotherapy can also involve administering immune cells (like T-cells) that have been genetically engineered or modified to recognize and destroy cancer cells.

Immunotherapies have shown promising results in treating various types of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and allergies. However, they can also cause side effects, as an overactive immune system may attack healthy tissues and organs. Therefore, careful monitoring is necessary during immunotherapy treatment.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

CD86 is a type of protein found on the surface of certain immune cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. These proteins are known as co-stimulatory molecules and play an important role in activating T cells, a type of white blood cell that is crucial for adaptive immunity.

When APCs encounter a pathogen or foreign substance, they engulf it, break it down into smaller peptides, and display these peptides on their surface in conjunction with another protein called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule. This presentation of antigenic peptides to T cells is not sufficient to activate them fully. Instead, APCs must also provide a co-stimulatory signal through interactions between co-stimulatory molecules like CD86 and receptors on the surface of T cells, such as CD28.

CD86 binds to its receptor CD28 on T cells, providing a critical second signal that promotes T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation into effector cells. This interaction is essential for the development of an effective immune response against pathogens or foreign substances. In addition to its role in activating T cells, CD86 also helps regulate immune tolerance by contributing to the suppression of self-reactive T cells that could otherwise attack the body's own tissues and cause autoimmune diseases.

Overall, CD86 is an important player in the regulation of the immune response, helping to ensure that T cells are activated appropriately in response to pathogens or foreign substances while also contributing to the maintenance of self-tolerance.

Superantigens are a unique group of antigens that can cause widespread activation of the immune system. They are capable of stimulating large numbers of T-cells (a type of white blood cell) leading to massive cytokine release, which can result in a variety of symptoms such as fever, rash, and potentially life-threatening conditions like toxic shock syndrome. Superantigens are often produced by certain bacteria and viruses. They differ from traditional antigens because they do not need to be processed and presented by antigen-presenting cells to activate T-cells; instead, they directly bind to the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and the T-cell receptor's variable region, leading to polyclonal T-cell activation.

Experimental neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that are induced and studied in a controlled laboratory setting, typically in animals or cell cultures. These studies are conducted to understand the fundamental mechanisms of cancer development, progression, and potential treatment strategies. By manipulating various factors such as genetic mutations, environmental exposures, and pharmacological interventions, researchers can gain valuable insights into the complex processes underlying neoplasm formation and identify novel targets for cancer therapy. It is important to note that experimental neoplasms may not always accurately represent human cancers, and further research is needed to translate these findings into clinically relevant applications.

Genetic linkage is the phenomenon where two or more genetic loci (locations on a chromosome) tend to be inherited together because they are close to each other on the same chromosome. This occurs during the process of sexual reproduction, where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over.

The closer two loci are to each other on a chromosome, the lower the probability that they will be separated by a crossover event. As a result, they are more likely to be inherited together and are said to be linked. The degree of linkage between two loci can be measured by their recombination frequency, which is the percentage of meiotic events in which a crossover occurs between them.

Linkage analysis is an important tool in genetic research, as it allows researchers to identify and map genes that are associated with specific traits or diseases. By analyzing patterns of linkage between markers (identifiable DNA sequences) and phenotypes (observable traits), researchers can infer the location of genes that contribute to those traits or diseases on chromosomes.

Membrane glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. They are integral components of biological membranes, spanning the lipid bilayer and playing crucial roles in various cellular processes.

The glycosylation of these proteins occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus during protein folding and trafficking. The attached glycans can vary in structure, length, and composition, which contributes to the diversity of membrane glycoproteins.

Membrane glycoproteins can be classified into two main types based on their orientation within the lipid bilayer:

1. Type I (N-linked): These glycoproteins have a single transmembrane domain and an extracellular N-terminus, where the oligosaccharides are predominantly attached via asparagine residues (Asn-X-Ser/Thr sequon).
2. Type II (C-linked): These glycoproteins possess two transmembrane domains and an intracellular C-terminus, with the oligosaccharides linked to tryptophan residues via a mannose moiety.

Membrane glycoproteins are involved in various cellular functions, such as:

* Cell adhesion and recognition
* Receptor-mediated signal transduction
* Enzymatic catalysis
* Transport of molecules across membranes
* Cell-cell communication
* Immunological responses

Some examples of membrane glycoproteins include cell surface receptors (e.g., growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors), adhesion molecules (e.g., integrins, cadherins), and transporters (e.g., ion channels, ABC transporters).

Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) is a protein that plays an essential role in the process of DNA replication and repair in eukaryotic cells. It functions as a cofactor for DNA polymerase delta, enhancing its activity during DNA synthesis. PCNA forms a sliding clamp around DNA, allowing it to move along the template and coordinate the actions of various enzymes involved in DNA metabolism.

PCNA is often used as a marker for cell proliferation because its levels increase in cells that are actively dividing or have been stimulated to enter the cell cycle. Immunostaining techniques can be used to detect PCNA and determine the proliferative status of tissues or cultures. In this context, 'proliferating' refers to the rapid multiplication of cells through cell division.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

CD45 is a protein that is found on the surface of many types of white blood cells, including T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. It is also known as leukocyte common antigen because it is present on almost all leukocytes. CD45 is a tyrosine phosphatase that plays a role in regulating the activity of various proteins involved in cell signaling pathways.

As an antigen, CD45 is used as a marker to identify and distinguish different types of white blood cells. It has several isoforms that are generated by alternative splicing of its mRNA, resulting in different molecular weights. The size of the CD45 isoform can be used to distinguish between different subsets of T-cells and B-cells.

CD45 is an important molecule in the immune system, and abnormalities in its expression or function have been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Anti-idiotypic antibodies are a type of immune protein that recognizes and binds to the unique identifying region (idiotype) of another antibody. These antibodies are produced by the immune system as part of a regulatory feedback mechanism, where they can modulate or inhibit the activity of the original antibody. They have been studied for their potential use in immunotherapy and vaccine development.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Cell division is the process by which a single eukaryotic cell (a cell with a true nucleus) divides into two identical daughter cells. This complex process involves several stages, including replication of DNA, separation of chromosomes, and division of the cytoplasm. There are two main types of cell division: mitosis and meiosis.

Mitosis is the type of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells. It is a fundamental process for growth, development, and tissue repair in multicellular organisms. The stages of mitosis include prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase, followed by cytokinesis, which divides the cytoplasm.

Meiosis, on the other hand, is a type of cell division that occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) during the production of gametes (sex cells). Meiosis results in four genetically unique daughter cells, each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. This process is essential for sexual reproduction and genetic diversity. The stages of meiosis include meiosis I and meiosis II, which are further divided into prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

In summary, cell division is the process by which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, either through mitosis or meiosis. This process is critical for growth, development, tissue repair, and sexual reproduction in multicellular organisms.

Passive immunization is a type of temporary immunity that is transferred to an individual through the injection of antibodies produced outside of the body, rather than through the active production of antibodies in the body in response to vaccination or infection. This can be done through the administration of preformed antibodies, such as immune globulins, which contain a mixture of antibodies that provide immediate protection against specific diseases.

Passive immunization is often used in situations where individuals have been exposed to a disease and do not have time to develop their own active immune response, or in cases where individuals are unable to produce an adequate immune response due to certain medical conditions. It can also be used as a short-term measure to provide protection until an individual can receive a vaccination that will confer long-term immunity.

Passive immunization provides immediate protection against disease, but the protection is typically short-lived, lasting only a few weeks or months. This is because the transferred antibodies are gradually broken down and eliminated by the body over time. In contrast, active immunization confers long-term immunity through the production of memory cells that can mount a rapid and effective immune response upon re-exposure to the same pathogen in the future.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein enzyme produced by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. It is primarily involved in liquefying semen after ejaculation, allowing sperm mobility.

In clinical medicine, PSA is used as a tumor marker, mainly for monitoring the treatment and recurrence of prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSA can indicate inflammation, infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer. However, it's important to note that an elevated PSA level does not necessarily confirm cancer; further diagnostic tests like digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostate biopsy are often required for definitive diagnosis.

Doctors may also use PSA isoforms or derivatives, such as free PSA, total PSA, and PSA density, to help improve the specificity of cancer detection and differentiate between malignant and benign conditions.

Immunosuppression is a state in which the immune system's ability to mount an immune response is reduced, compromised or inhibited. This can be caused by certain medications (such as those used to prevent rejection of transplanted organs), diseases (like HIV/AIDS), or genetic disorders. As a result, the body becomes more susceptible to infections and cancer development. It's important to note that immunosuppression should not be confused with immunity, which refers to the body's ability to resist and fight off infections and diseases.

"O antigens" are a type of antigen found on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The "O" in O antigens stands for "outer" membrane. These antigens are composed of complex carbohydrates and can vary between different strains of the same species of bacteria, which is why they are also referred to as the bacterial "O" somatic antigens.

The O antigens play a crucial role in the virulence and pathogenesis of many Gram-negative bacteria, as they help the bacteria evade the host's immune system by changing the structure of the O antigen, making it difficult for the host to mount an effective immune response against the bacterial infection.

The identification and classification of O antigens are important in epidemiology, clinical microbiology, and vaccine development, as they can be used to differentiate between different strains of bacteria and to develop vaccines that provide protection against specific bacterial infections.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

HLA-DR2 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins that play an important role in the body's immune system. They help the immune system distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-DR2 antigen is found on the surface of certain white blood cells called B lymphocytes and activated T lymphocytes. It is encoded by genes located on chromosome 6 in a region known as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The HLA-DR2 antigen is further divided into two subtypes, DRB1*1501 and DRB1*1502.

The HLA-DR2 antigen is associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and type 1 diabetes. It is also associated with an increased susceptibility to certain infectious diseases, such as leprosy and tuberculosis.

It's important to note that having the HLA-DR2 antigen does not guarantee that a person will develop an autoimmune or infectious disease, but it may increase their risk. Other genetic and environmental factors also play a role in the development of these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "hybrid cells" is not a standard medical term with a widely accepted or specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "hybrid" is used in various scientific and medical contexts to describe combinations or mixtures of different elements, such as hybridoma cells (a type of fusion cell used in research, created by combining a B cell and a tumor cell) or hybridization (in genetics, the process of combining DNA from two different sources).

Without more specific context, it's difficult to provide an accurate medical definition for "hybrid cells." If you could provide more information about the context in which this term was used, I would be happy to help you further!

Immunoenzyme techniques are a group of laboratory methods used in immunology and clinical chemistry that combine the specificity of antibody-antigen reactions with the sensitivity and amplification capabilities of enzyme reactions. These techniques are primarily used for the detection, quantitation, or identification of various analytes (such as proteins, hormones, drugs, viruses, or bacteria) in biological samples.

In immunoenzyme techniques, an enzyme is linked to an antibody or antigen, creating a conjugate. This conjugate then interacts with the target analyte in the sample, forming an immune complex. The presence and amount of this immune complex can be visualized or measured by detecting the enzymatic activity associated with it.

There are several types of immunoenzyme techniques, including:

1. Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA): A widely used method for detecting and quantifying various analytes in a sample. In ELISA, an enzyme is attached to either the capture antibody or the detection antibody. After the immune complex formation, a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme, producing a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.
2. Immunoblotting (Western blot): A method used for detecting specific proteins in a complex mixture, such as a protein extract from cells or tissues. In this technique, proteins are separated by gel electrophoresis and transferred to a membrane, where they are probed with an enzyme-conjugated antibody directed against the target protein.
3. Immunohistochemistry (IHC): A method used for detecting specific antigens in tissue sections or cells. In IHC, an enzyme-conjugated primary or secondary antibody is applied to the sample, and the presence of the antigen is visualized using a chromogenic substrate that produces a colored product at the site of the antigen-antibody interaction.
4. Immunofluorescence (IF): A method used for detecting specific antigens in cells or tissues by employing fluorophore-conjugated antibodies. The presence of the antigen is visualized using a fluorescence microscope.
5. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA): A method used for detecting and quantifying specific antigens or antibodies in liquid samples, such as serum or culture supernatants. In ELISA, an enzyme-conjugated detection antibody is added after the immune complex formation, and a substrate is added that reacts with the enzyme to produce a colored product that can be measured spectrophotometrically.

These techniques are widely used in research and diagnostic laboratories for various applications, including protein characterization, disease diagnosis, and monitoring treatment responses.

Recombinant DNA is a term used in molecular biology to describe DNA that has been created by combining genetic material from more than one source. This is typically done through the use of laboratory techniques such as molecular cloning, in which fragments of DNA are inserted into vectors (such as plasmids or viruses) and then introduced into a host organism where they can replicate and produce many copies of the recombinant DNA molecule.

Recombinant DNA technology has numerous applications in research, medicine, and industry, including the production of recombinant proteins for use as therapeutics, the creation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural or industrial purposes, and the development of new tools for genetic analysis and manipulation.

It's important to note that while recombinant DNA technology has many potential benefits, it also raises ethical and safety concerns, and its use is subject to regulation and oversight in many countries.

Chemical precipitation is a process in which a chemical compound becomes a solid, insoluble form, known as a precipitate, from a liquid solution. This occurs when the concentration of the compound in the solution exceeds its solubility limit and forms a separate phase. The reaction that causes the formation of the precipitate can be a result of various factors such as changes in temperature, pH, or the addition of another chemical reagent.

In the medical field, chemical precipitation is used in diagnostic tests to detect and measure the presence of certain substances in body fluids, such as blood or urine. For example, a common test for kidney function involves adding a chemical reagent to a urine sample, which causes the excess protein in the urine to precipitate out of solution. The amount of precipitate formed can then be measured and used to diagnose and monitor kidney disease.

Chemical precipitation is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as heavy metal poisoning. In this case, a chelating agent is administered to bind with the toxic metal ions in the body, forming an insoluble compound that can be excreted through the urine or feces. This process helps to reduce the amount of toxic metals in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with poisoning.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria that can be recognized by the immune system and provoke an immune response. In the context of differentiation, antigens refer to specific markers that identify the developmental stage or lineage of a cell.

Differentiation antigens are proteins or carbohydrates expressed on the surface of cells during various stages of differentiation, which can be used to distinguish between cells at different maturation stages or of different cell types. These antigens play an essential role in the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to abnormal or infected cells while sparing healthy cells.

Examples of differentiation antigens include:

1. CD (cluster of differentiation) molecules: A group of membrane proteins used to identify and define various cell types, such as T cells, B cells, natural killer cells, monocytes, and granulocytes.
2. Lineage-specific antigens: Antigens that are specific to certain cell lineages, such as CD3 for T cells or CD19 for B cells.
3. Maturation markers: Antigens that indicate the maturation stage of a cell, like CD34 and CD38 on hematopoietic stem cells.

Understanding differentiation antigens is crucial in immunology, cancer research, transplantation medicine, and vaccine development.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. They help to protect the body from infection and disease by identifying and attacking foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T-cells or Th0 cells, are a specific subset of T-lymphocytes that help to coordinate the immune response. They do this by activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes (which produce antibodies) and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (which directly attack infected cells). Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes also release cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to regulate the immune response.

Helper-inducer T-lymphocytes can differentiate into different subsets of T-cells, depending on the type of cytokines they are exposed to. For example, they can differentiate into Th1 cells, which produce cytokines that help to activate cytotoxic T-lymphocytes and macrophages; or Th2 cells, which produce cytokines that help to activate B-lymphocytes and eosinophils.

It is important to note that helper-inducer T-lymphocytes play a crucial role in the immune response, and dysfunction of these cells can lead to immunodeficiency or autoimmune disorders.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

CD15 is a type of antigen that is found on the surface of certain types of white blood cells called neutrophils and monocytes. It is also expressed on some types of cancer cells, including myeloid leukemia cells and some lymphomas. CD15 antigens are part of a group of molecules known as carbohydrate antigens because they contain sugar-like substances called carbohydrates.

CD15 antigens play a role in the immune system's response to infection and disease. They can be recognized by certain types of immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T cells, which can then target and destroy cells that express CD15 antigens. In cancer, the presence of CD15 antigens on the surface of cancer cells can make them more visible to the immune system, potentially triggering an immune response against the cancer.

CD15 antigens are also used as a marker in laboratory tests to help identify and classify different types of white blood cells and cancer cells. For example, CD15 staining is often used in the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to distinguish it from other types of leukemia.

