Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*40 allele family.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The degree of antigenic similarity between tissues of the mother and those of the FETUS. Maternal-fetal histocompatibility can determine the acceptance and health of the fetus.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Immunological rejection of tumor tissue/cells following bone marrow transplantation.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*38 allele family.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at high levels in the BRAIN and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
Malocclusion in which the mandible is posterior to the maxilla as reflected by the relationship of the first permanent molar (distoclusion).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Transmembrane proteins that form the alpha subunits of the HLA-DR antigens. They are also referred to as the HLA-DR heavy chains.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*03 alleles.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
An HLA-DR antigen which is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*04 alleles.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
Microbial antigens that have in common an extremely potent activating effect on T-cells that bear a specific variable region. Superantigens cross-link the variable region with class II MHC proteins regardless of the peptide binding in the T-cell receptor's pocket. The result is a transient expansion and subsequent death and anergy of the T-cells with the appropriate variable regions.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A broad specificity HLA-DR antigen that is associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS encoded by DRB1*01:15 and DRB1*01:16 alleles.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.

Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis. (1/5762)

Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin-deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I-deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I-deficient arteries, and that of alpha-actin-positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect.  (+info)

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (2/5762)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (3/5762)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (4/5762)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Associations of anti-beta2-glycoprotein I autoantibodies with HLA class II alleles in three ethnic groups. (5/5762)

OBJECTIVE: To determine any HLA associations with anti-beta2-glycoprotein I (anti-beta2GPI) antibodies in a large, retrospectively studied, multiethnic group of 262 patients with primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), or another connective tissue disease. METHODS: Anti-beta2GPI antibodies were detected in sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. HLA class II alleles (DRB1, DQA1, and DQB1) were determined by DNA oligotyping. RESULTS: The HLA-DQB1*0302 (DQ8) allele, typically carried on HLA-DR4 haplotypes, was associated with anti-beta2GPI when compared with both anti-beta2GPI-negative SLE patients and ethnically matched normal controls, especially in Mexican Americans and, to a lesser extent, in whites. Similarly, when ethnic groups were combined, HLA-DQB1*0302, as well as HLA-DQB1*03 alleles overall (DQB1*0301, *0302, and *0303), were strongly correlated with anti-beta2GPI antibodies. The HLA-DR6 (DR13) haplotype DRB1*1302; DQB1*0604/5 was also significantly increased, primarily in blacks. HLA-DR7 was not significantly increased in any of these 3 ethnic groups, and HLA-DR53 (DRB4*0101) was increased in Mexican Americans only. CONCLUSION: Certain HLA class II haplotypes genetically influence the expression of antibodies to beta2GPI, an important autoimmune response in the APS, but there are variations in HLA associations among different ethnic groups.  (+info)

Soluble HLA class I, HLA class II, and Fas ligand in blood components: a possible key to explain the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic blood transfusions. (6/5762)

The immunomodulatory effect of allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) has been known for many years. However, a complete understanding of the effects of ABT on the recipient's immune system has remained elusive. Soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I), HLA class II (sHLA-II), and Fas ligand (sFasL) molecules may play immunoregulatory roles. We determined by double-determinant immunoenzymatic assay (DDIA) sHLA-I, sHLA-II, and sFasL concentrations in different blood components. sHLA-I and sFasL levels in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for up to 30 days and in random-donor platelets are significantly (P <.001) higher than in other blood components and their amount is proportionate to the number of residual donor leukocytes and to the length of storage. Blood components with high sHLA-I and sFasL levels play immunoregulatory roles in vitro as in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR) and antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) activity, and induce apoptosis in Fas-positive cells. These data suggest that soluble molecules in blood components are functional. If these results are paralleled in vivo, they should be taken into account in transfusion practice. Blood components that can cause immunosuppression should be chosen to induce transplantation tolerance, whereas blood components that lack immunosuppressive effects should be preferred to reduce the risk of postoperative complications and cancer recurrence.  (+info)

Expanded tumor-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to human cancers induced by secondary anti-CD3/anti-CD28 activation. (7/5762)

Generation of tumor-reactive T cells in large numbers ex vivo is a requisite step in the adoptive immunotherapy of patients. We examined the immune responses of T cells derived from tumor vaccine-primed lymph nodes activated with anti-CD3 alone and with an anti-CD3/anti-CD28 combination. Nylon wool-purified CD3+ cells were isolated from vaccine-primed lymph nodes obtained from melanoma, renal cell, and head and neck cancer patients. In the absence of antigen-presenting cells, activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 greatly enhanced subsequent T-cell expansion in interleukin 2 (>100-fold), compared to anti-CD3 alone. CD4+ T cells were preferentially stimulated. In four of eight patients, we found evidence of CD4+ cellular responses to autologous tumors by cytokine release assays. Positively selected CD4+ cells activated with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 released greater amounts of cytokine (IFN-gamma and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) in response to autologous tumors compared to cells activated by anti-CD3 alone. The CD4+ reactivity was MHC class II restricted and appeared to be associated with the expression of class II molecules on the vaccinating tumor cells. The CD4+ T-cell responses to class II-restricted tumor-associated antigens in patients with renal cell cancers represent unique findings.  (+info)

Cytotoxicity is mandatory for CD8(+) T cell-mediated contact hypersensitivity. (8/5762)

Contact hypersensitivity (CHS) is a T cell-mediated skin inflammation induced by epicutaneous exposure to haptens in sensitized individuals. We have previously reported that CHS to dinitrofluorobenzene in mice is mediated by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells. In this study, we show that CD8(+) T cells mediate the skin inflammation through their cytotoxic activity. The contribution of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) to the CHS reaction was examined both in vivo and in vitro, using mice deficient in perforin and/or Fas/Fas ligand (FasL) pathways involved in cytotoxicity. Mice double deficient in perforin and FasL were able to develop hapten-specific CD8(+) T cells in the lymphoid organs but did not show CHS reaction. However, they did not generate hapten-specific CTLs, demonstrating that the CHS reaction is dependent on cytotoxic activity. In contrast, Fas-deficient lpr mice, FasL-deficient gld mice, and perforin-deficient mice developed a normal CHS reaction and were able to generate hapten-specific CTLs, suggesting that CHS requires either the Fas/FasL or the perforin pathway. This was confirmed by in vitro studies showing that the hapten-specific CTL activity was exclusively mediated by MHC class I-restricted CD8(+) T cells which could use either the perforin or the Fas/FasL pathway for their lytic activity. Thus, cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells, commonly implicated in the host defence against tumors and viral infections, could also mediate harmful delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.  (+info)

Paired lines of C3H mouse fibroblasts transformed with murine sarcoma virus (Kirsten strain) were prepared that express high or low levels ofclass II major histocompatibility complex antigen after treatment with interferon y (IFN-y) . Here, we described a comparison of the tumorigenicity of these lines in euthymic syngeneic and thymus-deficient nu/nu mice and in mice depleted of IFN-y . The class II-inducible cells are clearly less tumorigenic than the noninducible cells in syngeneic mice, but of similar tumorigenicity in nu/nu mice and in mice treated with antibodies to deplete IFN-y . We propose that in this system, IFN-y induction of class II antigens on the tumor cell surface operates to limit tumor growth ; ras expression, which inhibits induction of class II antigens, prevents this and so allows tumor growth .
Looking for Major histocompatability complex? Find out information about Major histocompatability complex. In vertebrates, a family of genes that encode cell surface glycoproteins that regulate interactions among cells of the immune system, some components of the... Explanation of Major histocompatability complex
The first step in the induction of immune responses, whether humoral or cell mediated, requires the interaction between antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes restricted at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These cells invariably express MHC class II molecules (HLA-D region in man and Ia in mouse) which are recognized by T cells of the helper/inducer subset in association with antigen fragments. Interestingly, in certain pathological conditions, for example in autoimmune diseases such as thyroiditis and diabetic insulitis, class II molecules may be expressed on epithelial cells that normally do not express them. We speculated that these cells may be able to present their surface autoantigens to T cells, and that this process may be crucial to the induction and maintenance of autoimmunity. A critical test of this hypothesis would be to determine whether epithelial cells bearing MHC class II molecules (class II+ cells) can present antigen to T cells. We report here that class II+ thyroid
Clone REA296 recognizes MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii)-derived peptide (CLIP) complexes. MHC class II αβ heterodimers associate early during biosynthesis with a type II membrane protein, the invariant chain (Ii). The invariant chain serves as a chaperone for MHC II molecules and mediates trafficking to the endosomal pathway. In the endosomal pathway Ii is sequentially degraded, leaving a residual CLIP in the peptide-binding groove of MHC II. In presence of antigen peptide fragments, HLA-DM then binds to the MHC II molecule, releasing CLIP and allowing peptides to bind. REA296 detects HLA class II-positive cells which have impaired HLA-DM activity, and tumor cells that have escaped immuno-surveillance by CD4-positive T cells.Additional information: Clone REA296 displays negligible binding to Fc receptors. - Belgique
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments.
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments.
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route; where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules; and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments; exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides; autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading ...
Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route; where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules; and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments; exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides; autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading ...
The expression of MHC class II molecules on β-cells of the pancreatic islet has been proposed to play a role in the genesis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the NOD mouse. We investigated this by immunofluorescent double labeling of islet cells with anti-MHC and anti-CD45 to identify cells of hematopoietic origin. MHC class I expression increased with age on CD45− islet cells. MHC class II expression was not observed on CD45− islet cells at any age; the only cells in the islet that were MHC class II positive were also CD45+. This indicates that all MHC class II-positive cells in the islet are lymphoid cells that infiltrate the islet, whereas the islet endocrine cells express no MHC class II molecules. However, an increase in MHC class I expression occurred on β-cells, and this may play a role in immunopathogenesis.. ...
The ability of the immune system to eliminate and shape the immunogenicity of tumours defines the process of cancer immunoediting1. Immunotherapies such as those that target immune checkpoint molecules can be used to augment immune-mediated elimination of tumours and have resulted in durable responses in patients with cancer that did not respond to previous treatments. However, only a subset of patients benefit from immunotherapy and more knowledge about what is required for successful treatment is needed2-4. Although the role of tumour neoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour rejection is well established5-9, the roles of other subsets of T cells have received less attention. Here we show that spontaneous and immunotherapy-induced anti-tumour responses require the activity of both tumour-antigen-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells, even in tumours that do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. In addition, the expression of MHC class II-restricted antigens by tumour cells
MHC Class II (I-A/I-E), PE-eFluor 610, clone: M5/114.15.2, eBioscience™ 25μg; PE-eFluor 610 MHC Class II (I-A/I-E), PE-eFluor 610, clone: M5/114.15.2,...
Anti-MHC Class II antibody conjugated to Biotin [ER-TR3] validated for IHC, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Mouse. Referenced in 1 publication. Immunogen…
Helper T cells are stimulated to fight infections or diseases upon recognition of peptides from antigens that are processed and presented by the proteins of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II molecules. Degradation of a full protein into small peptide fragments is a lengthy process consisting of many steps and chaperones. Malfunctions during any step of antigen processing could lead to the development of self-reactive T cells or defective immune response to pathogens. Although much has been accomplished regarding how antigens are processed and presented to T cells, many questions still remain unanswered, preventing the design of therapeutics for direct intervention with antigen processing. Here, we review published work on the discovery and function of a MHC class II molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in human, and its mouse analog H2-O, herein called DO. While DO was originally discovered decades ago, elucidating its function has proven challenging. DO was discovered in association with
MHC Class II RT1Bu/L antibody [OX-3] (FITC) for FACS. Anti-MHC Class II RT1Bu/L mAb (GTX43381) is tested in Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster of Differentiation 74), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD74 gene. The invariant chain (Abbreviated Ii) is a polypeptide involved in the formation and transport of MHC class II protein. The cell surface form of the invariant chain is known as CD74. The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER binds a segment of the invariant chain (Ii; a trimer) in order to shape the peptide binding groove and prevent formation of a closed conformation. Binding to Ii might also prevent binding of peptides from the endogenous pathway to the groove of MHC class II. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC class IIs export from the ER in a vesicle. The signal for endosomal targeting resides in the cytoplasmic tail of the invariant chain. This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed proteins. It is then cleaved by cathepsin S (cathepsin L in cortical thymic ...
We used a hit and run gene targeting strategy to generate mice expressing only the p31 isoform of the conserved invariant (Ii) chain associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Spleen cells from these mice appear indistinguishable from wild type with respect to class II subunit assembly, transport, peptide acquisition, surface expression, and the ability to present intact protein antigens. Moreover, these mutant mice have normal numbers of thymic and peripheral CD4+ T cells, and intact CD4+ T-dependent proliferative responses towards a soluble antigen. In short, MHC class II expression and function are surprisingly unaffected in mice lacking p41 invariant chain, implying that the p31 and p41 isoforms may be functionally redundant in the intact animal.
Accurate prediction of antigen presentation by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules would be valuable for vaccine development and cancer immunotherapies. Current computational methods trained on in vitro binding data are limited by insufficient training data and algorithmic constraints. Here we describe MARIA (major histocompatibility complex analysis with recurrent integrated architecture; https://maria.stanford.edu/ ), a multimodal recurrent neural network for predicting the likelihood of antigen presentation from a gene of interest in the context of specific HLA class II alleles. In addition to in vitro binding measurements, MARIA is trained on peptide HLA ligand sequences identified by mass spectrometry, expression levels of antigen genes and protease cleavage signatures. Because it leverages these diverse training data and our improved machine learning framework, MARIA (area under the curve = 0.89-0.92) outperformed existing methods
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HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DOA) and a beta chain (DOB), both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DO suppresses peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by inhibiting HLA-DM. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. ENSG00000241910, ENSG00000243612, ENSG00000239457, ENSG00000241386, ENSG00000241106 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000243496, ENSG00000241910, ENSG00000243612, ENSG00000239457, ENSG00000241386, ENSG00000241106 - Ensembl, May 2017 ...
Antigen presentation requires intracellular processing of native antigens to produce immunogenic peptides that bind to major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules. In functional studies of antigen processing by elicited peritoneal macrophages, MHC-II-peptide complexes were formed intracellularly. Immunogenic peptides were not released to bind surface MHC-II molecules. Ultrastructural studies employing immunogold staining in ultrathin cryosections of these macrophages showed large amounts of MHC-II molecules in intracellular sac-like vacuoles in the peripheral cytoplasm; most of these were negative for the lamp 1 lysosomal/endosomal membrane protein and cathepsin D. MHC-II molecules were also present in endosomes containing cathepsin D and lamp 1 as well as previously internalized gold-transferrin. The intracellular pool of MHC-II molecules was only slightly decreased by treatment with cycloheximide for 3 hr, indicating that it consisted mainly of endocytosed, recycling molecules, as
Unlike B cells, CD8-positive and CD4-positive T cells of the adaptive immune system do not recognize intact foreign proteins but instead recognize polypeptide fragments of potential antigens. These antigenic peptides are expressed on the surface of antigen presenting cells bound to MHC class I and MHC class II proteins. Here, we review the basics of antigen acquisition by antigen presenting cells, antigen proteolysis into polypeptide fragments, antigenic peptide binding to MHC proteins, and surface display of both MHC class I-peptide and MHC class II-peptide complexes.
