Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Genetic loci responsible for the encoding of histocompatibility antigens other than those encoded by the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX. The antigens encoded by these genes are often responsible for graft rejection in cases where histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. The location of some of these loci on the X and Y chromosomes explains why grafts from males to females may be rejected while grafts from females to males are accepted. In the mouse roughly 30 minor histocompatibility loci have been recognized, comprising more than 500 genes.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*35 allele family.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*07 allele family.
A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over one hundred allele variants. The HLA-DRB1 subtype is associated with several of the HLA-DR SEROLOGICAL SUBTYPES.
A component of the murine major histocompatibility complex class I family. It contains one Ig-like C1-type domain and functions in processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigens to the immune system.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*02 allele family.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*40 allele family.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Serum proteins with an electrophoretic mobility that falls between ALPHA-GLOBULINS and GAMMA-GLOBULINS.
HLA-DR antigen subtypes that have been classified according to their affinity to specific ANTIBODIES. The DNA sequence analyses of HLA-DR ALPHA-CHAINS and HLA-DR BETA-CHAINS has for the most part revealed the specific alleles that are responsible for each serological subtype.
A specific HLA-A surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-A*01 allele family.
The degree of antigenic similarity between tissues of the mother and those of the FETUS. Maternal-fetal histocompatibility can determine the acceptance and health of the fetus.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) antigens encoded by a small cluster of structural genes at the C locus on chromosome 6. They have significantly lower immunogenicity than the HLA-A and -B determinants and are therefore of minor importance in donor/recipient crossmatching. Their primary role is their high-risk association with certain disease manifestations (e.g., spondylarthritis, psoriasis, multiple myeloma).
Immunological rejection of leukemia cells following bone marrow transplantation.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DP antigens.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens (human) found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*27 allele family.
Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)
Stable chromium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element chromium, but differ in atomic weight. Cr-50, 53, and 54 are stable chromium isotopes.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A narcotic analgesic similar to MEPERIDINE; it exists in four stereoisomers, two of which, the beta (isopromedol) and the gamma (trimeperidine) are active.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Polyomavirus antigens which cause infection and cellular transformation. The large T antigen is necessary for the initiation of viral DNA synthesis, repression of transcription of the early region and is responsible in conjunction with the middle T antigen for the transformation of primary cells. Small T antigen is necessary for the completion of the productive infection cycle.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor found at high levels in the BRAIN and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)
55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass - the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Hemorrhagic necrosis that was first demonstrated in rabbits with a two-step reaction, an initial local (intradermal) or general (intravenous) injection of a priming endotoxin (ENDOTOXINS) followed by a second intravenous endotoxin injection (provoking agent) 24 h later. The acute inflammation damages the small blood vessels. The following intravascular coagulation leads to capillary and venous THROMBOSIS and NECROSIS. Shwartzman phenomenon can also occur in other species with a single injection of a provoking agent, and during infections or pregnancy. Its susceptibility depends on the status of IMMUNE SYSTEM, coagulation, FIBRINOLYSIS, and blood flow.
Those proteins recognized by antibodies from serum of animals bearing tumors induced by viruses; these proteins are presumably coded for by the nucleic acids of the same viruses that caused the neoplastic transformation.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Unstable isotopes of chromium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cr atoms with atomic weights of 46-49, 51, 55, and 56 are radioactive chromium isotopes.
A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC
Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Nuclear antigen with a role in DNA synthesis, DNA repair, and cell cycle progression. PCNA is required for the coordinated synthesis of both leading and lagging strands at the replication fork during DNA replication. PCNA expression correlates with the proliferation activity of several malignant and non-malignant cell types.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
An HLA-DR antigen associated with HLA-DRB1 CHAINS that are encoded by DRB1*01 alleles.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.
Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A specific HLA-B surface antigen subtype. Members of this subtype contain alpha chains that are encoded by the HLA-B*08 allele family.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any cell, other than a ZYGOTE, that contains elements (such as NUCLEI and CYTOPLASM) from two or more different cells, usually produced by artificial CELL FUSION.
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the axial joints, such as the SACROILIAC JOINT and other intervertebral or costovertebral joints. It occurs predominantly in young males and is characterized by pain and stiffness of joints (ANKYLOSIS) with inflammation at tendon insertions.

Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis. (1/5440)

Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin-deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I-deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I-deficient arteries, and that of alpha-actin-positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (2/5440)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Reduced phosphorylation of p50 is responsible for diminished NF-kappaB binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I enhancer in adenovirus type 12-transformed cells. (3/5440)

Reduced cell surface levels of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens enable adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed cells to escape immunosurveillance by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), contributing to their tumorigenic potential. In contrast, nontumorigenic Ad5-transformed cells harbor significant cell surface levels of class I antigens and are susceptible to CTL lysis. Ad12 E1A mediates down-regulation of class I transcription by increasing COUP-TF repressor binding and decreasing NF-kappaB activator binding to the class I enhancer. The mechanism underlying the decreased binding of nuclear NF-kappaB in Ad12-transformed cells was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis of hybrid NF-kappaB dimers reconstituted from denatured and renatured p50 and p65 subunits from Ad12- and Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that p50, and not p65, is responsible for the decreased ability of NF-kappaB to bind to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. Hypophosphorylation of p50 was found to correlate with restricted binding of NF-kappaB to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. The importance of phosphorylation of p50 for NF-kappaB binding was further demonstrated by showing that an NF-kappaB dimer composed of p65 and alkaline phosphatase-treated p50 from Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts could not bind to DNA. These results suggest that phosphorylation of p50 is a key step in the nuclear regulation of NF-kappaB in adenovirus-transformed cells.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (4/5440)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (5/5440)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Human uterine lymphocytes. (6/5440)

During the luteal phase and the early months of pregnancy, there is a dense mucosal infiltration of CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. These uterine NK cells have a phenotype (CD56bright, CD16-, mCD3-) which distinguishes them from peripheral blood NK cells (CD56dim, CD16bright, mCD3-). The uterine NK cells are in close association with extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells which infiltrate into the decidua and maternal spiral arteries. This subpopulation of trophoblast expresses two human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, HLA-G and HLA-C. Circulating NK cells express receptors for HLA class I molecules. We have recently found evidence that similar receptors are present on decidual NK cells belonging to both the Killer Inhibitory Receptor (KIR) and CD94 families. The repertoire of NK receptors expressed varies between different women. The findings indicate that decidual NK cells do have receptors for trophoblast HLA class I molecules. Experiments are underway to determine the effects of this interaction on NK cell function.  (+info)

Soluble HLA class I, HLA class II, and Fas ligand in blood components: a possible key to explain the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic blood transfusions. (7/5440)

The immunomodulatory effect of allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) has been known for many years. However, a complete understanding of the effects of ABT on the recipient's immune system has remained elusive. Soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I), HLA class II (sHLA-II), and Fas ligand (sFasL) molecules may play immunoregulatory roles. We determined by double-determinant immunoenzymatic assay (DDIA) sHLA-I, sHLA-II, and sFasL concentrations in different blood components. sHLA-I and sFasL levels in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for up to 30 days and in random-donor platelets are significantly (P <.001) higher than in other blood components and their amount is proportionate to the number of residual donor leukocytes and to the length of storage. Blood components with high sHLA-I and sFasL levels play immunoregulatory roles in vitro as in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR) and antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) activity, and induce apoptosis in Fas-positive cells. These data suggest that soluble molecules in blood components are functional. If these results are paralleled in vivo, they should be taken into account in transfusion practice. Blood components that can cause immunosuppression should be chosen to induce transplantation tolerance, whereas blood components that lack immunosuppressive effects should be preferred to reduce the risk of postoperative complications and cancer recurrence.  (+info)

Natural variation of the expression of HLA and endogenous antigen modulates CTL recognition in an in vitro melanoma model. (8/5440)

Increasing attention has been devoted to elucidating the mechanism of lost or decreased expression of MHC or melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs), which may lead to tumor escape from immune recognition. Loss of expression of HLA class I or MAA has, as an undisputed consequence, loss of recognition by HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). However, the relevance of down-regulation remains in question in terms of frequency of occurrence. Moreover the functional significance of epitope down-regulation, defining the relationship between MHC/epitope density and CTL interactions, is a matter of controversy, particularly with regard to whether the noted variability of expression of MHC/epitope occurs within a range likely to affect target recognition by CTLs. In this study, bulk metastatic melanoma cell lines originated from 25 HLA-A*0201 patients were analyzed for expression of HLA-A2 and MAAs. HLA-A2 expression was heterogeneous and correlated with lysis by CTLs. Sensitivity to lysis was also independently affected by the amount of ligand available for binding at concentrations of 0.001 to 1 mM. Natural expression of MAA was variable, independent from the expression of HLA-A*0201, and a significant co-factor determining recognition of melanoma targets. Thus, the naturally occurring variation in the expression of MAA and/or HLA documented by our in vitro results modulates recognition of melanoma targets and may (i) partially explain CTL-target interactions in vitro and (ii) elucidate potential mechanisms for progressive escape of tumor cells from immune recognition in vivo.  (+info)

MICA shedding is thought to be the principal mechanism by which tumor cells escape from NKG2D- mediated immunosurveillance.13 In this study, we demonstrated that ADAM9 was overexpressed in human HCC tissues and that ADAM9 knockdown resulted in increased expression of membrane-bound MICA, decreased production of soluble MICA, and up-regulation of NK sensitivity of human HCC cells. These results point to ADAM9 as a possible therapeutic target for inhibiting MICA shedding, thereby increasing immunity against HCC.. We identified the ADAM9 cleavage site of MICA in vitro, which is located at the intracellular domain of MICA. ADAM9 protease is usually located in the extracellular area, but we revealed that ADAM9 protease is required for the production of not only the 37 kD soluble MICA but also the 39 kD MICA in HCC cells. Based on our present data, it is speculated that ADAM9 protease may enable intracellular cleavage of MICA protein by activating some intracellular protease which can recognize a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interferons up-regulate with different potency HLA class I antigen expression in M14 human melanoma cell line. Possible interaction with glucocorticoid hormones. AU - Lanza, Lorella. AU - Peirano, Lorenza. AU - Bosco, Ornella. AU - Contini, Paola. AU - Filaci, Gilberto. AU - Setti, Maurizio. AU - Puppo, Francesco. AU - Indiveri, Francesco. AU - Scudeletti, Marco. PY - 1995/1. Y1 - 1995/1. N2 - The relative potency of interferon α (IFNα), interferon β (IFNβ), and interferon γ (IFNγ) in inducing the expression of HLA class I antigens, as well as their capacity to counteract the inhibition induced by glucocorticoid hormones on HLA class I antigen expression, were analysed in the human melanoma cell line M14, both at membrane and at mRNA level. The data obtained indicate that (a) IFN enhance with different potency (IFNγ,IFNβ,IFNα) the expression of HLA class I antigens in M14 cells, (b) prednisone inhibits HLA class I antigen expresion, (c) glucocorticoid hormones, when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule Mamu-A*01 is associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 replication. AU - Mothé, Bianca R.. AU - Weinfurter, Jason. AU - Wang, Chenxi. AU - Rehrauer, William. AU - Wilson, Nancy. AU - Allen, Todd M.. AU - Allison, David B.. AU - Watkins, David. PY - 2003/2/1. Y1 - 2003/2/1. N2 - Several HLA alleles are associated with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. We explored the relationship between the expression of particular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alleles and viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239-infected macaques. Of the common MHC class I alleles, animals that expressed Mamu-A*01 exhibited the best control of viral replication.. AB - Several HLA alleles are associated with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. We explored the relationship between the expression of particular major histocompatibility complex ...
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BY55 is a human cell surface molecule whose expression is restricted to NK cells, a subset of circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes, and all intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes. Here, we report that BY55 is a novel NK receptor showing broad specificity for both classical and nonclassical MHC class I molecules, and that optimal binding requires a prior aggregation of MHC class I complexes. Using BY55 transfectants, we have identified functional consequences of MHC class I/ligand interactions for the class I-bearing cell. The triggering of MHC class I molecules on human T cell clones by BY55 delivered a potent proliferative signal in the presence of soluble CD3 mAb. The costimulatory signal provided by MHC class I ligation was only seen in activated, and not resting, peripheral blood T cells. This observation represents an additional and/or alternative pathway to CD28 costimulation and may be of particular relevance in memory T cells lacking CD28, such as intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes, which are
The peptide translocation from the cytosol into the lumen of the ER is accomplished by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). TAP is a member of the ABC transporter family and is a heterodimeric multimembrane-spanning polypeptide consisting of TAP1 and TAP2. The two subunits form a peptide binding site and two ATP binding sites that face the cytosol. TAP binds peptides on the cytoplasmic side and translocates them under ATP consumption into the lumen of the ER. The MHC class I molecule is then, in turn, loaded with peptides in the lumen of the ER. The peptide-loading process involves several other molecules that form a large multimeric complex called the Peptide loading complex[7] consisting of TAP, tapasin, calreticulin, calnexin, and Erp57 (PDIA3). Calnexin acts to stabilize the class I MHC α chains prior to β2m binding. Following complete assembly of the MHC molecule, calnexin dissociates. The MHC molecule lacking a bound peptide is inherently unstable and requires the ...