Cell separation is a process used to separate and isolate specific cell types from a heterogeneous mixture of cells. This can be accomplished through various physical or biological methods, depending on the characteristics of the cells of interest. Some common techniques for cell separation include:

1. Density gradient centrifugation: In this method, a sample containing a mixture of cells is layered onto a density gradient medium and then centrifuged. The cells are separated based on their size, density, and sedimentation rate, with denser cells settling closer to the bottom of the tube and less dense cells remaining near the top.

2. Magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS): This technique uses magnetic beads coated with antibodies that bind to specific cell surface markers. The labeled cells are then passed through a column placed in a magnetic field, which retains the magnetically labeled cells while allowing unlabeled cells to flow through.

3. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS): In this method, cells are stained with fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies that recognize specific cell surface or intracellular markers. The stained cells are then passed through a laser beam, which excites the fluorophores and allows for the detection and sorting of individual cells based on their fluorescence profile.

4. Filtration: This simple method relies on the physical size differences between cells to separate them. Cells can be passed through filters with pore sizes that allow smaller cells to pass through while retaining larger cells.

5. Enzymatic digestion: In some cases, cells can be separated by enzymatically dissociating tissues into single-cell suspensions and then using various separation techniques to isolate specific cell types.

These methods are widely used in research and clinical settings for applications such as isolating immune cells, stem cells, or tumor cells from biological samples.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens (TACAs) are a type of tumor antigen that are expressed on the surface of cancer cells. These antigens are abnormal forms of carbohydrates, also known as glycans, which are attached to proteins and lipids on the cell surface.

TACAs are often overexpressed or expressed in a different form on cancer cells compared to normal cells. This makes them attractive targets for cancer immunotherapy because they can be recognized by the immune system as foreign and elicit an immune response. Some examples of TACAs include gangliosides, fucosylated glycans, and sialylated glycans.

Tumor-associated carbohydrate antigens have been studied as potential targets for cancer vaccines, antibody therapies, and other immunotherapeutic approaches. However, their use as targets for cancer therapy is still in the early stages of research and development.

CD40 is a type of protein known as a tumor necrosis factor receptor that is found on the surface of various cells in the body, including B cells, dendritic cells, and activated T cells. It plays an important role in the immune system by interacting with another protein called CD154 (also known as CD40 ligand) to activate immune responses.

CD40 antigens are molecules that can stimulate an immune response when introduced into the body because they are recognized as foreign substances by the immune system. They may be used in vaccines or other immunotherapies to induce an immune response against specific targets, such as cancer cells or infectious agents.

CD40 antigens can also be found on some types of tumor cells, and activating CD40 with CD154 has been shown to enhance the anti-tumor immune response in preclinical models. Therefore, CD40 agonists are being investigated as potential cancer therapies.

In summary, CD40 antigens are proteins that can stimulate an immune response and are involved in activating immune cells. They have potential applications in vaccines, immunotherapies, and cancer treatments.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of inflammatory arthritis that primarily affects the spine, although other joints can also be involved. It causes swelling in the spinal joints (vertebrae) that can lead to stiffness and pain. Over time, some of these joints may grow together, causing new bone formation and resulting in a rigid spine. This fusion of the spine is called ankylosis.

The condition typically begins in the sacroiliac joints, where the spine connects to the pelvis. From there, it can spread up the spine and potentially involve other areas of the body such as the eyes, heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal system.

Ankylosing spondylitis has a strong genetic link, with most people carrying the HLA-B27 gene. However, not everyone with this gene will develop the condition. It primarily affects males more often than females and tends to start in early adulthood.

Treatment usually involves a combination of medication, physical therapy, and exercise to help manage pain, maintain mobility, and prevent deformity. In severe cases, surgery may be considered.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

Hepatitis B Surface Antigens (HBsAg) are proteins found on the surface of the Hepatitis B virus. They are present in the blood of individuals infected with the Hepatitis B virus and are used as a marker for the presence of a current Hepatitis B infection. The detection of HBsAg in the blood indicates that an individual is infectious and can transmit the virus to others. It is typically used in diagnostic tests to detect and diagnose Hepatitis B infections, monitor treatment response, and assess the risk of transmission.

Blood group antigens are molecular markers found on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) and sometimes other types of cells in the body. These antigens are proteins, carbohydrates, or glycoproteins that can stimulate an immune response when foreign antigens are introduced into the body.

There are several different blood group systems, but the most well-known is the ABO system, which includes A, B, AB, and O blood groups. The antigens in this system are called ABO antigens. Individuals with type A blood have A antigens on their RBCs, those with type B blood have B antigens, those with type AB blood have both A and B antigens, and those with type O blood have neither A nor B antigens.

Another important blood group system is the Rh system, which includes the D antigen. Individuals who have this antigen are considered Rh-positive, while those who do not have it are considered Rh-negative.

Blood group antigens can cause complications during blood transfusions and pregnancy if there is a mismatch between the donor's or fetus's antigens and the recipient's antibodies. For example, if a person with type A blood receives type B blood, their anti-B antibodies will attack the foreign B antigens on the donated RBCs, causing a potentially life-threatening transfusion reaction. Similarly, if an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus, her immune system may produce anti-D antibodies that can cross the placenta and attack the fetal RBCs, leading to hemolytic disease of the newborn.

It is important for medical professionals to determine a patient's blood group before performing a transfusion or pregnancy-related procedures to avoid these complications.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Bone marrow is the spongy tissue found inside certain bones in the body, such as the hips, thighs, and vertebrae. It is responsible for producing blood-forming cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. There are two types of bone marrow: red marrow, which is involved in blood cell production, and yellow marrow, which contains fatty tissue.

Red bone marrow contains hematopoietic stem cells, which can differentiate into various types of blood cells. These stem cells continuously divide and mature to produce new blood cells that are released into the circulation. Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body, white blood cells help fight infections, and platelets play a crucial role in blood clotting.

Bone marrow also serves as a site for immune cell development and maturation. It contains various types of immune cells, such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, which help protect the body against infections and diseases.

Abnormalities in bone marrow function can lead to several medical conditions, including anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and various types of cancer, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma. Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy are common diagnostic procedures used to evaluate bone marrow health and function.

Lymphocyte cooperation is a term used in immunology to describe the interaction and communication between different types of lymphocytes, specifically T cells and B cells, to mount an effective immune response against pathogens.

T cells, also known as T lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They can directly kill infected cells or produce cytokines that regulate the immune response. B cells, on the other hand, are responsible for humoral immunity, producing antibodies that neutralize pathogens or mark them for destruction by other immune cells.

Lymphocyte cooperation occurs when a T cell recognizes an antigen presented to it by an antigen-presenting cell (APC) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Once activated, the T cell can then interact with B cells that have also been activated by recognizing the same antigen. The T cell provides help to the B cell by producing cytokines that stimulate its proliferation and differentiation into antibody-secreting plasma cells.

This cooperation between T and B cells is crucial for an effective immune response, as it allows for the generation of a targeted and specific response against pathogens. Defects in lymphocyte cooperation can lead to immunodeficiency or autoimmune disorders.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system, which normally protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.

In autoimmune diseases, the body produces autoantibodies that target its own proteins or cell receptors, leading to their destruction or malfunction. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific autoimmune disease and the organs or tissues affected. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and suppressing the immune system to prevent further damage.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

HLA-G antigens are a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class Ib molecule that plays a crucial role in the immune system. HLA molecules are responsible for presenting pieces of proteins from inside the cell to the surface, where they can be recognized by the immune system's T-cells.

HLA-G antigens are primarily expressed in fetal tissues, including trophoblast cells that make up the placenta, and are involved in protecting the fetus from rejection by the mother's immune system during pregnancy. They have also been found to have immunosuppressive effects in other contexts, such as in cancer and transplantation.

HLA-G antigens are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations or "alleles" of the HLA-G gene that can be inherited from each parent. These genetic differences can affect the structure and function of the HLA-G molecule and may have implications for disease susceptibility and immune responses.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Antigen receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of immune cells, particularly B cells and T cells. These receptors are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific antigens, which are foreign substances such as proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids that stimulate an immune response.

B cell receptors (BCRs) are membrane-bound antibodies that recognize and bind to native antigens. When a BCR binds to its specific antigen, it triggers a series of intracellular signals that lead to the activation and differentiation of the B cell into an antibody-secreting plasma cell.

T cell receptors (TCRs) are membrane-bound proteins found on T cells that recognize and bind to antigens presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells. TCRs can distinguish between self and non-self antigens, allowing T cells to mount an immune response against infected or cancerous cells while sparing healthy cells.

Overall, antigen receptors play a critical role in the adaptive immune system's ability to recognize and respond to a wide variety of foreign substances.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

Immunophenotyping is a medical laboratory technique used to identify and classify cells, usually in the context of hematologic (blood) disorders and malignancies (cancers), based on their surface or intracellular expression of various proteins and antigens. This technique utilizes specific antibodies tagged with fluorochromes, which bind to the target antigens on the cell surface or within the cells. The labeled cells are then analyzed using flow cytometry, allowing for the detection and quantification of multiple antigenic markers simultaneously.

Immunophenotyping helps in understanding the distribution of different cell types, their subsets, and activation status, which can be crucial in diagnosing various hematological disorders, immunodeficiencies, and distinguishing between different types of leukemias, lymphomas, and other malignancies. Additionally, it can also be used to monitor the progression of diseases, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments, and detect minimal residual disease (MRD) during follow-up care.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature, self-renewing cells that give rise to all the mature blood and immune cells in the body. They are capable of both producing more hematopoietic stem cells (self-renewal) and differentiating into early progenitor cells that eventually develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. HSCs are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. They have the ability to repair damaged tissues and offer significant therapeutic potential for treating various diseases, including hematological disorders, genetic diseases, and cancer.

MART-1, also known as Melanoma Antigen Recognized by T-Cells 1 or Melan-A, is a protein that is primarily found in melanocytes, which are the pigment-producing cells located in the skin, eyes, and hair follicles. It is a member of the family of antigens called melanoma differentiation antigens (MDAs) that are specifically expressed in melanocytes and melanomas. MART-1 is considered a tumor-specific antigen because it is overexpressed in melanoma cells compared to normal cells, making it an attractive target for immunotherapy.

MART-1 is presented on the surface of melanoma cells in complex with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules, where it can be recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). This recognition triggers an immune response that can lead to the destruction of melanoma cells. MART-1 has been widely used as a target in various immunotherapy approaches, including cancer vaccines and adoptive cell transfer therapies, with the goal of enhancing the body's own immune system to recognize and eliminate melanoma cells.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Nuclear proteins are a category of proteins that are primarily found in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell. They play crucial roles in various nuclear functions, such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and RNA processing. This group includes structural proteins like lamins, which form the nuclear lamina, and regulatory proteins, such as histones and transcription factors, that are involved in gene expression. Nuclear localization signals (NLS) often help target these proteins to the nucleus by interacting with importin proteins during active transport across the nuclear membrane.

Promoter regions in genetics refer to specific DNA sequences located near the transcription start site of a gene. They serve as binding sites for RNA polymerase and various transcription factors that regulate the initiation of gene transcription. These regulatory elements help control the rate of transcription and, therefore, the level of gene expression. Promoter regions can be composed of different types of sequences, such as the TATA box and CAAT box, and their organization and composition can vary between different genes and species.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

HLA-B8 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins that play an important role in the body's immune system by helping to distinguish between the body's own cells and foreign substances such as viruses and bacteria.

The HLA-B8 antigen is a specific variant of the HLA-B gene, which is located on chromosome 6. It is commonly found in approximately 10% of the Caucasian population and is associated with an increased risk of certain autoimmune diseases such as coeliac disease, type 1 diabetes, and autoimmune thyroid disease.

It's important to note that while having the HLA-B8 antigen may increase the risk of developing these conditions, it does not necessarily mean that the person will definitely develop the disease. Other genetic and environmental factors also play a role in the development of these conditions.

A ligand, in the context of biochemistry and medicine, is a molecule that binds to a specific site on a protein or a larger biomolecule, such as an enzyme or a receptor. This binding interaction can modify the function or activity of the target protein, either activating it or inhibiting it. Ligands can be small molecules, like hormones or neurotransmitters, or larger structures, like antibodies. The study of ligand-protein interactions is crucial for understanding cellular processes and developing drugs, as many therapeutic compounds function by binding to specific targets within the body.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Epitope mapping is a technique used in immunology to identify the specific portion or regions (called epitopes) on an antigen that are recognized and bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This process helps to understand the molecular basis of immune responses against various pathogens, allergens, or transplanted tissues.

Epitope mapping can be performed using different methods such as:

1. Peptide scanning: In this method, a series of overlapping peptides spanning the entire length of the antigen are synthesized and tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. The peptide that shows binding is considered to contain the epitope.
2. Site-directed mutagenesis: In this approach, specific amino acids within the antigen are altered, and the modified antigens are tested for their ability to bind to antibodies or T-cell receptors. This helps in identifying the critical residues within the epitope.
3. X-ray crystallography and NMR spectroscopy: These techniques provide detailed information about the three-dimensional structure of antigen-antibody complexes, allowing for accurate identification of epitopes at an atomic level.

The results from epitope mapping can be useful in various applications, including vaccine design, diagnostic test development, and understanding the basis of autoimmune diseases.

A dose-response relationship in immunology refers to the quantitative relationship between the dose or amount of an antigen (a substance that triggers an immune response) and the magnitude or strength of the resulting immune response. Generally, as the dose of an antigen increases, the intensity and/or duration of the immune response also increase, up to a certain point. This relationship helps in determining the optimal dosage for vaccines and immunotherapies, ensuring sufficient immune activation while minimizing potential adverse effects.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

HLA-DR7 antigen is a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) serotype that is part of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, which plays a crucial role in the immune system. The HLA-DR7 antigen is encoded by the DRB1*07 gene and is expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells such as B lymphocytes, monocytes, and dendritic cells.

The HLA-DR7 antigen presents peptide fragments to CD4+ T helper cells, which then activate other immune cells like B cells and cytotoxic T cells to mount an immune response against pathogens or infected cells. The HLA-DR7 serotype is relatively common in many populations, with varying frequencies depending on the ethnic background.

It's important to note that certain HLA types, including HLA-DR7, have been associated with increased susceptibility or resistance to various diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases. However, the relationship between HLA types and disease is complex and not fully understood, as it involves multiple genetic and environmental factors.

Kidney transplantation is a surgical procedure where a healthy kidney from a deceased or living donor is implanted into a patient with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or permanent kidney failure. The new kidney takes over the functions of filtering waste and excess fluids from the blood, producing urine, and maintaining the body's electrolyte balance.

The transplanted kidney is typically placed in the lower abdomen, with its blood vessels connected to the recipient's iliac artery and vein. The ureter of the new kidney is then attached to the recipient's bladder to ensure proper urine flow. Following the surgery, the patient will require lifelong immunosuppressive therapy to prevent rejection of the transplanted organ by their immune system.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Monocytes are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system. They are large cells with a round or oval shape and a nucleus that is typically indented or horseshoe-shaped. Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow and then circulate in the bloodstream, where they can differentiate into other types of immune cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells.

Monocytes play an important role in the body's defense against infection and tissue damage. They are able to engulf and digest foreign particles, microorganisms, and dead or damaged cells, which helps to clear them from the body. Monocytes also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help to coordinate the immune response.

Elevated levels of monocytes in the bloodstream can be a sign of an ongoing infection, inflammation, or other medical conditions such as cancer or autoimmune disorders.

Trans-activators are proteins that increase the transcriptional activity of a gene or a set of genes. They do this by binding to specific DNA sequences and interacting with the transcription machinery, thereby enhancing the recruitment and assembly of the complexes needed for transcription. In some cases, trans-activators can also modulate the chromatin structure to make the template more accessible to the transcription machinery.

In the context of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection, the term "trans-activator" is often used specifically to refer to the Tat protein. The Tat protein is a viral regulatory protein that plays a critical role in the replication of HIV by activating the transcription of the viral genome. It does this by binding to a specific RNA structure called the Trans-Activation Response Element (TAR) located at the 5' end of all nascent HIV transcripts, and recruiting cellular cofactors that enhance the processivity and efficiency of RNA polymerase II, leading to increased viral gene expression.

Muramidase, also known as lysozyme, is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between N-acetylmuramic acid and N-acetylglucosamine in peptidoglycan, a polymer found in bacterial cell walls. This enzymatic activity plays a crucial role in the innate immune system by contributing to the destruction of invading bacteria. Muramidase is widely distributed in various tissues and bodily fluids, such as tears, saliva, and milk, and is also found in several types of white blood cells, including neutrophils and monocytes.

Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid. It is the first antibody to be produced in response to an initial exposure to an antigen, making it an important part of the body's primary immune response. IgM antibodies are large molecules that are composed of five basic units, giving them a pentameric structure. They are primarily found on the surface of B cells as membrane-bound immunoglobulins (mlgM), where they function as receptors for antigens. Once an mlgM receptor binds to an antigen, it triggers the activation and differentiation of the B cell into a plasma cell that produces and secretes large amounts of soluble IgM antibodies.

IgM antibodies are particularly effective at agglutination (clumping) and complement activation, which makes them important in the early stages of an immune response to help clear pathogens from the bloodstream. However, they are not as stable or long-lived as other types of antibodies, such as IgG, and their levels tend to decline after the initial immune response has occurred.

In summary, Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the primary immune response to antigens by agglutination and complement activation. It is primarily found in the blood and lymph fluid, and it is produced by B cells after they are activated by an antigen.

HIV antigens refer to the proteins present on the surface or within the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which can stimulate an immune response in the infected individual. These antigens are recognized by the host's immune system, specifically by CD4+ T cells and antibodies, leading to their activation and production. Two significant HIV antigens are the HIV-1 p24 antigen and the gp120/gp41 envelope proteins. The p24 antigen is a capsid protein found within the viral particle, while the gp120/gp41 complex forms the viral envelope and facilitates viral entry into host cells. Detection of HIV antigens in clinical settings, such as in the ELISA or Western blot tests, helps diagnose HIV infection and monitor disease progression.

Organ specificity, in the context of immunology and toxicology, refers to the phenomenon where a substance (such as a drug or toxin) or an immune response primarily affects certain organs or tissues in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. The presence of specific targets (like antigens in the case of an immune response or receptors in the case of drugs) that are more abundant in these organs.
2. The unique properties of certain cells or tissues that make them more susceptible to damage.
3. The way a substance is metabolized or cleared from the body, which can concentrate it in specific organs.

For example, in autoimmune diseases, organ specificity describes immune responses that are directed against antigens found only in certain organs, such as the thyroid gland in Hashimoto's disease. Similarly, some toxins or drugs may have a particular affinity for liver cells, leading to liver damage or specific drug interactions.

Leukemia, myeloid is a type of cancer that originates in the bone marrow, where blood cells are produced. Myeloid leukemia affects the myeloid cells, which include red blood cells, platelets, and most types of white blood cells. In this condition, the bone marrow produces abnormal myeloid cells that do not mature properly and accumulate in the bone marrow and blood. These abnormal cells hinder the production of normal blood cells, leading to various symptoms such as anemia, fatigue, increased risk of infections, and easy bruising or bleeding.

There are several types of myeloid leukemias, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). AML progresses rapidly and requires immediate treatment, while CML tends to progress more slowly. The exact causes of myeloid leukemia are not fully understood, but risk factors include exposure to radiation or certain chemicals, smoking, genetic disorders, and a history of chemotherapy or other cancer treatments.

Autoimmunity is a medical condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy tissues within the body. In normal function, the immune system recognizes and fights off foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. However, when autoimmunity occurs, the immune system identifies self-molecules or tissues as foreign and produces an immune response against them.

This misguided response can lead to chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and impaired organ function. Autoimmune diseases can affect various parts of the body, including the joints, skin, glands, muscles, and blood vessels. Some common examples of autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Graves' disease.

The exact cause of autoimmunity is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that trigger an abnormal immune response in susceptible individuals. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves managing symptoms, reducing inflammation, and suppressing the immune system's overactive response using medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics.

Endocytosis is the process by which cells absorb substances from their external environment by engulfing them in membrane-bound structures, resulting in the formation of intracellular vesicles. This mechanism allows cells to take up large molecules, such as proteins and lipids, as well as small particles, like bacteria and viruses. There are two main types of endocytosis: phagocytosis (cell eating) and pinocytosis (cell drinking). Phagocytosis involves the engulfment of solid particles, while pinocytosis deals with the uptake of fluids and dissolved substances. Other specialized forms of endocytosis include receptor-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, which allow for the specific internalization of molecules through the interaction with cell surface receptors.

Viral proteins are the proteins that are encoded by the viral genome and are essential for the viral life cycle. These proteins can be structural or non-structural and play various roles in the virus's replication, infection, and assembly process. Structural proteins make up the physical structure of the virus, including the capsid (the protein shell that surrounds the viral genome) and any envelope proteins (that may be present on enveloped viruses). Non-structural proteins are involved in the replication of the viral genome and modulation of the host cell environment to favor viral replication. Overall, a thorough understanding of viral proteins is crucial for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Hepatitis B antigens are proteins or particles present on the surface (HBsAg) or inside (HBcAg, HBeAg) the hepatitis B virus.

1. HBsAg (Hepatitis B surface antigen): This is a protein found on the outer surface of the hepatitis B virus. Its presence in the blood indicates an active infection with hepatitis B virus. It's also used as a marker to diagnose hepatitis B infection and monitor treatment response.

2. HBcAg (Hepatitis B core antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core. It's not usually detected in the blood, but its antibodies (anti-HBc) are used to diagnose past or present hepatitis B infection.

3. HBeAg (Hepatitis B e antigen): This is a protein found inside the hepatitis B virus core and is associated with viral replication. Its presence in the blood indicates high levels of viral replication, increased infectivity, and higher risk of liver damage. It's used to monitor disease progression and treatment response.

These antigens play a crucial role in the diagnosis, management, and prevention of hepatitis B infection.

Thy-1, also known as Thy-1 antigen or CD90, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein found on the surface of various cells in the body. It was first discovered as a cell surface antigen on thymocytes, hence the name Thy-1.

Thy-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is widely expressed in different tissues, including the brain, where it is found on the surface of neurons and glial cells. In the immune system, Thy-1 is expressed on the surface of T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and some subsets of dendritic cells.

The function of Thy-1 is not fully understood, but it has been implicated in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, signal transduction, and regulation of immune responses. Thy-1 has also been shown to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, as well as in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders.

As an antigen, Thy-1 can be recognized by specific antibodies, which can be used in various research and clinical applications, such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and cell sorting.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Delayed hypersensitivity, also known as type IV hypersensitivity, is a type of immune response that takes place several hours to days after exposure to an antigen. It is characterized by the activation of T cells (a type of white blood cell) and the release of various chemical mediators, leading to inflammation and tissue damage. This reaction is typically associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, such as contact dermatitis, granulomatous disorders (e.g. tuberculosis), and certain autoimmune diseases.

The reaction process involves the following steps:

1. Sensitization: The first time an individual is exposed to an antigen, T cells are activated and become sensitized to it. This process can take several days.
2. Memory: Some of the activated T cells differentiate into memory T cells, which remain in the body and are ready to respond quickly if the same antigen is encountered again.
3. Effector phase: Upon subsequent exposure to the antigen, the memory T cells become activated and release cytokines, which recruit other immune cells (e.g. macrophages) to the site of inflammation. These cells cause tissue damage through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis, degranulation, and the release of reactive oxygen species.
4. Chronic inflammation: The ongoing immune response can lead to chronic inflammation, which may result in tissue destruction and fibrosis (scarring).

Examples of conditions associated with delayed hypersensitivity include:

* Contact dermatitis (e.g. poison ivy, nickel allergy)
* Tuberculosis
* Leprosy
* Sarcoidosis
* Rheumatoid arthritis
* Type 1 diabetes mellitus
* Multiple sclerosis
* Inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)

Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or tumor cells. They belong to the larger family of cytokines and are crucial for the innate immune system's defense against infections. Interferons exist in multiple forms, classified into three types: type I (alpha and beta), type II (gamma), and type III (lambda). These proteins play a significant role in modulating the immune response, inhibiting viral replication, regulating cell growth, and promoting apoptosis of infected cells. Interferons are used as therapeutic agents for various medical conditions, including certain viral infections, cancers, and autoimmune diseases.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

DNA restriction enzymes, also known as restriction endonucleases, are a type of enzyme that cut double-stranded DNA at specific recognition sites. These enzymes are produced by bacteria and archaea as a defense mechanism against foreign DNA, such as that found in bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria).

Restriction enzymes recognize specific sequences of nucleotides (the building blocks of DNA) and cleave the phosphodiester bonds between them. The recognition sites for these enzymes are usually palindromic, meaning that the sequence reads the same in both directions when facing the opposite strands of DNA.

Restriction enzymes are widely used in molecular biology research for various applications such as genetic engineering, genome mapping, and DNA fingerprinting. They allow scientists to cut DNA at specific sites, creating precise fragments that can be manipulated and analyzed. The use of restriction enzymes has been instrumental in the development of recombinant DNA technology and the Human Genome Project.

Antigens are substances (usually proteins) on the surface of cells, viruses, fungi, or bacteria that the immune system recognizes as foreign and mounts a response against.

Differentiation in the context of T-lymphocytes refers to the process by which immature T-cells mature and develop into different types of T-cells with specific functions, such as CD4+ helper T-cells or CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. Once mature, they circulate throughout the body in search of foreign antigens to attack and destroy.

Therefore, 'Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte' refers to the process by which T-lymphocytes mature and develop the ability to recognize and respond to specific foreign antigens.

Endosomes are membrane-bound compartments within eukaryotic cells that play a critical role in intracellular trafficking and sorting of various cargoes, including proteins and lipids. They are formed by the invagination of the plasma membrane during endocytosis, resulting in the internalization of extracellular material and cell surface receptors.

Endosomes can be classified into early endosomes, late endosomes, and recycling endosomes based on their morphology, molecular markers, and functional properties. Early endosomes are the initial sorting stations for internalized cargoes, where they undergo sorting and processing before being directed to their final destinations. Late endosomes are more acidic compartments that mature from early endosomes and are responsible for the transport of cargoes to lysosomes for degradation.

Recycling endosomes, on the other hand, are involved in the recycling of internalized cargoes back to the plasma membrane or to other cellular compartments. Endosomal sorting and trafficking are regulated by a complex network of molecular interactions involving various proteins, lipids, and intracellular signaling pathways.

Defects in endosomal function have been implicated in various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, developmental abnormalities, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying endosomal trafficking and sorting is of great importance for developing therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigens (EBV NA) are proteins found inside the nucleus of cells that have been infected with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a type of herpesvirus that is best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis (also known as "mono" or "the kissing disease").

There are two main types of EBV NA: EBNA-1 and EBNA-2. These proteins play a role in the replication and survival of the virus within infected cells. They can be detected using laboratory tests, such as immunofluorescence assays or Western blotting, to help diagnose EBV infection or detect the presence of EBV-associated diseases, such as certain types of lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

EBNA-1 is essential for the maintenance and replication of the EBV genome within infected cells, while EBNA-2 activates viral gene expression and modulates the host cell's immune response to promote virus survival. Both proteins are considered potential targets for the development of antiviral therapies and vaccines against EBV infection.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Immunosuppressive agents are medications that decrease the activity of the immune system. They are often used to prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and to treat autoimmune diseases, where the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own tissues. These drugs work by interfering with the immune system's normal responses, which helps to reduce inflammation and damage to tissues. However, because they suppress the immune system, people who take immunosuppressive agents are at increased risk for infections and other complications. Examples of immunosuppressive agents include corticosteroids, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, and sirolimus.

DNA-binding proteins are a type of protein that have the ability to bind to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the genetic material of organisms. These proteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as regulation of gene expression, DNA replication, repair and recombination.

The binding of DNA-binding proteins to specific DNA sequences is mediated by non-covalent interactions, including electrostatic, hydrogen bonding, and van der Waals forces. The specificity of binding is determined by the recognition of particular nucleotide sequences or structural features of the DNA molecule.

DNA-binding proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as transcription factors, histones, and restriction enzymes. Transcription factors are a major class of DNA-binding proteins that regulate gene expression by binding to specific DNA sequences in the promoter region of genes and recruiting other proteins to modulate transcription. Histones are DNA-binding proteins that package DNA into nucleosomes, the basic unit of chromatin structure. Restriction enzymes are DNA-binding proteins that recognize and cleave specific DNA sequences, and are widely used in molecular biology research and biotechnology applications.

Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) is a type of genetic variation that occurs when a single nucleotide (A, T, C, or G) in the DNA sequence is altered. This alteration must occur in at least 1% of the population to be considered a SNP. These variations can help explain why some people are more susceptible to certain diseases than others and can also influence how an individual responds to certain medications. SNPs can serve as biological markers, helping scientists locate genes that are associated with disease. They can also provide information about an individual's ancestry and ethnic background.

Glycoproteins are complex proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbone. These glycans are linked to the protein through asparagine residues (N-linked) or serine/threonine residues (O-linked). Glycoproteins play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell recognition, cell-cell interactions, cell adhesion, and signal transduction. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found on the outer surface of cell membranes, in extracellular fluids, and as components of the extracellular matrix. The structure and composition of glycoproteins can vary significantly depending on their function and location within an organism.

CD2 is a type of cell surface protein known as a glycoprotein that is found on the surface of T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and thymocytes in humans. It plays a role in the activation and regulation of the immune response. CD2 can also function as an adhesion molecule, helping to bind T cells to other cells during an immune response.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or the activation of immune cells such as T cells. In the context of CD2, an "antigen" may refer to a specific molecule or structure that interacts with CD2 and triggers a response from T cells or other immune cells.

It's worth noting that while CD2 can interact with certain antigens, it is not itself an antigen in the traditional sense. However, the term "antigen" is sometimes used more broadly to refer to any molecule that interacts with the immune system and triggers a response, so it is possible for CD2 to be referred to as an "antigen" in this context.

CD19 is a type of protein found on the surface of B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the body's immune response. CD19 is a marker that helps identify and distinguish B cells from other types of cells in the body. It is also a target for immunotherapy in certain diseases, such as B-cell malignancies.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, particularly the production of antibodies. In the context of CD19, antigens refer to substances that can bind to CD19 and trigger a response from the immune system. This can include proteins, carbohydrates, or other molecules found on the surface of bacteria, viruses, or cancer cells.

Therefore, 'antigens, CD19' refers to any substances that can bind to the CD19 protein on B cells and trigger an immune response. These antigens may be used in the development of immunotherapies for the treatment of B-cell malignancies or other diseases.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are a family of membrane proteins that utilize the energy from ATP hydrolysis to transport various substrates across extra- and intracellular membranes. These transporters play crucial roles in several biological processes, including detoxification, drug resistance, nutrient uptake, and regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

The structure of ABC transporters consists of two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) that bind and hydrolyze ATP, and two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that form the substrate-translocation pathway. The NBDs are typically located adjacent to each other in the cytoplasm, while the TMDs can be either integral membrane domains or separate structures associated with the membrane.

The human genome encodes 48 distinct ABC transporters, which are classified into seven subfamilies (ABCA-ABCG) based on their sequence similarity and domain organization. Some well-known examples of ABC transporters include P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), multidrug resistance protein 1 (ABCC1), and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

Dysregulation or mutations in ABC transporters have been implicated in various diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, neurological disorders, and cancer. In cancer, overexpression of certain ABC transporters can contribute to drug resistance by actively effluxing chemotherapeutic agents from cancer cells, making them less susceptible to treatment.

Hematologic neoplasms, also known as hematological malignancies, are a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and accumulation of abnormal blood cells or bone marrow cells. These disorders can originate from the myeloid or lymphoid cell lines, which give rise to various types of blood cells, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets.

Hematologic neoplasms can be broadly classified into three categories:

1. Leukemias: These are cancers that primarily affect the bone marrow and blood-forming tissues. They result in an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells, which interfere with the normal functioning of the blood and immune system. There are several types of leukemia, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML).
2. Lymphomas: These are cancers that develop from the lymphatic system, which is a part of the immune system responsible for fighting infections. Lymphomas can affect lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow, and other organs. The two main types of lymphoma are Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
3. Myelomas: These are cancers that arise from the plasma cells, a type of white blood cell responsible for producing antibodies. Multiple myeloma is the most common type of myeloma, characterized by an excessive proliferation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow, leading to the production of abnormal amounts of monoclonal immunoglobulins (M proteins) and bone destruction.

Hematologic neoplasms can have various symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, frequent infections, easy bruising or bleeding, weight loss, swollen lymph nodes, and bone pain. The diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and sometimes bone marrow biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the disease and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, stem cell transplantation, or a combination of these approaches.