Background: The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is responsible for presenting antigens (epitopes) on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). When pathogen-derived epitopes are presented by MHC class II on an APC surface, T cells may be able to trigger an specific immune response. Prediction of MHC-II epitopes is particularly challenging because the open binding cleft of the MHC-II molecule allows epitopes to bind beyond the peptide binding groove; therefore, the molecule is capable of accommodating peptides of variable length. Among the methods proposed to predict MHC-II epitopes, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and support vector machines (SVMs) are the most effective methods. We propose a novel classification algorithm to predict MHC-II called sparse representation via 1-minimization. Results: We obtained a collection of experimentally confirmed MHC-II epitopes from the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (IEDB) and applied our 1-minimization algorithm. To benchmark the
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Sage AP, Nus M, Murphy D, Finigan A, Baker L, Masters L and Mallat Z. Regulatory B cell specific interleukin-10 does not regulate atherosclerosis in mice. ATVB. 35(8):1770-3. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305568. Sage A, Murphy D, Sabir S, Grazia G, Maffia P, Masters L, Baker L, Finigan A, Harrison J, Ludewig B, Reith W, Hansson G, Reizis B, Hugues S, Mallat Z. (2014) MHC class II-restricted antigen presentation by plasmacytoid dendritic cells drives pro-atherogenic immunity. 14;130(16):1363-73. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.011090.. Sage AP & Mallat Z. (2014). Multiple potential roles for B cells in atherosclerosis. Ann Med. doi:10.3109/07853890.2014.900272. Ait-Oufella H, Sage AP, Mallat Z, Tedgui A. (2014). Adaptive (T and B cells) immunity and control by dendritic cells in atherosclerosis. Circ Res, 114(10), 1640-1660. doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.114.302761. Zouggari Y, Ait-Oufella H, Bonnin P, Simon T, Sage A, Guérin C, Vilar J, Caligiuri G, Tsiantoulas D, Laurans L, Dumeau E, Kotti S, Bruneval P, ...
View Rat Monoclonal anti-MHC class II (I-A/I-E) Antibody (M5/114.15.2) [Allophycocyanin] (NBP1-42997). Validated Applications: Flow. Validated Species: Human, Mouse.
The invariant chain (Ii) binds nascent major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules, blocking peptide binding until the complex dissociates in the endosomes. This may serve to differentiate the MHC class I and II antigen presentation pathways and enable class II molecules to efficiently bind peptides in the endosomes. This hypothesis was addressed by probing spleen cells from a combination of knock-out and transgenic mice with a large panel of T cell hybridomas. The Ii molecule blocked the presentation of a range of endogenously synthesized epitopes, but some epitopes actually required Ii. Thus, the influence of Ii on presentation does not follow simple rules. In addition, mice expressing Ii were not tolerant to epitopes unmasked in its absence, a finding with possible implications for autoimmunity. ...
Males from the BXSB murine strain (H-2b) spontaneously develop an autoimmune syndrome with features of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which results in part from the action of a mutant gene (Yaa) located on the Y chromosome. Like other H-2b mice, the BXSB strain does not express the class II major histocompatibility complex antigen, I-E. Here we report that the expression of I-E (E alpha dE beta b) in BXSB males bearing an E alpha d transgene prevents hypergammaglobulinemia, autoantibody production, and subsequent autoimmune glomerulonephritis. These transgenic mice bear on the majority of their B cells not only I-E molecules, but also an I-E alpha chain-derived peptide presented by a higher number of I-Ab molecules, as recognized by the Y-Ae monoclonal antibody. The I-E+ B cells appear less activated in vivo than the I-E- B cells, a minor population. This limited activation of the I-E+ B cells does not reflect a functional deficiency of this cell population, since it can be stimulated to ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain; Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for pr ...
Vaccination of colon cancer patients with X-irradiated autologous tumor cells and Bacillus Calmette-Guérin results in a significant reduction in tumor recurrence. A study was undertaken to determine whether the expression of tumor-associated antigens, expression of major histocompatibility complex molecules, or the cellular composition of the vaccine cells correlates with vaccine efficacy. A significant increase in the percentage of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecule-expressing tumor cells was the only marker with a positive correlation. Because HLA class II molecule expression is not a prognostic marker in control patients, it was hypothesized that HLA class II molecules are involved in the induction of tumor immunity in patients treated with the autologous colon tumor vaccine. Enhancement of HLA class II molecule-expressing cells could be induced in X-irradiated colon tumor cells injected into the skin of mice when the cells were mixed with γ-interferon. Therefore, ...
The structural basis of the interaction between the CD4 coreceptor and a class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is described. The crystal structure of a complex containing the human CD4 N-terminal two-domain fragment and the murine I-A(k) class II MHC molecule with associated peptide (pMHCII) shows that only the top corner of the CD4 molecule directly contacts pMHCII. The CD4 Phe-43 side chain extends into a hydrophobic concavity formed by MHC residues from both alpha2 and beta2 domains. A ternary model of the CD4-pMHCII-T-cell receptor (TCR) reveals that the complex appears V-shaped with the membrane-proximal pMHCII at the apex. This configuration excludes a direct TCR-CD4 interaction and suggests how TCR and CD4 signaling is coordinated around the antigenic pMHCII complex. Human CD4 binds to HIV gp120 in a manner strikingly similar to the way in which CD4 interacts with pMHCII. Additional contacts between gp120 and CD4 give the CD4-gp120 complex a greater affinity. Thus, ligation of ...
FUNCTION: Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. The peptide binding cleft accommodates peptides of 10-30 residues. The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II ...
Among the parameters controlling the immunodominance of T cell epitopes, it has been proposed that there exists a competition for binding to MHC class II molecules between the processed peptides contained within a single antigenic molecule (14). Experimentally, when mice were immunized with a mixture of two immunogenic peptides of hen egg lysozyme (HEL) having differences in their relative binding capacity to the same class II molecule, the T cell proliferative responses to the weakest binder was inhibited by the strongest binder as a result of MHC occupancy (11). Such in vivo competition between synthetic peptides for binding to MHC was extensively demonstrated (33, 34, 35) and support the hypothesis of peptide competition. However, this hypothesis is based on the artificial situation of immunizations with free peptides, which represent a processed state of the Ag.. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis with bound T cell peptide sequences in a model Ag, MalE. The central question is ...
Infection with L. major is a well-characterized model in which differentiation of class II-restricted T cells into the two mature helper subsets is required for expression of the resistant and susceptible disease phenotype. Ii is required for stable expression of surface class II molecules and, as predicted, cells from Ii −/− mice have substantially lower amounts of surface class II that do not assume the compact conformation that characterizes stable peptide binding ((17), (28), (29)). The major immunologic consequences are twofold: a severely compromised ability to present processed antigens via the class II pathway, and a quantitatively and qualitatively altered CD4+ population due to aberrant selection by thymic epithelial cells unable to present self peptides in a normal manner ((40), (41)). Despite this drastic effect on the class II-dependent immune response, we could discern little consequence to the host in generating either Th1 or Th2 responses to L. major. How might we explain ...
In both collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and rheumatoid arthritis, T cells recognize a galactosylated peptide from type II collagen (CII). In this study, we demonstrate that the CII259-273 peptide, galactosylated at lysine 264, in complex with Aq molecules prevented development of CIA in mice and ameliorated chronic relapsing disease. In contrast, nonglycosylated CII259-273/Aq complexes had no such effect. CIA dependent on other MHC class II molecules (Ar/Er) was also down-regulated, indicating a bystander vaccination effect. T cells could transfer the amelioration of CIA, showing that the protection is an active process. Thus, a complex between MHC class II molecules and a posttranslationally modified peptide offers a new possibility for treatment of chronically active autoimmune inflammation such as rheumatoid arthritis.
We identified the EphA3 antigen by cotransfecting into 293-EBNA cells a cDNA library from the tumor and cDNA clones coding for CIITA and for the relevant HLA class β II chain. This genetic approach should be generally applicable to clone other genes coding for antigens presented by MHC class II molecules. Although we verified that CIITA induced the expression of Ii in 293-EBNA cells and endowed them with the capacity to present antigens on HLA class II molecules, we observed that the additional cotransfection of an Ii cDNA improved antigen presentation. This proved true for antigens encoded either by the Ii-MAGE-A3 or by the EphA3 cDNA clones (data not shown). A free pool of Ii has been observed in class II-positive cells (31 , 32) , suggesting that an excess of Ii in the endoplasmic reticulum may be important for class II function. This may explain our results.. The name Eph was given to a putative receptor cloned from a human erythropoietin-producing hepatocarcinoma cell line (33 , 34) . Eph ...
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a collection of genes coding for MHC molecules found on the surface of all nucleated cells of the body. In humans, the MHC genes are also referred to as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Mature red blood cells, which lack a nucleus, are the only cells that do not express MHC molecules on their surface.. There are two classes of MHC molecules involved in adaptive immunity, MHC I and MHC II (Figure 14.11). MHC I molecules are found on all nucleated cells; they present normal self-antigens as well as abnormal or nonself pathogens to the effector T cells involved in cellular immunity. In contrast, MHC II molecules are only found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells; they present abnormal or nonself pathogen antigens for the initial activation of T cells.. Both types of MHC molecules are transmembrane glycoproteins that assemble as dimers in the cytoplasmic membrane of cells, but their structures are quite different. MHC I molecules are ...
While the absence of genes directly encoding MHC class II molecules was similar to the situation in cod [6], the receptor encoding gene (CD8β), which is involved in MHC I recognition via the T-cell receptor (TCR) was absent in pipefish but not cod (table 1). Note that CD8β is not mandatory for a MHC I mediated immune response, as CD8α molecules may function as a homodimer [16]. The antigen recognizing TCR γ was also absent. Because the majority of TCRs consist of α/β-heterodimers, functionality of the TCR is still likely [17].. As opposed to cod, where the CD4+-receptor was truncated and non-functional, this gene could not be identified among pipefish transcripts. For the invariant-chain gene, our annotation returned two contigs that aligned almost perfectly to each other, suggesting the same transcript. When translated into the appropriate amino acid sequence, the putative gene model revealed a stop codon approximately 20 amino acid distant from the 3′-end of the gene in other teleosts ...
IMMUNREAKTION + IMMUNANTWORT (IMMUNOLOGIE); DENDRITISCHE ZELLEN (IMMUNOLOGIE); MHC-KLASSE-II-MOLEKÜLE (IMMUNOLOGIE); ZENTRALNERVENSYSTEM (NEUROLOGIE); IMMUNE REACTION + IMMUNE RESPONSE (IMMUNOLOGY); DENDRITIC CELLS (IMMUNOLOGY); MHC CLASS II MOLECULES (IMMUNOLOGY); CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (NEUROLOGY ...
MHC II glycoproteins are only present on specialised antigen-presenting cells (APCs), including macrophages that engulf foreign particles such as bacteria, dendritic cells that present antigen to T cells, and B cells that produce antibodies.. ...
Principal nameMHC Class II I-Ak antibodyAlternative names for MHC Class II I-Ak antibodyH2-Aa, H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen A-K alpha…
Antigen presented to CD4+ T cells by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (MHCII) plays a key role in adaptive immunity. Antigen presentation is initiated by the proteolytic cleavage of pathogenic or self proteins and loading of resultant peptides to MHCII. The loading and exchange of peptides to MHCII is catalyzed by a nonclassical MHCII molecule, HLA-DM (DM). It is well established that DM promotes peptide exchange in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of DM-catalyzed peptide association and dissociation, and how this would affect epitope selection in human responses to infectious disease remain unclear. The work presented in this thesis was directed towards the understanding of mechanism of DM-mediated peptide exchange and its role in epitope selection. In Chapter II, I measured the binding affinity, intrinsic dissociation half-life and DM-mediated dissociation half-life for a large set of peptides derived from vaccinia virus and compared these properties to the peptide-specific
Proximal tubular (PT) epithelial cells express MHC class II (Ia) antigens in immunologically-mediated renal injury. To study the role of PT as accessory cells, we generated several murine PT-like epithelial cell lines by transformation with origin-defective SV40 DNA. These transformed cell lines dis …
The step should be no more than (height of gasket - 1) micrometres to enable flow to be maintained. 44 Lawson, Rose, and Wolf A Glassslide EC monolayer Flow flow chamber B Glass slide flow chamber i ii iii iv Fig. 6. Interposition of a step barrier in the primary flow creates defined areas of disturbed flow downstream. (a) Flow in parallel-plate flow chamber. Laminar flow (black arrows) is created by pumping fluid over an endothelial monolayer plated onto a glass coverslip. (b) Interposition of a step barrier creates areas of disturbed flow downstream: (i) flow recirculation, (ii) flow reattachment, (iii) flow recovery and (iv) recovered laminar shear (adapted from (29)). 1997) Species differences in the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens on coronary artery endothelium: implications for cell-mediated xenoreactivity. Transplantation 64, 1315-22. 4. McDouall RM, Page CS, Hafizi S, Yacoub MH, Rose ML. (1996) Alloproliferation of purified CD4+ T cells to adult human ...
cDCs link innate and adaptive immunity by sensing pathogens and initiating adaptive immune responses. Although the two physiological functions of cDCs are likely to play distinct roles in immune homeostasis, they have not previously been evaluated independently. In the gut, cDCs sense and capture gut microbes in part by extending their processes into the gut lumen (Macpherson and Uhr, 2004; Niess et al., 2005; Chieppa et al., 2006; Vallon-Eberhard et al., 2006). Microbial sensing induces cDCs to produce cytokines such as IL-23, which are required to activate innate lymphoid cells (Kinnebrew et al., 2012; Satpathy et al., 2013). In addition, the ingested microbes are carried to local lymphoid organs, such as the mLNs, processed, and presented to T cells to initiate adaptive immune responses (Macpherson and Uhr, 2004; Niess et al., 2005).. Ablation experiments using CD11cDTR mice, conditional deletion of genes (e.g., Irf4, Irf8, or Notch2) with CD11cCre mice, and Batf3-deficient mice result in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structural Analysis of Invariant Chain Subsets as a Function of Their Association with MHC Class II Chains. AU - Nguyen, Q. V.. AU - Reyes, Victor. AU - Humphreys, R. E.. PY - 1995/2/20. Y1 - 1995/2/20. N2 - Respective subsets of human invariant chain (Ii), as identified with antibodies to two different epitopes, were characterized as a function of their associations with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II α,β chains and intracellular processing. E1 antiserum to Ii(183-193) and VIC-Y1 monoclonal antibody to an N-terminal determinant identified Ii(E1) and Ii(VIC) populations, respectively. Ii proteins comprise several species which have been defined with either genomic or post-translational processes: Ii itself; IpN and IpO, which represent the glycosylated forms on asparagine or threonine/serine, respectively; γ2 and γ3, which originate from an alternative initiation site for transcription; and p41, which has a 64-amino-acid insert which originated from an ...
2oje: Zinc induces dimerization of the class II major histocompatibility complex molecule that leads to cooperative binding to a superantigen.
The nascent MHC class II protein in the rough ER has its peptide-binding cleft blocked by the invariant chain (Ii; a trimer) to prevent it from binding cellular peptides or peptides from the endogenous pathway. The invariant chain also facilitates MHC class IIs export from the ER in a vesicle. This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed, degraded proteins. It is then broken down in stages, leaving only a small fragment called CLIP which still blocks the peptide binding cleft. An MHC class II-like structure, HLA-DM, removes CLIP and replaces it with a peptide from the endosome. The stable MHC class-II is then presented on the cell surface ...
Looking for online definition of major histocompatability complex in the Medical Dictionary? major histocompatability complex explanation free. What is major histocompatability complex? Meaning of major histocompatability complex medical term. What does major histocompatability complex mean?
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One of the long term goals of our research is to determine why the maternal immune system does not reject the genetically disparate fetus during pregnancy. Our studies are focused primarily on the immunoregulatory properties of trophoblast cells, which are the first cells to differentiate from the embryo, and ultimately form the fetal component of the placenta. Trophoblast cells are the only cells derived from the blastocyst that are in direct contact with maternal blood, and therefore play an essential role in protecting the fetus from attack from the maternal immune system. Trophoblast cells are relatively unique in that they do not express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens, either constitutively, or after exposure to IFN-gamma. The absence of MHC class II antigen expression on trophoblast cells is thought to be critical for prevention of deleterious maternal immune responses against the fetus. Thus, successful reproduction of mammals may require that MHC class II gene ...