A large number of natural killer (NK) cells with high function are expected to generate especially in tumor adoptive immunotherapy. Here K562 cells were genetically modified to co-express major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein A (MICA), 4-1BB ligand, and IL-15, called K562-MICA-4-1BBL-IL-15. The modified K562 cells not only promoted activation, proliferation, and survival of NK cells, but also enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity. In long-term culture tests, K562-MICA-4-1BBL-IL-15 cells stimulated NK cell to expand mean 550 folds in 24-day culture and to cover from 14.8% of total peripheral blood monoclonal lymphocytes on day 1 to 86.7% on day 24. Prevalent NK cells after expansion enhanced the ability of killing targets and producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and kept high expression of activating receptors. The results indicated that K562-MICA-4-1BBL-IL-15 cells would be developed for expansion of NK cells ex vivo and may have important implications for clinical immunotherapy.
Mhc class I molecules display intracellularly derived peptides on the surface of almost all nucleated mammalian cells for recognition by the immune system. MHC class I heavy chain, which contains the peptide binding site, is a classical type I transmembrane protein with a large luminal/extracellular domain and a short cytosolic tail. The heavy chain enters the secretory pathway via the ER translocon, a channel whose major component is Sec61. The light chain β2 microglobulin (β2m)1 and the peptide associate with the heavy chain after it has been inserted into the ER membrane, and the complex is then transported, via the Golgi, to the plasma membrane. In humans, the MHC class I heavy chain is a 43-kD protein that contains a single N-linked glycan.. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) evades detection by the immune system by targeting MHC class I heavy chains for destruction soon after they have been synthesized. The HCMV proteins responsible for MHC class I heavy chain destruction are US11 and US2 ...
Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA I) molecules composed of alpha (heavy) chain, including HLA-A, -B, or -C encoded by HLAgenes, and beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) are membrane proteins on all...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial and Host Factors Involved in the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ib-Restricted Presentation of Salmonella Hsp 60. T2 - Novel Pathway. AU - Lo, Wei Feng. AU - Dunn, Cory D.. AU - Ong, Helena. AU - Metcalf, Eleanor S.. AU - Soloski, Mark J.. PY - 2004/5/1. Y1 - 2004/5/1. N2 - Previously, a peptide epitope derived from the Hsp 60 molecule of Salmonella that is presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecule Qa-1 to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) was described. In the present study we investigated the Salmonella-induced processing and presentation pathway for generating this Qa-1-restricted epitope. Live bacteria and, to a lesser extent, opsonized heat-killed bacteria are able to sensitize target cells for lysis by Salmonella-specific CTL. In contrast, heat-killed bacteria cannot sensitize target cells. Presentation of the Hsp 60 epitope appears independent of bacterial internalization, because cytochalasin D does not affect presentation. ...
Chimpanzees have got orthologs of the six, fixed, functional human genes. cytoplasmic tails. Systematic mutagenesis showed that each substitution contributes changes in cell-surface expression. The combination of residues present in Patr-AL appears unique, but each individual residue is present in other primate MHC class I molecules, notably MHC-E, the most ancient of Gusb the functional human MHC class I molecules. INTRODUCTION The selective pressures imposed by diverse, fast-evolving pathogens cause the MHC class I genes of their mammalian hosts also to evolve rapidly (1). As a consequence there is considerable species-specific character to gene families. Characteristics shared by most mammalian species are highly polymorphic classical MHC class I molecules that engage highly variable types of lymphocyte receptor and conserved non-classical MHC class I molecules that engage conserved types of lymphocyte receptors. Of the six human genes that are functional, and are highly polymorphic and ...
article{f66fe82b-15d5-4f5b-963e-718069cb47dc, abstract = {,p,The assembly of MHC class I molecules is regulated by a multi-protein complex in the endoplasmic reticules (ER) termed the loading complex. Tapasin is suggested to be one of the molecules forming this complex on the basis of its interaction with both the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and MHC class I molecules. To address whether TAP is indispensable for the processing of the assembly of tapasin-associated MHC class I molecules, we studied the association of MHC class I molecules with tapasin, the assembly of tapasin-associated MHC class I with peptides and the peptide-mediated dissociation of MHC class I from tapasin in TAP-mutant T2 cells. In the absence of TAP, MHC class I heavy chain and beta(2)-microglobulin dimers were found to be properly associated with tapasin. The stable MHC class I dimer was required for its association with tapasin in the ER. In the absence of TAP, tapasin retained MHC class I ...
The Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) is a public database which contains frequency information of several immune genes such as Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA), Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR), Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related (MIC) genes, and a number of cytokine gene polymorphisms. The Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) provides a central source, freely available to all, for the storage of allele frequencies from different polymorphic areas in the Human Genome. Users can contribute the results of their work into one common database and can perform database searches on information already available. We have currently collected data in allele, haplotype and genotype format. However, the success of this website will depend on you to contribute your data ...
Tcells recognize Ags complexed to MHC molecules. In general, MHC class I molecules are complexed with peptides (CD8 T cell epitopes) derived from cytosolic Ag, and MHC class II molecules are complexed with peptides from internalized Ag (CD4 T cell epitopes) (1, 2). However, when APC such as dendritic cells (DCs)3 internalize high amounts of Ag, they appear to be able to route internalized Ag into the MHC class I presentation pathway, a process termed cross-presentation (3). Cross-presentation of Ag via MHC class I molecules can lead to activation/priming of naive CD8 T cells, a process referred to as cross-priming (4), to paralysis/deletion, or to cross-tolerance (5).. Immature DCs lack costimulatory signals required for productive T cell activation but are well equipped to sample Ag, for example via receptor-mediated endocytosis or fluid phase pinocytosis (6). Because of its selectivity for the Ag in question, the efficacy of Ag internalization via receptor-mediated endocytosis is high, ...
We applied doses between 1-25 Gy, which is lower or comparable with doses received by patients, and observed that ionizing radiation induces a dose-dependent increase in MHC class I presentation in two phases (Fig. 6). The first phase represents peptides derived from existing proteins, because inhibition of translation does not affect the generation of these peptides. More polyubiquitinated proteins for proteasomal degradation are observed swiftly after radiation even at doses of 1-4 Gy, resulting in more peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation and enhanced MHC class I expression as peptides are the limiting step in complex formation (37). Irradiation will result in the formation of free radicals even at low doses, and proteins will be modified directly by radiation or indirectly by radicals formed after water radiolysis, resulting in oxidation of various amino acids. These modifications may target the affected proteins for rapid degradation by the proteasome. Although this will reflect a ...
Human cytomegalovirus encodes two glycoproteins, US2 and US11, which cause rapid degradation of MHC class I molecules, thus preventing recognition of virus-infected cells by the immune system. This degradation process involves retrograde transport or dislocation of MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol, where they are deglycosylated by an N-glycanase and degraded by the proteasome. At present it is unknown whether ubiquitination is required for US2- and US11-mediated dislocation and degradation of MHC class I molecules. Here, we show that in E36ts20 hamster cells, which contain a temperature-sensitive mutation in the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, US11-mediated degradation of MHC class I molecules is strongly impaired at the non-permissive temperature, indicating the necessity for ubiquitination in this process. We next addressed the question of whether ubiquitination is a condition for the retrograde movement of MHC class I molecules from the ER to the ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Location of the epitope for an anti-CD8α antibody 53.6.7 which enhances CD8α-MHC class I interaction indicates antibody stabilization of a higher affinity CD8 conformation. AU - Devine, Lesley. AU - Hodsdon, Michael E.. AU - Daniels, Mark A.. AU - Jameson, Stephen C. AU - Kavathas, Paula B.. PY - 2004/5/15. Y1 - 2004/5/15. N2 - MHC class I tetramers are widely used, usually in combination with an antibody to CD8, to detect antigen specific T cells. Some anti-CD8α antibodies block the interaction of murine MHC class I tetramers with CD8 T cells, while others such as 53.6.7, enhance. To understand the molecular basis for this effect, we mapped the epitope for the enhancing antibody 53.6.7 and three other blocking antibodies using a panel of murine CD8α (Lyt-2) mutants expressed on COS-7 transfectants. Mutations in residues that contact MHC class I affected binding of the blocking antibodies. In contrast, antibody 53.6.7 was affected by a mutation in the residue T81A located on ...
We have used an in vitro system to study the effects of major histocompatibility complex class I binding peptides on thymic development. Fetal thymus lobes from mice deficient in the class I light chain (beta 2 microglobulin or beta 2 M-/-) were cultured for 10 d in vitro, during which time T cell precursors develop into mature T cells. In these organ cultures, as in the adult or neonatal beta 2 M-/- thymus, CD8+ mature T cells did not develop, demonstrating that the mature T cells seen during early murine thymic development are the result of the positive selection process. To these cultures we added various class I binding peptides with or without a source of exogenous beta 2M. CD8+ T cells developed to various degrees only in the presence of beta 2M and peptides. Using peptide mixtures of differing complexity, we showed that the efficiency of this process is dependent more on peptide complexity than on peptide concentration. These data argue for a specific role for peptides in the process of ...
We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency
The major obstacle to successful islet transplantation is the potent T cell-mediated immune response occurring soon after the procedure that leads to β-cell damage (16). The interaction between MHC class I molecules and CD8+ T cells plays a major role in both allo- and xenograft rejection (33,34). MHC class I molecules are found on every nucleated cell of the body and consist of two components: the α chain (the heavy chain) and B2M (the light chain). The α chain and B2M are both essential for the proper folding of the entire MHC complex (35). Studies have shown that there is no detectable expression of MHC class I molecules on the surface of the cell in the absence of B2M (36).. We hypothesized that downregulation of B2M in pancreatic islet cells would lead to reduced recognition by T cells and, as a result, benefit the transplantation outcome. Therefore, the goal of our study was to downregulate B2M expression in human pancreatic islets before transplantation in B2M (null) NOD/scid mice ...
In this study, we describe the creation of class I MHC-deficient pigs by simultaneously disrupting seven alleles of classical class I SLA genes. At the time of publication, the animals have been healthy and growing well for 7 mo. All cell types tested from these animals exhibit total loss of cell surface class I MHC proteins. Inactivation of a single gene, β2m, also prevents expression of class I MHC heterotrimers at the cell surface. This disruption was not attempted because mice lacking β2m lose the ability to regulate iron homeostasis (30-32). The high efficiency of the gRNA/Cas9 technology enabled the rapid production of animals deficient in class I MHC. The relative ease of this approach may enable the rapid production of many novel species lacking class I MHC gene activity.. Multigene families can be difficult to analyze because of functional redundancies. Simultaneous inactivation of all related genes minimizes these challenges by creating a null background that enables the study of one ...
In the course of constructing a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) gene preceded by the hemagglutinin leader sequence, we isolated a single base-pair deletion mutant which gave rise to L+NP(1-159) in which only the first 159 amino acids were in frame. Despite this, when we infected target cells, we found that the point mutant was able to sensitize them for lysis not only by cytotoxic T cells recognizing residues 50-58 (the in-frame portion), but also by CTL to epitopes which are downstream of the mutation (366-374 and 378-386). Furthermore, normal C57BL/6 mice can be primed with the frameshift NP to recognize the immunodominant Db-restricted epitope 366-374 (which is out of frame). Experiments in which the mutant gene product was processed in the endoplasmic reticulum of target cells suggested that the apparent suppression occurred during polypeptide extension.
In the course of constructing a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) gene preceded by the hemagglutinin leader sequence, we isolated a single base-pair deletion mutant which gave rise to L+NP(1-159) in which only the first 159 amino acids were in frame. Despite this, when we infected target cells, we found that the point mutant was able to sensitize them for lysis not only by cytotoxic T cells recognizing residues 50-58 (the in-frame portion), but also by CTL to epitopes which are downstream of the mutation (366-374 and 378-386). Furthermore, normal C57BL/6 mice can be primed with the frameshift NP to recognize the immunodominant Db-restricted epitope 366-374 (which is out of frame). Experiments in which the mutant gene product was processed in the endoplasmic reticulum of target cells suggested that the apparent suppression occurred during polypeptide extension.
Little is known about the structure of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules outside of mammals. Only one class I molecule in the chicken MHC is highly expressed, leading to strong genetic associations with infectious pathogens. Here, we report two structures of the MHC class I molecule BF2*2101 from the B21 haplotype, which is known to confer resistance to Mareks disease caused by an oncogenic herpesvirus. The binding groove has an unusually large central cavity, which confers substantial conformational flexibility to the crucial residue Arg9, allowing remodeling of key peptide-binding sites. The coupled variation of anchor residues from the peptide, utilizing a charge-transfer system unprecedented in MHC molecules, allows peptides with conspicuously different sequences to be bound. This promiscuous binding extends our understanding of ways in which MHC class I molecules can present peptides to the immune system and might explain the resistance of the B21 haplotype to Mareks disease.