Immunological models are simplified representations or simulations of the immune system's structure, function, and interactions with pathogens or other entities. These models can be theoretical (conceptual), mathematical, or computational and are used to understand, explain, and predict immunological phenomena. They help researchers study complex immune processes and responses that cannot be easily observed or manipulated in vivo.

Theoretical immunological models provide conceptual frameworks for understanding immune system behavior, often using diagrams or flowcharts to illustrate interactions between immune components. Mathematical models use mathematical equations to describe immune system dynamics, allowing researchers to simulate and analyze the outcomes of various scenarios. Computational models, also known as in silico models, are created using computer software and can incorporate both theoretical and mathematical concepts to create detailed simulations of immunological processes.

Immunological models are essential tools for advancing our understanding of the immune system and developing new therapies and vaccines. They enable researchers to test hypotheses, explore the implications of different assumptions, and identify areas requiring further investigation.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

1. Receptors: In the context of physiology and medicine, receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells or inside cells that detect and respond to specific molecules, known as ligands. They play a crucial role in various biological processes, including signal transduction, cell communication, and regulation of physiological functions.
2. Antigen: An antigen is a foreign substance (usually a protein) that triggers an immune response when introduced into the body. Antigens can be derived from various sources, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. They are recognized by the immune system as non-self and stimulate the production of antibodies and activation of immune cells, like T-cells, to eliminate the threat.
3. T-Cell: T-cells, also known as T-lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. T-cells have receptors on their surface called T-cell receptors (TCRs) that enable them to recognize and respond to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). There are several types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells.
4. gamma-delta (γδ) T-Cell: Gamma-delta (γδ) T-cells are a subset of T-cells that possess a distinct T-cell receptor (TCR) composed of gamma and delta chains. Unlike conventional T-cells, which typically recognize peptide antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, γδ T-cells can directly recognize various non-peptide antigens, such as lipids, glycolipids, and small metabolites. They are involved in the early stages of immune responses, tissue homeostasis, and cancer surveillance.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Mononuclear leukocytes are a type of white blood cells (leukocytes) that have a single, large nucleus. They include lymphocytes (B-cells, T-cells, and natural killer cells), monocytes, and dendritic cells. These cells play important roles in the body's immune system, including defending against infection and disease, and participating in immune responses and surveillance. Mononuclear leukocytes can be found in the bloodstream as well as in tissues throughout the body. They are involved in both innate and adaptive immunity, providing specific and nonspecific defense mechanisms to protect the body from harmful pathogens and other threats.

C-type lectins are a family of proteins that contain one or more carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) with a characteristic pattern of conserved sequence motifs. These proteins are capable of binding to specific carbohydrate structures in a calcium-dependent manner, making them important in various biological processes such as cell adhesion, immune recognition, and initiation of inflammatory responses.

C-type lectins can be further classified into several subfamilies based on their structure and function, including selectins, collectins, and immunoglobulin-like receptors. They play a crucial role in the immune system by recognizing and binding to carbohydrate structures on the surface of pathogens, facilitating their clearance by phagocytic cells. Additionally, C-type lectins are involved in various physiological processes such as cell development, tissue repair, and cancer progression.

It is important to note that some C-type lectins can also bind to self-antigens and contribute to autoimmune diseases. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of these proteins has important implications for developing new therapeutic strategies for various diseases.

Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is a type of cytokine, which is a cell signaling molecule that mediates communication between cells in the immune system. Specifically, IL-4 is produced by activated T cells and mast cells, among other cells, and plays an important role in the differentiation and activation of immune cells called Th2 cells.

Th2 cells are involved in the immune response to parasites, as well as in allergic reactions. IL-4 also promotes the growth and survival of B cells, which produce antibodies, and helps to regulate the production of certain types of antibodies. In addition, IL-4 has anti-inflammatory effects and can help to downregulate the immune response in some contexts.

Defects in IL-4 signaling have been implicated in a number of diseases, including asthma, allergies, and certain types of cancer.

HeLa cells are a type of immortalized cell line used in scientific research. They are derived from a cancer that developed in the cervical tissue of Henrietta Lacks, an African-American woman, in 1951. After her death, cells taken from her tumor were found to be capable of continuous division and growth in a laboratory setting, making them an invaluable resource for medical research.

HeLa cells have been used in a wide range of scientific studies, including research on cancer, viruses, genetics, and drug development. They were the first human cell line to be successfully cloned and are able to grow rapidly in culture, doubling their population every 20-24 hours. This has made them an essential tool for many areas of biomedical research.

It is important to note that while HeLa cells have been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs, the story of their origin raises ethical questions about informed consent and the use of human tissue in research.

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), BCR-ABL positive is a specific subtype of leukemia that originates in the bone marrow and involves the excessive production of mature granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. It is characterized by the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome, which is formed by a genetic translocation between chromosomes 9 and 22, resulting in the formation of the BCR-ABL fusion gene. This gene encodes for an abnormal protein with increased tyrosine kinase activity, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. The presence of this genetic abnormality is used to confirm the diagnosis and guide treatment decisions.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) is a key structural protein found in the myelin sheath, which is a multilayered membrane that surrounds and insulates nerve fibers (axons) in the nervous system. The myelin sheath enables efficient and rapid transmission of electrical signals (nerve impulses) along the axons, allowing for proper communication between different neurons.

MBP is one of several proteins responsible for maintaining the structural integrity and organization of the myelin sheath. It is a basic protein, meaning it has a high isoelectric point due to its abundance of positively charged amino acids. MBP is primarily located in the intraperiod line of the compact myelin, which is a region where the extracellular leaflets of the apposing membranes come into close contact without fusing.

MBP plays crucial roles in the formation, maintenance, and repair of the myelin sheath:

1. During development, MBP helps mediate the compaction of the myelin sheath by interacting with other proteins and lipids in the membrane.
2. MBP contributes to the stability and resilience of the myelin sheath by forming strong ionic bonds with negatively charged phospholipids in the membrane.
3. In response to injury or disease, MBP can be cleaved into smaller peptides that act as chemoattractants for immune cells, initiating the process of remyelination and repair.

Dysregulation or damage to MBP has been implicated in several demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), where the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath, leading to its degradation and loss. The presence of autoantibodies against MBP is a common feature in MS patients, suggesting that an abnormal immune response to this protein may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease.

Cancer vaccines are a type of immunotherapy that stimulate the body's own immune system to recognize and destroy cancer cells. They can be prophylactic (preventive) or therapeutic (treatment) in nature. Prophylactic cancer vaccines, such as the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, are designed to prevent the initial infection that can lead to certain types of cancer. Therapeutic cancer vaccines, on the other hand, are used to treat existing cancer by boosting the immune system's ability to identify and eliminate cancer cells. These vaccines typically contain specific antigens (proteins or sugars) found on the surface of cancer cells, which help the immune system to recognize and target them.

It is important to note that cancer vaccines are different from vaccines used to prevent infectious diseases, such as measles or influenza. While traditional vaccines introduce a weakened or inactivated form of a virus or bacteria to stimulate an immune response, cancer vaccines focus on training the immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells specifically.

There are several types of cancer vaccines under investigation, including:

1. Autologous cancer vaccines: These vaccines use the patient's own tumor cells, which are processed and then reintroduced into the body to stimulate an immune response.
2. Peptide-based cancer vaccines: These vaccines contain specific pieces (peptides) of proteins found on the surface of cancer cells. They are designed to trigger an immune response against cells that express these proteins.
3. Dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines: Dendritic cells are a type of immune cell responsible for presenting antigens to other immune cells, activating them to recognize and destroy infected or cancerous cells. In this approach, dendritic cells are isolated from the patient's blood, exposed to cancer antigens in the lab, and then reintroduced into the body to stimulate an immune response.
4. DNA-based cancer vaccines: These vaccines use pieces of DNA that code for specific cancer antigens. Once inside the body, these DNA fragments are taken up by cells, leading to the production of the corresponding antigen and triggering an immune response.
5. Viral vector-based cancer vaccines: In this approach, a harmless virus is modified to carry genetic material encoding cancer antigens. When introduced into the body, the virus infects cells, causing them to produce the cancer antigen and stimulating an immune response.

While some cancer vaccines have shown promising results in clinical trials, none have yet been approved for widespread use by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Researchers continue to explore and refine various vaccine strategies to improve their efficacy and safety.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

CD58 (also known as LFA-3) is a cell surface glycoprotein that functions as a co-stimulatory molecule in the immune system. It is found on various cells, including antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells and B cells. CD58 interacts with its receptor, CD2, which is found on T cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and some other leukocytes. This interaction provides a costimulatory signal that helps to activate T cells and NK cells, enhancing their immune responses against pathogens or infected cells.

In the context of antigens, CD58 may be involved in presenting antigenic peptides to T cells during an adaptive immune response. The interaction between CD58 on antigen-presenting cells and CD2 on T cells contributes to the activation and proliferation of T cells specific to that particular antigen. This process is crucial for the development of effective immunity against infections and cancer.

It's important to note that while CD58 plays a role in immune responses, it is not an antigen itself. An antigen is typically defined as a molecule (usually a protein or polysaccharide) that is recognized by the adaptive immune system and can stimulate an immune response.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. This results in an inability to regulate blood glucose levels, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. It is usually managed with regular insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, along with monitoring of blood glucose levels and adjustments to diet and physical activity. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

CD11c is a type of integrin molecule found on the surface of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells and some types of macrophages. Integrins are proteins that help cells adhere to each other and to the extracellular matrix, which provides structural support for tissues.

CD11c is a heterodimer, meaning it is composed of two different subunits: CD11c (also known as ITGAX) and CD18 (also known as ITGB2). Dendritic cells express high levels of CD11c on their surface, and this molecule plays an important role in the activation of T cells, which are key players in the adaptive immune response.

CD11c has been used as a marker to identify dendritic cells and other immune cells in research and clinical settings. Antigens are substances that can stimulate an immune response, and CD11c is not typically considered an antigen itself. However, certain viruses or bacteria may be able to bind to CD11c on the surface of infected cells, which could potentially trigger an immune response against the pathogen.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

HLA-A3 antigen is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) found on the surface of cells. The HLAs are proteins that help the body's immune system distinguish between its own cells and foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria. Specifically, HLA-A3 is a type of class I HLA molecule, which presents peptides from inside the cell to cytotoxic T cells, a type of white blood cell that can destroy infected or damaged cells.

The HLA genes are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different variations or alleles of these genes in the population. The HLA-A3 antigen is one of several common variants of the HLA-A gene. It is estimated to be present in approximately 15-20% of the Caucasian population and is less common in other ethnic groups.

The HLA-A3 antigen has been associated with several diseases, including certain types of cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases. However, the specific role that HLA-A3 plays in these conditions is not fully understood and is an area of ongoing research.

CD28 is a co-stimulatory molecule that plays an important role in the activation and regulation of T cells, which are key players in the immune response. It is a type of protein found on the surface of T cells and interacts with other proteins called B7-1 (also known as CD80) and B7-2 (also known as CD86) that are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs).

When a T cell encounters an APC that is presenting an antigen, the T cell receptor (TCR) on the surface of the T cell recognizes and binds to the antigen. However, this interaction alone is not enough to fully activate the T cell. The engagement of CD28 with B7-1 or B7-2 provides a critical co-stimulatory signal that promotes T cell activation, proliferation, and survival.

CD28 is also an important target for immune checkpoint inhibitors, which are drugs used to treat cancer by blocking the inhibitory signals that prevent T cells from attacking tumor cells. By blocking CD28, these drugs can enhance the anti-tumor response of T cells and improve cancer outcomes.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

CTLA-4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Protein 4) antigen is a type of protein found on the surface of activated T cells, which are a type of white blood cell in the immune system. CTLA-4 plays an important role in regulating the immune response by functioning as a negative regulator of T cell activation.

CTLA-4 binds to CD80 and CD86 molecules on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, which are cells that display foreign antigens to T cells and activate them. By binding to these molecules, CTLA-4 inhibits T cell activation and helps prevent an overactive immune response.

CTLA-4 is a target for cancer immunotherapy because blocking its function can enhance the anti-tumor immune response. Certain drugs called checkpoint inhibitors work by blocking CTLA-4, allowing T cells to remain active and attack tumor cells more effectively.

Cross-priming is a process in the immune system where antigens from one cell are presented to and recognized by T cells of another cell, leading to an immune response. This mechanism allows for the activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells against viruses or cancer cells that may not be directly accessible to the immune system.

In a typical scenario, a professional antigen-presenting cell (APC) such as a dendritic cell captures and processes antigens from an infected or damaged cell. The APC then migrates to the draining lymph node where it presents the antigens on its major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules to CD8+ T cells. This presentation of antigens from one cell to the T cells of another is referred to as cross-priming.

Cross-priming plays a crucial role in the initiation of immune responses against viruses, bacteria, and cancer cells, and has implications for vaccine design and immunotherapy strategies.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

Disease susceptibility, also known as genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, refers to the increased likelihood or risk of developing a particular disease due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations. These genetic factors can make an individual more vulnerable to certain diseases compared to those who do not have these genetic changes.

It is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will definitely develop the disease. Other factors, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and additional genetic variations, can influence whether or not the disease will manifest. In some cases, early detection and intervention may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease in individuals with a known genetic susceptibility.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

HLA-DR beta-chains are a type of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II protein that is found on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B lymphocytes. The HLA-DR beta-chains combine with HLA-DR alpha-chains to form heterodimeric complexes, which present peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, also known as helper T cells.

The HLA-DR beta-chains are encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene, which is located on chromosome 6p21.3 in humans. There are many different variants of the HLA-DRB1 gene, and these genetic differences can affect an individual's susceptibility to various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and infectious diseases.

The HLA-DR beta-chains play a critical role in the immune system by helping to initiate and regulate the adaptive immune response. They bind to peptide antigens that have been processed inside the cell and display them on the cell surface for recognition by CD4+ T cells. This interaction is essential for the activation of CD4+ T cells, which then help to coordinate the immune response by producing cytokines and activating other immune cells.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 4, Human" (Epstein-Barr Virus)

"Herpesvirus 4, Human," also known as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), is a member of the Herpesviridae family and is one of the most common human viruses. It is primarily transmitted through saliva and is often referred to as the "kissing disease."

EBV is the causative agent of infectious mononucleosis (IM), also known as glandular fever, which is characterized by symptoms such as fatigue, sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes. The virus can also cause other diseases, including certain types of cancer, such as Burkitt's lymphoma, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Once a person becomes infected with EBV, the virus remains in the body for the rest of their life, residing in certain white blood cells called B lymphocytes. In most people, the virus remains dormant and does not cause any further symptoms. However, in some individuals, the virus may reactivate, leading to recurrent or persistent symptoms.

EBV infection is diagnosed through various tests, including blood tests that detect antibodies against the virus or direct detection of the virus itself through polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. There is no cure for EBV infection, and treatment is generally supportive, focusing on relieving symptoms and managing complications. Prevention measures include practicing good hygiene, avoiding close contact with infected individuals, and not sharing personal items such as toothbrushes or drinking glasses.

Sequence homology in nucleic acids refers to the similarity or identity between the nucleotide sequences of two or more DNA or RNA molecules. It is often used as a measure of biological relationship between genes, organisms, or populations. High sequence homology suggests a recent common ancestry or functional constraint, while low sequence homology may indicate a more distant relationship or different functions.

Nucleic acid sequence homology can be determined by various methods such as pairwise alignment, multiple sequence alignment, and statistical analysis. The degree of homology is typically expressed as a percentage of identical or similar nucleotides in a given window of comparison.

It's important to note that the interpretation of sequence homology depends on the biological context and the evolutionary distance between the sequences compared. Therefore, functional and experimental validation is often necessary to confirm the significance of sequence homology.

The gp100 melanoma antigen, also known as Pmel17 or gp100, is a protein found on the surface of melanocytes, which are the pigment-producing cells in the skin. It is overexpressed in melanoma cells and can be recognized by the immune system as a foreign target, making it an attractive candidate for cancer immunotherapy. The gp100 protein plays a role in the formation and transport of melanosomes, which are organelles involved in the production and distribution of melanin. In melanoma, mutations or abnormal regulation of gp100 can contribute to uncontrolled cell growth and survival, leading to the development of cancer. The gp100 protein is used as a target for various immunotherapeutic approaches, such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies, to stimulate an immune response against melanoma cells.