The antigen-presenting abilities of basophils and their role in initiating a Th2 phenotype is a topic of current controversy. We aimed to determine whether human basophils can be induced to express MHC Class II and act as antigen presenting cells for T cell stimulation. Isolated human basophils were exposed to a panel of cytokines and TLR-ligands and assessed for MHC Class II expression. MHC Class II was expressed in up to 17% of isolated basophils following incubation with a combination of IL-3, IFN-γ and GM-CSF for 72 hours. Costimulatory molecules (CD80 and CD86) were expressed at very low levels after stimulation. Gene expression analysis of MHC Class II-positive basophils confirmed up-regulation of HLA-DR, HLA-DM, CD74 and Cathepsin S. However, MHC Class II expressing basophils were incapable of inducing antigen-specific T cell activation or proliferation. This is the first report of significant cytokine-induced MHC Class II up-regulation, at both RNA and protein level, in isolated human ...
Proteolysis of the class II-associated invariant chain generates a peptide binding site in intracellular HLA-DR molecules. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 1991. 88:
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of T-cell hybridomas with an unusual MHC class II-dependent ligand specificity. AU - Mendiratta, S. K.. AU - Singh, Nagendra. AU - Bal, V.. AU - Rath, S.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - We have characterized two unusual T-cell hybridomas, 1E3 and 3B8, from H-2(k) mice immunized with I-Ab-transfected L cells (H-2(k)), that are stimulated by L cells transfected with I-Ab, I-A(k) or I-Eb, but not by non-transfected L cells. These hybridomas could not be stimulated by spleen cells from H-2(i3), H-2(k), H-2b or H-2(d) mice. Monoclonal anti-I-A antibodies did not block their responses, suggesting that mouse major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules may be peptide donors rather than restriction elements for them. The stimulation of these hybridomas by fibroblast targets was not blocked by an anti-H-2k(k),D(k)-specific monoclonal antibody. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated splenic and peritoneal exudate cells from H-2(k), H-2(d), H-2(i3), H-2b as well as ...
RefSeq Summary (NM_002118): HLA-DMB belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DMA) and a beta (DMB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. It is located in intracellular vesicles. DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP (class II-associated invariant chain peptide) molecule from the peptide binding site. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and its gene contains 6 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. Publication Note: This RefSeq record includes a subset of the publications that are available for this gene. Please see the Gene record to access additional publications. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cathepsin S activity is detectable in human keratinocytes and is selectively upregulated upon stimulation with interferon-gamma. AU - Schwarz, Gerold. AU - Boehncke, Wolf-Henning. AU - Braun, Manuela. AU - Schröter, Christian J. AU - Burster, Timo. AU - Flad, Thomas. AU - Dressel, Daniela. AU - Weber, Ekkehard. AU - Schmid, Heide. AU - Kalbacher, Hubert. PY - 2002/7. Y1 - 2002/7. N2 - Keratinocytes are an integral component of the skin immune system and function as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in pathophysiologic conditions when they express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, e.g., in psoriasis. In order to analyze further this function we investigated the activity of cathepsin S in comparison with cathepsins B and L. These enzymes were suggested to be involved in antigen presentation. Specific catalytic activities of these cathepsins were determined fluorometrically by hydrolysis of a synthetic substrate (Z-Phe-Arg-7-amido-4-methylcoumarin) in ...
Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune condition in which segments of the immune system cause the destruction of insulin producing cells in the pancreas, leaving individuals with an impaired ability to control blood glucose levels. Currently there is no cure for Type 1 Diabetes and the treatments involve lifelong insulin administration and careful monitoring of blood glucose levels. Long-term complications like cardiovascular disease, nerve damage, and retina damage, may result. Previous studies have shown that improvement in the control of blood glucose can reduce the risks from these long-term complications. Residual insulin production, typically within the first few years following diagnosis, helps to reduce an individuals need to supplement insulin by injection or pump. This effect helps in maintaining the bodys ability to regulate blood glucose levels and reducing the needs of external insulin.. Methyldopa, or Aldomet, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration and is commonly used ...
HLA Class II molecules are expressed by human thyroid epithelial cells (thyrocytes) in thyroid autoimmunity, although these cells are normally Class II-. gamma-Interferon (gamma-IFN) is probably involved in this expression, as suggested by its ability to induce Class II in cultured normal thyrocytes. We have now found that thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) enhances Class II expression induced in cultured thyrocytes by gamma-IFN, and effects similar to those of TSH were obtained with dibutyryl cyclic AMP. A proportion of thyrocytes also expressed Class II following treatment with TSH or dibutyryl cyclic AMP in the absence of gamma-IFN, but the optimal activity of these mediators then appeared to be dependent upon the occurrence of some pre-existing Class II expression. These findings give insights into how a variety of mediators may influence Class II expression in thyroid autoimmunity.
Yilla, M.; Hickman, C.; McGrew, M.; Meade, E.; Bellini, W.J., 2003: Edmonston measles virus prevents increased cell surface expression of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex class II proteins in human peripheral monocytes
AE37 peptide/GM-CSF vaccine: A vaccine containing HER2/Neu-derived epitope (amino acids 776-790) linked to li-Key peptide (li-Key/HER2/neu hybrid peptide or AE37), and combined with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), with potential antineoplastic and immunoadjuvant activities. Upon vaccination, AE37 may activate the immune system and stimulate T-helper cells against HER2/Neu expressing cancer cells. GM-CSF may potentiate the immune response against cancer cells expressing the HER2/Neu antigen. The Ii-Key moiety, a 4-amino acid (LRMK) epitope from the MHC class II-associated invariant chain (Ii protein), increases T-helper cell stimulation against HER2/neu antigen when compared to unmodified class II epitopes. HER2/neu, a tumor associated antigen (TAA), is overexpressed in a variety of tumor cell types and is highly immunogenic. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus) -- from cancer.gov ...
Neutrophil Activation of Endothelial Cell-Expressed TRPM2 Mediates Transendothelial Neutrophil Migration and Vascular Injury Investigators addressed the possible role of transient receptor potential melastatin-2 (TRPM2) expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) in the mechanism of transendothelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). They observed defective PMN transmigration in response to LPS challenge in adult mice in which the EC expressed TRPM2 was conditionally deleted. [Circ Res] Abstract Ex Vivo Pretreatment of Human Vessels with siRNA Nanoparticles Provides Protein Silencing in Endothelial Cells The authors report the development of small interfering RNA-releasing poly(amine-co-ester) nanoparticles, distinguished by their high content of a hydrophobic lactone. They showed that a single transfection of small interfering RNA targeting class II transactivator attenuates major histocompatibility complex class II expression on endothelial cells for at least four to six weeks after ...
MHC class II presentation of antigenic peptides derived from soluble proteins is usually preceded by antigenic uptake via (nonreceptor-mediated) endocytosis by professional APCs, followed by processing in endosomal compartments. Although in vitro alternative pathways for MHC class II loading have been described for certain intracellularly synthesized proteins, the importance of these pathways has not been assessed in vivo. We have shown previously that endogenously produced membrane-associated glycoprotein (GP) of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), a noncytopathic virus, can be presented in vitro on MHC class II molecules in the absence of the invariant chain (Ii), whereas the cytosolic LCMV nucleoprotein (LCMV-NP) failed to be presented under the same conditions. Taking advantage of this system, we analyzed presentation of LCMV-GP and LCMV-NP in vivo in Ii-deficient mice and followed the induced Th cell and B cell responses. At early time points after LCMV infection of li-deficient mice, we
Major histocompatibility (MHC) class II molecules are strongly associated with many autoimmune disorders. In type 1 diabetes, the DQ8 molecule is common, confers significant disease risk and is involved in disease pathogenesis. We hypothesized blocking DQ8 antigen presentation would provide therapeutic benefit by preventing recognition of self-peptides by pathogenic T cells. We used the crystal structure of DQ8 to select drug-like small molecules predicted to bind structural pockets in the MHC antigen-binding cleft. A limited number of the predicted compounds inhibited DQ8 antigen presentation in vitro with one compound preventing insulin autoantibody production and delaying diabetes onset in an animal model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. An existing drug of similar structure, methyldopa, specifically blocked DQ8 in recent-onset patients with type 1 diabetes along with reducing inflammatory T cell responses toward insulin, highlighting the relevance of blocking disease-specific MHC class II ...
Major histocompatibility (MHC) class II molecules are strongly associated with many autoimmune disorders. In type 1 diabetes, the DQ8 molecule is common, confers significant disease risk and is involved in disease pathogenesis. We hypothesized blocking DQ8 antigen presentation would provide therapeutic benefit by preventing recognition of self-peptides by pathogenic T cells. We used the crystal structure of DQ8 to select drug-like small molecules predicted to bind structural pockets in the MHC antigen-binding cleft. A limited number of the predicted compounds inhibited DQ8 antigen presentation in vitro with one compound preventing insulin autoantibody production and delaying diabetes onset in an animal model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes. An existing drug of similar structure, methyldopa, specifically blocked DQ8 in recent-onset patients with type 1 diabetes along with reducing inflammatory T cell responses toward insulin, highlighting the relevance of blocking disease-specific MHC class II ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A murine retrovirus induces proliferation of unique lymphoid cell lines expressing T-cell-receptor structures utilizing common variable region alpha and beta chain genes. AU - ONeill, H C. PY - 1993/4/1. Y1 - 1993/4/1. N2 - A murine radiation leukemia virus (RadLV) has been shown to induce in vitro proliferation of an unusual subset of lymphoid cells from spleen. They have the unusual property of expressing CD3/T-cell receptor alpha and beta chains (TCR-alpha beta) in the absence of other T-cell markers such as Thy-1, CD4, and CD8. Cell lines induced in two mouse strains with RadLV produced by the C6VL/1 thymoma all specifically utilize common V alpha 3 and V beta 8.2 variable region genes in the formation of a TCR structure. Each of these cell lines has now been found to express both class I and class II major histocompatibility antigens and the beta 2 integrin specific for spleen dendritic cells. Analysis of functional properties of these cells has revealed a subset that can ...
Human atheromata, but not normal blood vessels, contain numerous smooth muscle cells (SMC) that bear class II major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens. These lesions also contain leukocytes that can secrete cytokines, which may modulate SMC functions. Because of morphologic evidence for immune-activated (class II+) SMC in vascular lesions, we studied the regulation by cytokines of MHC gene expression in SMC cultured from human vessels. Under basal conditions, these SMC contained mRNA for class I MHC (detected by Northern blotting with a cDNA probe for HLA-B7) and expressed surface class I MHC product determined by enzyme-linked immunoassay with monoclonal antibody (MAb) W6/32. Unstimulated SMC contained little or no class II MHC mRNA (probed with HLA-DR alpha cDNA) or surface antigen (examined using MAb I2). Secretory products of activated human leukocytes (the cell-free supernatant of a mixed leukocyte reaction) induced class II MHC antigen expression by SMC after 3 days. Treatment of SMC with ...
HLA class II expression is notable in rheumatoid arthritis. We have investigated the mechanism of HLA class II regulation in the joints and found local synthesis, as judged by mRNA levels to be high. The role of antigen presentation in maintaining class II mRNA was explored, and blocking presentation by using monoclonal antibodies to HLA class II inhibited synthesis of mRNA for HLA-DR alpha chain. HLA class II expression is maintained by cytokines and so cytokine production in rheumatoid joints was investigated. It was chosen to use mRNA analysis by slot blotting as a screening assay, and the expression of many cytokines was detected. Levels of these were maintained in culture in the absence of extrinsic stimulation.
We have examined the ability of hCD4 to interact functionally with mouse class II MHC molecules using the mouse T cell hybridoma BI-141, specific for beef insulin. We have previously shown that expression of mouse CD4 results in a marked enhancement of IL-2 release by BI-141 cells in response to beef insulin or, in a cross-reactive response, to pork insulin, on the appropriate mouse APCs. We now demonstrate that expression of hCD4 results in an equivalent stimulation of antigen responses by this mouse T cell hybridoma. The specificity of this effect was demonstrated by mAb and gp120 blocking studies. These data provide the first direct evidence for function of hCD4 and in an exclusively mouse system. ...
Hello, thank you for visiting my blog. I am Tankeshwar Acharya. Blogging is my passion. I am working as an Asst. Professor and Microbiologist at Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Nepal. If you want me to write about any posts that you found confusing/difficult, please mention in the comments below ...
Antigen presentation to T lymphocytes has been characterized extensively in terms of T lymphocyte activation and eventual cell death. In contrast, little is known about the consequences of antigen presentation for the antigen-presenting cell (APC). We have determined the outcome of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted peptide presentation to a specific T cell. We demonstrate that specific T lymphocyte interaction with peptide-presenting APCs led to apoptosis in the APC population. In contrast, T lymphocyte interaction with nonpeptide-loaded APCs or APCs loaded with monosubstituted peptide failed to induce T lymphocyte secretion of interleukin-2 and APC apoptosis. Phosphatidylserine externalization and mitochondrial depolarization were used to evaluate APC apoptosis. Fas/Fas ligand interactions were not required, but cytoskeletal integrity and caspase activation were essential for APC apoptosis. Antigen presentation leading to T lymphocyte activation is therefore coordinated with
Over the last decade, our understanding and ability to predict the MHC class I pathway antigen presentation has improved substantially. This however does not hold for post-transnationally modified (PTM) antigens, where our understanding on how PTMs impact the potential for antigen presentation remains limited. Likewise, is our ability to predict MHC class II antigen presentation limited, and data suggest that properties other that MHC binding plays a critical role for the prediction of CD4 epitopes. Finally, is our understanding of the role of the T cell and the similarity of the presented peptide to the self proteome in the context of peptide immunogenicity very limited ...
DNA vaccines promote an immune response by providing antigen-encoding DNA to the recipient, but the efficacy of such vaccines needs improving. Many approaches have considerable potential but currently induce relatively weak immune responses despite multiple high doses of DNA vaccine. Here, we asked whether targeting vaccine antigens to DCs would increase the immunity and protection that result from DNA vaccines. To determine this, we generated a DNA vaccine encoding a fusion protein comprised of the vaccine antigen and a single-chain Fv antibody (scFv) specific for the DC-restricted antigen-uptake receptor DEC205. Following vaccination of mice, the vaccine antigen was expressed selectively by DCs, which were required for the increased efficacy of MHC class I and MHC class II antigen presentation relative to a control scFv DNA vaccine. In addition, a DNA vaccine encoding an HIV gag p41-scFv DEC205 fusion protein induced 10-fold higher antibody levels and increased numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ ...
HIV-specific CD4+ T helper lymphocytes are preferred targets for infection. Although complete interruption of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) can form part of therapeutic manipulations, there is grave concern that the resumption of viral replication might destroy, perhaps irreversibly, these T helper populations. High viremia blocks the proliferation capacity of HIV-specific helper cells. However, cytokine production assays imply that some antigen-specific effector function is retained. Despite this careful work, it remains unclear whether the return of HIV-1 replication physically destroys HIV-1-specific T helper cells in the peripheral blood. Difficulties in producing stable peptide-MHC class II complexes and the very low frequencies of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells have delayed the application of this powerful technique. Here we employ HLA class II tetramers and validate a sensitive, quantitative cell-enrichment technique to detect HIV-1 T helper cells. We studied patients with early-stage
MHC-II antigen presentation by W cells is usually important in order for W cells to receive ideal costimulation from helper Compact disc4+ T cells. blend partner was created in the 1970s to generate B-cell hybridomas that secrete monoclonal antibodies (Kohler and Milstein, 1975). Thereafter Shortly, this technique was used to Capital t cells to create T-cell hybridomas that secrete IL-2 after TCR signaling (Kappler et al., 1982; Rock and roll et al., 1990). In light of the useful advantages of using peptide-specific T-cell hybridomas, researchers possess broadly used them as a device to quantitatively measure peptide-specific antigen demonstration by multiple types of antigen showing cells (APC). Vidovic et al exhibited that the adhesion substances and integrins in human being and murine Capital t cells are extremely extremely functionally conserved and murine T-cell:human being APC conversation happened easily (Vidovic et al., 2003). We and others possess utilized HLA-DR transgenic rodents to ...