The role of exocytosis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in the presentation of antigens to mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was examined by use of a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the E19 glycoprotein from adenovirus. E19 blocked the presentation of vaccinia and influenza virus proteins to CTLs in a MHC class I allele-specific manner identical to its inhibition of MHC class I transport from the endoplasmic reticulum. This finding indicates that (i) the relevant parameter for antigen presentation is the rate of MHC class I molecule exocytosis, not the level of class I cell surface expression, and (ii) association of class I molecules with antigen is likely to occur within the endoplasmic reticulum. ...
|strong|Mouse anti Sheep MHC Class I monoclonal antibody, clone VPM19|/strong| recognizes the ovine homologue of the human MHC Class I, a monomorphic determinant expressed on the heavy chain of sheep …
Author(s): Chen, Keling | Advisor(s): Shastri, Nilabh | Abstract: Cytotoxic T cells monitor MHC class I complexes on antigen presenting cells for the potential presence of any non-self peptides that could derive from viral infection or cancerous cells. Effective immune surveillance requires that MHC class I molecules display a peptide repertoire on the surface representing all cellular proteins. This ensures that foreign antigens from all sources are presented. How the peptide repertoire can be comprehensive despite the large differences in abundance and stability of individual proteins is not known. The pioneer round of translation is the first round of translation that occurs on newly spliced mRNA. It is associated with nonsense-mediated decay of mRNAs, allowing cells to detect and eliminate the aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons. We showed here that the peptide presentation by MHC I molecules was strongly influenced by the pioneer round of translation. Inhibition of the pioneer round of
Circumstantial evidence for transfer of MHC molecules between cells of the immune system was reported already 30 y ago (25, 26). More recent data have conclusively shown that effector T cells acquire both MHC class I and II molecules from APC (11, 12, 27). Also, B cells acquire membrane antigens from surrounding cells, a phenomenon which is followed by a very efficient presentation of these antigens to T cells (10). We show here for the first time that receptor-mediated ligand acquisition occurs also for NK cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitory Ly49 receptors on NK cells specifically acquired MHC class I molecules from surrounding cells, both when normal NK cells were transferred into a host expressing the ligand for the Ly49 molecule analyzed, and also in vitro when cells transfected with Ly49A were cocultured with cells transfected with H-2Dd. Ligand acquisition was a very rapid event, occurring within 30 min in both systems. The amount of acquired molecules remained high as long as the ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-HLA Class I antibody [W6/32] (ab22432) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-independent, T cell-mediated targeting of cancer cells would allow immune destruction of malignancies in all individuals. Here, we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening to establish that a T cell receptor (TCR) recognized and killed most human cancer types via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein, MR1, while remaining inert to noncancerous cells. Unlike mucosal-associated invariant T cells, recognition of target cells by the TCR was independent of bacterial loading. Furthermore, concentration-dependent addition of vitamin B-related metabolite ligands of MR1 reduced TCR recognition of cancer cells, suggesting that recognition occurred via sensing of the cancer metabolome. An MR1-restricted T cell clone mediated in vivo regression of leukemia and conferred enhanced survival of NSG mice. TCR transfer to T cells of patients enabled killing of autologous and nonautologous melanoma. These findings offer opportunities for HLA-independent, pan-cancer, pan-population ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native MHC Class I. Native purified whole mouse spleen cells. (MAB1363) - Products - Abnova
Motivation: MHC:peptide binding plays a central role in activating the immune surveillance. Computational approaches to determine T-cell epitopes restricted to any given major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule are of special practical value in the development of for instance vaccines with broad population coverage against emerging pathogens. Methods have recently been published that are able to predict peptide binding to any human MHC class I molecule. In contrast to conventional allele-specific methods, these methods do allow for extrapolation to uncharacterized MHC molecules. These pan-specific human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) predictors have not previously been compared using independent evaluation sets.. Result: A diverse set of quantitative peptide binding affinity measurements was collected from Immune Epitope database (IEDB), together with a large set of HLA class I ligands from the SYFPEITHI database. Based on these datasets, three different pan-specific HLA web-accessible ...
Understanding the structure and variability of adaptive loci such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is a primary research goal for evolutionary and conservation genetics. Typically, classical MHC genes show high polymorphism and are under strong balancing selection, as their products trigger the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. Here, we assess the allelic diversity and patterns of selection for MHC class I and class II loci in a threatened shorebird with highly flexible mating and parental care behaviour, the Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus) across its broad geographic range. We determined the allelic and nucleotide diversity for MHC class I and class II genes using samples of 250 individuals from eight breeding population of Snowy Plovers. We found 40 alleles at MHC class I and six alleles at MHC class II, with individuals carrying two to seven different alleles (mean 3.70) at MHC class I and up to two alleles (mean 1.45) at MHC class II. Diversity was higher in the peptide
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain E (HLA-E) also known as MHC class I antigen E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-E gene. The human HLA-E is a non-classical MHC class I molecule that is characterized by a limited polymorphism and a lower cell surface expression than its classical paralogues. The functional homolog in mice is called Qa-1b, officially known as H2-T23. Like other MHC class I molecules, HLA-E is a heterodimer consisting of an α heavy chain and a light chain (β-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and anchored in the membrane. The HLA-E gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the signal peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the α1 and α2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the α3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane domain, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. HLA-E has a very specialized role in cell recognition by natural killer cells (NK cells). HLA-E binds a restricted subset of peptides derived ...
Mouse monoclonal HLA Class I antibody [MEM-123] validated for IP, ELISA, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mk. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen…
MHC Class I antibody LS-C745701 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to sheep MHC Class I. Validated for Flow, IHC, IP and WB.
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are expert evaders of nearly every aspect of our immune system. One of these strategies is the downregulation of surface MHC I molecules (major histocompatibility molecules class I). As MHC I molecules present peptides (small fragments) of all proteins generated within the cells to cytotoxic T cells, downregulation of MHC I molecules is an effective way of hiding a viral presence inside the cell from T cells.. Natural killer (NK) cells, lymphocytes that belong to innate immune systems, possess receptors called Ly49 in mice or KIR in humans. These receptors recognize MHC I molecules on the cell surface and inhibit the NK cell, preventing it from uncontrolled killing of cells. The NK cell is thus said to recognize self molecules. When MHC I molecules are downregulated upon virus infection, the NK cell is no longer inhibited by KIR or Ly49 receptors. In particular, when there are other activating signals or inflammation, the NK cell will kill the infected cell with ...
MHC class I molecules are key in the presentation of antigen and initiation of adaptive CD8+ T cell responses. In addition to its classical activity, MHC I may possess nonclassical functions. We have previously identified a regulatory role of MHC I in TLR signaling and antibacterial immunity. However, its role in innate antiviral immunity remains unknown. In this study, we found a reduced viral load in MHC I-deficient macrophages that was independent of type I IFN production. Mechanically, MHC I mediated viral suppression by inhibiting the type I IFN signaling pathway, which depends on SHP2. Cross-linking MHC I at the membrane increased SHP2 activation and further suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation. Therefore, our data revealed an inhibitory role of MHC I in type I IFN response to viral infection and expanded our understanding of MHC I and antigen presentation.
The rapid and extensive spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic provides a rare opportunity to witness host-pathogen co-evolution involving humans. A focal point is the interaction between genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and those encoding HIV proteins. HLA molecules present fragments (epitopes) of HIV proteins on the surface of infected cells to enable immune recognition and killing by CD8(+) T cells; particular HLA molecules, such as HLA-B*57, HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*51, are more likely to mediate successful control of HIV infection. Mutation within these epitopes can allow viral escape from CD8(+) T-cell recognition. Here we analysed viral sequences and HLA alleles from |2,800 subjects, drawn from 9 distinct study cohorts spanning 5 continents. Initial analysis of the HLA-B*51-restricted epitope, TAFTIPSI (reverse transcriptase residues 128-135), showed a strong correlation between the frequency of the escape mutation I135X and HLA-B*51 prevalence in the 9 study cohorts (P =
Viruses encounter changing selective pressures during transmission between hosts, including host-specific immune responses and potentially varying functional demands on specific proteins. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein performs several functions potentially important for successful infection, including immune escape via down-regulation of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) and direct enhancement of viral infectivity and replication. Nef is also a major target of the host cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. To examine the impact of changing selective pressures on Nef functions following sexual transmission, we analyzed genetic and functional changes in nef clones from six transmission events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the diversity of nef was similar in both sources and acutely infected recipients, the patterns of selection across transmission were variable, and regions of Nef associated with distinct functions evolved similarly in sources and ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-MHC Class I Antibody (F21-2) [DyLight 488]. Validated: WB, Flow, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Avian, Chicken, Turkey. 100% Guaranteed.
Toward demonstrating functional significance for the transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic portions of MICA, we generated a transfectant of Daudi expressing a truncated form of MICA in which the cysteine at position 331 was replaced with a stop codon (Daudi/Class I+/MICA/C331*). The level of cell surface staining of this transfectant with a MICA mAb was similar to that of wild-type MICA in Daudi/Class I+/MICA (Fig. 4, b and c). We tested the susceptibility of these transfectants to NK cell cytotoxicity (Fig. 4 d). A peripheral blood NK cell line was efficiently able to kill untransfected Daudi, which lacks endogenous expression of MHC class I protein, but was inhibited from killing Daudi-expressing MHC class I protein (Daudi/Class I+). In agreement with previous data (5), Daudi-expressing MHC class I protein and MICA was efficiently killed, demonstrating how activation via NKG2D recognition can overcome inhibitory signaling. However, Daudi transfectants expressing MHC class I protein and the ...
NetCTL 1.2 server predicts CTL epitopes in protein sequences. The current version 1.2 is an update to the version 1.0. The version 1.2 expands the MHC class I binding predicition to 12 MHC supertypes including the supertypes A26 and B39. The accuracy of the MHC class I peptide binding affinity is significantly improved compared to the earlier version. Also the prediction of proteasonal cleavage has been improved and is now identical to the predictions obtained by the NetChop-3.0 server. The updated version has been trained on a set of 886 known MHC class I ligands. NOTE. On Aug 16 2006 a minor update to the server has been implemented improving the prediction accuracy for MHC binding. The earlier version of the NetCTL 1.2 server (1.2 beta) is available via the versions history for the server. View the version history of this server. All the previous versions are available on line, for comparison and reference. The method integrates prediction of peptide MHC class I binding, proteasomal C ...
Author SummaryOne of the greatest challenges facing HIV-1 vaccine design today is the formidable capacity of the virus for mutation and adaptation, a characteristic that has contributed to the extensive worldwide genetic variability of HIV-1 strains observed today. On an individual basis, evolutionary selective pressures imposed by each infected persons unique immune response results in the selection and outgrowth of viral
Source data: Western blot scans to accompany Burr et al., An Evolutionarily Conserved Function of Polycomb Silences the MHC Class I Antigen Presentation Pathway and Enables Immune Evasion in Cancer, Cancer Cell (2019),
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational resource for the prediction of peptide binding to Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules. AU - Peters, B.. AU - Bui, H. H.. AU - Sidney, J.. AU - Weng, Z.. AU - Loffredo, J. T.. AU - Watkins, D. I.. AU - Mothé, B. R.. AU - Sette, A.. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Non-human primates, in general, and Indian rhesus macaques, specifically, play an important role in the development and testing of vaccines and diagnostics destined for human use. To date, several frequently expressed macaque MHC molecules have been identified and their binding specificities characterized in detail. Here, we report the development of computational algorithms to predict peptide binding and potential T cell epitopes for the common MHC class I alleles Mamu-A*01, -A*02, -A*11, -B*01 and -B*17, which cover approximately two thirds of the captive Indian rhesus macaque populations. We validated this method utilizing an SIV derived data set encompassing 59 antigenic peptides. Of all ...