A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when it is attached to a larger carrier protein. On its own, a hapten is too small to be recognized by the immune system as a foreign substance. However, when it binds to a carrier protein, it creates a new antigenic site that can be detected by the immune system. This process is known as haptenization.

Haptens are important in the study of immunology and allergies because they can cause an allergic response when they bind to proteins in the body. For example, certain chemicals found in cosmetics, drugs, or industrial products can act as haptens and trigger an allergic reaction when they come into contact with the skin or mucous membranes. The resulting immune response can cause symptoms such as rash, itching, or inflammation.

Haptens can also be used in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tests, where they are attached to carrier proteins to stimulate an immune response and produce specific antibodies that can be measured or used for therapy.

HLA-B44 is a subtype of the HLA-B antigens, which are part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. The HLA complex is located on chromosome 6 and encodes cell surface proteins that play a crucial role in the immune system by presenting peptides to T-cells.

HLA-B44 is a specific serological antigen defined by antibodies. It is further divided into several subtypes, including HLA-B*44:01, HLA-B*44:02, and others. These subtypes differ in their amino acid sequences and may have different peptide-binding specificities.

The HLA-B44 antigen is associated with several diseases, including psoriasis, Behçet's disease, and certain types of cancer. However, the association between HLA-B44 and these diseases is not fully understood, and it is likely that multiple genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

Adoptive transfer is a medical procedure in which immune cells are transferred from a donor to a recipient with the aim of providing immunity or treating a disease, such as cancer. This technique is often used in the field of immunotherapy and involves isolating specific immune cells (like T-cells) from the donor, expanding their numbers in the laboratory, and then infusing them into the patient. The transferred cells are expected to recognize and attack the target cells, such as malignant or infected cells, leading to a therapeutic effect. This process requires careful matching of donor and recipient to minimize the risk of rejection and graft-versus-host disease.

I must clarify that the term "pedigree" is not typically used in medical definitions. Instead, it is often employed in genetics and breeding, where it refers to the recorded ancestry of an individual or a family, tracing the inheritance of specific traits or diseases. In human genetics, a pedigree can help illustrate the pattern of genetic inheritance in families over multiple generations. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical definition.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Heterophile antigens are a type of antigen that can induce an immune response in multiple species, not just the one they originate from. They are called "heterophile" because they exhibit cross-reactivity with antibodies produced against different antigens from other species. A common example of heterophile antigens is the Forssman antigen, which can be found in various animals such as guinea pigs, rabbits, and humans.

Heterophile antibody tests are often used in diagnostic medicine to detect certain infections or autoimmune disorders. One well-known example is the Paul-Bunnell test, which was historically used to diagnose infectious mononucleosis (IM) caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The test detects heterophile antibodies produced against EBV antigens that cross-react with sheep red blood cells. However, this test has been largely replaced by more specific and sensitive EBV antibody tests.

It is important to note that heterophile antibody tests can sometimes produce false positive results due to the presence of these cross-reactive antibodies in individuals who have not been infected with the targeted pathogen. Therefore, it is crucial to interpret test results cautiously and consider them alongside clinical symptoms, medical history, and other diagnostic findings.

Human chromosome pair 6 consists of two rod-shaped structures present in the nucleus of each human cell. They are identical in size and shape and contain genetic material, made up of DNA and proteins, that is essential for the development and function of the human body.

Chromosome pair 6 is one of the 23 pairs of chromosomes found in humans, with one chromosome inherited from each parent. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes that provide instructions for the production of proteins and regulate various cellular processes.

Chromosome pair 6 contains several important genes, including those involved in the development and function of the immune system, such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. It also contains genes associated with certain genetic disorders, such as hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP), a condition that affects the nerves, and Waardenburg syndrome, a disorder that affects pigmentation and hearing.

Abnormalities in chromosome pair 6 can lead to various genetic disorders, including numerical abnormalities such as trisomy 6 (three copies of chromosome 6) or monosomy 6 (only one copy of chromosome 6), as well as structural abnormalities such as deletions, duplications, or translocations of parts of the chromosome.

Inbred NOD (Nonobese Diabetic) mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically predisposed to develop autoimmune diabetes. This strain was originally developed in Japan and has been widely used as an animal model for studying type 1 diabetes and its complications.

NOD mice typically develop diabetes spontaneously at around 12-14 weeks of age, although the onset and severity of the disease can vary between individual mice. The disease is caused by a breakdown in immune tolerance, leading to an autoimmune attack on the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

Inbred NOD mice are highly valuable for research purposes because they exhibit many of the same genetic and immunological features as human patients with type 1 diabetes. By studying these mice, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the disease and develop new treatments and therapies.

The proteasome endopeptidase complex is a large protein complex found in the cells of eukaryotic organisms, as well as in archaea and some bacteria. It plays a crucial role in the degradation of damaged or unneeded proteins through a process called proteolysis. The proteasome complex contains multiple subunits, including both regulatory and catalytic particles.

The catalytic core of the proteasome is composed of four stacked rings, each containing seven subunits, forming a structure known as the 20S core particle. Three of these rings are made up of beta-subunits that contain the proteolytic active sites, while the fourth ring consists of alpha-subunits that control access to the interior of the complex.

The regulatory particles, called 19S or 11S regulators, cap the ends of the 20S core particle and are responsible for recognizing, unfolding, and translocating targeted proteins into the catalytic chamber. The proteasome endopeptidase complex can cleave peptide bonds in various ways, including hydrolysis of ubiquitinated proteins, which is an essential mechanism for maintaining protein quality control and regulating numerous cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, signal transduction, and stress response.

In summary, the proteasome endopeptidase complex is a crucial intracellular machinery responsible for targeted protein degradation through proteolysis, contributing to various essential regulatory functions in cells.

A genetic vector is a vehicle, often a plasmid or a virus, that is used to introduce foreign DNA into a host cell as part of genetic engineering or gene therapy techniques. The vector contains the desired gene or genes, along with regulatory elements such as promoters and enhancers, which are needed for the expression of the gene in the target cells.

The choice of vector depends on several factors, including the size of the DNA to be inserted, the type of cell to be targeted, and the efficiency of uptake and expression required. Commonly used vectors include plasmids, adenoviruses, retroviruses, and lentiviruses.

Plasmids are small circular DNA molecules that can replicate independently in bacteria. They are often used as cloning vectors to amplify and manipulate DNA fragments. Adenoviruses are double-stranded DNA viruses that infect a wide range of host cells, including human cells. They are commonly used as gene therapy vectors because they can efficiently transfer genes into both dividing and non-dividing cells.

Retroviruses and lentiviruses are RNA viruses that integrate their genetic material into the host cell's genome. This allows for stable expression of the transgene over time. Lentiviruses, a subclass of retroviruses, have the advantage of being able to infect non-dividing cells, making them useful for gene therapy applications in post-mitotic tissues such as neurons and muscle cells.

Overall, genetic vectors play a crucial role in modern molecular biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study gene function, develop new therapies, and modify organisms for various purposes.

Stem cell transplantation is a medical procedure where stem cells, which are immature and unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types, are introduced into a patient. The main purpose of this procedure is to restore the function of damaged or destroyed tissues or organs, particularly in conditions that affect the blood and immune systems, such as leukemia, lymphoma, aplastic anemia, and inherited metabolic disorders.

There are two primary types of stem cell transplantation: autologous and allogeneic. In autologous transplantation, the patient's own stem cells are collected, stored, and then reinfused back into their body after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy the diseased cells. In allogeneic transplantation, stem cells are obtained from a donor (related or unrelated) whose human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type closely matches that of the recipient.

The process involves several steps: first, the patient undergoes conditioning therapy to suppress their immune system and make space for the new stem cells. Then, the harvested stem cells are infused into the patient's bloodstream, where they migrate to the bone marrow and begin to differentiate and produce new blood cells. This procedure requires close monitoring and supportive care to manage potential complications such as infections, graft-versus-host disease, and organ damage.

"Competitive binding" is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry to describe the behavior of two or more molecules (ligands) competing for the same binding site on a target protein or receptor. In this context, "binding" refers to the physical interaction between a ligand and its target.

When a ligand binds to a receptor, it can alter the receptor's function, either activating or inhibiting it. If multiple ligands compete for the same binding site, they will compete to bind to the receptor. The ability of each ligand to bind to the receptor is influenced by its affinity for the receptor, which is a measure of how strongly and specifically the ligand binds to the receptor.

In competitive binding, if one ligand is present in high concentrations, it can prevent other ligands with lower affinity from binding to the receptor. This is because the higher-affinity ligand will have a greater probability of occupying the binding site and blocking access to the other ligands. The competition between ligands can be described mathematically using equations such as the Langmuir isotherm, which describes the relationship between the concentration of ligand and the fraction of receptors that are occupied by the ligand.

Competitive binding is an important concept in drug development, as it can be used to predict how different drugs will interact with their targets and how they may affect each other's activity. By understanding the competitive binding properties of a drug, researchers can optimize its dosage and delivery to maximize its therapeutic effect while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

CD1d is a type of antigen presenting molecule that is expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, including dendritic cells and B cells. Unlike classical MHC molecules, which present peptide antigens to T cells, CD1d presents lipid antigens to a specific subset of T cells called natural killer T (NKT) cells.

CD1d is composed of an alpha-helical heavy chain and a beta-2 microglobulin light chain, and it has a hydrophobic binding groove that can accommodate lipid antigens. CD1d-restricted NKT cells recognize and respond to these lipid antigens through their invariant T cell receptor (TCR), leading to the rapid production of cytokines and the activation of various immune responses.

CD1d-restricted NKT cells have been implicated in a variety of immunological functions, including the regulation of autoimmunity, antitumor immunity, and infectious disease.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a network of interconnected tubules and sacs that are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. It is a continuous membranous organelle that plays a crucial role in the synthesis, folding, modification, and transport of proteins and lipids.

The ER has two main types: rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER). RER is covered with ribosomes, which give it a rough appearance, and is responsible for protein synthesis. On the other hand, SER lacks ribosomes and is involved in lipid synthesis, drug detoxification, calcium homeostasis, and steroid hormone production.

In summary, the endoplasmic reticulum is a vital organelle that functions in various cellular processes, including protein and lipid metabolism, calcium regulation, and detoxification.

HLA-DRB3 chains are part of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, which is located on chromosome 6 and plays a critical role in the immune system. The HLA system encodes proteins that present pieces of protein or peptides to T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response.

HLA-DRB3 chains are specifically part of the HLA class II antigens, which are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells such as B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and macrophages. The HLA-DRB3 gene encodes for the beta-chain of the HLA-DRB3 heterodimer, which is a complex formed by the association of an alpha and a beta chain.

HLA-DRB3 chains are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variants of this protein in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of peptides to be presented to T-cells, enhancing the immune system's ability to recognize and respond to a variety of pathogens.

It is worth noting that HLA-DRB3 chains are not present in all individuals, as some people may have null or deletion alleles that prevent the expression of this protein. Additionally, HLA-DRB3 chains have been associated with certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis, although the exact role of these proteins in the development of these conditions is not fully understood.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a type of herpesvirus that can cause infection in humans. It is characterized by the enlargement of infected cells (cytomegaly) and is typically transmitted through close contact with an infected person, such as through saliva, urine, breast milk, or sexual contact.

CMV infection can also be acquired through organ transplantation, blood transfusions, or during pregnancy from mother to fetus. While many people infected with CMV experience no symptoms, it can cause serious complications in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing cancer treatment or those who have HIV/AIDS.

In newborns, congenital CMV infection can lead to hearing loss, vision problems, and developmental delays. Pregnant women who become infected with CMV for the first time during pregnancy are at higher risk of transmitting the virus to their unborn child. There is no cure for CMV, but antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce the risk of complications in severe cases.

HLA-DRB4 chains are a type of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II protein. The MHC class II proteins are found on the surface of certain immune cells and play a critical role in the immune system by presenting pieces of foreign particles, such as viruses and bacteria, to T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that is involved in the immune response.

HLA-DRB4 is a specific gene that codes for one part, or chain, of the HLA-DR MHC class II protein. The HLA-DR protein is made up of two chains: an alpha (DRA) chain and a beta (DRB) chain. There are several different genes that can code for the DRB chain, including HLA-DRB1, HLA-DRB3, HLA-DRB4, HLA-DRB5, and HLA-DRB6. Each of these genes codes for a slightly different version of the DRB chain, and individuals may have any combination of these chains.

HLA-DRB4 chains are found in a minority of the population and have been associated with an increased risk of certain autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. However, it is important to note that having an HLA-DRB4 chain does not guarantee that an individual will develop one of these conditions, as the development of autoimmune disease is influenced by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

A precipitin test is a type of immunodiagnostic test used to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum. The test is based on the principle of antigen-antibody interaction, where the addition of an antigen to a solution containing its corresponding antibody results in the formation of an insoluble immune complex known as a precipitin.

In this test, a small amount of the patient's serum is added to a solution containing a known antigen or antibody. If the patient has antibodies or antigens that correspond to the added reagent, they will bind and form a visible precipitate. The size and density of the precipitate can be used to quantify the amount of antibody or antigen present in the sample.

Precipitin tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. They can also be used in forensic science to identify biological samples. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern immunological techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and radioimmunoassays (RIAs).

Simian Virus 40 (SV40) is a polyomavirus that is found in both monkeys and humans. It is a DNA virus that has been extensively studied in laboratory settings due to its ability to transform cells and cause tumors in animals. In fact, SV40 was discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines that were prepared using rhesus monkey kidney cells in the 1950s and 1960s.

SV40 is not typically associated with human disease, but there has been some concern that exposure to the virus through contaminated vaccines or other means could increase the risk of certain types of cancer, such as mesothelioma and brain tumors. However, most studies have failed to find a consistent link between SV40 infection and cancer in humans.

The medical community generally agrees that SV40 is not a significant public health threat, but researchers continue to study the virus to better understand its biology and potential impact on human health.

A binding site on an antibody refers to the specific region on the surface of the antibody molecule that can recognize and bind to a specific antigen. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of foreign substances called antigens. They have two main functions: to neutralize the harmful effects of antigens and to help eliminate them from the body.

The binding site of an antibody is located at the tips of its Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of the antibody molecule. These regions contain unique amino acid sequences that determine the specificity of the antibody for a particular antigen. The binding site can recognize and bind to a specific epitope or region on the antigen, forming an antigen-antibody complex.

The binding between the antibody and antigen is highly specific and depends on non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and electrostatic attractions. This interaction plays a crucial role in the immune response, as it allows the immune system to recognize and eliminate pathogens and other foreign substances from the body.

Langerhans cells are specialized dendritic cells that are found in the epithelium, including the skin (where they are named after Paul Langerhans who first described them in 1868) and mucous membranes. They play a crucial role in the immune system as antigen-presenting cells, contributing to the initiation of immune responses.

These cells contain Birbeck granules, unique organelles that are involved in the transportation of antigens from the cell surface to the lysosomes for processing and presentation to T-cells. Langerhans cells also produce cytokines, which help regulate immune responses and attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

It is important to note that although Langerhans cells are a part of the immune system, they can sometimes contribute to the development of certain skin disorders, such as allergic contact dermatitis and some forms of cancer, like Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

Cysteine endopeptidases are a type of enzymes that cleave peptide bonds within proteins. They are also known as cysteine proteases or cysteine proteinases. These enzymes contain a catalytic triad consisting of three amino acids: cysteine, histidine, and aspartate. The thiol group (-SH) of the cysteine residue acts as a nucleophile and attacks the carbonyl carbon of the peptide bond, leading to its cleavage.

Cysteine endopeptidases play important roles in various biological processes, including protein degradation, cell signaling, and inflammation. They are involved in many physiological and pathological conditions, such as apoptosis, immune response, and cancer. Some examples of cysteine endopeptidases include cathepsins, caspases, and calpains.

It is important to note that these enzymes require a reducing environment to maintain the reduced state of their active site cysteine residue. Therefore, they are sensitive to oxidizing agents and inhibitors that target the thiol group. Understanding the structure and function of cysteine endopeptidases is crucial for developing therapeutic strategies that target these enzymes in various diseases.