MO-DC generated in vitro serve as a model type of DC to unravel the complex interactions among DC maturation, MHC class II peptide loading, and endocytic transport (3, 33, 34). The emerging picture suggests that endocytic protease activity is regulated by differential activity of the lysosomal ATPase during DC maturation (3). By analyzing lysosomal MBP processing at pH 5.0 in vitro, we have here mimicked the conditions present in the lysosomal compartment of DC in the activated state in vivo.. The MHC class II-associated proteolytic machinery is characterized by a hierarchical proteolytic cascade, where the initial step controls the efficiency of Ag processing, peptide presentation, and T cell activation (14). Different types of APC as well as primary cells and immortalized cell lines contain distinct activity patterns of endocytic proteases (11, 17, 31, 35, 36, 37) which might result in different processing pathways for a given Ag and hence in different selections of peptides presented. We here ...
Improved risk models of patients with stage III melanoma will improve the treatment of patients with this disease; however, molecular markers are lacking. Our analysis of independent cohorts (two for protein in TMA, and one for mRNA in TCGA) of patients tumors strongly implicates increased CD74 expression as a new marker of good prognosis in stage III melanoma. Previously, we had considered inflammatory markers to be associated with poor prognosis, which was the case for MIF in both cohorts, and for iNOS in the MDACC cohort. The surprising finding of higher expression of CD74 having a strong association with good prognosis is most intriguing, and elucidating the mechanism involved is likely to open new avenues for melanoma research.. The functional role of CD74 is not well understood. Historically, CD74 was known primarily as the MHC class II invariant chain and functions in the molecular processing of MHC II through the Golgi (24). It has a potential role in the antitumor immune response (25), ...
As a severe chronic metabolic disease and autoimmune disorder, type 1 diabetes (T1D) affects millions of people world-wide. Recent advances in antigen-based immunotherapy have provided a great opportunity for further treating T1D with a high degree of selectivity. It is reported that MHC class II I-Ag7 in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse and human HLA-DQ8 are strongly linked to susceptibility to T1D. Thus, the identification of new I-Ag7 and HLA-DQ8 epitopes would be of great help to further experimental and biomedical manipulation efforts. In this study, a novel GPS-MBA (MHC Binding Analyzer) software package was developed for the prediction of I-Ag7 and HLA-DQ8 epitopes. Using experimentally identified epitopes as the training data sets, a previously developed GPS (Group-based Prediction System) algorithm was adopted and improved. By extensive evaluation and comparison, the GPS-MBA performance was found to be much better than other tools of this type. With this powerful tool, we predicted a number
T-cell receptor MHC complex. Computer model showing the structure of a T-cell surface glycoprotein CD4 (purple) complexed to the H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen A-K alpha chain (green) beta chain (yellow) and ovotransferrin (red). CD4 is a receptor found on T-cell white blood cells of the immune system. Antigens (foreign proteins) are presented to T cell receptors by MHC molecules to effect an immune response. - Stock Image C035/5403
J Immunol. 2001 Oct 1;167(7):3626-34. Harton JA, Zika E, Ting JP. The histone acetyltransferase domains of CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300/CBP-associated factor are not necessary for cooperativity with the class II transactivator. J Biol Chem. 2001 Oct 19;276(42):38715-20. Deffrennes V, Vedrenne J, Stolzenberg MC, Piskurich J, Barbieri G, Ting JP, Charron D, Alcaide-Loridan C. Constitutive expression of MHC class II genes in melanoma cell lines results from the transcription of class II transactivator abnormally initiated from its B cell-specific promoter. J Immunol. 2001 Jul 1;167(1):98-106. Li G, Harton JA, Zhu X, Ting JP. Downregulation of CIITA function by protein kinase a (PKA)-mediated phosphorylation: mechanism of prostaglandin E, cyclic AMP, and PKA inhibition of class II major histocompatibility complex expression in monocytic lines. Mol Cell Biol. 2001 Jul;21(14):4626-35. Linhoff MW, Harton JA, Cressman DE, Martin BK, Ting JP. Two distinct domains within CIITA mediate ...
Recent gene expression studies have suggested that down-regulation of HLA class II expression has a major biological effect reflected in clinical tumor characteristics and outcome. This has been shown for B-cell lymphomas, that naturally express HLA class II on lymphoma cells (8, 22), but also for carcinomas in which HLA class II can be expressed on the antigen-presenting cells within the tumor (24). It is increasingly appreciated that not only HLA class I but also class II is essential for mounting an adequate antitumor immune response. Antigen presentation via HLA class II is indispensable to activate a CD4+ T-cell population that may induce a CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxic antitumor response (25, 26) and recruit additional effector cell populations, such as macrophages (26, 27). In carcinomas, an immune-mediated antitumor response is mainly mediated by professional antigen-presenting cells.. In B-cell lymphomas, both professional antigen-presenting cells as well as the tumor B cells may play ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 14517277. J. Exp. Med. 2003 Oct;198(7):1089-102. The exact role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the peripheral survival of naive T cells is controversial, as some studies have suggested that they are critically required whereas others have suggested that they are not. Here we controlled for some of the features that differed among the earlier studies, and analyzed both the survival and expansion of naive CD4+ T cells transferred into MHC syngeneic, allogeneic, or MHC negative environments. We found that naive T cells transferred into MHC negative or allogeneic environments often fail to survive because of rejection and/or competition by natural killer (NK) cells, rather than failure to recognize a particular MHC allele. In the absence of NK cells, naive CD4+ T cells survived equally well regardless of the MHC type of the host. There was, however, an MHC requirement for extensive space-induced homeostatic expansion. Although the first few divisions ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Apoptotic DNA binds to HLA class II molecules inhibiting antigen presentation and participating in the development of anti-inflammatory functional behavior of phagocytic macrophages. AU - Filaci, Gilberto. AU - Contini, Paola. AU - Fravega, Marco. AU - Fenoglio, Daniela. AU - Azzarone, Bruno. AU - Julien-Giron, Michel. AU - Fiocca, Roberto. AU - Boggio, Maurizio. AU - Necchi, Vittorio. AU - De Lerma Barbaro, Andrea. AU - Merlo, Andrea. AU - Rizzi, Marta. AU - Ghio, Massimo. AU - Setti, Maurizio. AU - Puppo, Francesco. AU - Zanetti, Maurizio. AU - Indiveri, Francesco. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Resident macrophages are mainly responsible for the clearance of apoptotic cells from tissue by phagocytosis. Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is not accompanied by activation of inflammatory mechanisms, unlike what happens when necrotic phenomena occur. We analyzed the effect of phagocytosis of apoptotic bodies on macrophage cell functions. After phagocytosis of apoptotic cells ...
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) glycoproteins are heterodimeric cell surface receptors that function to present antigen peptide fragments to T cells responsible for cell-mediated immune responses. MHC molecules can be subdivided into two groups on the basis of structure and function: class I molecules present intracellular antigen peptide fragments (~10 amino acids) on the surface of the host cells to cytotoxic T cells; class II molecules present exogenously derived antigenic peptides (~15 amino acids) to helper T cells. MHC class I and II molecules are assembled and loaded with their peptide ligands via different mechanisms. However, both present peptide fragments rather than entire proteins to T cells, and are required to mount an immune response.. Class II MHC glycoproteins are expressed on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC), including macrophages, dendritic cells and B cells. MHC II proteins present peptide antigens that originate extracellularly from foreign bodies such as ...
MHC Class II I-Ab Mouse anti-Mouse, PE, Clone: AF6-120.1, eBioscience™ 100μg; PE MHC Class II I-Ab Mouse anti-Mouse, PE, Clone: AF6-120.1, eBioscience™...
Animals; Antigens, CD/metabolism; Antigens, CD5/metabolism; Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology; Cell Differentiation; DNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism; Flow Cytometry; Gene Expression Regulation; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology; Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/metabolism; Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/immunology; Histocompatibility Antigens Class II/metabolism; Humans; Jurkat Cells; Lectins, C-Type; Liver/cytology; Liver/embryology; Membrane Proteins/genetics; Membrane Proteins/metabolism; Mice; Mice, Transgenic; NFATC Transcription Factors; Nuclear Proteins; Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics; Receptor, Notch1; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology; Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/metabolism; Receptors, Cell Surface; Response Elements/genetics; Signal Transduction; Thymus ...
CD4 Antigens: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
HLA-DR gamma chainCD74HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class II antigensIiHLA-DR antigens- ... CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class II histocompatibility antigens (англ.) // Nucleic Acids ... cDNA clone for the human invariant gamma chain of class II histocompatibility antigens and its implications for the protein ...
"Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-54. ... Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute ... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ... Positive antibodies against soluble liver antigen (this group behaves like group 1) (anti-SLA, anti-LP) AIH with no ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... The stable MHC class II + antigen complex is then presented on the cell surface. Without CLIP, MHC class II aggregates ... "cDNA clone for the human invariant gamma chain of class II histocompatibility antigens and its implications for the protein ... "Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class II histocompatibility antigens". Nucleic Acids Research ...
"Association of canine hypothyroidism with a common major histocompatibility complex DLA class II allele". Tissue Antigens. 68 ( ... "Determining whether risk for sebaceous adenitis of Standard Poodles is associated with a specific DLA class II genotype" (PDF) ... There are two coat types in the Akita, the standard coat length and the long coat.[41] The long coat is considered a fault in ... Recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1955, it was placed in the Miscellaneous class.[citation needed] It was not until the ...
Labarrere C, Faulk W (1990). "MHC Class II Reactivity of Human Villous Trophoblast in Chronic Inflammation of Unestablished ... Majority of the antigen-presenting cells were Hofbauer cells (macrophages) were of foetal origin. Perivillous monocyte- ... Class 2 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on macrophages are up-regulated at sites of VUE. Neutrophils should not ... Focal has involved villi on only one glass slide, while multifocal has involved villi on at least two slides. High grade ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(6) alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQA2 gene. Also ... 1984). "Isotypic and allotypic variation of human class II histocompatibility antigen alpha-chain genes". Nature. 308 (5957): ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. Comparisons of the DQ and DX alpha and beta genes". J. ...
"Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31. ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... cells from epidermal cell suspensions containing keratinocytes expressing class II transplantation antigens". Scand. J. Immunol ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRA gene. HLA-DRA ... "Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... The polypeptide subunit encoded by this gene belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. The class II protein is a ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... DO suppresses peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by inhibiting HLA-DM. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen ... "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. The DO beta gene is a divergent member of the class II beta gene ... class II, DO beta". Beck S, Kelly A, Radley E, et al. (1992). "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region ...
"Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2". Nature. 329 (6139): 506-12. Bibcode:1987Natur.329..506B. ... Wang Z, Cao Y, Albino AP, Zeff RA, Houghton A, Ferrone S (February 1993). "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma ... Saper MA, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (May 1991). "Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A ... β2 microglobulin also known as B2M is a component of MHC class I molecules, MHC class I molecules have α1, α2, and α3 proteins ...
... tolerance can be established in vitro and in vivo for both MHC class I and II as well as minor histocompatibility antigens. ... This means that T-cells with a T-cell receptor specific to antigens presented on the veto cell, bind to the veto cell, and are ... Because veto cells can only suppress T-cell progenitors that are directed against antigens on the veto cells themselves, but ... Veto activity is thought to be a form of antigen-specific suppression that maintains continuous self-tolerance. Cells with veto ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene. DRB1 ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer ... Class II molecules are constitutively expressed in professional antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DRB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1". Gregersen PK, Silver J, Winchester RJ (November ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DMB gene. HLA-DMB ... DM plays a central role in the peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by helping to release the CLIP (class II-associated ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DX beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQB2 gene. ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. Comparisons of the DQ and DX alpha and beta genes". J. ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQB2 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 2". Piatier-Tonneau D, Gastinel LN, Amblard F, et al ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOA gene. HLA-DOA ... class II, DO alpha". Piatier-Tonneau D, Gastinel LN, Amblard F, et al. (1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... "Isolation and characterization of the cDNA clone and genomic clones of a new HLA class II antigen heavy chain, DO alpha". J. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB5 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB5 gene. The ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DRB5 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5". Lau M, Terasaki PI, Park MS (1995). " ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP(W2) beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DPB1 gene. HLA-DPB ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... 1991). "Modulation of the HLA class II antigen at a molecular level by maternal serum among cord blood cells and unrelated ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DPB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta 1". Mitsunaga S, Kuwata S, Tokunaga K, et al. (1992 ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB3-1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB3 gene. The ... class II, DR beta 3". Germain RN (1996). "Binding domain regulation of MHC class II molecule assembly, trafficking, fate, and ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 1 chain) at the PDBe-KB. v t e. ... HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, also known as HLA-DQB1, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ...
for the elucidation of the three dimensional structures of class I and class II human histocompatibility antigens and their ... for development of chemically amplified resist polymer materials for innovative semiconductor manufacturing process.[2] ...
"A gene in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region controlling the class I antigen presentation pathway". ... "Two putative subunits of a peptide pump encoded in the human major histocompatibility complex class II region". Proc Natl Acad ... "DNA sequence analysis of 66 kb of the human MHC class II region encoding a cluster of genes for antigen processing". J. Mol. ... Trowsdale J, Hanson I, Mockridge I, Beck S, Townsend A, Kelly A (1991). "Sequences encoded in the class II region of the MHC ...
Major histocompatibility complex Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQB1 major histocompatibility complex, class ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 3, also known as HLA-DQB3, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic ... While the overall sequence of the protein encoded by this gene is similar to other HLA class II beta chains, the translated ... "Mapping and nucleotide sequence of a new HLA class II light chain gene, DQB3". Immunogenetics. 30 (4): 243-9. doi:10.1007/ ...
He also found genetic susceptibility to RHD related to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II Human Leucocyte ... Antigens (HLA) DR-11. Dr Okello joined the Uganda Heart Centre in 2010. In an interview that he gave in 2019, he stated that he ...
The name 'HLA DQ' originally describes a transplantation antigen of MHC class II category of the major histocompatibility ... As an MHC class II antigen-presenting receptor, DQ functions as a dimer containing two protein subunits, alpha (DQA1 gene ... The MHC Class II antigens are found on antigen presenting cells (APC) (macrophages, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes). ... HLA-DQ (DQ) is a cell surface receptor protein found on antigen presenting cells. It is an αβ heterodimer of type MHC class II ...
1982 Inducible expression of class II major histocompatibility complex antigens and the immunogenicity of vascular endothelium ... "Two NYU Scientists Named Fellows of the New York Academy of Sciences". New York University. Carol Shoshkes Reiss publications ... explored the responses of helper T cell responses to influenza and mapped critical domains of class I Major Histocompatibility ... Reiss published more than 88 peer reviewed papers, and two editions of the book Neurotropic Viral Infections. Sex differences ...
... contains a N-terminal class II histocompatibility antigen, alpha domain and a C-terminal Immunoglobulin C1-set domain. ... It binds in the same location to HLA-DM as MHC class II molecules bind, thereby preventing HLA-DM from binding to MHC class II ... the peptide exchange catalyst that loads antigen onto class II MHC molecules during antigen presentation". Immunity. 9 (3): 377 ... HLA-DO and MHC class II molecules). The structure and sequence of HLA-DM proteins is very similar to other MHC class II ...
Neefjes' discoveries on antigen presentation by the class I and II major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) constitute today's ... Canada The Biosynthetic Pathway of MHC Class II but Not Class I Molecules Intersects the Endocytic Route. Neefjes JJ, Stollorx ... During his thesis, he investigated the Cell Biological Aspect of MHC class I and II molecules. He obtained his Ph.D. degree on ... After his Ph.D., Jacques Neefjes did two post-doctoral visits. First, from 1991 to 1992, he visited the laboratory of Drs ...
... small clusters of microglial cells with enhanced major histocompatibility complex class II antigen, CD45 and CD68 antigen ... Pattern II The scar presents T-cells and macrophages around blood vessels, with preservation of oligodendrocytes, as before, ... Though this pattern could be considered similar to damage seen in NMO, some authors report no AQP4 damage in pattern II lesions ... doi:10.1007/s00415-007-0754-x. Garrido C, Levy-Gomes A, Teixeira J, Temudo T (2004). "[Schilder's disease: two new cases and a ...