BACKGROUND: MICA and MICB (MHC class I-related chain A and B) are polymorphic genes that encode molecules related to MHC class I and are expressed on epithelial cells in response to stress. Incompatible donor MIC antigens can stimulate antibody production in transplant recipients. This study was designed to determine MICB expression in kidney pretransplant and any subsequent changes in expression following transplantation and to correlate changes with inflammatory markers and clinical events. METHODS: Paired renal biopsies obtained from living donor (n=10) and cadaveric allografts (n=50) before and 7 days posttransplant were stained for MICB, leukocytic infiltration, and HLA class II antigens. RESULTS: Variable tubular MICB expression was evident in donor biopsies [high 6/60 (10%), low/negative 13/60 (22%), intermediate 41/60 (68%)]. Following transplantation, MICB was up-regulated on renal tubules of 17/60 (28%) biopsies and was associated with MHC class II antigen induction (P=0.02) and leukocyte
TY - JOUR. T1 - Specific human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles associated with hepatitis C virus viremia. AU - Kuniholm, Mark H.. AU - Kovacs, Andrea. AU - Gao, Xiaojiang. AU - Xue, Xiaonan. AU - Marti, Darlene. AU - Thio, Chloe L.. AU - Peters, Marion G.. AU - Terrault, Norah A.. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth M.. AU - Goedert, James J.. AU - Cohen, Mardge H.. AU - Minkoff, Howard. AU - Gange, Stephen J.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Fazzari, Melissa. AU - Harris, Tiffany G.. AU - Young, Mary A.. AU - Strickler, Howard D.. AU - Carrington, Mary. PY - 2010/5/1. Y1 - 2010/5/1. N2 - Studies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and their relation with hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia have had conflicting results. However, these studies have varied in size and methods, and few large studies assessed HLA class I alleles. Only one study conducted high-resolution class I genotyping. The current investigation therefore involved high-resolution HLA class I and II genotyping of a large multiracial ...
Background: A major group of murine inhibitory receptors on Natural Killer (NK) cells belong to the Ly49 receptor family and recognize MHC class I molecules. Infected or transformed target cells frequently downmodulate MHC class I molecules and can thus avoid CD8(+) T cell attack, but may at the same time develop NK cell sensitivity, due to failure to express inhibitory ligands for Ly49 receptors. The extent of MHC class I downregulation needed on normal cells to trigger NK cell effector functions is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we show that cells expressing MHC class I to levels well below half of the host level are tolerated in an in vivo assay in mice. Hemizygous expression (expression from only one allele) of MHC class I was sufficient to induce Ly49 receptor downmodulation on NK cells to a similar degree as homozygous expression, despite a strongly reduced cell surface level of MHC class I. Co-expression of weaker MHC class I ligands in the host did not have any ...
Background A major group of murine inhibitory receptors on Natural Killer (NK) cells belong to the Ly49 receptor family and recognize MHC class I molecules. Infected or transformed target cells frequently downmodulate MHC class I molecules and can thus avoid CD8+ T cell attack, but may at the same time develop NK cell sensitivity, due to failure to express inhibitory ligands for Ly49 receptors. The extent of MHC class I downregulation needed on normal cells to trigger NK cell effector functions is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we show that cells expressing MHC class I to levels well below half of the host level are tolerated in an in vivo assay in mice. Hemizygous expression (expression from only one allele) of MHC class I was sufficient to induce Ly49 receptor downmodulation on NK cells to a similar degree as homozygous expression, despite a strongly reduced cell surface level of MHC class I. Co-expression of weaker MHC class I ligands in the host did not have any further
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The basic pattern of MHC variation in fish, with MHC class I versus class II, and polymorphic classical versus nonpolymorphic nonclassical, is similar in fish and mammals. Nevertheless, in many or all teleost fishes, important differences with mammalian or human MHC were observed: (1) The allelic/haplotype diversification levels of classical MHC class I genes tend to be much higher than in mammals; (2) Teleost fish classical MHC class I and class II loci are not linked. The present article summarizes previous studies that performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for mapping differences in teleost fish disease resistance, and discusses them from MHC point of view. Overall, those studies suggest the possible importance of genomic regions including classical MHC class II and nonclassical MHC class I genes, whereas similar observations were not made for the genomic regions with the highly diversified classical MHC class I alleles. The present study is a review and discussion of the fish MHC
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus UL18 utilizes US6 for evading the NK and T-cell responses. AU - Kim, Youngkyun. AU - Park, Boyoun. AU - Cho, Sunglim. AU - Shin, Jinwook. AU - Cho, Kwangmin. AU - Jun, Youngsoo. AU - Ahn, Kwangseog. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US6 glycoprotein inhibits TAP function, resulting in down-regulation of MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. Cells lacking MHC class I molecules are susceptible to NK cell lysis. HCMV expresses UL18, a MHC class I homolog that functions as a surrogate to prevent host cell lysis. Despite a high level of sequence and structural homology between UL18 and MHC class I molecules, surface expression of MHC class I, but not UL18, is down regulated by US6. Here, we describe a mechanism of action by which HCMV UL18 avoids attack by the self-derived TAP inhibitor US6. UL18 abrogates US6 inhibition of ATP binding by TAP and, thereby, restores TAP-mediated peptide translocation. In addition, UL18 together ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The transmembrane sequence of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C as a determinant in inhibition of a subset of natural killer cells. AU - Davis, Daniel M.. AU - Mandelboim, Ofer. AU - Luque, Isabel. AU - Baba, Eishi. AU - Boyson, Jonathan. AU - Strominger, Jack L.. PY - 1999/4/19. Y1 - 1999/4/19. N2 - Molecular interactions with the extracellular domains of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins are major determinants of immune recognition that have been extensively studied both physically and biochemically. However, no immunological function has yet been placed on the transmembrane or cytoplasmic amino acid sequences of these proteins despite strict conservation of unique features within each class I major histocompatibility complex locus. Here we report that lysis by a subset of natural killer (NK) cells inhibited by target cell expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw6 or -Cw7 was not inhibited by expression of chimeric ...
For a proper development of the placenta, maternal NK cells should not attack the fetal extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. This inhibition of maternal NK cells is partially mediated via the nonclassical MHC class I molecule HLA-G. Recently, we demonstrated that HLA-G forms disulfide-linked high molecular complexes on the surface of transfected cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that HLA-G must associate with beta(2)m for its interaction with CD85J/leukocyte Ig-like receptor-1 (LIR-1). Although HLA-G free H chain complexes are expressed on the surface, they are not recognized and possibly interfere with CD85J/LIR-1 and HLA-G interaction. The formation of these complexes on the cell surface might represent a novel mechanism developed specifically by the HLA-G protein aimed to control the efficiency of the CD85J/LIR-1-mediated inhibition. We also show that endogenous HLA-G complexes are expressed on the cell surface. These findings provide novel insights into the delicate interaction between
Major histocompatibility (MHC)-restricted, human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-specific, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1-infected individuals. Using a system of autologous B and T lymphoblastoid cell lines infected with recombinant vaccinia vectors (VVs) expressing HIV-1 gene products, we were able to detect HIV-1-specific cytolytic responses in the PBMCs of 88% of HIV-1-seropositive hemophiliac patients in the absence of in vitro stimulation. These cytolytic responses were directed against both HIV-1 envelope and gag gene products. The responses were resistant to natural killer (NK) cell depletion and were inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to the T cell receptor, CD8 surface antigens, and MHC class I antigens, suggesting a classical MHC class I restricted, virus-specific CTL response.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), or cloning, is a form of artificial reproductive technology that can be used to improve economic traits of domestic animals. However, extreme inefficiency of producing viable offspring via this method is a major limitation. An aggressive immune response at the maternal-fetal interface is an important reason for SCNT pregnancy loss. The goal of this project was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of immune-mediated miscarriage in cloned cattle pregnancies. Many publications hint that immune-mediated miscarriage is associated with abnormal MHC-I expression in the placenta. The regulation of bovine MHC-I genes was systematically studied to identify the cause of abnormal MHC-I expression during immune-mediated miscarriage. We also produced cloned pregnancies to study immune- mediated pregnancy loss. MHC-I and cytokines involved in proinflammatory responses were highly expressed in the placental trophoblast cells of cloned fetuses and in the uterine endometrium of
Major histocompatibility complex class I and II expression on macrophages containing a virulent strain of Brucella abortus measured using green fluorescent protein-expressing brucellae and flow cytometry ...
In neuroblastoma, N-myc suppresses the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I antigens by reducing the binding of a nuclear factor to the enhancer-A element in the MHC Class I gene promoter. We show here that the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B is part of this complex and that expres …
A general method has been developed for measuring the stabilization of class I MHC molecules in extracts of the mutant cell lines .174/T2 and RMA-S. 35S-Met-labeled class I molecules which have been stabilized by peptides in vitro are immunoprecipitated with conformation dependent monoclonal antibodies and electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels. The heavy and light chains are excised from the dried gel and quantified on a flat bed scintillation counter. The stabilizing effect of peptides on class I molecules in vitro correlates well with peptide binding measured by direct methods and can be therefore used to assess peptide binding affinity. We show that a peptide from HIV-1 gag (which has a high affinity for Db) is a CTL epitope restricted through Db, and also use the assay to analyse the effects of amino acid substitution on peptide affinity. In addition, the effect of a given peptide on a class I molecule within a mixture of human class I molecules can be distinguished by immunoprecipitation with the
TY - JOUR. T1 - High resolution structures of highly bulged viral epitopes bound to major histocompatibility complex class I: implications for T-Cell receptor engagement and T-cell immunodominance. AU - Tynan, Fleur Elizabeth. AU - Borg, Natalie. AU - Miles, John J. AU - Beddoe, Travis Clarke. AU - Elhassen, Diah. AU - Silins, Sharon L. AU - van Zuylen, Wendy JM. AU - Purcell, Anthony W. AU - Kjer-Nielsen, Lars. AU - McCluskey, James. AU - Burrows, S R. AU - Rossjohn, Jamie. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. U2 - 10.1074/jbc.M503060200. DO - 10.1074/jbc.M503060200. M3 - Article. VL - 280. SP - 23900. EP - 23909. JO - Journal of Biological Chemistry. JF - Journal of Biological Chemistry. SN - 1083-351X. IS - 25. ER - ...
Fascinating recent discoveries have focused attention on the nonclassical class I molecules. They can exert their function at most levels of the immune response, being part of both innate and adaptive immune systems. They not only have specialized antigen-presentation functions but also play important immunoregulatory roles: HLA-E regulates natural killer cells by interacting with CD94/NKG2 receptors; the MIC (MHC class I chain related) glycoproteins appear crucial to the activation of gammadelta T cells in the gastrointestinal epithelium; HLA-G may play a role in controlling the immune response to the fetus; and CD1 molecules are important in defense against bacterial infections, as well as in the development and regulation of a subset of NKT cells expressing a highly restricted TCR repertoire; however not all nonclassical class I molecules have an immunological function, as demonstrated by HFE which is implicated in iron metabolism.
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We have analyzed peptides associated with six human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allomorphs expressed by the U937 cell line. Peptides were isolated by mild acid elution or by MHC class I immunoprecipitation by using W6/32 monoclonal antibody. Eighty-five peptides were sequenced by mass spectrometry, and their putative binding alleles were assigned using bioinformatic tools. Only three peptides isolated by the two approaches were identical, suggesting that the approaches may yield distinct partially overlapping peptide populations. Mild acid treatment-derived peptides manifested overall characteristics suggestive of relatively lower affinity of binding for MHC class I. Interestingly, a large proportion of putative HLA-B*5101-binding peptides was evident among the mild acid treatment-eluted peptides, and to a lesser degree in the affinity-purified peptide pool. These results suggest that HLA-B*5101 may bind a potentially large pool of peptides with relatively lower affinity. We suggest
Clone REA176 recognizes HLA B7 and B27 class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Expressed on the surface of most nucleated cells, class I molecules are heterodimeric molecules and consist of a type I integral membrane α heavy chain and soluble β2 microglobulin protein. The extracellular region of the heavy chain further consists of three domains, of which one comprises the peptide binding groove. Antigens binding to class I molecules are 8-10 amino acids long and play an important role in recognition of the virus infected and malignant cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In addition, class I molecules interact with NK cell receptors to modulate the activity of NK cells. HLA-B7 is a risk factor for cervical cancer, sarcoidosis, and early-onset spondylarthropathies. HLA-B27 is known for its strong association with inflammatory spondyloarthropathies. It has been also discovered as a protective factor against some severe viral infections.Additional information: Clone REA176 displays negligible binding
The highly polymorphic nonclassical MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes MICA and MICB encode stress inducible glycoproteins expressed on a variety of epithelial cells including intestinal cells. Interaction with the receptor NKG2D is likely to provide an important costimulatory signal for activation and proliferation of NK cells, activated macrophages and CD8 αβ and γδ T cells. Fifty-four MICA and 17 MICB alleles have been described to date. Although the functional significance of this polymorphism is not known, the high degree of nonconservative substitution, concentration to the putative ligand-binding site and recent observation that different MICA alleles bind to NKG2D with varying affinity has generated much interest. The MIC genes are attractive functional and positional candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility as a consequence of their position in the HLA region and expression on the gastrointestinal epithelium. We developed a robust, high-resolution PCR-SSP ...