Complementary DNA (cDNA) is a type of DNA that is synthesized from a single-stranded RNA molecule through the process of reverse transcription. In this process, the enzyme reverse transcriptase uses an RNA molecule as a template to synthesize a complementary DNA strand. The resulting cDNA is therefore complementary to the original RNA molecule and is a copy of its coding sequence, but it does not contain non-coding regions such as introns that are present in genomic DNA.

Complementary DNA is often used in molecular biology research to study gene expression, protein function, and other genetic phenomena. For example, cDNA can be used to create cDNA libraries, which are collections of cloned cDNA fragments that represent the expressed genes in a particular cell type or tissue. These libraries can then be screened for specific genes or gene products of interest. Additionally, cDNA can be used to produce recombinant proteins in heterologous expression systems, allowing researchers to study the structure and function of proteins that may be difficult to express or purify from their native sources.

A chimera, in the context of medicine and biology, is a single organism that is composed of cells with different genetics. This can occur naturally in some situations, such as when fraternal twins do not fully separate in utero and end up sharing some organs or tissues. The term "chimera" can also refer to an organism that contains cells from two different species, which can happen in certain types of genetic research or medical treatments. For example, a patient's cells might be genetically modified in a lab and then introduced into their body to treat a disease; if some of these modified cells mix with the patient's original cells, the result could be a chimera.

It's worth noting that the term "chimera" comes from Greek mythology, where it referred to a fire-breathing monster that was part lion, part goat, and part snake. In modern scientific usage, the term has a specific technical meaning related to genetics and organisms, but it may still evoke images of fantastical creatures for some people.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are large molecules found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. They consist of a hydrophilic polysaccharide called the O-antigen, a core oligosaccharide, and a lipid portion known as Lipid A. The Lipid A component is responsible for the endotoxic activity of LPS, which can trigger a powerful immune response in animals, including humans. This response can lead to symptoms such as fever, inflammation, and septic shock, especially when large amounts of LPS are introduced into the bloodstream.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

I'm assuming you are asking for information about "Ly" antigens in the context of human immune system and immunology.

Ly (Lymphocyte) antigens are a group of cell surface markers found on human leukocytes, including T cells, NK cells, and some B cells. These antigens were originally identified through serological analysis and were historically used to distinguish different subsets of lymphocytes based on their surface phenotype.

The "Ly" nomenclature has been largely replaced by the CD (Cluster of Differentiation) system, which is a more standardized and internationally recognized classification system for cell surface markers. However, some Ly antigens are still commonly referred to by their historical names, such as:

* Ly-1 or CD5: A marker found on mature T cells, including both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets.
* Ly-2 or CD8: A marker found on cytotoxic T cells, which are a subset of CD8+ T cells that can directly kill infected or damaged cells.
* Ly-3 or CD56: A marker found on natural killer (NK) cells, which are a type of immune cell that can recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells without the need for prior activation.

It's worth noting that while these antigens were originally identified through serological analysis, they are now more commonly detected using flow cytometry, which allows for the simultaneous measurement of multiple surface markers on individual cells. This has greatly expanded our ability to identify and characterize different subsets of immune cells and has led to a better understanding of their roles in health and disease.

Regulatory T-lymphocytes (Tregs), also known as suppressor T cells, are a subpopulation of T-cells that play a critical role in maintaining immune tolerance and preventing autoimmune diseases. They function to suppress the activation and proliferation of other immune cells, thereby regulating the immune response and preventing it from attacking the body's own tissues.

Tregs constitutively express the surface markers CD4 and CD25, as well as the transcription factor Foxp3, which is essential for their development and function. They can be further divided into subsets based on their expression of other markers, such as CD127 and CD45RA.

Tregs are critical for maintaining self-tolerance by suppressing the activation of self-reactive T cells that have escaped negative selection in the thymus. They also play a role in regulating immune responses to foreign antigens, such as those encountered during infection or cancer, and can contribute to the immunosuppressive microenvironment found in tumors.

Dysregulation of Tregs has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis, as well as in cancer and infectious diseases. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate Treg function is an important area of research with potential therapeutic implications.

"Chickens" is a common term used to refer to the domesticated bird, Gallus gallus domesticus, which is widely raised for its eggs and meat. However, in medical terms, "chickens" is not a standard term with a specific definition. If you have any specific medical concern or question related to chickens, such as food safety or allergies, please provide more details so I can give a more accurate answer.

Hemocyanin is a copper-containing protein found in the blood of some mollusks and arthropods, responsible for oxygen transport. Unlike hemoglobin in vertebrates, which uses iron to bind oxygen, hemocyanins have copper ions that reversibly bind to oxygen, turning the blood blue when oxygenated. When deoxygenated, the color of the blood is pale blue-gray. Hemocyanins are typically found in a multi-subunit form and are released into the hemolymph (the equivalent of blood in vertebrates) upon exposure to air or oxygen. They play a crucial role in supplying oxygen to various tissues and organs within these invertebrate organisms.

HLA-DR5 is a type of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) Class II histocompatibility antigen. HLAs are proteins found on the surface of cells that help the immune system recognize and distinguish foreign substances from the body's own cells. The HLA-DR5 antigen is further divided into two subtypes, DR51 and DR52, which are encoded by different genes.

The HLA-DR5 antigen is commonly found in approximately 10-15% of the human population and has been associated with an increased risk of developing certain autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and multiple sclerosis. However, it's important to note that having the HLA-DR5 antigen does not guarantee that a person will develop one of these conditions, and many people with the antigen never develop any autoimmune diseases.

It's also worth mentioning that HLA typing is used in organ transplantation to match donors and recipients and reduce the risk of rejection. The HLA-DR5 antigen is one of several HLAs that may be considered during this process.

Immunity, in medical terms, refers to the body's ability to resist or fight against harmful foreign substances or organisms such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. This resistance is achieved through various mechanisms, including the production of antibodies, the activation of immune cells like T-cells and B-cells, and the release of cytokines and other chemical messengers that help coordinate the immune response.

There are two main types of immunity: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity is the body's first line of defense against infection and involves nonspecific mechanisms such as physical barriers (e.g., skin and mucous membranes), chemical barriers (e.g., stomach acid and enzymes), and inflammatory responses. Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is specific to particular pathogens and involves the activation of T-cells and B-cells, which recognize and remember specific antigens (foreign substances that trigger an immune response). This allows the body to mount a more rapid and effective response to subsequent exposures to the same pathogen.

Immunity can be acquired through natural means, such as when a person recovers from an infection and develops immunity to that particular pathogen, or artificially, through vaccination. Vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of a pathogen or its components, which stimulate the immune system to produce a response without causing the disease. This response provides protection against future infections with that same pathogen.

CD95 (also known as Fas or APO-1) is a type of cell surface receptor that can bind to specific proteins and trigger programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. It is an important regulator of the immune system and helps to control the activation and deletion of immune cells. CD95 ligand (CD95L), the protein that binds to CD95, is expressed on activated T-cells and can induce apoptosis in other cells that express CD95, including other T-cells and tumor cells.

An antigen is any substance that can stimulate an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of immune cells. In the context of CD95, antigens may refer to substances that can induce the expression of CD95 on the surface of cells, making them susceptible to CD95L-mediated apoptosis. These antigens could include viral proteins, tumor antigens, or other substances that trigger an immune response.

Therefore, the medical definition of 'antigens, CD95' may refer to substances that can induce the expression of CD95 on the surface of cells and make them targets for CD95L-mediated apoptosis.

A "mutant strain of mice" in a medical context refers to genetically engineered mice that have specific genetic mutations introduced into their DNA. These mutations can be designed to mimic certain human diseases or conditions, allowing researchers to study the underlying biological mechanisms and test potential therapies in a controlled laboratory setting.

Mutant strains of mice are created through various techniques, including embryonic stem cell manipulation, gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, and radiation-induced mutagenesis. These methods allow scientists to introduce specific genetic changes into the mouse genome, resulting in mice that exhibit altered physiological or behavioral traits.

These strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research because their short lifespan, small size, and high reproductive rate make them an ideal model organism for studying human diseases. Additionally, the mouse genome has been well-characterized, and many genetic tools and resources are available to researchers working with these animals.

Examples of mutant strains of mice include those that carry mutations in genes associated with cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases, and immunological conditions. These mice provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of human diseases and help advance our understanding of potential therapeutic interventions.

Hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is a protein found in the core of the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It is present during active replication of the virus and plays a crucial role in the formation of the viral capsid or core. The antibodies produced against HBcAg (anti-HBc) can be detected in the blood, which serves as a marker for current or past HBV infection. It is important to note that HBcAg itself is not detectable in the blood because it is confined within the viral particle. However, during the serological testing of hepatitis B, the detection of anti-HBc IgM indicates a recent acute infection, while the presence of anti-HBc IgG suggests either a past resolved infection or an ongoing chronic infection.

Cell compartmentation, also known as intracellular compartmentalization, refers to the organization of cells into distinct functional and spatial domains. This is achieved through the separation of cellular components and biochemical reactions into membrane-bound organelles or compartments. Each compartment has its unique chemical composition and environment, allowing for specific biochemical reactions to occur efficiently and effectively without interfering with other processes in the cell.

Some examples of membrane-bound organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and vacuoles. These organelles have specific functions, such as energy production (mitochondria), protein synthesis and folding (endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus), waste management (lysosomes), and lipid metabolism (peroxisomes).

Cell compartmentation is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, regulating metabolic pathways, protecting the cell from potentially harmful substances, and enabling complex biochemical reactions to occur in a controlled manner. Dysfunction of cell compartmentation can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Lymphoid tissue is a specialized type of connective tissue that is involved in the immune function of the body. It is composed of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying infected or cancerous cells. Lymphoid tissue can be found throughout the body, but it is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches in the small intestine.

Lymphoid tissue provides a site for the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes, which are critical components of the adaptive immune response. It also serves as a filter for foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that may enter the body through various routes. The lymphatic system, which includes lymphoid tissue, helps to maintain the health and integrity of the body by protecting it from infection and disease.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

Epithelium is the tissue that covers the outer surface of the body, lines the internal cavities and organs, and forms various glands. It is composed of one or more layers of tightly packed cells that have a uniform shape and size, and rest on a basement membrane. Epithelial tissues are avascular, meaning they do not contain blood vessels, and are supplied with nutrients by diffusion from the underlying connective tissue.

Epithelial cells perform a variety of functions, including protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, and sensation. They can be classified based on their shape and the number of cell layers they contain. The main types of epithelium are:

1. Squamous epithelium: composed of flat, scalelike cells that fit together like tiles on a roof. It forms the lining of blood vessels, air sacs in the lungs, and the outermost layer of the skin.
2. Cuboidal epithelium: composed of cube-shaped cells with equal height and width. It is found in glands, tubules, and ducts.
3. Columnar epithelium: composed of tall, rectangular cells that are taller than they are wide. It lines the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive tracts.
4. Pseudostratified epithelium: appears stratified or layered but is actually made up of a single layer of cells that vary in height. The nuclei of these cells appear at different levels, giving the tissue a stratified appearance. It lines the respiratory and reproductive tracts.
5. Transitional epithelium: composed of several layers of cells that can stretch and change shape to accommodate changes in volume. It is found in the urinary bladder and ureters.

Epithelial tissue provides a barrier between the internal and external environments, protecting the body from physical, chemical, and biological damage. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating the exchange of substances between the body and its environment.

Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1), also known as CD54, is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surface of various cell types including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells. ICAM-1 plays a crucial role in the inflammatory response and the immune system by mediating the adhesion of leukocytes (white blood cells) to the endothelium, allowing them to migrate into surrounding tissues during an immune response or inflammation.

ICAM-1 contains five immunoglobulin-like domains in its extracellular region and binds to several integrins present on leukocytes, such as LFA-1 (lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1) and Mac-1 (macrophage-1 antigen). This interaction facilitates the firm adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium, which is a critical step in the extravasation process.

In addition to its role in inflammation and immunity, ICAM-1 has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including atherosclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune diseases. Increased expression of ICAM-1 on endothelial cells is associated with the recruitment of immune cells to sites of injury or infection, making it an important target for therapeutic interventions in various inflammatory disorders.

T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) specificity refers to the ability of a T-cell's antigen receptor to recognize and bind to a specific antigenic peptide presented in the context of a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell. The TCR is a protein complex found on the surface of T-cells, which plays a critical role in adaptive immunity by identifying and responding to infected or cancerous cells.

The specificity of the TCR is determined by the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) within its variable domains. These CDRs form a binding site that recognizes and interacts with a specific epitope, typically an 8-12 amino acid long peptide, presented in the groove of an MHC molecule. The TCR-antigen interaction is highly specific, allowing T-cells to distinguish between self and non-self antigens and initiate an appropriate immune response.

In summary, T-cell antigen receptor specificity refers to the unique ability of a T-cell's antigen receptor to recognize and bind to a specific antigenic peptide presented in the context of an MHC molecule, which is critical for the initiation and regulation of adaptive immune responses.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

"Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-454 ... Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute ... Czaja, Albert J.; Donaldson, Peter T. (August 2002). "Gender effects and synergisms with histocompatibility leukocyte antigens ... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... The stable MHC class II + antigen complex is then presented on the cell surface. Without CLIP, MHC class II aggregates ... "cDNA clone for the human invariant gamma chain of class II histocompatibility antigens and its implications for the protein ... "Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class II histocompatibility antigens". Nucleic Acids Research ...
"Purification and characterization of class II histocompatibility antigens from a homozygous human B cell line". J. Biol. Chem. ... Ultimately, papain-solubilized fragments of the human class II MHC antigens HLA-DR1, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, HLA-DR7, and ... Nathenson, S. G.; Davies, D. A. (1966). "Solubilization and partial purification of mouse histocompatibility antigens from a ... "Complete amino acid sequence of a papain-solubilized human histocompatibility antigen, HLA-B7. 2. Sequence determination and ...
In different studies, rheumatoid arthritis is strongly linked to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens. The ... depending on whether their TCR recognizes an MHC class I-presented antigen (CD8) or an MHC class II-presented antigen (CD4). It ... Antigens inside a cell are bound to class I MHC molecules, and brought to the surface of the cell by the class I MHC molecule, ... If the TCR is specific for that antigen, it binds to the complex of the class I MHC molecule and the antigen, and the T cell ...
Labarrere C, Faulk W (1990). "MHC Class II Reactivity of Human Villous Trophoblast in Chronic Inflammation of Unestablished ... Majority of the antigen-presenting cells were Hofbauer cells (macrophages) were of foetal origin. Perivillous monocyte- ... Class 2 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on macrophages are up-regulated at sites of VUE. Neutrophils should not ... Focal has involved villi on only one glass slide, while multifocal has involved villi on at least two slides. High grade ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(6) alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQA2 gene. Also ... 1984). "Isotypic and allotypic variation of human class II histocompatibility antigen alpha-chain genes". Nature. 308 (5957): ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. Comparisons of the DQ and DX alpha and beta genes". J. ...
"Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31. ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... cells from epidermal cell suspensions containing keratinocytes expressing class II transplantation antigens". Scand. J. Immunol ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRA gene. HLA-DRA ... "Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... The polypeptide subunit encoded by this gene belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. The class II protein is a ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ...
... tolerance can be established in vitro and in vivo for both MHC class I and II as well as minor histocompatibility antigens. ... This means that T-cells with a T-cell receptor specific to antigens presented on the veto cell, bind to the veto cell, and are ... Because veto cells can only suppress T-cell progenitors that are directed against antigens on the veto cells themselves, but ... Veto activity is thought to be a form of antigen-specific suppression that maintains continuous self-tolerance. Cells with veto ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene. DRB1 ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer ... Class II molecules are constitutively expressed in professional antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DRB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1". Gregersen PK, Silver J, Winchester RJ (November ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... DO suppresses peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by inhibiting HLA-DM. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen ... "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. The DO beta gene is a divergent member of the class II beta gene ... class II, DO beta". Beck S, Kelly A, Radley E, et al. (1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DMB gene. HLA-DMB ... DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP (class II-associated ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DX beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQB2 gene. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. Comparisons of the DQ and DX alpha and beta genes". J. ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQB2 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 2". Piatier-Tonneau D, Gastinel LN, Amblard F, et al ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOA gene. HLA-DOA ... class II, DO alpha". Piatier-Tonneau D, Gastinel LN, Amblard F, et al. (1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... "Isolation and characterization of the cDNA clone and genomic clones of a new HLA class II antigen heavy chain, DO alpha". J. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DMA gene. HLA-DMA ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... Comparison of the gene organization of all six class II families in the human major histocompatibility complex". J. Biol. Chem ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB5 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB5 gene. The ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DRB5 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5". Lau M, Terasaki PI, Park MS (1995). " ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
Major histocompatibility complex Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DP "Entrez Gene: HLA-DPA1 major histocompatibility complex, class ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1, also known as HLA-DPA1, is a human gene. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP(W2) beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene. HLA-DPB ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... 1991). "Modulation of the HLA class II antigen at a molecular level by maternal serum among cord blood cells and unrelated ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DPB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta 1". Mitsunaga S, Kuwata S, Tokunaga K, et al. (1992 ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB3-1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB3 gene. The ... class II, DR beta 3". Germain RN (1996). "Binding domain regulation of MHC class II molecule assembly, trafficking, fate, and ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
"Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2". Nature. 329 (6139): 506-12. Bibcode:1987Natur.329..506B. ... Wang Z, Cao Y, Albino AP, Zeff RA, Houghton A, Ferrone S (February 1993). "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma ... Saper MA, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (May 1991). "Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A ... β2 microglobulin (B2M) is a component of MHC class I molecules. MHC class I molecules have α1, α2, and α3 proteins which are ...
Major histocompatibility complex Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQB1 major histocompatibility complex, class ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 3, also known as HLA-DQB3, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic ... While the overall sequence of the protein encoded by this gene is similar to other HLA class II beta chains, the translated ... "Mapping and nucleotide sequence of a new HLA class II light chain gene, DQB3". Immunogenetics. 30 (4): 243-9. doi:10.1007/ ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain) at the PDBe-KB. v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, also known as HLA-DQB1, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ...
1982 Inducible expression of class II major histocompatibility complex antigens and the immunogenicity of vascular endothelium ... "Two NYU Scientists Named Fellows of the New York Academy of Sciences". New York University. Carol Shoshkes Reiss publications ... explored the responses of helper T cell responses to influenza and mapped critical domains of class I Major Histocompatibility ... Reiss published more than 88 peer reviewed papers, and two editions of the book Neurotropic Viral Infections. Sex differences ...
... contains a N-terminal class II histocompatibility antigen, alpha domain and a C-terminal Immunoglobulin C1-set domain. ... It binds in the same location to HLA-DM as MHC class II molecules bind, thereby preventing HLA-DM from binding to MHC class II ... the peptide exchange catalyst that loads antigen onto class II MHC molecules during antigen presentation". Immunity. 9 (3): 377 ... HLA-DO and MHC class II molecules). The structure and sequence of HLA-DM proteins is very similar to other MHC class II ...
"A gene in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region controlling the class I antigen presentation pathway". ... "Two putative subunits of a peptide pump encoded in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region". Proc Natl Acad ... "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J. Mol. ... Trowsdale J, Hanson I, Mockridge I, Beck S, Townsend A, Kelly A (1991). "Sequences encoded in the class II region of the MHC ...
He also found genetic susceptibility to RHD related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Human Leucocyte ... Antigens (HLA) DR-11. Dr Okello joined the Uganda Heart Centre in 2010. In an interview that he gave in 2019, he stated that he ...
Antigen-presenting cells present these tumour antigens via Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I & II to CD8+ T lymphocytes ... Antigen Presenting Cells can present Tumour Associated Antigens to CD8+ and CD4+ T cells via MHC I & II, respectively. The ... Multiple tumour antigens can be targeted simultaneously, generating an immune response to various tumour antigens. Whole tumour ... The whole-cell vaccine simultaneously targets multiple antigens to activate the immune system and induces antigen-specific T- ...
DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation in response to the major histocompatibility antigen (MHC Class I and II) differences ... This cellular response to the histocompatibility antigens that occurs in the MLR is also involved in cell-mediated immune ... In a two-way MLR, both populations can proliferate. MLR's are performed to assess how T-cells react to external stimuli. T ... Tissue Antigens 84:439 (Wikipedia articles that are too technical from April 2016, All articles that are too technical, All ...
... small clusters of microglial cells with enhanced major histocompatibility complex class II antigen, CD45 and CD68 antigen ... Pattern II The scar presents T-cells and macrophages around blood vessels, with preservation of oligodendrocytes, as before, ... Though this pattern could be considered similar to damage seen in NMO, some authors report no AQP4 damage in pattern II lesions ... Garrido C, Levy-Gomes A, Teixeira J, Temudo T (2004). "[Schilder's disease: two new cases and a review of the literature]". ...
... a chicken class II major histocompatibility complex antigen), and T and B-lymphocytes were observed to determine its effects on ... Avian orthoreovirus infection is more common in young birds, because resistance begins to develop from as young as two weeks of ... Of the eleven proteins that are encoded for by the genome, two are nonstructural, while the remaining nine are structural. ... The other four tests detect group antigens. Maternal antibodies have displayed protection against the development of ...
... but the antigens recognized by the infused CD4+ T cells have remained unknown. Here, we describe a simple procedure tha … ... Identification of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted antigens and epitopes of the Epstein-Barr virus by a ... which are subsequently fed to major histocompatibility complex class II+ antigen-presenting cells and probed with antigen- ... This direct antigen identification method is based on the random expression of viral polypeptides fused to chloramphenicol ...
Order Recombinant Rat H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain Cd74 partial 01015839530 at Gentaur H-2 class II ... Ia antigen-associated invariant chain; IiMHC class II-associated invariant chain; CD74 ... Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method. ... Recombinant Rat H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain (Cd74), partial. Biomatik. Size. 1mg. ...
Order Recombinant human HLA class II histocompatibility antigen DP beta 1 chain protein 01014483158 at Gentaur HLA class II ... Recombinant HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain protein Similar name. HLA class II histocompatibility ... Recombinant human HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain protein. SAB. Size. 1mg. ... Our HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain protein is a recombinant Human protein expressed in E.coli with ...
COMPLEX OF THE HUMAN MHC CLASS II GLYCOPROTEIN HLA-DR1 AND THE BACTERIAL SUPERANTIGEN SEB ... HLA CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGEN: AE. HLA CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGEN: BF. ENDOGENOUS PEPTIDE MODEL, POLY-ALA: C ... Jardetzky, T.S. et al., Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen ... COMPLEX OF THE HUMAN MHC CLASS II GLYCOPROTEIN HLA-DR1 AND THE BACTERIAL SUPERANTIGEN SEB Coordinates. PDB Format Method. X-RAY ...
HLA-DR Antigens / genetics * HLA-DRB1 Chains * Histocompatibility Antigens Class II / genetics* ... As human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II polymorphism has been associated with a number of diseases including autoimmune and ... HLA class II polymorphism in cystic fibrosis. A possible modifier of pulmonary phenotype Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1999 May; ...
The HLA-DQA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. Learn about this ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ alpha 1 chain. *HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ alpha 1 chain precursor ... The HLA-DQA1 gene belongs to a group of MHC genes called MHC class II. MHC class II genes provide instructions for making ... The protein produced from the HLA-DQA1 gene attaches (binds) to the protein produced from another MHC class II gene, HLA-DQB1. ...
MHC class-II was also studied in 16 cases of CCH by immunoelectron microscopy. All tumors expressed MHC class-II, and two major ... Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron study of major histocompatibility complex class-II antigen in canine cutaneous ... Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron study of major histocompatibility complex class-II antigen in canine cutaneous ... major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-II immuno-expression and the number of T- and B-lymphocytes and macrophages were ...
Signaling via major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and antigen receptors enhances the B cell response to gp39/ ... Signaling via major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and antigen receptors enhances the B cell response to gp39/ ... Signaling via major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and antigen receptors enhances the B cell response to gp39/ ... Bishop, GA, Warren, WD & Berton, MT 1995, Signaling via major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and antigen ...
Crystal Structure of MHC class I HLA-A2 molecule complexed with HCV NS4b-1807-1816 decapeptide ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-2 alpha chain: A. Beta-2-microglobulin: B. 10-meric peptide from Genome polyprotein: ... Crystal Structure of MHC class I HLA-A2 molecule complexed with HCV NS4b-1807-1816 decapeptide Coordinates. PDB Format Method. ... Gras, S. et al., Crystal Structure of MHC class I HLA-A2 molecule complexed with HCV NS4b-1807-1816 decapeptide. To be ...
HLA CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGEN. A. 181. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-DRA, HLA-DRA1. ... Peptide and peptide mimetic inhibitors of antigen presentation by HLA-DR class II MHC molecules. Design, structure-activity ... and structure-based drug design in the discovery of inhibitors of antigen presentation by MHC class II HLA-DR molecules. ... Molecular features of ligand binding to MHC class II HLA-DR molecules have been elucidated through a combination of peptide ...
"Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-454 ... Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute ... Czaja, Albert J.; Donaldson, Peter T. (August 2002). "Gender effects and synergisms with histocompatibility leukocyte antigens ... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ...
... is a sequela of streptococcal infection-typically following two to three weeks after group A streptococcal pharyngitis-that ... Association of class II human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens with rheumatic fever. J Clin Invest. 1986 Jun. 77 (6):2019- ... No significant association with class-I human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) has been found, but an increase in class-II HLA ... Patient Education. Patients should be educated to seek medical attention upon the first signs of pharyngitis. Once the disease ...
Beta-2-microglobulinH-2 class I histocompatibility antigen, K-B alpha chainSendai virus nucleoproteinGLYCEROL ... 4PG9: MHC Class I in complex with Sendai virus nucleoprotein peptide FAPGNYPAL. ...
Statins might exert antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting the major histocompatibility complex class II pathway of antigen ... D. Statins may inhibit the major histocompatibility complex class II pathway of antigen presentation ... Ghittoni R, Napolitani G, Benati D, Ulivieri C, Patrussi L, Laghi Pasini F, et al. Simvastatin inhibits the MHC class II ... To complete the questions (with a minimum 75% passing score) and earn continuing medical education (CME) credit, please go to ...
Autophagy has also been shown to enhance the major histocompatibility complex presentation of at least two viral proteins, the ... for example by providing viral endogenous antigens for loading onto major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II ... and consequently its MHC class II presentation. In contrast, the MHC class II presentation of two other EBV latent proteins, ... Gannage, M.; Munz, C. Monitoring macroautophagy by major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of targeted antigens ...
A matrix approach to human class II histocompatibility antigens: reactions of four monoclonal antibodies with the products of ... Differential expression of HLA class II antigens in fetal human spleen: relationship of HLA-DP, DQ, and DR to immunoglobulin ... Triple immunofluorescence evaluation of CD15, CD34 and class II expression by flow cytometry in normal and leukemic bone ... Lampson LA, Levy R. Two populations of Ia-like molecules on a human B cell line.. J Immunol. 1980; 125(1):293-9. (Biology). ...
... class II antigen. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by genes within the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Complex located on chromosome 6 ... class II antigen. HLA-DR antigens are encoded by genes within the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Complex located on chromosome 6 ... This molecule plays a major role in mediating cellular interactions during antigen presentation to CD4-positive T cells. ,/span ... This molecule plays a major role in mediating cellular interactions during antigen presentation to CD4-positive T cells. ,/span ...
... major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha; MHC cell surface glycoprotein; MHC class II antigen DRA; MHC Class II DR ... FLJ51114; histocompatibility antigen HLA-DR alpha; HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain; HLADR; HLA-DR; HLA- ... HLA-DR is a transmembrane human major histocompatibility complex 2 (MHC II) family member and consists of a 34 kDa (alpha) ... This interaction is central to antigen specificity in the adaptive immune response. HLA-DR alleles, polymorphisms, and aberrant ...
PDB Compounds: (D:) hla class II histocompatibility antigen, dr alpha chain. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1t5wd1:. Sequence; ... Protein Class II MHC alpha chain, C-terminal domain [88618] (7 species). ... Class II MHC alpha chain, C-terminal domain {Human (Homo sapiens), HLA-DR group [TaxId: 9606]} ... Class b: All beta proteins [48724] (180 folds). *. Fold b.1: Immunoglobulin-like beta-sandwich [48725] (33 superfamilies). ...
HLA class II antigen beta chain. *HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain ... This monoclonal antibody reacts with the beta-chain of HLA-DRB1 antigen, a member of MHC class II molecules. It does not cross ... HLA-DR antigens also occur on a variety of epithelial cells and their corresponding neoplastic counterparts. Loss of HLA-DR ... major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1. *MHC class II antigen DRB1*1 ...
PDB Compounds: (A:) hla class II histocompatibility antigen, dr alpha chain. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d2iama1:. Sequence; ... PDB Description: structural basis for recognition of mutant self by a tumor-specific, mhc class ii-restricted tcr ... Protein Class II MHC alpha chain, C-terminal domain [88618] (7 species). ... Class II MHC alpha chain, C-terminal domain {Human (Homo sapiens), HLA-DR group [TaxId: 9606]} ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain. susceptibility. ISO. DNA:polymorphisms, haplotypes: :multiple (human) ... cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 2. ISO. protein:increased expression:tonsil, T cell. RGD. PMID:18490405. RGD:4888517. NCBI chrNW ... 2,3-cyclic nucleotide 3 phosphodiesterase. ISO. protein:decreased expression:brain. RGD. PMID:21570342. RGD:6483334. NCBI ... prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2. ISO. protein:increased expression:endothelial cell. RGD. PMID:18413499. RGD:4891909. ...
... of Established Tumors with a Novel Vaccine That Enhances Major Histocompatibility Class II Presentation of Tumor Antigen1 Ken- ... of Established Tumors with a Novel Vaccine That Enhances Major Histocompatibility Class II Presentation of Tumor Antigen1. ... In an attempt to enhance MHC class II antigen processing, we linked the sorting signals of the lysosome-associated membrane ... Presentation of antigenic peptides by MHC class II molecules to CD4+ T cells is critical to the generation of antitumor ...
An association between BXO and the major histocompatibility complex class II antigen HLA-DQ7 has also been found. [7] This ... In two studies that included 23 and 11 children, HPV was identified in 52% and 64% of cases, respectively. [9, 10] However, HPV ... This belief is based on a study of 422 boys at a median age of 6 years 2 months (range, 3 mo to 16 y), of whom 186 (44.1%) ... In Austria, 75 boys younger than 10 years were treated for phimosis; phimosis grade 2 or 3 (schema by Kikiros) was suspected of ...
Invitrogen Anti-MHC Class II (I-A/I-E) Monoclonal (M5/114.15.2), eBioscience™, Catalog # M024T02B06. Tested in Flow Cytometry ( ... class II antigen A, beta 1; I-Ab; I-Ad; I-Aq; I-E beta MHC class II; I-Ed; I-Ek; major histocompatibility complex class II beta ... MHC class II antigen A beta; MHC class II H2-IA-beta-psi; MHC class II IE-b; MHC H2-IE-beta cell surface glycoprotein; response ... antigen processing and presentation antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II negative ...