... a chicken class II major histocompatibility complex antigen), and T and B-lymphocytes were observed to determine its effects on ... The other four tests detect group antigens.[15] Maternal antibodies[edit]. Maternal antibodies have displayed protection ... Of the eleven proteins that are encoded for by the genome, two are nonstructural, while the remaining nine are structural.[1] ... Avian orthoreovirus infection is more common in young birds, because resistance begins to develop from as young as two weeks of ...
... so that susceptibility moves from class II to Class III or Class I loci.[3] The association with class I would be unusual since ... A1::DQ2 was at the forefront of histocompatibility science, A1 was the first numerical antigen HL-A1 identified in the late ... Christian N, Smikle MF, DeCeulaer K, Daniels L, Walravens MJ, Barton EN (March 2007). "Antinuclear antibodies and HLA class II ... Goldberg MA, Arnett FC, Bias WB, Shulman LE (1976). "Histocompatibility antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus". Arthritis ...
... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... human T cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) - humoral immunity - HVTN - hydroxyurea - hypergammaglobulinemia - ... histocompatibility testing - histoplasmosis - HIV disease - HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) - HIV set point - HIV vaccine ... AIDS education and training centers (AETC) - AIDS orphan - AIDS research advisory committee (ARAC) - AIDS service organization ...
... bind antigenic peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. ... or display stress markers such as MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MIC-A). Decreased expression of MHC class I and ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by structure (granulocytes or agranulocytes) or by cell lineage (myeloid ...
Neutrophils and two other cell types (eosinophils and basophils), are known as granulocytes (because they have granules in ... rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... They are found among all classes of life. These peptides are potent, broad spectrum antibiotics. They kill both gram negative ... major histocompatibility complex). This can occur in viral infections of host cells.[8] They were named "natural killer" ...
... cells from autologous natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity despite the reduction of major histocompatibility complex class ... Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... SLAMF6‏ (SLAM family member 6) هوَ بروتين يُشَفر بواسطة جين SLAMF6 في الإنسان.[1][2] ... 18 (2): 241-7. PMID 16410313. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxh358. *Gregory SG، Barlow KF، McLay KE، وآخرون. (2006). "The DNA sequence ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... The α subunits that make up the outer two rings are shown in green, and the β subunits that make up the inner two rings are ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex.[63] ... The inner two rings are made of seven β subunits that contain three to seven protease active sites. These sites are located on ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Neutrophils, along with two other cell types (eosinophils and basophils; see below), are known as granulocytes due to the ... Toll-like receptors are a major class of pattern recognition receptor, that exists in all coelomates (animals with a body- ... major histocompatibility complex) - a situation that can arise in viral infections of host cells.[8] They were named "natural ...
APCs then present the fragments to T helper cells (CD4+) by the use of class II histocompatibility molecules on their surface. ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... Minor histocompatibility antigens, a conceptually similar antigen class are also correctly identified by MHC binding algorithms ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ...
MHC class II) or any other cell type (MHC class I) [11] High on-rate and off-rate is characteristic for TCR and peptide/MHC ... that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... On helper T cells and regulatory T cells, this co-receptor is CD4 that is specific for MHC class II. ...
Seperti reseptor sel T, CD8 mengikat pada molekul major histocompatibility complex (MHC), tetapi CD8 spesifik pada MHC kelas I. ... Gao G, Jakobsen B (2000). "Molecular interactions of coreceptor CD8 and MHC class I: the molecular basis for functional ... Human CD Antigen Chart. *CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes [1] ... Pada manusia, kedua gen tersebut berada di kromosom 2 di posisi 2p12. ...
CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ... Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis[1]. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ... Myelin antigens (e.g., myelin basic protein). Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis[1]. Possibly collagen and/ ...
... pathogen clippings as antigen on their cell surface by coupling them to a special receptor known as a major histocompatibility ... Two common salts include aluminium phosphate and aluminium hydroxide. Aluminium salts are the most commonly-used adjuvants in ... Classes. *Conjugate vaccine. *DNA vaccination. *Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine ... Second, adjuvants may provide physical protection to antigens which grants the antigen a prolonged delivery. This means that ...
... that can recognize a tumor cell antigen in a manner that is independent of the major histocompatibility complex and which can ... Examples of this include the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion gene that combines two factors that promote blood cell development and the BCR- ... Education Program. 2013 (1): 596-600. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2013.1.596. PMC 4729208. PMID 24319237.. ... Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ...
The major histocompatibility complexes (MHC).. The first two, which are involved in the recognition of antigens, are inherently ... 2002) injected an anti-MHC Class II antibody into mice expressing a single type of MHC Class II molecule (H-2b) to temporarily ... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... Correlations may exist between polymorphisms within class II MHC promoters and autoimmune disease. ...
Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility complex and T-cell receptors in the absence of antigen presentation ... Education[edit]. A large international collaboration entitled the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign" was established in 2002[122] to ... SIRS is the presence of two or more of the following: abnormal body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, or blood gas, ... APACHE II factors in the person's age, underlying condition, and various physiologic variables to yield estimates of the risk ...
Vertebrates inherit several copies of both MHC class I and MHC class II from each parent, which are used in antigen ... Major histocompatibility complex in animals[edit]. One example of where particular genes may be important in vertebrate animals ... However, there are two problems with this claim: *First, according to an article published in the journal Genome Biology, " ... Temperate maize hybrids are derived from two main heterotic groups: Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic, and non stiff stalk.[citation ...
HLA-DQ is part of the MHC class II antigen-presenting receptor (also called the human leukocyte antigen) system and ... Marsh MN (1992). "Gluten, major histocompatibility complex, and the small intestine. A molecular and immunobiologic approach to ... This haplotype is composed of two adjacent gene alleles, DQA1*0501 and DQB1*0201, which encode the two subunits, DQ α5 and DQ β ... IgG class anti-DGP antibodies may be useful in people with IgA deficiency. In children younger than two years, anti-DGP ...
Mizuki N, Meguro A, Tohnai I, Gül A, Ohno S, Mizuki N (2007). "Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain- ... B51 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B5, and is a sister serotype of B52.[2] There are a large number of alleles within ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (1): 20-48. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.610103.x. PMID 12622774. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008- ... "Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMC 2396006. PMID 15787720.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Major histocompatibility complex/. Human leukocyte antigen. MHC class I. *HLA-A. *HLA-B ... class II, and class III. In humans, the HLA-B gene and two related genes, HLA-A and HLA-C, are the major genes in MHC class I. ... They are HLA-A, HLA-B, (both Class I MHCs) and HLA-DR (a Class II MHC).[5] If the two tissues have the same genes coding for ... antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP- ...
Genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, as well as the class I and class II genes, are closely linked within the ... all cells are capable of presenting antigen through the function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.[5] Some ... Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class II molecules, which activate CD4+T helper cells.[2] ... Helper T cells express T cell receptors (TCR) that recognize antigen bound to Class II MHC molecules. The activation of a naive ...
"Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-54. ... Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells,[2] possibly due to genetic predisposition or ... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ... Positive antibodies against soluble liver antigen[14] (this group behaves like group 1)[15] (anti-SLA, anti-LP) ...
Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... T cells via xenogeneic MHC class II molecules, resulting in the production of interleukin 2 (IL-2). Indirect xenorecognition ... This is the reason the organs would have to be altered to fit the patients' DNA (histocompatibility). ... 2 (1): 64-70. doi:10.3201/eid0201.960111. PMC 2639801. PMID 8903201.. *^ a b c d e f g Taylor, L. (2007) Xenotransplantation. ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... Huard B, Tournier M, Hercend T, Triebel F, and Faure F. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3/major histocompatibility complex class II ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ...
... can recognize their target antigen that is presented by the MHC class II molecules. The memory helper T cell subsequently ... encoding cell surface molecules called major histocompatibility complex (MHC), classes I and II, correlate with the rapidity ... When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the surfaces of the target ... the two arms are the Fab regions, while the single stalk is the Fc region. Each of the two tips of Fab region is the paratope, ...
HLA loci can be further classified into MHC class I and MHC class II (or rarely, D locus). Every two years, a nomenclature is ... The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ... HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. ... and each cell recognizes only a few class II-peptide combinations. Once a T cell recognizes a peptide within an MHC class II ...
The human butyrophilin gene is localized in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region of 6p and may have arisen ... Butyrophilin has been presented as a potential antigen which may be similar enough to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG ... 2001). "The cluster of BTN genes in the extended major histocompatibility complex". Genomics. 71 (3): 351-62. doi:10.1006/geno. ... 1999). "Multiple forms of lactadherin (breast antigen BA46) and butyrophilin are secreted into human milk as major components ...
MHC class I molecules are the main mechanism by which cells display viral or tumor antigens to cytotoxic T cells. A common ... II. Characterization of effector cells". International Journal of Cancer. 16 (2): 230-9. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910160205. PMID ... Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine ... Infusions of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor that recognizes an antigen molecule on leukemia cells ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and body odor preferencesEdit. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a genotype ... Oracle Education Foundation (25 Aug 2010). "Your Sense of Smell - The Senses". ThinkQuest Library. Archived from the original ... In a study, women rated the scent of T-shirts, worn over two nights by men, as more pleasant when smelling those of MHC- ... diversity within the MHC genotype is beneficial for the immune system due to a greater range of antigens available to the host ...
In mice, a nonamer peptide originating from the SPP protein serves as minor histocompatibility antigen HM13 that plays a role ... Physiologically SPP processes signal peptides of classical MHC class I preproteins. A nine amino acid-long cleavage fragment is ... Snell GD, Cudkowicz G, Bunker HP (Jun 1967). "Histocompatibility genes of mice. VII. H-13, a new histocompatibility locus in ... "Entrez Gene: H13 histocompatibility (minor) 13". Friedmann E, Hauben E, Maylandt K, et al. (2006). "SPPL2a and SPPL2b promote ...
"HIV-1 Nef impairs MHC class II antigen presentation and surface expression". 》Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.》 98 (21): 12144-9. ... Schwartz O, Maréchal V, Le Gall S, Lemonnier F, Heard JM (1996년 3월). "Endocytosis of major histocompatibility complex class I ... Nef단백질(p27)은 T세포의 CD4(주요 바이러스 수용체)뿐만 아니라 MHC class I, MHC class II분자를 저해한다.[62][63][64] Nef는 또한 SH3도메인과 상호작용한다. Vpu단백질(p16)은 ... AEGiS.org: AIDS Education Global Information System- Patient/clinician information & Historical news and treatment database ...
Major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent antigen presentation by human intestinal endothelial cells.. Haraldsen G1, ... class II molecules. Enhanced expression is found in chronic inflammation. We examined the cytokine regulation of MHC class II ... Tumor necrosis factor alpha had no effect alone but enhanced class II expression in combination with IFN-gamma, most notably ... In unstimulated HIMEC monolayers, HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ and Ii were undetectable at the protein level, but interferon gamma (IFN ...
3 MHC class II molecules bind to a CD74 homotrimer (also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen ... To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta ... leaving a small fragment termed CLIP on each MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in ... HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. The MHC II molecule bound to ...
... reticulum to the endosomal/lysosomal system where the antigen processing and binding of antigenic peptides to MHC class II ... Plays a critical role in MHC class II antigen processing by stabilizing peptide-free class II alpha/beta heterodimers in a ... MHC class II protein binding Source: BHF-UCL. *MHC class II protein binding, via antigen binding groove Source: UniProtKB ... MHC class II protein binding Source: BHF-UCL. *MHC class II protein binding, via antigen binding groove Source: UniProtKB ...
3 MHC class II molecules bind to a CD74 homotrimer (also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen ... To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 3 chain - P79483 (DRB3_HUMAN) ... leaving a small fragment termed CLIP on each MHC class II molecule. MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in ...
Differential expression of guinea pig class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on vascular endothelial cells in vitro ... Class II antigens either in vivo or in vitro. In this investigation it was found that endothelial in the central nervous system ... CNS) of normal guinea pigs constitutively express MHC Class II antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies HLA-DR, 27E7, ... phase of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis shows that additional epitopes of the MHC Class II antigen, ...
... has been thought essential for transport of all major histocompatibility complex class I antigens to the cell surface. Here, we ... show that the mouse class I antigen H-2Db is expressed at the cell surface even when there is no beta 2m present within the ... This Db antigen is not recognized by Db-allospecific and Db-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes or by most monoclonal antibodies ... The conformation of the Db antigen expressed by the R1E transfectant is very different from that of the native molecule. ...
Class II histocompatibility antigen, M alpha chainImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... tr,Q31621,Q31621_MOUSE Class II histocompatibility antigen, M alpha chain OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=H2-DMa PE=1 SV=1 ... Putative HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DMalpha chain protein (Fragment). Daphnia magna ... Putative HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DMalpha chain protein (Fragment). Daphnia magna ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [Golgi membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 ... Homologues of HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [plasma membrane] (Sus scrofa) * HLA class II ... Homologues of HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [plasma membrane] (Sus scrofa) * HLA class II ... Homologues of HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [plasma membrane] (Sus scrofa) * HLA class II ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [Golgi membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 2 ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP [Golgi membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 2 chain [Golgi ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP [trans-Golgi network membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [lysosomal membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta ...
Ia antigen-associated invariant chain, Ii, MHC class II-associated invariant chain, Cd74, CD74 ... Please allow 2-3 weeks for delivery. Upon receipt of an order each kit is assembled and tested to ensure that it meets ... Product Description: Immunotag™ H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain ELISA Kit ... H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain, ... H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain ELISA Kit. ...
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical ... Histocompatibility Antigens Class II. Description of Histocompatibility Antigens Class II. Histocompatibility Antigens Class II ... Terms Similar to Histocompatibility Antigens Class II:. *Antigens, Immune Response *Class II Antigens *Ia Antigens *Ia-Like ... HLA-D Antigens Source - MeSH 2007 Broader terms for Histocompatibility Antigens Class II. *Histocompatibility Antigens Source ...
In vitro expression of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens by conditionally immortalized murine neural stem ... In vitro expression of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens by conditionally immortalized murine neural stem ... Here we report that MHP36 cells express both MHC class I and class II antigens when grown in culture under proliferative ... The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on the surface of cells is intimately linked to in vivo graft ...
Recombinant Protein and Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein ... Shop Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen ELISA Kit, ... Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT ... Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain. Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain ELISA Kit. ... Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain Antibody. Also known as Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR ...
Tag: Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complexMHC). The bacterial cell ... In comparison to Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complex(MHC),is a ... Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complexMHC), PHA-665752 ... This molecule plays a major role in cellular interaction during antigen presentation the cytoplasmic proteins (the rest of the ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ [Golgi membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ [trans-Golgi network ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ [transport vesicle membrane] (Danio rerio) HLA class II histocompatibility antigen ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ [endocytic vesicle membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ [lysosomal ... MHC class II antigen presentation (Homo sapiens) * Insertion of MHC II:Ii complex in to the plasma membrane (Homo sapiens) * ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-11 beta chain [Golgi membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-11 ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-11 beta chain [lysosomal membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1- ... HLA II beta chain [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1- ... HLA II beta chain [clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) * HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1- ...
Get highlights of the most important data releases, news and events, delivered straight to your email inbox. Subscribe to newsletter ...
Antigen capture and major histocompatibility class II compartments of freshly isolated and cultured human blood dendritic cells ... Antigen capture and major histocompatibility class II compartments of freshly isolated and cultured human blood dendritic cells ... Major histocompatibility complex class II compartments in human B lymphoblastoid cells are distinct from early endosomes. ... c-DC express much more cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II than f-DC. The uptake of colloidal gold- ...
Kirsten murine sarcoma virus abolishes interferon gamma-induced class II but not class I major histocompatibility antigen ... A P Albino, A N Houghton, M Eisinger, J S Lee, R R Kantor, A I Oliff, L J Old; Class II histocompatibility antigen expression ... Class II histocompatibility antigen expression in human melanocytes transformed by Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MSV) and ... These are (a) expression of Ia antigens, in particular DP, DQ, and DR class II histocompatibility gene products, (b) a ...