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a collection of genes coding for MHC molecules found on the surface of all nucleated cells of the body. In humans, the MHC genes are also referred to as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Mature red blood cells, which lack a nucleus, are the only cells that do not express MHC molecules on their surface.. There are two classes of MHC molecules involved in adaptive immunity, MHC I and MHC II (Figure 14.11). MHC I molecules are found on all nucleated cells; they present normal self-antigens as well as abnormal or nonself pathogens to the effector T cells involved in cellular immunity. In contrast, MHC II molecules are only found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells; they present abnormal or nonself pathogen antigens for the initial activation of T cells.. Both types of MHC molecules are transmembrane glycoproteins that assemble as dimers in the cytoplasmic membrane of cells, but their structures are quite different. MHC I molecules are ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that initiate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of foreign antigens to T cells. The high polymorphism found at these genes, thought to be promoted and maintained by pathogen-mediated selection, contrasts with the limited number of MHC loci found in most vertebrates. Although expressing many diverse MHC genes should broaden the range of detectable pathogens, it has been hypothesized to also cause deletion of larger fractions of self-reactive T cells, leading to a detrimental reduction of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. However, a key prediction of this TCR depletion hypothesis, that the TCR repertoire should be inversely related to the individual MHC diversity, has never been tested. Here, using high-throughput sequencing and advanced sequencing error correction, we provide evidence of such an association in a rodent species with high interindividual variation in the number of expressed MHC molecules, the bank ...
The x-ray structures of a murine MHC class I molecule (H-2Kb) were determined in complex with two different viral peptides, derived from the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein (52-59), VSV-8, and the Sendai virus nucleoprotein (324-332), SEV-9. The H-2Kb complexes were refined at 2.3 A for VSV-8 and 2.5 A for SEV-9. The structure of H-2Kb exhibits a high degree of similarity with human HLA class I, although the individual domains can have slightly altered dispositions. Both peptides bind in extended conformations with most of their surfaces buried in the H-2Kb binding groove. The nonamer peptide maintains the same amino- and carboxyl-terminal interactions as the octamer primarily by the insertion of a bulge in the center of an otherwise beta conformation. Most of the specific interactions are between side-chain atoms of H-2Kb and main-chain atoms of peptide. This binding scheme accounts in large part for the enormous diversity of peptide sequences that bind with high affinity to class I ...
Virus or tumor Ag-derived peptides that are displayed by MHC class I molecules are attractive starting points for vaccine development because they induce strong protective and therapeutic cytotoxic T cell responses. In thus study, we show that the MHC binding and consequent T cell reactivity against several HLA-A*02 restricted epitopes can be further improved through the incorporation of nonproteogenic amino acids at primary and secondary anchor positions. We screened more than 90 nonproteogenic, synthetic amino acids through a range of epitopes and tested more than 3000 chemically enhanced altered peptide ligands (CPLs) for binding affinity to HLA-A*0201. With this approach, we designed CPLs of viral epitopes, of melanoma-associated Ags, and of the minor histocompatibility Ag UTA2-1, which is currently being evaluated for its antileukemic activity in clinical dendritic cell vaccination trials. The crystal structure of one of the CPLs in complex with HLA-A*0201 revealed the molecular interactions likely
A comparison of methionine, histidine and cysteine in copper(I)-binding peptides reveals differences relevant to copper uptake by organisms in diverse environments.
NetCTLpan 1.1 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS DESCRIPTION The NetCTLpan 1.1 software predicts CTL epitopes in protein sequences. The current version 1.1 is an update to the original NetCTL server that allows for prediction of CTL epitope with restriction to any MHC molecules of known protein sequence. NetCTLpan integrates prediction of peptide MHC class I binding, proteasomal C terminal cleavage and the efficiency of TAP transport. MHC class I binding and proteasomal cleavage is performed using artificial neural networks. TAP transport efficiency is predicted using weight matrix. The method is described in detail in the following article: NetCTLpan - Pan-specific MHC class I epitope predictions. Stranzl T., Larsen M. V., Lundegaard C., Nielsen M. Immunogenetics. 2010 Jun;62(6):357-68. [Epub ahead of print] Apr 9, 2010. More information about the method can be found at: DOWNLOAD The netCTLpan 1.1 software package is a property of Center for Biological Sequence ...
Human immunodeficiency computer virus (HIV) Nef is a membrane-associated protein decreasing surface expression of CD4 CD28 and major histocompatibility complex class I on infected cells. by the same mutations in Nef that impact CD4 down-regulation FK866 suggesting common molecular interactions. The ability to down-regulate the human CD8 β-chain was conserved in HIV-1 HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency computer FK866 virus SIVmac239 Nef and required an intact AP-2 complex. The Nef-mediated internalization of receptors such as CD4 major histocompatibility complex class I CD28 and CD8αβ may contribute to the subversion of the host immune system and progression towards AIDS. The human immunodeficiency computer virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein is usually a 27-kDa protein that is abundantly produced during the early phase of viral gene expression (28 54 Nef is usually posttranslationally altered by phosphorylation and due to irreversible attachment of myristic acid to its N terminus it is targeted ...
Human tumours typically harbour a remarkable number of somatic mutations. If presented on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHCI), peptides containing these mutations could potentially be immunogenic as they should be recognized as non-self neo-antigens by the adaptive immune sys …
POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS AVAILABLE My laboratory is investigating various aspects of how the immune system carries out surveillance to detect viral infections, cancers and cell death. Among the areas of research are: (1) The alarm signals and the receptors that alert the immune system to potential danger; (2) The mechanisms by which sentinel cells (dendritic cells) acquire and display antigens to CD8 T cells (cross presentation), a process that is essential for immune surveillance of tissues; and, (3) The antigen presentation pathway by which virally infected or cancer cells display their antigens to effector CD8 T cells (MHC class I antigen presentation), a process that is essential for the immune system to detect and eliminate these pathological cells. The laboratory is in a new state of the art research building and part of a very strong and interactive immunology community at UMass Medical School. UMass Medical School is located in Worcester Massachusetts, just outside of Boston. Interested ...
Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHCI) is known to modulate activity-dependent synaptic remodeling in the visual system and to regulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Here, the authors show that MHCI negatively regulates the density and function of cortical synapses during their initial establishment. Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules modulate activity-dependent refinement and plasticity. We found that MHCI also negatively regulates the density and function of cortical synapses during their initial establishment both in vitro and in vivo. MHCI molecules are expressed on cortical neurons before and during synaptogenesis. In vitro, decreasing surface MHCI (sMHCI) on neurons increased glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse density, whereas overexpression decreased it. In vivo, synapse density was higher throughout development in β2m−/− mice. MHCI also negatively regulated the strength of excitatory, but not inhibitory, synapses and controlled the balance of
Kawashima Y., Pfafferott K., Frater J., Matthews P., Payne R., Addo M., Gatanaga H., Fujiwara M., Hachiya A., Koizumi H., Kuse N., Oka S., Duda A., Prendergast A., Crawford H., Leslie A., Brumme Z., Brumme C., Allen T., Brander C., Kaslow R., Tang J., Hunter E., Allen S., Mulenga J., Branch S., Roach T., John M., Mallal S., Ogwu A., Shapiro R., Prado J.G., Fidler S., Weber J., Pybus O.G., Klenerman P., Ndungu T., Phillips R., Heckerman D., Harrigan P.R., Walker B.D., Takiguchi M., Goulder P. (2009) Adaptation of HIV-1 to human leukocyte antigen class I. Nature ...
Effects of HIV-1 Tat on expression of HLA class I molecules. Dendritic cells transduced with HIV Nef express normal levels of HLA-A and HLA-\b class I molecules
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mamu-A*01/Kb transgenic and MHC Class I knockout mice as a tool for HIV vaccine development. AU - Li, Jinliang. AU - Srivastava, Tumul. AU - Rawal, Ravindra. AU - Manuel, Edwin. AU - Isbell, Donna. AU - Tsark, Walter. AU - La Rosa, Corinna. AU - Wang, Zhongde. AU - Li, Zhongqi. AU - Barry, Peter A. AU - Hagen, Katharine D.. AU - Longmate, Jeffrey. AU - Diamond, Don J.. PY - 2009/4/25. Y1 - 2009/4/25. N2 - We have developed a murine model expressing the rhesus macaque (RM) Mamu-A*01 MHC allele to characterize immune responses and vaccines based on antigens of importance to human disease processes. Towards that goal, transgenic (Tg) mice expressing chimeric RM (α1 and α2 Mamu-A*01 domains) and murine (α3, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic H-2Kb domains) MHC Class I molecules were derived by transgenesis of the H-2KbDb double MHC Class I knockout strain. After immunization of Mamu-A*01/Kb Tg mice with rVV-SIVGag-Pol, the mice generated CD8+ T-cell IFN-γ responses to several known ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of O-glycosylated decapeptides within the MUC1 repeat domain as potential MHC class I (A2) binding epitopes. AU - Ninkovic, Tanja. AU - Kinarsky, Leo. AU - Engelmann, Katja. AU - Pisarev, Vladimir. AU - Sherman, Simon. AU - Finn, Olivera J.. AU - Hanisch, Franz Georg. N1 - Funding Information: The work was supported by NIH grant 1RO1 CA84106 and the Köln-Fortune Programme (to F.G.H.) and by NIH grant 2PO CA73743 (to O.J.F.).. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - The MUC1 glycoprotein is considered a tumor antigen due to its over expression and aberrant glycosylation in cancer tissues. The latter results in appearance of new antigenic tumor specific glycopeptides not found on normal glycoforms of the mucin. MUC1 glycopeptides can be presented by APCs on MHC class II molecules to activate glycopeptide specific helper T-cells. No study has yet reported presentation of MUC1 glycopeptides on MHC class I molecules as stimulators of cytotoxic T-cells. In this study we show ...
When T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells of the immune system interact with target cells, signaling molecules are accumulated in the plasma membrane at structures known as the immunological synapse. Evidence is accumulating that proteins, as well as signals, are transferred between the interacting cells at such contacts. NK cells receive inhibitory signals from cells that express self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on their surface. Earlier evidence had shown that NK cells can actually acquire MHC class I proteins during interactions with target cells. Now Vanherberghen et al. show that the exchange goes both ways and that NK receptors are transferred to cells that express MHC class I ligands. The authors monitored transfer of biotinylated killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) KIR2DL1 by immunoblotting or green fluorescent protein-tagged receptor by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or laser-scanning confocal microscopy and observed transfer of KIRs. The NK cell receptor ...
In the absence of strategies for reliable induction of antibodies broadly neutralizing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), vaccine efforts have shifted toward the induction of cell-mediated immunity. Here we describe the construction and immunogenicity of novel T-cell vaccine NS1.HIVA, which delivers the HIV-1 clade A consensus-derived immunogen HIVA on the surface of tubular structures spontaneously formed by protein NS1 of bluetongue virus. We demonstrated that NS1 tubules can accommodate a protein as large as 527 amino acids without losing their self-assembly capability. When injected into BALB/c mice by several routes, chimeric NS1.HIVA tubules induced HIV-1-specific major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells. These could be boosted by modified virus Ankara expressing the same immunogen and generate a memory capable of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) production, proliferation, and lysis of sensitized target cells. Induced memory T cells readily produced IFN-gamma 230 ...
We found that this phenomenon was associated with the different susceptibility of human and mouse NK cells to autologous tumour cell-induced NK cell abnormalities (NKCA). The latter includes CD16 down-regulation and NK cell depletion. Induction of NKCA by leukaemia and solid tumour cells was influenced neither by IL2 treatment nor by HLA class I antigen expression, but was abrogated by a 10 day culture. Following a 10 day of PBMCs culture, NK cells became resistant to leukaemia and solid tumor cell induced NKCA but maintained their cytotoxic activity. Actinomycin D restored the susceptibility of long term NK (LTNK) cells to NKCA suggesting that the generation of resistance to NKCA required RNA transcription. TAPI-0, a functional analogue of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) 3 inhibited cancer cell induced NKCA underlying a role for a restricted number of metalloproteinases in the generation of this phenomenon. Finally, we found an association of TIMP3 gene and protein ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether IgG, non-donor-specific anti-HLA class I antibodies (HLAabI) detected after renal transplantation recognize immunogenic amino acid triplets expressed on the foreign graft. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effect of these antibodies as well as other posttransplant HLAabI on graft outcome. Posttransplant sera from 264 renal recipients were tested for the presence of IgG HLAabI and HLA class II-specific alloantibodies (HLAabII) by ELISA. The HLAMatchmaker computer algorithm was used to define the HLA class I non-donor-specific antibodies, which seem to recognize immunogenic amino acid triplets. Donor-specific triplet antibodies (DSTRab) were detected in 16 of 22 (72.7%) recipients based on at least one HLA-A or -B mismatched antigen with the donor. DSTRab were found either without (n = 7) or with (n = 9) HLA donor-specific antibodies (HLA-DSA). The presence of DSTRab alone in the periphery was associated with acute rejection, whereas the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Class I HLA folding and antigen presentation in β2- microglobulin-defective daudi cells. AU - Martayan, Aline. AU - Sibilio, Leonardo. AU - Tremante, Elisa. AU - Monaco, Elisa Lo. AU - Mulder, Arend. AU - Fruci, Doriana. AU - Cova, Agata. AU - Rivoltini, Licia. AU - Giacomini, Patrizio. PY - 2009/3/15. Y1 - 2009/3/15. N2 - To present virus and tumor Ags, HLA class I molecules undergo a complex multistep assembly involving discrete but transient folding intermediates. The most extensive folding abnormalities occur in cells lacking the class I L chain subunit, called β2-microglobulin (β2m). Herein, this issue was investigated taking advantage of eight conformational murine mAbs (including the prototypic W6/32 mAb) to mapped H chain epitopes of class I molecules, four human mAbs to class I alloantigens, as well as radioimmunoprecipitation, in vitro assembly, pulse-chase, flow cytometry, and peptide-pulse/ELISPOT experiments. We show that endogenous (HLA-A1, -A66, and -B58) as ...