A role for the involvement of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens seems likely because of the association with ... Abnormal expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules in the placenta may trigger the initiating ... human leukocyte antigens DR3 and DR4. Major histocompatibility complex class III associations have also been observed, as has a ... Data Collection And Analysis: Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted independently by two reviewers.. Main Results: ...
MHC class II, Major Histocompatibility complex II, human leukocyte antigen, HLA Isotype Mouse IgG2b, κ Ave. Rating Submit a ... Antigen Details Structure Ig superfamily, MHC class II, heterodimeric transmembrane protein Distribution B cells, activated T ... MHC Antigens Antigen References 1. Thorsby E. 1974. Transplant. Rev. 18:51.. 2. Qvigstad E, et al. 1984. Hum. Immunol. 11:207. ... Antigen presentation Ligand/Receptor CD3/TCR, CD4 Cell Type Antigen-presenting cells, B cells, Dendritic cells, Macrophages, ...
T-lymphocytes receptors, antigen, T-cell, alpha-beta, histocompatibility antigens class II. Dr. Kappler has spent the last 10 ... this structural immunology knowledge to develop a novel research area with small molecules targeted to MHC class II antigen ... Michels is to understand the role of MHC class II alleles in predisposing and providing dominant protection from type 1 ... from the point of view of the tri-molecular complex consisting of antigen, major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and T cell ...
Genetic host risk factors include the D8/17 B-cell antigen and certain class II histocompatibility antigens. Undernutrition, ... Positive rapid GAS antigen test in a child with clinical manifestations suggestive of streptococcal pharyngitis ... Throat cultures and rapid strep antigen tests are often negative by the time ARF manifests, whereas titers of antistreptolysin ... However, preceding symptomatic pharyngitis is recognized in only about two thirds of patients with ARF. ...
... directed to the plasma membrane to present antigen-loaded major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules; and iv) ... MHC class II molecules that are found on antigen-presenting cells-derived exosomes can stimulate CD4+ T-cells (36). ... MHC class I and II molecules and molecules involved in T-cell stimulation, such as CD86 (36). Particularly, antigens ... Exosomes secreted by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), such as dendritic cells (DCs), carry molecules involved in antigen ...
  • Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method. (histoready.com)
  • MHC class II proteins display these peptides to the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We present two mutually consistent structural explanations for the source of the α-helical periodicity, based on an observation that the side chains of MHC-bound peptides generally partition with hydrophobic (hydrophilic) side chains pointing into (out of) the cleft. (huji.ac.il)
  • The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that signals delivered via the B cell antigen (Ag) receptor (membrane immunoglobulin, mIg) and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules enhance B cell responsiveness to CD40‐mediated signals, providing specificity to the Ag‐nonspecific, MHC‐unrestricted CD40 signal. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Bishop, GA, Warren, WD & Berton, MT 1995, ' Signaling via major histocompatibility complex class II molecules and antigen receptors enhances the B cell response to gp39/CD40 ligand ', European Journal of Immunology , vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 1230-1238. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Peptide and peptide mimetic inhibitors of antigen presentation by HLA-DR class II MHC molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • Molecular features of ligand binding to MHC class II HLA-DR molecules have been elucidated through a combination of peptide structure-activity studies and structure-based drug design, resulting in analogues with nanomolar affinity in binding assays. (rcsb.org)
  • These studies illustrate the complementary roles played by phage display library methods, peptide analogue SAR, peptide mimetics substitutions, and structure-based drug design in the discovery of inhibitors of antigen presentation by MHC class II HLA-DR molecules. (rcsb.org)
  • Lampson LA, Levy R. Two populations of Ia-like molecules on a human B cell line. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • This monoclonal antibody reacts with the beta-chain of HLA-DRB1 antigen, a member of MHC class II molecules. (novusbio.com)
  • MHC (major histocompatibility complex) class II molecules are transmembrane glycoproteins expressed on the surface of professional antigen-presenting cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Before their exposition on the cell surface, the MHC class II molecules react with endocytosed exogenous antigens, which are then presented to the T cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • Abnormal expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules in the placenta may trigger the initiating immunologic event in this organ, which is followed by cross-reactivity with an antigen present in the skin and the characteristic cutaneous signs of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Eosinophils function as antigen presenting cells as they express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. (medscape.com)
  • Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. (edu.au)
  • However, the diffraction patterns of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules indicate that their ligands are in an extended non-α-helical conformation. (huji.ac.il)
  • Whereas binding was undetectable in solution, the affinity of the CD4/pMHC II interaction could be measured in 2D using CD4- and adhesion molecule-functionalized, supported lipid bilayers, yielding a 2 D Kd of ∼5,000 molecules/μm 2 . (lu.se)
  • Lack of Ability to Present Antigens on Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Molecules Aggravates Atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- Mice. (lu.se)
  • Calculations indicated, however, that CD4/pMHC II binding would increase rates of T-cell receptor (TCR) complex phosphorylation by threefold via the recruitment of Lck, with only a small, 2-20% increase in the effective affinity of the TCR for pMHC II. (lu.se)
  • sTRAIL-R2 (Soluble TNF [Tumor Necrosis Factor]-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand Receptor 2) a Marker of Plaque Cell Apoptosis and Cardiovascular Events. (lu.se)
  • Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute liver infection, causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's own liver, resulting in autoimmune hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (CD3 COMPLEX). (edu.au)
  • HLA-DR is a transmembrane human major histocompatibility complex 2 (MHC II) family member and consists of a 34 kDa (alpha) subunit and one of several 28 kDa (beta) subunits. (rndsystems.com)
  • It detects a polymorphic determinant present on B cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and activated T lymphocytes from mice carrying the H-2 b, H-2 d, H-2 q, H-2 p, H-2 r and H-2 u but not from mice carrying the H-2 s or H-2 f haplotypes. (thermofisher.com)
  • The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. (edu.au)
  • For long term storage, keep the Recombinant human HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain protein frozen at -20 or -80 degrees Celsius. (histoready.com)
  • The Human HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP beta 1 chain protein is shipped on ice packs. (histoready.com)
  • The HLA-DQA1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein produced from the HLA-DQA1 gene attaches (binds) to the protein produced from another MHC class II gene, HLA-DQB1 . (medlineplus.gov)
  • Together, they form a functional protein complex called an antigen-binding DQαβ heterodimer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Exosomes are one of the most researched classes of extracellular vesicles because they are carriers of targeted protein and DNA/RNA loads. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • methylation at certain residues of histones can regulate gene expression [ 4 ], and glycosylation is responsible for targeting substrates and changing protein half-life [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • First, chloramphenicol treatment allows the selection of bacteria expressing antigen-CAT fusion proteins in frame, which greatly reduces the number of colonies to be screened. (nih.gov)
  • Third, the uniformly high expression level of antigen-CAT fusion proteins permits the establishment of large and representative pool sizes. (nih.gov)
  • Using this approach, the BALF4 and BNRF1 proteins were identified as targets of the EBV-specific T-helper-cell response, demonstrating that lytic cycle antigens are a relevant component of the EBV-specific TH-cell response. (nih.gov)
  • MHC class II genes provide instructions for making proteins that are present on the surface of certain immune system cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • GAS M proteins share epitopes (antigenic-determinant sites that are recognized by antibodies) with proteins found in synovium, heart muscle, and heart valve, suggesting that molecular mimicry by GAS antigens from rheumatogenic strains contributes to the arthritis, carditis, and valvular damage. (merckmanuals.com)
  • The process is highly regulated by multiple signaling pathways and orchestrated by more than 30 autophagy-related (Atgs) proteins organized in several functional units ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • This value is two to three orders of magnitude higher than previously measured 2D K d values for interacting leukocyte surface proteins. (lu.se)
  • Fig. 3: Examples of complete responses mediated by TIL-recognizing tumor antigens. (nature.com)
  • The HLA-DQA1 gene is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HLA-DQA1 gene belongs to a group of MHC genes called MHC class II. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Type 1 diabetes risk is most increased by two HLA haplotypes involving variations of the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 genes and another HLA gene called HLA-DRB1 . (medlineplus.gov)
  • In a study of 15 patients with rheumatic heart disease and a control group of 10 patients who had been exposed to group A streptococci but did not develop either acute rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease, 13 genes were differentially expressed in the same direction (predominantly decreased) between the two groups. (medscape.com)
  • In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. (edu.au)
  • Exosomes are small lipid bilayer-surrounded extracellular vesicles released from cells into the extracellular space or biological fluids ( 1 , 2 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (edu.au)
  • The adipocyte subpopulation competent of major histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) antigen presentation is potentiated. (bvsalud.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, both an Ag‐specific mouse B cell clone CH12.LX, and freshly isolated resting splenic B cells were cultured with either soluble or membrane‐bound forms of the T cell ligand for CD40 (CD40L), in the presence or absence of additional signals provided by Ag or anti‐IgM, interleukin‐4, and class II‐specific monoclonal antibody (mAb). (uthscsa.edu)
  • The αβ T-cell coreceptor CD4 enhances immune responses more than 1 million-fold in some assays, and yet the affinity of CD4 for its ligand, peptide-major histocompatibility class II (pMHC II) on antigen-presenting cells, is so weak that it was previously unquantifiable. (lu.se)
  • The affinity of CD4/pMHC II therefore seems to be set at a value that increases T-cell sensitivity by enhancing phosphorylation, without compromising ligand discrimination. (lu.se)
  • This direct antigen identification method is based on the random expression of viral polypeptides fused to chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in bacteria, which are subsequently fed to major histocompatibility complex class II+ antigen-presenting cells and probed with antigen-specific T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron study of major histocompatibility complex class-II antigen in canine cutaneous histiocytoma: its relation to tumor regression. (illumina.com)
  • Description: The M5/114.15.2 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse major histocompatibility complex class II, both I-A and I-E subregion-encoded glycoproteins (I-A b, I-A d, I-A q, I-E d, I-E k, not I-A f, I-A k, or I-A s). (thermofisher.com)
  • A role for the involvement of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens seems likely because of the association with human leukocyte antigens DR3 and DR4. (medscape.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class III associations have also been observed, as has a high frequency of anti-human leukocyte antigen antibodies. (medscape.com)
  • Recent findings: Human leukocyte antigen studies conducted in European workers have defined major histocompatibility complex class II alleles and haplotypes associated with diisocyanate asthma. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we describe a simple procedure that permits the identification of viral T-helper (TH)-cell antigens and epitopes. (nih.gov)
  • Three-dimensional structure of a human class II histocompatibility molecule complexed with superantigen. (expasy.org)
  • This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). (edu.au)
  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific T cells have been successfully used to treat or prevent EBV-positive lymphoproliferative disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, but the antigens recognized by the infused CD4+ T cells have remained unknown. (nih.gov)
  • The ability of class II MHC‐mediated signals to enhance Ag‐specific B cell responsiveness to CD40‐mediated signaling may selectively promote the activation of B cell clones capable of cognate interactions with helper T cells. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Anti-HLA-DR is intended for in vitro diagnostic use in the identification of cells expressing the HLA-DR antigen, using a BD FACS™ brand flow cytometer. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • HLA-DR antigens also occur on a variety of epithelial cells and their corresponding neoplastic counterparts. (novusbio.com)
  • The discovery and characterization of new antigens implicated in the pathogenesis of T1D is a high priority as it can lead to new diagnostic tools and anticipate that studies proposed by Dr. Baker will provide critical information to target autoreactive T cells though antigen-specific therapies. (cuanschutz.edu)
  • The origin of the oral cases is still uncertain, but the carcinoma is thought to arise from pluripotential cells in the basal layer or from heterotropic sebaceous glands [2]. (who.int)
  • However, the in situ phenotype identification of the two main cells of the immune system cannot be reliably done on morphological grounds as they are morphologically identical [8]. (who.int)
  • A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. (edu.au)
  • Human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class II antigen-mediated apoptosis has been documented in antigen-presenting cells and B lymphoproliferations. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • However, when presented multivalently on magnetic beads, soluble CD4 bound pMHC II-expressing B cells, confirming that it is active and allowing mapping of the native coreceptor binding site on pMHC II. (lu.se)
  • It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES. (bvsalud.org)
  • The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. (edu.au)
  • Exosomes have previously been associated with a number of endocrine disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, disorders of the reproductive system and cancer. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The analysis of genetic factors other than CFTR may help our understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships in CF. As human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II polymorphism has been associated with a number of diseases including autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, asthma, and allergy, we investigated the possibility that HLA polymorphism contributes to CF-associated pulmonary inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • The HLA complex is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. (medlineplus.gov)
  • No significant association with class-I human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) has been found, but an increase in class-II HLA antigens DR2 and DR4 has been found in black and white patients, respectively. (medscape.com)
  • A matrix approach to human class II histocompatibility antigens: reactions of four monoclonal antibodies with the products of nine haplotypes. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Differential expression of HLA class II antigens in fetal human spleen: relationship of HLA-DP, DQ, and DR to immunoglobulin expression. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Engleman EG, Warnke R, Fox RI, Dilley J, Benike CJ, Levy R. Studies of a human T lymphocyte antigen recognized by a monoclonal antibody. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Age-related changes in human blood lymphocyte subpopulations, II: Varying kinetics of percentage and absolute count measurements. (bdbiosciences.com)
  • Expression of major histocompatibility antigens in human chronic pancreatitis. (bmj.com)
  • The following product was used in this experiment: MHC Class II (I-A/I-E) Monoclonal Antibody (M5/114.15.2), NovaFluor™ Blue 610-70S, eBioscience™ from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # M024T02B06, RRID AB_2910831. (thermofisher.com)
  • At least two specific combinations of HLA gene variants (HLA haplotypes) have been found to increase the risk of developing celiac disease, a disorder in which inflammation damages the intestinal tract and other organs and tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The M5/114 mAb is reported to inhibit I-A-restricted T cell responses of the H-2 b, H-2 d, H-2 q, H-2 u but not H-2 f, H-2 k, or H-2 s haplotypes. (thermofisher.com)
  • The antigen-binding grove between MHC class II alpha and beta chain is open at both ends and is 15-24 amino acid residues long. (thermofisher.com)
  • A number of specific antibodies found in the blood (antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA), anti-liver kidney microsomal antibodies (LKM-1, LKM-2, LKM-3), anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding an increased immunoglobulin G level. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibody can cross-react with brain and cardiac antigens, and immune complexes are present in the serum. (medscape.com)
  • Antibody with azide - store at 2 to 8C. (novusbio.com)
  • Applications Reported: This M5/114.15.2 antibody has been reported for use in flow cytometric analysis. (thermofisher.com)
  • Applications Tested: This M5/114.15.2 antibody has been tested by flow cytometric analysis of mouse splenocytes. (thermofisher.com)
  • The antibody solution should be stored undiluted between 2°C and 8°C, and protected from prolonged exposure to light. (biolegend.com)
  • To assess changes in SARS-CoV-2 spike binding antibody prevalence in the Dominican Republic and implications for immunologic protection against variants of concern, we prospectively enrolled 2,300 patients with undifferentiated febrile illnesses in a study during March 2021-August 2022. (cdc.gov)
  • Although these diseases are idiopathic, recent investigations support the role of eosinophils, T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines (interleukin [IL]-3, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13), and eotaxin as the critical factors in the pathogenesis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. (medscape.com)
  • Chen et al reported on 15 patients, including 2 children, with eosinophilic gastroenteritis who were evaluated over an 18-year period at a hospital in China in 2003. (medscape.com)
  • Bacterial compartment is captured by autophagosome either via ubiquitination (A.2, 3) or host glycan recognition by galectins (A.3). (frontiersin.org)
  • We tested serum samples for spike antibodies and tested nasopharyngeal samples for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection using a reverse transcription PCR nucleic acid amplification test. (cdc.gov)
  • SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence, cumulative infections, and immunity to symptomatic infection - A multistage national household survey and modelling study, Dominican Republic, June-October 2021. (cdc.gov)
  • Here, we report that a soluble form of CD4 failed to bind detectably to pMHC II in surface plasmon resonance-based assays, establishing a new upper limit for the solution affinity at 2.5 mM. (lu.se)
  • As expression of major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens is a prerequisite for organ specific autoimmunity, the expression of HLA class I (beta 2-microglobulin) and class II (HLA-DR) determinants have been analysed, together with the presence of T-lymphocytes, in 93 patients (64 men and 29 women, mean age 40.6 years) having an operation for chronic pancreatitis. (bmj.com)
  • Autologous TILs were expanded ex vivo from minced tumors cultured with interleukin-2. (nature.com)
  • Group A Streptococcus ( Streptococcus pyogenes ) is thought to cause the myriad of clinical diseases in which the host's immunologic response to bacterial antigens cross-react with various target organs in the body, resulting in molecular mimicry. (medscape.com)
  • The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. (edu.au)
  • However, despite the success of checkpoint inhibitors and the advent of cellular therapies, novel strategies need to be explored to (1) improve treatment in patients where these approaches fail and (2) make such treatments widely and financially accessible. (mdpi.com)
  • Goyos A , Guethlein LA, Horowitz A, Hilton HG, Gleimer M , Brodsky FM , Parham P . A Distinctive Cytoplasmic Tail Contributes to Low Surface Expression and Intracellular Retention of the Patr-AL MHC Class I Molecule. (academictree.org)
  • Simultaneous expression of both class I and II determinants was seen in 53 (57%) of cases. (bmj.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Renal tubular cell expression of MHC class II (I-Eb) is insufficient to initiate immune injury in a transgenic kidney transplant model. (duke.edu)
  • Finally, antigen identification does not require knowledge of the restriction element and often leads directly to the identification of the T-cell epitope. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic host risk factors include the D8/17 B-cell antigen and certain class II histocompatibility antigens. (merckmanuals.com)
  • HLA class II polymorphism in cystic fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • He also works with model-based control, e.g., like the artificial pancreas project, but in the context of type-2 diabetes, cystic fibrosis related diabetes, and within the intensive care unit unrelated to diabetes. (cuanschutz.edu)