H-2 class I histocompatibility antigen, K-D alpha chain Recombinant Protein-XP_011241831.1 (MBS1158913) product datasheet at ... antigen processing and presentation of endogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I via ER pathway, TAP-dependent; antigen ... Antigen Processing And Presentation Pathway Diagram. Antigen Processing And Presentation Pathway antibodies. Antigen Processing ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I; defense response to bacterium; immune response; immune ...
This protein plays a role in MHC class II-dependent immunity. ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain (296 aa, ~ ... HLA Class II Histocompatibility Antigen Gamma Chain (More). HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain (296 aa, ~34 ... HLA Class II Histocompatibility Antigen Gamma Chain, human. Known as: HLA-DR Antigens-Associated Invariant Chain, Ia Antigen- ... The MHC class II-associated invariant chain behaves as a resident endoplasmic reticulum protein in the absence of class II… ( ...
After 3 to 5 days in culture the DC still expressed class II MHC antigens and were potent stimulators in allogeneic mixed ... Both the rheumatoid synovial and the normal blood DC were strongly positive for panleucocyte antigen and class II major ... histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens (HLA-DP, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DR). The DC suspensions (purity approximately 80-85%) showed ... Surface antigen expression and accessory activity of the DC during short-term cultures were also investigated. ...
Class II Antigen , Class II Antigens , Class II Histocompatibility Antigens , Class II Major Histocompatibility Antigens , ... Histocompatibility Antigens Class II Equivalent Terms Antigen, Class II , Antigen, IA , Antigen, I-A , Antigens, Class II , ... AntigensAntigens, Surface ← Histocompatibility AntigensHistocompatibility Antigens Class II 2.. Chemicals ← Biological ... Class II Major Histocompatibility Molecules , Class II MHC Proteins , I A Antigen , I-A Antigen , I-A-Antigen , IA Antigen , Ia ...
HCA RNA Cell Line for HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain. ... Compartment GO Terms for HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain. ... Important modulator in the HLA class II restricted antigen presentation pathway by interaction with the HLA-DM molecule in B- ... HLA-DOA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. HLA-DOA forms a heterodimer with HLA-DOB. The heterodimer, HLA-DO, ...
To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta ... HCA RNA Cell Line for HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain. ... Compartment GO Terms for HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain. ... CSPA Cell Line for HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP alpha 1 chain. ...
Prostaglandin E counteracts the gamma interferon induction of major histocompatibility complex class-II antigens on U937 cells ... Prostaglandin E counteracts the gamma interferon induction of major histocompatibility complex class-II antigens on U937 cells ... Prostaglandin E counteracts the gamma interferon induction of major histocompatibility complex class-II antigens on U937 cells ... T1 - Prostaglandin E counteracts the gamma interferon induction of major histocompatibility complex class-II antigens on U937 ...
T1 - Preformed IgG antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are major risk factors for high-grade ... Preformed IgG antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are major risk factors for high-grade ... Preformed IgG antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are major risk factors for high-grade ... Preformed IgG antibodies against major histocompatibility complex class II antigens are major risk factors for high-grade ...
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... antigen- associated invariant polypeptides Biochemical Society Transactions Portland Press 0300-5127 1470-8752 10.1042/ ... Biochemical analyses of human class II histocompatibility (HLA-D region) ...
Langerhans cell histiocytosis shows distinct cytoplasmic expression of major histocompatibility class II antigens. Journal of ... Langerhans cell histiocytosis shows distinct cytoplasmic expression of major histocompatibility class II antigens. In: Journal ... Langerhans cell histiocytosis shows distinct cytoplasmic expression of major histocompatibility class II antigens. / Redd, ... title = "Langerhans cell histiocytosis shows distinct cytoplasmic expression of major histocompatibility class II antigens", ...
  • In the normal gut, human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the cytokine regulation of MHC class II molecules and the associated invariant chain (Ii) in HIMECs and investigated whether such cells can process and present a complex protein antigen to T cells. (nih.gov)
  • The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. (rcsb.org)
  • Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition to APC s, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APC s, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. (rcsb.org)
  • To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. (rcsb.org)
  • HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. (rcsb.org)
  • In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. (rcsb.org)
  • Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading. (rcsb.org)
  • 3 MHC class II molecules bind to a CD74 homotrimer (also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain). (rcsb.org)
  • Here we report that MHP36 cells express both MHC class I and class II antigens when grown in culture under proliferative conditions (33 degrees C), whereas cells with a differentiated morphology in the non-proliferative (37-39 degrees C) condition express low to undetectable levels of either MHC molecules. (open.ac.uk)
  • The most striking discovery is that the majority of MHC class II molecules in both f-DC and c-DC occur in intracellular vacuoles with a complex shape (multivesicular and multilaminar). (rupress.org)
  • The heterodimer, HLA-DO, is found in lysosomes in B cells and regulates HLA-DM-mediated peptide loading on MHC class II molecules. (nih.gov)
  • In comparison with classical HLA class II molecules, this gene exhibits very little sequence variation, especially at the protein level. (nih.gov)
  • Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions - These results emphasize the importance of specifically screening heart transplantation candidates for the presence of IgG antibodies directed against MHC class II molecules and suggest that strategies aimed at their reduction may have an impact on the onset and frequency of high-grade cellular rejections after transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • To determine if antigen presentation with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules was required to control oocyst production by NK cells during primary infection or by T-cells during secondary infection, mutant mice that lacked H2-IAbeta(b) (Abeta(b)-/-) or beta2-microglobulin (beta2m-/-) were used. (nih.gov)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules are released by murine macrophages upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation and ATP signaling through the P2X7 receptor. (nih.gov)
  • Peptide antigens were presented by class II molecules displayed on BLS cells, although the conformation of these class II proteins was altered as indicated by epitope mapping. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, two important functionally linked pathways of class II molecules, structural gene expression and antigen presentation, share a common regulatory pathway defective in BLS. (elsevier.com)
  • This interaction is mediated through the T cell receptor complex with associate recognition of class II molecules by the CD4 molecule. (duke.edu)
  • Induction of homotypic adhesion was dependent on energy metabolism and a functional cytoskeleton, and class II+ pre-B cells did not exhibit adhesion in response to these stimuli, suggesting that cross-linking of class II molecules generated a transmembrane signal and did not simply aggregate cells. (duke.edu)
  • Studies in vitro have suggested that a species barrier exists in functional interaction between human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II and mouse CD4 molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • However, whether mouse CD4 + T cells restricted by HLA class II molecules are generated in HLA class II transgenic mice and respond to peptide antigens across this barrier has remained unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition studies with several monoclonal antibodies showed that transgenic HLA class II molecules presented these peptides to mouse CD4 + T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, T cell lines specific for HA 307 or M6C2 obtained from the transgenic mice could respond to the peptide in the context of relevant HLA class II molecules expressed on mouse L cell transfectants that lack the expression of mouse MHC class II. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings indicate that interaction between HLA class II and mouse CD4 molecules is sufficient for provoking peptide-specific HLA class II-restricted T cell responses in HLA class II transgenic mice. (elsevier.com)
  • We used a "hit and run" gene targeting strategy to generate mice expressing only the p31 isoform of the conserved invariant (Ii) chain associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Cresswell P. Assembly, transport, and function of MHC class II molecules (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • In primary cultures, the cells are negative for class II molecules (Ia) of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) but can be induced to express these molecules by exposure to a supernatant from concanavalin A (ConA)-treated rat spleen cells or by recombinant interferon-gamma (rIFN-gamma). (nih.gov)
  • MHC class-II molecules and autoimmunity. (springer.com)
  • Expression of class II MHC molecules was measured in human MSCs and differentiated cells expanded in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), human platelet lysate, or interferon-γ (IFNγ). (wiley.com)
  • Specific T cell receptor-mediated recognition of HLA class II associated peptides presented by professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), as well as co-signaling via co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines are required to activate CD4+ T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The binding to HLA class II molecules is dependent on the properties of the amino acid side chains of a given peptide and the binding pockets of a given HLA class II molecule ( 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • HLA class II molecules are highly polymorphic and their peptide binding groove is open at both ends enabling the binding of different peptide length variants ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Interaction between a T cell receptor (TCR) and various ligands, i.e., anti-TCR antibodies, superantigens, peptides, or altered peptide ligands in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules can trigger different T helper cell (Th) effector functions. (psu.edu)
  • Dr. Sadegh-Nasseri and her lab made the notable discovery that binding of peptides to MHC class II induces different conformations, a finding that has formed the basis for how peptide-MHC class II complexes are recognized and edited by the MHC class II accessory molecules. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • They have maintained a leading role in understanding mechanisms in peptide binding and the role of MHC class II accessory molecules, HLA-DM and HLA-DO in peptide exchange and editing. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • CD4+ helper T cells of the immune system recognize peptide fragments of self or foreign antigens that are loaded on MHC-II molecules. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • With these studies, we aim to precisely define the critical molecular determinants of peptide antigen presentation on MHC-II molecules in both the murine and human immune systems. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Most non-sex-linked minor H antigens presented by MHC class I molecules and recognized by CD8 + CTL are created by nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the coding sequences of normal genes that cause amino acid changes within the CTL epitope sequence ( 3 - 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • B-cells are designed to interact with major histocompatibility class II molecules, which present antigen for antibody production. (usda.gov)
  • Binding to Ii ensures that no antigen peptides from the endogenous pathway meant for MHC class I molecules accidentally bind to the groove of MHC class II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ii is then cleaved by cathepsin S (cathepsin L in cortical thymic epithelial cells), leaving only a small fragment called CLIP remaining bound to the groove of MHC class II molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • DO suppresses peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by inhibiting HLA-DM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modeling the interactions of a peptide-major histocompatibility class I ligand with its receptors. (psu.edu)
  • Clonal activation of CD4 + and CD8 + T lymphocytes depends on binding of peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule complexes by their oe/3 receptors, eventually resulting in sufficient aggregation to initiate second messenger generation. (psu.edu)
  • However, one major structural difference between these two receptors is that although transmembrane BCR and secreted Ab are at least bivalent, current models suggest that TCR is not. (jimmunol.org)
  • Cell-mediated immunity utilizes highly specific antigen receptors on B- and T- cells that are generated by random processes of gene rearrangement to induce different mechanisms of immune reaction. (usda.gov)
  • Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute liver infection, causes a cell-mediated immune response against the body's own liver, resulting in autoimmune hepatitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we have recently began a foray into human immunology to investigate the purpose of inducible MHC-II expression on CD4+ T cells, a cell that normally is thought to exclusively respond to, but not present its own, peptides. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. (rcsb.org)
  • The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • 11:1567-1577(1983) Girgis K.R., Capra D.J., Stroynowski I. Nucleotide sequences of three H-2K and three H-2D complementary DNA clones coding mouse class I MHC heavy chain proteins.Wang M., Stepkowski S.M., Hebert J.S., Tian L., Yu J., Kahan B.D.Ann. (mybiosource.com)
  • MHC class II genes provide instructions for making proteins that are present on the surface of certain immune system cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MHC class II proteins display these peptides to the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Human class II major histocompatibility comlex genes and proteins. (springer.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for key proteins of the adaptive immune system, which present antigens from intra-cellular (MHC class I) and extra-cellular (MHC class II) pathogens. (nature.com)
  • The findings suggest that, despite 90% sequence identity between these two proteins, T cells recognize prominently the species-specific determinants localized within amino acid residues 21-40 and 49-72. (tudelft.nl)
  • Dendritic cells sample antigens mainly via macropinocytosis and receptor-mediated uptake and have access to a broad range of extracellular proteins. (frontiersin.org)
  • The MAPPs assay consists of multiple steps, involving human primary antigen presenting cell culture, peptide isolation, and peptide identification via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Professional antigen presenting cells are loaded with proteins of interest, which are internalized and enzymatically processed to peptides in the endolysosomal compartment of the cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This system has identified critical epitopes in proteins implicated in autoimmunity as well as protein antigens from influenza, malaria, and HIV-1. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Using the same strategy described above, two groups reported coassociation by IP of two different TCRs when solubilized in Brij-family detergents ( 10 , 11 ), although it is known that Brij lysates fail to separate TCR/CD3 from extraneous membrane proteins ( 12 , 13 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • This fuses with a late endosome containing the endocytosed antigen proteins (from the exogenous pathway). (wikipedia.org)
  • Our data demonstrate that the execution of necrosis is a complex process involving ROS, DNA damage, and Bcl-2 family proteins. (hindawi.com)
  • The MHC II molecule bound to a peptide is then transported to the cell membrane surface. (rcsb.org)
  • also referred as MHC class II molecule. (rcsb.org)
  • leaving a small fragment termed CLIP on each MHC class II molecule. (rcsb.org)
  • MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in B-cells, in order to release CLIP and facilitate the binding of antigenic peptides. (rcsb.org)
  • The conformation of the Db antigen expressed by the R1E transfectant is very different from that of the native molecule. (pnas.org)
  • Important modulator in the HLA class II restricted antigen presentation pathway by interaction with the HLA-DM molecule in B-cells. (nih.gov)
  • This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DPA) and a beta (DPB) chain, both anchored in the membrane. (nih.gov)
  • NSG-( K b D b ) null ( IA ) null mutant mice combine the features of the severe combined immune deficiency mutation ( scid ), IL2 receptor gamma chain deficiency, MHC class I molecule (H2-K and D) deficiency, and MHC class II molecule deficiency (IA) and exhibit a resistance to graft versus host disease (GVHD). (jax.org)
  • The CD74 molecule plays a critical role in the presentation of peptides, by the MHC class II antigens, to CD4 positive lymphocytes. (novusbio.com)
  • Description: The 69H1-9-9 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse Qa-2 molecule, a GPI-linked MHC class Ibeta surface molecule. (fishersci.com)
  • Qa-2 is a GPI-linked MHC class I beta surface molecule. (fishersci.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein said nucleic acid molecule encodes human Bcl-2. (google.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1 , wherein said nucleic acid molecule encodes Bcl-2/P59S. (google.com)
  • Bidirectional binding of invariant chain peptides to an MHC class II molecule. (cathdb.info)
  • The Ii molecule-fused with a viral vector to a conserved region of the Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genome-has been tested as an adjuvant for a HCV vaccine in a cohort of 17 healthy human volunteers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ii molecule might also prove to be useful as an adjuvant for a future vaccine for the SARS-CoV-2 virus, if this enhancing effect can be demonstrated to apply to the appropriate antigen(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • It lowers proinflammatory cytokine production and inhibits antigen presentation by class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Mouse histocompatibility genes structure and organisation of a Kd gene.Kvist S., Roberts L., Dobberstein B.EMBO J. 2:245-254(1983) A cDNA clone containing the entire coding sequence of a mouse H-2Kd histocompatibility antigen.Lalanne J.-L., Delarbre C., Gachelin G., Kourilsky P.Nucleic Acids Res. (mybiosource.com)
  • Of the 7 clones that failed to recognize fibroblasts, two targeted MiHA were encoded by genes not expressed in fibroblasts, presentation of one MiHA was dependent on HLA-DO, which is absent in fibroblasts, and T-cells recognizing the remaining 4 MiHA had an avidity that was apparently too low to recognize fibroblasts, despite clear recognition of hematopoietic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • The human immunoddiciency, type II bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS), has been attributed to a defect in the transcription of class II histocompatibility genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunocompetence- as assessed by functional exogenous antigen presentation, was not restored in immortalized B cells, derived from a BLS patient, after transfection with HLA-DR class II structural genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, functional class II dimers were restored after in vitro fusion of cells derived from two distinct BLS complementation groups, implying that specific transcriptional control elements are shared by a gene critical for antigen presentation and genes encoding HLA class II antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene belongs to a group of MHC genes called MHC class II. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HLA-DQB1 gene is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Ultimately, disease association with genetic factors has often been defined in terms of human leukocyte antigens (HLA), particularly those for the highly polymorphic class I and class II genes. (springer.com)