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Both HLA class I and II alleles have been found to present these antigens. Some of these antigens are ubiquitously expressed in ... Major and Minor Histocompatibility Antigens to Non-Inherited Maternal Antigens (NIMA), Histocompatibility. INTECH. p. 146. ISBN ... Minor histocompatibility antigen (also known as MiHA) are receptors on the cellular surface of donated organs that are known to ... Minor histocompatibility antigens are due to normal proteins that are in themselves polymorphic in a given population. Even ...
... matching of MHC class I and MHC class II were observed. Human MHC class I and II are also called human leukocyte antigen (HLA ... The MHC gene family is divided into three subgroups: MHC class I, MHC class II, and MHC class III. Among all those genes ... MHC class II can be conditionally expressed by all cell types, but normally occurs only on "professional" antigen-presenting ... Zhu L, Ruan XD, Ge YF, Wan QH, Fang SG (June 2007). "Low major histocompatibility complex class II DQA diversity in the Giant ...
"Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2". Nature. 329 (6139): 506-12. Bibcode:1987Natur.329..506B. ... Wang Z, Cao Y, Albino AP, Zeff RA, Houghton A, Ferrone S (February 1993). "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma ... Saper MA, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (May 1991). "Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A ... β2 microglobulin (B2M) is a component of MHC class I molecules. MHC class I molecules have α1, α2, and α3 proteins which are ...
"Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2". Nature. 329 (6139): 506-512. Bibcode:1987Natur.329..506B. ... Saper MA, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (1991). "Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A resolution ... the HLA-A2 human histocompatibility antigen. This work was published in 1987, first at 3.5Å resolution (PDB entry 1HLA) and ... "Awards - American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics". "NIH Director's Pioneer Award". NIH ...
"Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-454 ... Czaja, Albert J.; Donaldson, Peter T. (August 2002). "Gender effects and synergisms with histocompatibility leukocyte antigens ... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ... rare except for overlap syndromes with primary biliary cholangitis Anti-soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas antibody antigen ...
Desoye, G.; Dohr, G. A.; Ziegler, A. (1991). "Expression of human major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens on germ cells and ... In addition, HLA-G expresses oligosaccharides that are very different from those linked to other HLA class I molecules, so the ... These immune markers are also known as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens or more specifically in humans as human ... Ljunggren, H. G.; Karre, K. (1990). "In search of "missing self"? MHC class I molecules and NK cell recognition". Immunol. ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A alpha chain) at the PDBe-KB. (Protein heteropolymers, Genes on human chromosome 6, ... "HLA-A major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [Homo sapiens (human)]". National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S ... HLA is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen specific to humans. HLA-A is one of three major types of human MHC ... "Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, A". Gene Cards. Weizmann Institute of Science. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 16 ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... The stable MHC class II + antigen complex is then presented on the cell surface. Without CLIP, MHC class II aggregates ... "cDNA clone for the human invariant gamma chain of class II histocompatibility antigens and its implications for the protein ... "Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class II histocompatibility antigens". Nucleic Acids Research ...
"The foreign antigen binding site and T cell recognition regions of class I histocompatibility antigens". Nature. 329 (6139): ... Enforcing the restriction that T cells are activated by peptide antigens only when the antigens are bound to self-MHC molecules ... "Antigen Presentation and Major Histocompatibility Complex". Reference Module in Biomedical Sciences: 90-98. doi:10.1016/B978-0- ... MHC-restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a T cell can interact with a self-major ...
"Purification and characterization of class II histocompatibility antigens from a homozygous human B cell line". J. Biol. Chem. ... Ultimately, papain-solubilized fragments of the human class II MHC antigens HLA-DR1, HLA-DR2, HLA-DR3, HLA-DR4, HLA-DR7, and ... Nathenson, S. G.; Davies, D. A. (1966). "Solubilization and partial purification of mouse histocompatibility antigens from a ... "Complete amino acid sequence of a papain-solubilized human histocompatibility antigen, HLA-B7. 2. Sequence determination and ...
"An N-acetylated natural ligand of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B39. Classical major histocompatibility ... complex class I proteins bind peptides with a blocked NH(2) terminus in vivo". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 191 (12): ...
In different studies, rheumatoid arthritis is strongly linked to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens. The ... depending on whether their TCR recognizes an MHC class I-presented antigen (CD8) or an MHC class II-presented antigen (CD4). It ... Antigens inside a cell are bound to class I MHC molecules, and brought to the surface of the cell by the class I MHC molecule, ... If the TCR is specific for that antigen, it binds to the complex of the class I MHC molecule and the antigen, and the T cell ...
Class 2 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on macrophages are up-regulated at sites of VUE. Neutrophils should not ... Foetal macrophages in VUE proliferate and are activated as a result of the up-regulation of MHC class 2 antigen expression. ... Majority of the antigen-presenting cells were Hofbauer cells (macrophages) were of foetal origin. Perivillous monocyte- ... The trafficking of maternal lymphocytes responding to an antigen in the chronic deciduitis could activate and enter via the ...
York IA, Rock KL (1996). "Antigen processing and presentation by the class I major histocompatibility complex". Annual Review ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(6) alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQA2 gene. Also ... 1984). "Isotypic and allotypic variation of human class II histocompatibility antigen alpha-chain genes". Nature. 308 (5957): ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. Comparisons of the DQ and DX alpha and beta genes". J. ...
This enzyme has a critical role in antigen presentation. Major histocompatibility complex class II molecules interact with ... "The Phosphoinositide Kinase PIKfyve Promotes Cathepsin-S-Mediated Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Antigen ... "Cathepsin S controls MHC class II-mediated antigen presentation by epithelial cells in vivo". Journal of Immunology. 174 (3): ... complex can load the selected antigen. After loading the antigen, MHC II molecule moves to the cell surface. Thus, we can ...
... vivo staining of metastatic lymph nodes by class I major histocompatibility complex tetramers reveals high numbers of antigen- ... Presentation of viral antigen controlled by a gene in the major histocompatibility complex. Nature 345:449-452. Moins- ... The binding affinity and dissociation rates of peptides for class I major histocompatibility complex molecules. 1991. Eur J ... NKT cells enhance CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to soluble antigen in vivo through direct interaction with dendritic cells. J ...
"Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31. ... Parham P, Ohta T (1996). "Population biology of antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules". Science. 272 (5258): 67-74. ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRA gene. HLA-DRA ... "Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DRA major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha". Bénichou S, Benmerah A (2003). "[The HIV nef and ...
"The major histocompatibility complex-restricted antigen receptor on T cells. I. Isolation with a monoclonal antibody". The ... Sadegh-Nasseri, Scheherazade; Germain, Ronald N. (September 1991). "A role for peptide in determining MHC class II structure". ... Antigen-Antibody binding hypothesis (John Marrack) 1940 - Identification of the Rh antigens (Karl Landsteiner and Alexander ... Heat-stable antigen(hi) splenic B cells are an immature developmental intermediate in the production of long-lived marrow- ...
Major histocompatibility complex Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DP "Entrez Gene: HLA-DPA1 major histocompatibility complex, class ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1, also known as HLA-DPA1, is a human gene. The protein encoded by this ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... The class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DPA) and a beta chain (DPB), both anchored in the membrane. It ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex. The proteasome ... Many MHC class I alleles prefer hydrophobic C-terminal residues, and the immunoproteasome complex is more likely to generate ... The strength of MHC class I ligand binding is dependent on the composition of the ligand C-terminus, as peptides bind by ...
"The major histocompatibility complex class I antigen-binding protein p88 is the product of the calnexin gene". Proceedings of ... This association prepares the MHC class I for binding an antigen for presentation on the cell surface. A prolonged association ... the job of chaperoning the MHC class I protein while the tapasin links the complex to the transporter associated with antigen ... As newly synthesized MHC class I α-chains enter the endoplasmic reticulum, calnexin binds on to them retaining them in a partly ...
... a major histocompatibility complex class I antigen homolog". Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. 54 (Pt 1): ... Story CM, Mikulska JE, Simister NE (December 1994). "A major histocompatibility complex class I-like Fc receptor cloned from ... "The human gene encoding the heavy chain of the major histocompatibility complex class I-like Fc receptor (FCGRT) maps to ... It is an IgG Fc receptor which is similar in structure to the MHC class I molecule and also associates with beta-2- ...
2002). "HLA class I-minor histocompatibility antigen tetramers select cytotoxic T cells with high avidity to the natural ligand ... 2005). "Cord blood comprises antigen-experienced T cells specific for maternal minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1". Blood. ... "Genomic identification of the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 locus by allele-specific PCR". Tissue Antigens. 52 (4): 312 ... 2005). "Minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 and HPA-5 polymorphisms in HLA-identical related bone marrow transplantation". ...
iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen ... a member of the CD1 family of antigen-presenting molecules, rather than peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). As ... The best known antigen of iNKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), which is a synthetic form of a chemical purified ... The highly conserved TCR is made of Va24-Ja18 paired with Vb11 in humans, which is specific for glycolipid antigens. ...
Major histocompatibility complex Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQB1 major histocompatibility complex, class ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 3, also known as HLA-DQB3, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic ... While the overall sequence of the protein encoded by this gene is similar to other HLA class II beta chains, the translated ... "Mapping and nucleotide sequence of a new HLA class II light chain gene, DQB3". Immunogenetics. 30 (4): 243-9. doi:10.1007/ ...
Minor histocompatibility antigens, a conceptually similar antigen class are also correctly identified by MHC binding algorithms ... Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the surface of tumor cells. ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly. Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ... Antigen-presenting cells present antigens in the form of peptides on histocompatibility molecules. The T cells selectively ...
... ceruloplasmin and class I major histocompatibility antigens". Experimental Cell Research. 143 (1): 91-102. doi:10.1016/0014- ...
... antigens. In B lymphocytes (B cells), interferon gamma stimulates antibody class switching. All of these cells have different, ... interferon gamma upregulates expression of macrophages and both types of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) ... Dendritic cells phagocytose invaders; then they present the antigen on their surface to stimulate the acquired immune system ( ... These cells can differentiate into many subtypes once activated by antigen presenting cells (APCs) like dendrites. They divide ...
... and can bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Therefore, if secreted, the LILRA3 might impair interactions of membrane- ... "A common inhibitory receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells ... Like the closely related LILRA1, LILRA3 binds to both normal and 'unfolded' free heavy chains of HLA class I, with a preference ... Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily A member 3 (LILR-A3) also known as CD85 antigen-like family member E (CD85e), ...
2001). "HLA class I in three West African ethnic groups: genetic distances from sub-Saharan and Caucasoid populations". Tissue ... Arce-Gomez B, Jones EA, Barnstable CJ, Solomon E, Bodmer WF (February 1978). "The genetic control of HLA-A and B antigens in ... proceedings of the eleventh International Histocompatibility Workshop and Conference, held in Yokohama, Japan, 6-13 November ... 2006). "HLA class I diversity among rural rainforest inhabitants in Cameroon: identification of A*2612-B*4407 haplotype". ...
"Genomic structure of the spermatid-specific hsp70 homolog gene located in the class III region of the major histocompatibility ... Gupta N, Jagadish N, Surolia A, Suri A (2017). "Heat shock protein 70-2 (HSP70-2) a novel cancer testis antigen that promotes ... The gene is located in the major histocompatibility complex, on the short arm of chromosome 6, in a cluster with two paralogous ... Sargent CA, Dunham I, Trowsdale J, Campbell RD (March 1989). "Human major histocompatibility complex contains genes for the ...
... increase host defenses by up-regulating antigen presentation by virtue of increasing the expression of major histocompatibility ... They are typically divided among three classes: Type I IFN, Type II IFN, and Type III IFN. IFNs belonging to all three classes ... and EBV nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA-2) from Epstein-Barr virus, the large T antigen of Polyomavirus, the E7 protein of Human ... IFNs belong to the large class of proteins known as cytokines, molecules used for communication between cells to trigger the ...
J Exp Med 145: 1-9. Rao A, Ko WW, Faas SJ, Cantor H. Binding of antigen in the absence of histocompatibility proteins by ... CD8+ T regulatory cells express the Ly49 class I MHC receptor and are defective in autoimmune prone B6-Yaa mice. Proc Natl Acad ... Boyse EA, Old LJ, Stockert E. An approach to the mapping of antigens on the cell surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968;60:886. ... Glimcher L, Shen F-W, Cantor H. Identification of a cell-surface antigen selectively expressed on the natural killer cell. J. ...
... that predominantly recognize antigens of class I human leukocyte antigen ( HLA). The genes responsible for coding of KIR ... The HLA-C molecules are human leukocyte antigens and are the gene complexes to encode major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ... Tyrosine Kinases are a sub-class of the protein-kinase. Phosphorylation of proteins is a necessary step in transduction of ... Have the ability to lyse target cells without prior sensitization antigen and regulate the immune responses by secreting ...
A1::DQ2 was at the forefront of histocompatibility science, A1 was the first numerical antigen HL-A1 identified in the late ... so that susceptibility moves from class II to Class III or Class I loci. The association with class I would be unusual since T- ... Reunala T, Salo OP, Tiilikainen A, Mattila MJ (February 1976). "Histocompatibility antigens and dermatitis herpetiformis with ... Goldberg MA, Arnett FC, Bias WB, Shulman LE (1976). "Histocompatibility antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus". Arthritis ...
Activated effector T cells can be placed into three functioning classes, detecting peptide antigens originating from various ... load antigenic peptides onto the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the cell, in turn presenting the peptide to ... Naive T cells, which are immature T cells that have yet to encounter an antigen, are converted into activated effector T cells ... Rather, cell-mediated immunity is the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of ...
Antigen receptors on CTL can bind to a 9-10 amino acid chain that is presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) as ... TERT is a reverse transcriptase, which is a class of enzymes that creates single-stranded DNA using single-stranded RNA as a ... Humans have two major antigen identifying lymphocytes: CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) and CD4+ helper T-lymphocytes that ... Patel KP, Vonderheide RH (June 2004). "Telomerase as a tumor-associated antigen for cancer immunotherapy". Cytotechnology. 45 ( ...
1988). "Characterization of the cDNA encoding a protein binding to the major histocompatibility complex class II Y box". Proc. ... 1995). "Cooperative action of cellular proteins YB-1 and Pur alpha with the tumor antigen of the human JC polyomavirus ... Lloberas J, Maki RA, Celada A (1995). "Repression of major histocompatibility complex I-A beta gene expression by dbpA and dbpB ... "Physical and functional interaction between the Y-box binding protein YB-1 and human polyomavirus JC virus large T antigen". J ...
These includes bonds between T cell antigen receptors (TCR) or pre-TCR and peptide presented by major histocompatibility ... "Mechano-regulation of Peptide-MHC Class I Conformations Determines TCR Antigen Recognition". Molecular Cell. 73 (5): 1015-27 e7 ... "Force-regulated in situ TCR-peptide-bound MHC class II kinetics determine functions of CD4+ T cells". Journal of Immunology. ...
... major histocompatibility complex (MHC), class I, A, B, and C loci. (6p21.3) HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 form HLA-DQ heterodimer MHC ... The human leukocyte antigen lies on chromosome 6, with the exception of the gene for β2-microglobulin (which is located on ... heterodimer MHC class II, DR (6p21.3) Mold / Biotoxin Susceptibility HLA-DPA1 and HLA-DPB1 forms HLA-DP, MHC class II, DP ( ... It contains the major histocompatibility complex, which contains over 100 genes related to the immune response, and plays a ...
2000). "Role for cathepsin F in invariant chain processing and major histocompatibility complex class II peptide loading by ... Korkmaz, Huseyin; Findik, Duygu; Ugurluoglu, Ceyha; Terzi, Yuksel (2015). "Reliability of stool antigen tests: investigation of ...
The domains have binding regions for the major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC class II) and the T-cell receptor (TCR ... In immunology, superantigens (SAgs) are a class of antigens that result in excessive activation of the immune system. ... "Cross-linking of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules by staphylococcal enterotoxin A superantigen is a ... Leukocyte recruitment occurs independently of T lymphocytes and major histocompatibility complex Class II molecules". Lab. ...
... prevents antigen presentation by blocking the transport of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex class I molecules ... In the absence of any classes, del Val and other students read books and played games. One book she read described how proteins ... "Efficient processing of an antigenic sequence for presentation by MHC class I molecules depends on its neighboring residues in ...
More than 30 genes have been discovered in a gene complex called the major histocompatibility complex. The histocompatibility ... Bakeman arranged for me to be interviewed and considered for one of the two remaining places in the Freshman class." After his ... He noticed that if antigens (something that causes a reaction with the immune system) were injected into animals with a similar ... Germain, R. N.; Paul, W. E. (2011). "Baruj Benacerraf (1920-2011) Immunologist who won Nobel for genetics of T-cell antigen ...
"Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, a nonclassical major histocompatibility ... a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class 1 molecule on cytotrophoblasts". J. Exp. Med. 174 (3): 737-40. doi: ... The CD8 antigen, acting as a coreceptor, and the T-cell receptor on the T lymphocyte recognize antigen displayed by an antigen- ... Sanders SK, Giblin PA, Kavathas P (1991). "Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G ...
Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1, also known as HLA-DQA1, is a human gene present on short arm of ... 1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. Comparisons of the DQ and DX alpha and beta genes". J. ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQA1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1". Lau M, Terasaki PI, Park MS (1994). " ...
"A common inhibitory receptor for major histocompatibility complex class I molecules on human lymphoid and myelomonocytic cells ... 1997). "A novel inhibitory receptor (ILT3) expressed on monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells involved in antigen ... 1998). "A family of human lymphoid and myeloid Ig-like receptors, some of which bind to MHC class I molecules". J. Immunol. 159 ... The encoded protein belongs to the subfamily B class of LIR receptors which contain two or four extracellular immunoglobulin ...
... cells use macropinocytosis and the mannose receptor to concentrate macromolecules in the major histocompatibility complex class ... and the role of inflammatory stimuli in promoting antigen presentation by antigen-presenting cells (). In 1994 Sallusto and ... In 1985, using antigen-specific T and B cell clones, Lanzavecchia demonstrated that B cells efficiently capture, process and ... Lanzavecchia, A.; Reid, P.A.; Watts, C. (1985). "Irreversible association of peptides with class II MHC molecules in living ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans also infect plants. Although the exact pathogenic species vary with the ... major histocompatibility complex) - a situation that can arise in viral infections of host cells. They were named "natural ... These include the NBS-LRR class of proteins. When a part of a plant becomes infected with a microbial or viral pathogen, in ...
Suastegui R, De La Rosa G, Carranza J, Gonzalez-Astiazaran A, Gorodezky C (2001). "Contribution of the MHC class II antigens to ... "Associations between alleles of the major histocompatibility complex and type 1 autoimmune hepatitis". Hepatology. 25 (2): 317- ... 2007). "HLA class I and class II frequencies in patients with sarcoidosis from Croatia: role of HLA-B8, −DRB1*0301, and −DQB1* ... Shawkatova I, Michalkova D, Barak L, Fazekasova H, Kuba D, Buc M (2006). "HLA class II allele frequencies in type 1A diabetes ...
IFN-γ binds to the type II cell-surface receptor, also known as the IFN-gamma receptor (IFNGR) which is part of the class II ... It can also be secreted by antigen presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells (DCs), macrophages (MΦs), and B cells to a ... Some of its main functions are to induce IgG isotype switching in B cells; upregulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC) ... class II expression on APCs; induce CD8+ cytotoxic T cell differention, activation, and proliferation; and activate macrophages ...
1994). "Analysis of MHC class II antigens in Japanese IDDM by a novel HLA-typing method, hybridization protection assay". ... 1992). "Analysis by the polymerase chain reaction of histocompatibility leucocyte antigen-DR9-linked susceptibility to insulin- ... HLA-DQ9 (DQ9) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within the HLA-DQ (DQ) serotype group. DQ9 is a split antigen of the DQ3 ... Törn C, Gupta M, Sanjeevi CB, Aberg A, Frid A, Landin-Olsson M (2004). "Different HLA-DR-DQ and MHC class I chain-related gene ...
... bind antigenic peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. ... or display stress markers such as MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MIC-A). Decreased expression of MHC class I and ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Natural killer cells are able to kill cells of the body that do not display MHC class I molecules, ...
... is a group of proteins belonging the class of major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Unlike other MHC types such ... They are not involved in antigen binding (the process called antigen presentation, a classic function of MHC proteins). Only ... They are mainly known from their genes because their gene cluster is present between those of class I and class II. The gene ... More than 60 MHC class III genes are described, which is about 28% of the total MHC genes (224). The region within MHC class ...
Hilligan, K. L.; Ronchese, F. (2020). "Antigen presentation by dendritic cells and their instruction of CD4+ T helper cell ... Racioppi, Luigi; Ronchese, Franca; Matis, Louis A.; Germain, R. N. (1993). "Peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II ... where she became interested in antigen presentation by dendritic cells in vivo. In 1994, Ronchese moved to New Zealand to ...
1999). "Cytokines required for induction of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen-class I-restricted and tumor-specific ... This SART1(259) antigen may be useful in specific immunotherapy for cancer patients and may serve as a paradigmatic tool for ... "Entrez Gene: SART1 squamous cell carcinoma antigen recognized by T cells". Maruyama K, Sugano S (1994). "Oligo-capping: a ... 2000). "Expression of the SART1 tumor-rejection antigen in human osteosarcomas". Int. J. Oncol. 17 (1): 29-32. doi:10.3892/ijo. ...
... that can recognize a tumor cell antigen in a manner that is independent of the major histocompatibility complex and which can ... Education Program. 2013 (1): 596-600. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2013.1.596. PMC 4729208. PMID 24319237. Clarke RT, Van den Bruel ... Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors ... TdT is a protein expressed early in the development of pre-T and pre-B cells, whereas CALLA is an antigen found in 80% of ALL ...
Salti, N.N. & Shaya, M. (‎1997)‎. Major histocompatibility class I antigens in the Lebanese population. EMHJ - Eastern ... antigens in the Lebanese population. We describe the frequency and distribution of MHC class I antigens present in the A, B and ... Except for two reports on Lebanese immigrants, there have been no studies on the major histocompatibility [‎MHC]‎ ...
... antigens in the Lebanese population. We describe the frequency and distribution of MHC class I antigens present ... ... Browsing by Subject "Histocompatibility Antigens Class I". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. ... Except for two reports on Lebanese immigrants, there have been no studies on the major histocompatibility [‎MHC]‎ ...
... antigens in the Lebanese population. We describe the frequency and distribution of MHC class I antigens present in the A, B and ... there have been no studies on the major histocompatibility (MHC) ... Major histocompatibility class I antigens in the Lebanese ... In this work, we describe antigen and gene frequencies of the A, B and C loci of the major histocompatibility (MHC) class I ... Major histocompatibility class I antigens in the Lebanese population Section menu. You are here. *Eastern Mediterranean Health ...
Expression of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on operable non- ... Expression of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on operable non- ... Expression of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on operable non- ... Effect of gamma interferon on the induction of class ii major histocompatibility complex antigen and intercellular adhesion ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-26 alpha chain [plasma membrane] HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-26 alpha ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-26 alpha chain [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] Stable Identifier ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-26 alpha chain [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-26 alpha chain [ER to Golgi transport vesicle membrane] (Homo sapiens) ...
Major histocompatibility antigens: The human (HLA-A,-B,-C) and murine (H-2K, H-2D) class I molecules. Cell. 1981 May;24(2):287- ... Major histocompatibility antigens : The human (HLA-A,-B,-C) and murine (H-2K, H-2D) class I molecules. / Ploegh, Hidde L.; Orr ... title = "Major histocompatibility antigens: The human (HLA-A,-B,-C) and murine (H-2K, H-2D) class I molecules", ... Major histocompatibility antigens: The human (HLA-A,-B,-C) and murine (H-2K, H-2D) class I molecules. ...
Rollins-Smith LA, Blair P. Expression of class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on adult T cells in Xenopus is ... Expression of class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on adult T cells in Xenopus is metamorphosis-dependent.. ... Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens are expressed predominantly on B lymphocytes and macrophages of ... In control animals, class II antigens were virtually absent from thymic lymphocytes and peripheral T cells of normal untreated ...
For most class II alleles, peptide binding depends on the catalytic action of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA ... DO effectively inhibits antigen presentation of peptides that are loaded onto class II in endosomal compartments that are not ... Cell surface iodination assays and mass spectrometry of major histocompatibility complex class II-eluted peptides show that DO ... Thus, DO appears to be a unique, cell type-specific modulator mastering the class II-mediated immune response induced by B ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 4 chain [plasma membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 2 ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 2 chain [Golgi membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 4 ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ [trans-Golgi network membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ beta 2 ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP [Golgi membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DP [ER to Golgi transport ...
Results of search for su:{Histocompatibility antigens class II.} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ...
CD8+ T-cell responses to exogenous antigen via a proteasome-independent mechanism of major histocompatibility complex class I ... CD8+ T-cell responses to exogenous antigen via a proteasome-independent mechanism of major histocompatibility complex class I ...