  • Here, we compared the evolution of MHC class I and class II genes in three sister clades of common passerine birds, finches (Fringillinae and Carduelinae) and buntings (Emberizidae) using a uniform methodological (genotyping and data processing) approach and uniform sample sizes. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, MHC class II genes showed greater allele divergence (in terms of nucleotide diversity) and a much stronger recombination (gene conversion) signal. (nature.com)
  • Gene copy numbers at both MHC class I and class II evolved via fluctuating selection and drift (Brownian Motion evolution), but the evolutionary rate was higher at class I. Our study constitutes one of few existing examples, where evolution of MHC class I and class II genes was directly compared using a multi-species approach. (nature.com)
  • 2007) Evolution of the major histocompatibility complex class I genes in Serinus canaria from the Canary Islands is different from that of Asian and African continental Serinus species. (nature.com)
  • Balasubramaniam S, Bray RD, Mulder RA, Sunnucks P, Pavlova A, Melville J (2016) New data from basal Australian songbird lineages show that complex structure of MHC class II β genes has early evolutionary origins within passerines. (nature.com)
  • In recipients of allogeneic HCT from donors who are matched at the MHC, donor-derived T cells can recognize recipient minor histocompatibility (H) antigens, MHC-associated peptides that are encoded by polymorphic genes ( 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, fewer than 20 genes encoding human minor H antigens have been identified to date ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Southern blot analysis of major histocompatibility genes of lpr mice. (unc.edu)
  • The genomic character of MM is the chromosome translocations via juxtaposition of a set of genes to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus, which results in overexpression of the translocalized genes such as CCND1, CCND3, MAF, MAFB, MMSET, and FGFR3 [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Genes associated with various biological and molecular processes including oxidative phosphorylation, T- and B- cell receptor signaling and antigen presentation were observed to significantly change with thymocyte age. (medsci.org)
  • This Db antigen is not recognized by Db-allospecific and Db-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes or by most monoclonal antibodies to the native Db. (pnas.org)
  • The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Incubation of protein antigens, as well as infectious virus, with DR-transfected BLS cells failed to induce activation of antigen-specific helper T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • CD4 binding to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens induces LFA-1-dependent and -independent homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes. (duke.edu)
  • Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) generated in C57BL/6 (H-2b) mice in response to infection with the serologically distinct herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2) were cross-reactive against target cells infected with either serotype. (duke.edu)
  • CD74 is expressed primarily by antigen presenting cells, such as B-lymphocytes (from before the pre-B cell stage to before the plasma cell stage), macrophages, and monocytes, and many epithelial cells. (novusbio.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent antigen presentation by human intestinal endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • This response was inhibited by blocking monoclonal antibody to HLA-DR and by chloroquine when compared to professional antigen-presenting cells, HIMECs activated T-cell clones quite efficiently. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that microvascular endothelial cells can present complex protein antigens in the human gut. (nih.gov)
  • Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells ( APC ) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. (rcsb.org)
  • Differential expression of guinea pig class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on vascular endothelial cells in vitro and in experimental. (nih.gov)
  • Differential expression of guinea pig class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on vascular endothelial cells in vitro and in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. (nih.gov)
  • Previous studies have shown that vascular endothelial cells do not normally express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II antigens either in vivo or in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • This study not only demonstrates constitutive expression of certain MHC Class II determinants by guinea pig endothelial cells, but also shows that other Class II determinants can be differentially expressed in certain disease states. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on the surface of cells is intimately linked to in vivo graft survival. (open.ac.uk)
  • However, morphologically undifferentiated cells persisting under non-proliferating conditions continued to express both MHC antigens. (open.ac.uk)
  • The downregulation of MHC antigens upon differentiation following cell transplantation could therefore contribute to the graft survival of MHP36 cells. (open.ac.uk)
  • Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complex(MHC),is a transmembrane glycoprotein composed of an alpha chain (36 kDa) and a beta subunit(27kDa) expressed primarily on antigen presenting cells:B cells, monocytes, macrophages and thymic epithelial cells. (cylch.org)
  • Antigen capture and major histocompatibility class II compartments of freshly isolated and cultured human blood dendritic cells. (rupress.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) represent potent antigen-presenting cells for the induction of T cell-dependent immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • These cultured cells may therefore have undergone a maturation process from precursors that have different capacities for antigen capture and presentation. (rupress.org)
  • Immune responses are initiated and primed by dendritic cells (DCs) that cross-present exogenous antigen. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) sample peripheral tissues of the body in search of antigens to present to T cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The cells were analysed for various surface antigens in indirect immunofluorescence by means of monoclonal antibodies. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The established human monoblast or early monocyte cell line, U937, was evaluated for modulating influences of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) on human gamma interferon (HuIFN(γ)) induction of MHC class-II (Ia) antigens on U937 cells and the HuIFN(γ) induction of responsiveness of U937 colony-forming cells (CFC) to inhibition by lactoferrin (LF), transferrin (TF), acidic isoferritins (AIF), and prostaglandin E (PGE). (elsevier.com)
  • When MHC class-II antigens were induced on U937 cells and the cells sorted on the fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) IV into positive and negative cells, colony formation by the MHC class-II antigen + population of cells was suppressed by LF, TF, AIF, and PGE 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • Colony formation by the sorted population of MHC class-II antigen - cells was not influenced significantly by LF, TF, AIF, or PGE 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • When PGE was present in the suspension culture for 72 h with U937 cells exposed to HuIFN(γ) plus indomethacin, it blocked the induction of MHC class-II antigens as well as the associated inhibition of U937 CFC by LF, TF, AIF, and PGE 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a monoclonal proliferation of antigen presenting cells (APC). (elsevier.com)
  • Shed MHC-II was contained in two distinct organelles, exosomes and plasma membrane-derived microvesicles, which were both able to present exogenous antigenic peptide to T hybridoma cells. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, microvesicles from mycobacterium-infected macrophages were able to directly present M. tuberculosis antigen (Ag) 85B(241-256)-I-A(b) complexes that were generated by the processing of M. tuberculosis Ag 85B in infected cells to both M. tuberculosis-specific T hybridoma cells and naïve P25 M. tuberculosis T-cell receptor (TCR)-transgenic T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Under non-inflammatory conditions HLA class II is predominantly expressed on hematopoietic cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Pancreatic β-cells express major histocompatibility complex class II: Do diabetic β-cells have the capacity of antigen-presenting cells? (cdc.gov)
  • showed that major histocompatibility complex class II is expressed in pancreatic β-cells by a highly accurate method called transcriptome analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Pancreatic β-cells might have the capacity as antigen-presenting cells. (cdc.gov)
  • This defect in antigen presentation was independent of the specific class II DR allele transfected into BLS cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic complementation analysis has been used with BLS cells to demonstrate that the defect in class II gene transcription is linked to the absence of a tram-acting factor. (elsevier.com)
  • T helper cells recognize processed antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens present on the surface of B cells and other Ag-presenting cells. (duke.edu)
  • In this study, the binding of a soluble recombinant CD4/Ig heavy chain fusion protein (CD4-gamma 3) or monoclonal antibody (mAb) to class II antigens on human B cells was shown to induce rapid and specific homotypic adhesion of B cells and most B lymphoblastoid cell lines. (duke.edu)
  • Removal of these cells with monoclonal antibody plus complement (C') ablated the enhancing activity, high concentrations of certain monoclonal antibodies in the absence of C' blocked the enhancing activity and, when monocytes were sorted into MHC class II antigen-positive and -negative cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, it was only the positive cell fraction that responded to the enhancing activity of HuIFN gamma. (unito.it)
  • Effect of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 on surface expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on infected cells. (duke.edu)
  • However, HSV-2-infected cells were shown to be much less susceptible to CTL-mediated lysis, and analysis through the use of HSV-1 X HSV-2 intertypic recombinants mapped the reduced susceptibility to a region contained within 0.82 to 1.00 map units of the HSV-2 genome. (duke.edu)
  • The study reported here was undertaken to determine the possible reasons for the reduced susceptibility of HSV-2-infected cells to lysis by CTL. (duke.edu)
  • Competition for the specific lysis of labeled HSV-1-infected cells by either HSV-1- or HSV-2-infected, unlabeled inhibitor cells and frequency analysis of the CTL precursor able to recognize HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected cells suggested that the reduced susceptibility of HSV-2-infected cells to lysis could be explained, at least in part, by reduced levels of target cell recognition. (duke.edu)
  • This suggested that one important factor contributing to reduced lysis of HSV-2-infected cells may be the altered or reduced expression of the class I H-2 self-antigens. (duke.edu)
  • Spleen cells from these mice appear indistinguishable from wild type with respect to class II subunit assembly, transport, peptide acquisition, surface expression, and the ability to present intact protein antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, these mutant mice have normal numbers of thymic and peripheral CD4+ T cells, and intact CD4+ T-dependent proliferative responses towards a soluble antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2018. Lack of acute xenogeneic graft- versus-host disease, but retention of T-cell function following engraftment of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in NSG mice deficient in MHC class I and II expression. (jax.org)
  • The antigen is found on B-cells, interdigitating cells and macrophages in peripheral lymphoid organs but is absent from T-cells. (abcam.com)
  • CD4+CD56+, MBP-specific T cell lines were able to lyse MBP-pulsed target cells in an HLA class II-restricted fashion. (tudelft.nl)
  • These findings and their possible implications are discussed together with additional evidence suggesting an important role for cathepsin D in the processing of protein antigens, an essential step for their recognition by T-cells. (tudelft.nl)
  • These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases. (curehunter.com)
  • To document the specificity and the mechanism of induction of a novel class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen by mitogenic growth factors in human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) expanded in vitro for translational applications. (wiley.com)
  • FGF-2 and, to a lesser extent, PDGF-BB induced in adult human MSCs the expression of HLA-DR (normally induced by inflammatory cytokines), which was able to stimulate CD4+ T cells via superantigen binding. (wiley.com)
  • CD74 is expressed on MHC class II positive cells including B cells, a subset of activated T cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells and by various types of carcinomas. (novusbio.com)
  • This protein is an MHC class I alloantigen, which is involved in antigen presentation to T cells expressing CD3/TCR and CD8. (fishersci.com)
  • For the development of an adaptive immune response, help by CD4+ T cells is required to mount an efficient B cell response and the production of high-affinity IgG class antibodies ( Figure 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast, B cells mainly take up antigens via specific recognition of structures on an antigen via their surface B cell receptor. (frontiersin.org)
  • T cells that have become activated by specific recognition of an antigen-derived HLA class II-associated peptide on DCs via their T cell receptor, can in turn activate B cells that are presenting the same sequences. (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies demonstrated that, unlike villous cytotrophoblasts, ED(27) cells were immunoreactive with monoclonal antibodies recognizing some HLA Class I antigens. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Like ED(27) cells, HeLa cells and WISH cells synthesized small amounts of estrogen and were found to express PLAP and antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies ED822, directed against the syncytiotrophoblast, and J1B5 directed against villous cytotrophoblast. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Dendritic cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the major histocompatibility complex class II compartment: down-regulation by cytokines and bacterial products.J. Exp. (psu.edu)
  • We have previously demonstrated that human peripheral blood low density mononuclear cells cultured in granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-4 develop into dendritic cells (DCs) that are extremely efficient in presenting soluble antigens to T ceils. (psu.edu)
  • The team also reported the first cell free reductionist antigen processing system that identifies immunodominant epitopes from protein antigens for recognition by helper T cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • This system has led to the discovery that antigen presentation for pathogens and autoantigens follow divergent paths, a finding that has significant impact in our understanding of antigen presentation to helper T cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Among some of our past work, we have shown that having a peptide is essential for the MHC-II structure, determined the number and nature of peptide:MHC contacts to induce activation or hyporesponsiveness (anergy) in CD4T cells, and defined how a protein chaperone HLA-DM allows for selection of high-affinity peptides that can be stably presented to CD4+ T cells. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Cells from the B line WVB coated with mouse antiserum followed by WVB class II antigen. (novusbio.com)
  • Although CD8 + T cells are considered the main cellular compartments responsible for the elimination of HIV-infected cells, mounting evidence suggests that the induction and the maintenance of a proper antiviral immune response requires functional Ag-specific CD4 + T cells ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The general format of the definitive IP experiment has been to examine T cells that express two different TCRs, allowing IP of one TCR to be followed by Western blotting for the second TCR to test for their inclusion in shared complexes. (jimmunol.org)
  • Qa-2 is expressed by mature T and B cells, and its expression level is different depending on the laboratory mouse strain. (fishersci.com)
  • Qa-2 is expressed by mature T and B cells, and its expression level varies between laboratory mouse strains. (fishersci.com)
  • Cellular and molecular characterization of antigens recognized by tumor-reactive T cells isolated from responding patients could potentially provide insight into the mechanisms of tumor regression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • An alternative open reading frame in the C19orf48 gene located on chromosome 19q13 encodes the HLA-A*0201-restricted minor H antigen recognized by the RCC-reactive T cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The method includes increasing the activity of Bcl-2 in cells affected by the disease or pathological condition. (google.com)
  • The method includes increasing the activity of Bcl-2 in a population of cells and transplanting the population of cells having increased Bcl-2 activity into a subject. (google.com)
  • A method to enhance the sensitivity of malignant cells to therapy is provided that includes decreasing the activity of Bcl-2 in the malignant cells. (google.com)
  • Two different molecular pathways account for low IL-2 receptor and c-myc mRNA expression by lpr Lyt-2- L3T4- T cells. (unc.edu)
  • This experimental vaccine was well-tolerated, and those who received the adjuvanted vaccine had stronger anti-HCV immune responses (enhanced magnitude, breadth and proliferative capacity of anti-HCV-specific T-cells) compared with volunteers who received the vaccine that lacked the Ii adjuvant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Importantly, proteomic and western blot analysis showed that apoptosis regulators BAK and Bax were upregulated in gossypol-treated cells, indicating that Bcl-2 associated death pathway was activated. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, upregulations of HLA class I and class II histocompatibility antigens and beta-2-microglobulin were observed in gossypol-treated cells, indicating that gossypol has a novel function to activate cellular immune responses. (hindawi.com)
  • The main one was represented in 65% of the cells, with a modal number of 51,XY and 3 markers, M1 - der(1)t(1;15), M2 - der(2)t(2;3)der(3)t(2;3), M3, and a monosomy 15. (atcc.org)
  • Approximately 50% of LS513 cells express surface carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). (atcc.org)
  • LS513 cells express the major histocompatibility (MHC) class I antigens HLA and beta 2 microglobulin. (atcc.org)
  • TGF beta-1 is inhibitory for proliferation of LS513 cells, whereas TGF beta-2 has no effect on the growth of these cells. (atcc.org)
  • Bacterial antigens stimulate the white blood cells in our bloodstream to release MIF. (prospecbio.com)
  • In unstimulated HIMEC monolayers, HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ and Ii were undetectable at the protein level, but interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) (100 U/mL) induced expression that peaked for DR after 2-3 days, for DP after 4-6 days, for DQ after 10-12 days, and for Ii after 2-3 days. (nih.gov)
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha had no effect alone but enhanced class II expression in combination with IFN-gamma, most notably for DQ and DP. (nih.gov)
  • Class II histocompatibility antigen expression in human melanocytes transformed by Harvey murine sarcoma virus (Ha-MSV) and Kirsten MSV retroviruses. (rupress.org)
  • These are (a) expression of Ia antigens, in particular DP, DQ, and DR class II histocompatibility gene products, (b) a transformed morphology and ability to grow in soft agar, and (c) a 5-10-fold increase in the cell surface expression of GD3 ganglioside. (rupress.org)
  • We conclude that viral ras oncogenes initiate early transformation events in melanocytes, and that Ia antigen expression is a transformation marker in this system. (rupress.org)
  • Thirty-eight cases of lupus nephritis, all satisfying the American Rheumatism Association criteria for diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with renal involvement and biopsy were immunohistochemically studied for the expression of HLA-DR (DAKO: HLA-DR/alpha, TAL.1B5), one of the three known families belonging to the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a standard streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • This increased expression did not correlate with the WHO class, activity or chronicity scores. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • It therefore appears that MHC class II shows increased expression in the arterial system of lupus nephritis kidneys. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Consistent with this, homotypic adhesion induced by engagement of MHC class II antigens was observed with LFA-1-deficient B cell lines, and was independent of CD49d or CD18 expression. (duke.edu)
  • A determination of the surface expression of the critical elements involved in target cell recognition by CTL following infection with HSV-1 or HSV-2 revealed that all the major HSV-specific glycoprotein species were expressed. (duke.edu)
  • Infection with both HSV-1 and HSV-2 caused a reduction in the expression of the class I H-2 antigens. (duke.edu)
  • In short, MHC class II expression and function are surprisingly unaffected in mice lacking p41 invariant chain, implying that the p31 and p41 isoforms may be functionally redundant in the intact animal. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Both MAPK/ERK-1/2 and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt controlled cell proliferation and HLA-DR expression, but only MAPK/ERK-1/2 controlled the induction of the class II MHC transcription activator protein CIITA, the major determinant of HLA-DR transcription. (wiley.com)
  • Understanding the regulation of cell surface expression of specific peptide-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) complexes is hindered by the lack of direct quantitative analyses of specific peptide-MHC complexes. (psu.edu)
  • Along with inhibiting T-cell activation, statins decrease IFNB inducible MHC class II expression, suppressing an effective antigen presentation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In benign APCs, antigen loading occurs in the major histocompatibility class II (MHCII)-lysosomal compartment of the endocytic pathway followed by transport to the cell surface upon antigen stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • A targeting scheme was designed using a TALEN-mediated Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) repair pathway to generate a null allele by targeting exon 2 of the MHC class II IAβ allele, H2-Ab1 . (jax.org)
  • The cytoplasmic perinuclear globular localization of MHCII may possibly be useful in diagnostics and may result from an immature/antigen-naïve differentiation state of the neoplastic cell. (elsevier.com)
  • HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster of Differentiation 74), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD74 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL , leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). (rcsb.org)
  • Also known as Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain (MHC class II antigen DRA). (mybiosource.com)
  • HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain (296 aa, ~34 kDa) is encoded by the human CD74 gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Regulation of dendritic cell migration by CD74, the MHC class II-associated invariant chain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • PURPOSE CD74 (HLA-DR-associated invariant chain) plays a role in antigen presentation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • HLA-DOA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. (nih.gov)
  • Intended Use Porcine SLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ haplotype D alpha chain ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of SLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ haplotype D alpha chain , concentrations in serum, Plasma , tissue homogenates and Cell culture supernates and Other biological fluids. (biobool.com)
  • Inquiry About Porcine SLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ haplotype D alpha chain ELISA Kit If you hope to order it or contact us directly, please contact us via [email protected] (biobool.com)
  • Heterodimer of an alpha chain and a beta chain (beta-2-microglobulin). (icr.ac.uk)
  • Major histocompatibility class II peptide occupancy, antigen presentation, and CD4+ T cell function in mice lacking the p41 isoform of invariant chain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain ) - мембранный белок , участвующий в функционировании иммунной системы , продукт гена человека CD74 [1] [2] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Claesson L., Larhammar D., Rask L., Peterson P.A. cDNA clone for the human invariant gamma chain of class II histocompatibility antigens and its implications for the protein structure (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kudo J., Chao L.Y., Narni F., Saunders G.F. Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class II histocompatibility antigens (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogs. (cancerindex.org)
  • The invariant chain (Abbreviated Ii) is a polypeptide which plays a critical role in antigen presentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The invariant chain also facilitates the export of MHC class II from the RER in a vesicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show further that a deletion construct of the Db gene, which consists of exon 1 linked to exons 4-8, expresses a truncated Db antigen lacking domains 1 and 2 [Db-(1 + 2)] at the cell surface after transfection into the R1E line. (pnas.org)
  • unexpectedly, Db-(1 + 2) does not associate with beta 2m when the mouse beta 2mb gene is transfected into the R1E transfectant expressing the truncated Db. (pnas.org)
  • The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • In addition, MHC class II-induced adhesion was Fc receptor independent, as 15 mAb of different Ig isotypes reactive with HLA-D or HLA-DQ gene products induced adhesion. (duke.edu)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HLA complex is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each MHC class II gene has many possible variations, allowing the immune system to react to a wide range of foreign invaders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein encoded by this gene associates with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and is an important chaperone that regulates antigen presentation for immune response. (cancerindex.org)
  • The HLA-DQB1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The protein produced from the HLA-DQB1 gene attaches (binds) to the protein produced from another MHC class II gene, HLA-DQA1 . (medlineplus.gov)
  • At least two specific combinations of HLA gene variants (HLA haplotypes) have been found to increase the risk of developing celiac disease, a disorder in which inflammation damages the intestinal tract and other organs and tissues. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bentkowski P, Radwan J (2019) Evolution of major histocompatibility complex gene copy number. (nature.com)
  • Biedrzycka A, Sebastian A, Migalska M, Westerdahl H, Radwan J (2017b) Testing genotyping strategies for ultra‐deep sequencing of a co‐amplifying gene family: MHC class I in a passerine bird. (nature.com)
  • Because this strain carries a null mutation in the MHC class I H2-Ab1 gene rather than β-2M, IgG clearance is similar to that observed in the NSG model. (jax.org)
  • Involved in the presentation of foreign antigens to the immune system. (mybiosource.com)
  • Allogeneic blood transfusion results in the infusion into the recipient of large amounts of foreign antigens in both soluble and cell-associated forms. (bloodjournal.org)
  • These studies show that infection of macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis or M. bovis strain BCG enhances MHC-II release in synergy with ATP. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, infection with M. tuberculosis primes macrophages for the increased release of exosomes and microvesicles bearing M. tuberculosis peptide-MHC-II complexes that may generate antimicrobial T-cell responses. (nih.gov)
  • Ablation of "tolerance" and induction of diabetes by virus infection in viral antigen transgenic mice. (springer.com)
  • Any alterations in the quality and quantity of MHC-II antigen presentation has major implications for the induction of immunologic memory, tolerance, and disease. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Furthermore, examination of CNS tissue taken from animals in the acute phase of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis shows that additional epitopes of the MHC Class II antigen, detected by the monoclonal antibodies CI.13.1 and 22C4, are present during the diseased state. (nih.gov)
  • Accordingly, it is proposed that the proteolytic activity of cathepsin D is crucial in selecting processing sites and hence the location and structural context of T-cell epitopes for the majority of protein antigens. (tudelft.nl)
  • Understanding the biochemical and molecular factors that determine which peptides of a given antigen, called "immunodominant epitopes" are selected by the immune system for representing that particular antigen is critically important. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Using the biochemical principles we elucidated from these early studies, we developed a reductionist cell-free MHC-II processing system that is able to identify immunodominant epitopes of a given protein antigen. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Previous work on antigen uptake and presentation by human DC is based largely on studies of blood DC that have been cultured for various periods of time before analysis. (rupress.org)
  • Release of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors from major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-positive monocytes is enhanced by human gamma interferon. (unito.it)
  • Linkage disequilibrium between the human leukocyte antigen class II region of the major histocompatibility complex and Graves' disease: replication using a population case control and family-based study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent reports, claim the DQA1 allele, DQA1*0501, to be the primary susceptibility determinant within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region. (ox.ac.uk)
  • A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. (curehunter.com)
  • This review is focusing on recent studies that have employed human HLA class II-MAPPs assays to rank biotherapeutic candidates, investigate clinical immunogenicity, and understand mechanistic root causes of immunogenicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • While the use of the MAPPs technology for the identification of immunogenic hotspots of biotherapeutics has been reviewed previously ( 1 ), this review is focusing on recent studies that have employed human HLA class II-MAPPs assays to rank biotherapeutic candidates, investigate clinical immunogenicity, and understand mechanistic root causes of immunogenicity. (frontiersin.org)
  • More than 3.1 million validated human SNPs are catalogued in the HapMap Phase II database, including more than 17,000 nonsynonymous SNPs mapped to coding sequences ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data therefore suggest that the total pool of polymorphic peptide sequences that may function as minor H antigens in the human population is extremely large. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Relationships between the development of rheumatic fever and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR subtypes have been found. (medscape.com)
  • Minor structural changes in a mutated human melanoma antigen correspond to dramatically enhanced stimulation of a CD4+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte line. (cathdb.info)
  • Evidence from a variety of sources indicates that allogeneic blood transfusion enhances the survival of renal allografts 1 and may increase the recurrence rate of resected malignancies 2 and the incidence of postoperative bacterial infections, 3-7 as well as reduce the recurrence rate of Crohn disease 8 and/or activate infections with cytomegalovirus 9 or human immunodeficiency virus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The yin yang of bacterial polysaccharides: lessons learned from B. fragilis PSA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Immunization with the Sm nuclear antigen induces anti-Sm antibodies in normal and MRL mice. (unc.edu)
  • Gossypol has been identified as a BH3-mimetic (BH3 stands for Bcl-2 homology domain 3) inhibitors of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1, and induces apoptosis in various types of cancer [ 15 - 18 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Description: The 28-14-8 monoclonal antibody reacts with the mouse MHC class I, H-2D^b, and cross-reacts with H-2L^d, H-2D^q and/or H-2L^q. (fishersci.com)
  • A number of specific antibodies found in the blood (antinuclear antibody (ANA), anti-smooth muscle antibody (SMA), anti-liver kidney microsomal antibodies (LKM-1, LKM-2, LKM-3), anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding an increased immunoglobulin G level. (wikipedia.org)
  • beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2m) has been thought essential for transport of all major histocompatibility complex class I antigens to the cell surface. (pnas.org)
  • Alcaide M, Liu M, Edwards SV (2013) Major histocompatibility complex class I evolution in songbirds: universal primers, rapid evolution and base compositional shifts in exon 3. (nature.com)
  • All three H-2 alleles are closely linked on chromosome 17 and are likely to segregate together. (jax.org)
  • Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and the cytoplasmic tail. (nih.gov)
  • Exon 1 encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. (cancerindex.org)
  • In this investigation it was found that endothelial in the central nervous system (CNS) of normal guinea pigs constitutively express MHC Class II antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies HLA-DR, 27E7, and MSgp8. (nih.gov)
  • However, the effect of preformed anti-HLA antibodies directed against allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or II antigens of a donor panel on heart transplantation outcome has not been extensively studied. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of preformed antibodies against allogeneic MHC class I or class II antigens on the development of early high-grade cellular rejection and on cumulative annual rejection frequency was determined. (elsevier.com)
  • 0.0001), whereas the frequency of IgG anti- MHC class I antibodies (IgG anti-I) was elevated only in patients with left ventricular assist devices. (elsevier.com)
  • Specific antibodies to streptococcal antigens also indicate true infection rather than mere carriage of the organism. (medscape.com)
  • Here, we show that the mouse class I antigen H-2Db is expressed at the cell surface even when there is no beta 2m present within the cell. (pnas.org)
  • c-DC express much more cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II than f-DC. (rupress.org)
  • The stable MHC class II + antigen complex is then presented on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • HLA-DR3-restricted and Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock 65-kilodalton-specific T-cell clones were activated to produce IFN-gamma in response to relevant antigen presented by IFN-gamma-treated HIMECs. (nih.gov)
  • mAb reactive with CD4 inhibited CD4-gamma 3-induced adhesion and a mutant B lymphoblastoid cell line deficient in class II antigens failed to respond. (duke.edu)
  • Anti-class II mAb and CD4-gamma 3 were able to induce adhesion at concentrations as low as 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively. (duke.edu)
  • Natural HuIFN gamma (2 X 10(7) NIH reference units per milligram) at concentrations as low as 0.01 U/mL to 10 U/mL reproducibly enhanced release of GM-CSF. (unito.it)
  • The enhancing activity of HuIFN gamma was confined to the MHC class II antigen-positive population of monocytes. (unito.it)
  • Shan Z.X., Lin Q.X., Deng C.Y., Tan H.H., Kuang S.J., Xiao D.Z., Zhu J.N., Fu Y.H., Yu X.Y. [Identification of the interactions between the truncated fragments of macrophage migration inhibitory factor and CD74 using a yeast two-hybrid system] (Chinese) // Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao = Journal of Southern Medical University. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD74 is a type II transmembrane protein which binds to the peptide binding groove of newly synthesized MHC class II alpha/beta heterodimers and prevents their premature association with endogenous polypeptides. (novusbio.com)
  • Skin fibroblasts forced to express HLA class II, were recognized by only two MiHA specific CD4 T-cell clones. (frontiersin.org)
  • Suboptimal stimulation of B cell lines through HLA-D antigens induced homotypic adhesion that was dependent on the activation of LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18), and which could be blocked by specific mAb. (duke.edu)
  • Thus, the direct engagement of B cell class II antigens by CD4 is likely to generate transmembrane signals which trigger both LFA-1-dependent and LFA-1-independent adhesion pathways. (duke.edu)
  • Analysis of the molecular determinants of species-specificity for the M. leprae GroES sequence 25-40, using T-cell hybridomas and major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-binding assays, led to the identification of epitope cores and critical residues. (tudelft.nl)
  • The roles of cell proliferation and growth factor-induced signaling pathways were investigated as well as the class II MHC assembly machinery and functional capacity. (wiley.com)
  • Naturally presented HLA class II-associated peptides, which are the prerequisite for a specific T cell response, can be determined via MAPPs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Her research focuses on molecular mechanisms in antigen processing and presentation, T cell memory survival, T cell activation, and T cell tolerance. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Dr. Sadegh-Nasseri is interested in two general areas of T cell recognition. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • She investigates the biophysical and biochemical processes that control formation of complexes of antigenic fragments and the MHC Class II, and addresses cellular and molecular events related to T cell tolerance. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Our lab has been defining the nature of MHC-II antigen processing and how this affects CD4 T cell recognition and effector function. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • During the past few years, we have been investigating the mechanism of another molecular chaperone, HLA-DO, in MHC-II antigen processing and its role in T cell selection and autoimmunity. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • As a result, most paradigms of T cell activation predict that low-affinity binding of peptide/MHC (pMHC) to monovalent αβ TCR represents the decisive molecular event of Ag recognition, the initial interaction that culminates in TCR aggregation and T cell signaling ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Donor T-cell responses against the HLA-A*0201-restricted minor H antigen encoded by C19orf48 may contribute to RCC regression after MHC-matched allogeneic HCT. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is involved in the formation and transport of MHC class II peptide complexes for the generation of CD4+ T cell responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism(s) of the TRIM effect(s) also remains elusive, and it is possible that a large number of biologic mechanisms may underlie the effect(s). 28-31 The infusion of foreign antigen in either a soluble 31-36 or cell-associated 37-43 form has been shown to induce immune suppression, anergy, and clonal deletion in studies in experimental animals. (bloodjournal.org)
  • We have now used immunoelectron microscopy and antigen presentation assays to compare freshly isolated DC (f-DC) and cultured DC (c-DC). (rupress.org)
  • Autophagy is also a source of endogenous peptides, autophagosomes constitutively fuse with MHC class II loading compartments. (rcsb.org)
  • This TALEN-mediated null mutation has a 61 bp deletion in exon 2, Chr 17: :34264928-34264988 (GRCm38), followed by 39 bp of retained endogenous sequence, then a 507 bp deletion, Chr 17: 34265028-34265534, with a 7 bp insertion (CCGTCAC) in its place, the impact of which is a disruption of most of exon 2. (jax.org)
  • A molecular basis for MHC class II-associated autoimmunity. (springer.com)
  • Potential role of molecular mimicry between Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide and host Lewis blood-group antigens in autoimmunity. (springer.com)