Tetramer staining of tumor-infiltrated lymph nodes ex vivo revealed high frequencies of tumor-specific CTLs which were antigen- ... We have synthesized reagents (tetramers) that specifically stain CTLs recognizing melanoma antigens. ... responses to tumor antigens has been impeded by a lack of direct assays of CTL activity. ...
Histocompatibility Antigens Class I Grant support * AI-39516/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/United States ... We have detected expanded populations of MHC class I-restricted cdr2-specific CTLs in the blood of 3/3 HLA-A2.1+ PCD patients, ... cells can mature and migrate to draining lymph organs where they could induce a CTL response to tissue-restricted antigens. In ... and autoimmune neuronal degeneration in PCD correlates with a specific antibody response to the tumor and brain antigen cdr2, ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-30 alpha chain; HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-30 alpha chain; MHC class I ... The HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-30 alpha chain (HLA-A) is a α- or alpha protein sometimes glycoprotein present in ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-30 alpha chain (HLA-A) is a recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. The protein can ... Recombinant Human HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-30 alpha chain (HLA-A) ...
The HLA-B gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. Learn about this ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, B alpha chain. *leukocyte antigen B. *MHC class I HLA-B heavy chain ... Genes in this complex are categorized into three basic groups: class I, class II, and class III. In humans, the HLA-B gene and ... MHC class I genes provide instructions for making proteins that are present on the surface of almost all cells. On the cell ...
Histocompatibility antigens class I. Histocompatibility antigens class II. Pemphigoid bullous. Polymerase chain reaction. ... Many studies have been published demonstrating the association of pemphigoid with HLA class II system alleles in different ... Study of the association between human leukocyte antigens (HLA) and bullous pemphigoid in Brazilian patients ... and class II (DRB1, DQB1 and DQA1). DISCUSSION: Our data indicate that Brazilian patients with BP present the same genetic ...
Crystal Structure of the Complex of the MHC Class II Molecule HLA-DR1 (HA peptide 306-318) with the Superantigen SEC3 Variant ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain. A. 182. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-DRA, HLA-DRA1. ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR-1 beta chain. B. 190. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: HLA-DRB1. ... major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II complexes exhibiting increasingly higher affinity to reveal that this affinity ...
Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex ( ... 3-dimensional structure of the human class-II histocompatibility antigen HLA-DR1. Nature 364, 33-39 (1993). ... Major histocompatibility complex class II compatibility, but not class I, predicts mate choice in a bird with highly developed ... Kaufman, J., Salomonsen, J. & Flajnik, M. Evolutionary conservation of MHC class I and class II molecules-different yet the ...
Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to ... We are constantly working hard to ensure we provide our customers with best in class antibodies. As a result of this work we ... Storage instructions. Shipped at 4°C. Store at +4°C short term (1-2 weeks). Upon delivery aliquot. Store at -20°C long term. ... Perform heat mediated antigen retrieval with Tris/EDTA buffer pH 9.0 before commencing with IHC staining protocol. See IHC ...
Statins might exert antiinflammatory effects by inhibiting the major histocompatibility complex class II pathway of antigen ... D. Statins may inhibit the major histocompatibility complex class II pathway of antigen presentation ... Ghittoni R, Napolitani G, Benati D, Ulivieri C, Patrussi L, Laghi Pasini F, et al. Simvastatin inhibits the MHC class II ... To complete the questions (with a minimum 75% passing score) and earn continuing medical education (CME) credit, please go to ...
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II 8% * Immunoglobulin A 7% * ROC Curve 6% * Immunoglobulin G 5% ...
PDB Compounds: (B:) hla class II histocompatibility antigen. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1uvqb2:. Sequence; same for both ... Class d: Alpha and beta proteins (a+b) [53931] (396 folds). *. Fold d.19: MHC antigen-recognition domain [54451] (1 superfamily ... Family d.19.1.1: MHC antigen-recognition domain [54453] (13 proteins). *. Protein Class II MHC beta chain, N-terminal domain [ ... d1uvqb2 d.19.1.1 (B:3-94) Class II MHC beta chain, N-terminal domain {Human (Homo sapiens), HLA-DQ6 [TaxId: 9606]} ...
Name: histocompatibility 2, class II antigen E beta2. Synonyms: H-2Eb2, Ia-5, Ia5, A130038H09Rik ...
3. Structure and polymorphism of the human class II histocompatibility antigens with special regard to the HLA-DP region. ...
Watts, C. (2004). The exogenous pathway for antigen presentation on major histocompatibility complex class II and CD1 molecules ... Hsing, L. C., and Rudensky, A. Y. (2005). The lysosomal cysteine proteases in MHC class II antigen presentation. Immunol. Rev. ... 2004). Antigen stability controls antigen presentation. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 50257-50266. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M405738200 ... Watts, C. (2001). Antigen processing in the endocytic compartment. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 13, 26-31. doi: 10.1016/S0952-7915(00) ...
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * B-Lymphocytes Medicine & Life Sciences 69% ... Serologic characterization of human Ia antigens using B cell lymphoid lines. J. Bodmer, D. Young, E. Jones, C. Barnstable, P. ... Serologic characterization of human Ia antigens using B cell lymphoid lines. / Bodmer, J.; Young, D.; Jones, E. et al. ... Serologic characterization of human Ia antigens using B cell lymphoid lines. Transplantation proceedings. 1977 Nov 12;9(1 sup.I ...
calnexin, CNX, IP90FLJ26570, Major histocompatibility complex class I antigen-binding protein p88, P90. ...
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II 33% * Antigen-Presenting Cells 32% * Major Histocompatibility Complex 31% ...
  • Data on histocompatibility antigens in patients and in population groups are becoming increasingly important, not only in the ever-expanding field of organ transplantation, but also in the area of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) association with a number of diseases. (
  • Modulation of the major histocompatibility complex class II-associated peptide repertoire by human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DO. (
  • HLA-B is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. (
  • The pathobiology of chronic beryllium disease involves the major histocompatibility complex class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA). (
  • The nonclassical MHC class I molecule human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G is selectively expressed on fetal trophoblast tissue at the maternal-fetal interface in pregnancy. (
  • The human leukocyte antigen‑G (HLA‑G) is expressed to a high level in primary ESCC tissues and is associated with prognosis. (
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that the human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) gene is one of the target genes regulated by miR-148a. (
  • In this situation, the two individuals differ at MHC (major histocompatibility complex) loci, also known as human leukocyte antigen [HLA] loci), and/or differ at minor histocompatibility antigens. (
  • Methods: Neurologic patients included both those with the CD-prerequisite major histocompatibility complex class II human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2/DQ8 haplotype, and those without. (
  • Viral integration may be curtailed when CD8+ T cells are triggered to kill infected CD4+ T cells through recognition of histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-bound peptides derived from incoming virions. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens and adhesion molecules, such as the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), appear to play an important role in the immunological recognition and destruction of tumour cells. (
  • Antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class II molecules is essential for antibody production and T cell activation. (
  • The amino acid sequences contained characteristic features of functional class II molecules including conserved residues and putative peptide binding regions ( Fig. 1 ). (
  • These fragments are then loaded onto major histocompatibility complex molecules type 2 (MHC2) and transported to the cell surface. (
  • The highly immunosuppressive leporipoxvirus myxoma, previously was shown to promote the loss of cell surface class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC l) molecules. (
  • Antigen-presenting cells survey their environment and present captured antigens bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. (
  • Autophagy is a route that enables the presentation of cytosolic antigen by MHC class II molecules. (
  • Some reports also implicate autophagy in the presentation of extracellular, endocytosed antigen by MHC class I molecules, a pathway termed "cross-presentation. (
  • The superantigen binds to the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules (blue) of an antigen-presenting cell. (
  • Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). (
  • Recently, we revealed that TAPBPR is a peptide exchange catalyst that is important for optimal peptide selection by MHC class I molecules. (
  • Our results suggest the formation of a multimeric complex, dependent on a conserved cysteine at position 94 in TAPBPR, in which TAPBPR promotes the association of UGT1 with peptide-receptive MHC class I molecules. (
  • We reveal that the interaction between TAPBPR and UGT1 facilities the reglucosylation of the glycan on MHC class I molecules, promoting their recognition by calreticulin. (
  • Our results suggest that in addition to being a peptide editor, TAPBPR improves peptide optimisation by promoting peptide-receptive MHC class I molecules to associate with the peptide-loading complex. (
  • CD8 T cells bind to class I MHC molecules and generally mediate cytotoxicity. (
  • CD4 T cells bind to class II MHC molecules, secrete cytokines to amplify inflammation, and provide help to induce cytotoxic T cells and antibody-producing B cells. (
  • In the normal host, T cells are "trained" to recognize foreign peptides expressed in the context of self-MHC molecules and are tolerant to self antigens. (
  • The only I-A(β) gene expressed in these mice is an A(β)(k) transgene with a mutation that prevents MHC class H molecules from interacting with CD4. (
  • When cocultured with APC- expressing wild-type MHC class H molecules, apoptosis in resting CD4 + T lymphocytes from mutant A(β)(k) transgenic mice was reduced. (
  • Our results show for the first time that interactions between CD4 and MHC class H molecules are required for the survival of resting CD4 + T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs. (
  • Maroto, R, Shen, X & König, R 1999, ' Requirement for efficient interactions between CD4 and MHC class II molecules for survival of resting CD4 + T lymphocytes in vivo and for activation-induced cell death ', Journal of Immunology , vol. 162, no. 10, pp. 5973-5980. (
  • In humans, the HLA-B gene and two related genes, HLA-A and HLA-C , are the main genes in MHC class I. (
  • In humans, histocompatibility antigens are called human leukocyte antigens (HLA) because they were originally discovered in large numbers on lymphocytes. (
  • The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. (
  • MHC class II invariant chain-adjuvanted viral vectored vaccines enhances T cell responses in humans. (
  • We now assess this strategy in humans, using chimpanzee adenovirus 3 and modified vaccinia Ankara vectors encoding human Ii fused to the nonstructural (NS) antigens of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a heterologous prime/boost regimen. (
  • major histocompatibility complex: (in mammals) a group of genes located next to or near each other on a specific chromosome, the sixth in humans, most of which encode glycoproteins of highly variable shapes that are expressed on almost all cell surfaces: it plays the dominant role in distinguishing one individual's cells from another's and in determining the histocompatibility of any two individuals. (
  • Tissue-specific minor histocompatibility antigens can be predicted through computational analysis of donor and recipient genotyping data. (
  • T-cell responses to minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAs) mediate both antitumor immunity (graft-versus-leukemia [GVL]) and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in allogeneic stem cell transplant. (
  • MHC class I genes provide instructions for making proteins that are present on the surface of almost all cells. (
  • MHC class I proteins display these peptides to the immune system. (
  • Exogenous proteins enter antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells, via endocytosis. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related antigen A (MICA) proteins are like HLA class I gene products. (
  • The innate immune system is composed of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer (NK) cells as well as nonpolymorphic proteins, such as complement and cytokines, which respond to generic antigens. (
  • The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins bind to antigenic subunits - the parts of the cell that provoke an immune response - and bring them to the surface of the macrophage to be passed along to T cells . (
  • Expression of class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on adult T cells in Xenopus is metamorphosis-dependent. (
  • In control animals, class II antigens were virtually absent from thymic lymphocytes and peripheral T cells of normal untreated larvae, but could be found in increasing numbers in both populations after metamorphosis (10-12 weeks of age). (
  • Thus, perchlorate-treated animals retained the larval pattern of class II expression, suggesting that emergence of class II+ T cells is dependent on metamorphosis. (
  • DO function was investigated under various pH conditions in in vitro peptide exchange assays and in antigen presentation assays using DO(-) and DO(+) transfectant cell lines as antigen-presenting cells, in which effective acidification of the endocytic pathway was prevented with bafilomycin A(1), an inhibitor of vacuolar ATPases. (
  • Thus, DO appears to be a unique, cell type-specific modulator mastering the class II-mediated immune response induced by B cells. (
  • We have detected expanded populations of MHC class I-restricted cdr2-specific CTLs in the blood of 3/3 HLA-A2.1+ PCD patients, providing the first description, to our knowledge, of tumor-specific CTLs using primary human cells in a simple recall assay. (
  • These results indicate a model whereby immature dendritic cells that engulf apoptotic tumor cells can mature and migrate to draining lymph organs where they could induce a CTL response to tissue-restricted antigens. (
  • Alternate class I MHC (MHC-I) processing allows macrophages to present Ags from MTB and other bacteria to CD8 + T cells, but the effect of PAMPs on this processing pathway is unknown. (
  • Class I MHC antigens (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) are found on all nucleated cells and platelets. (
  • Class II antigens (HLA-DR, HLA-DQ, and HLA-DP) are found on lymphocytes and antigen processing cells and are important in the specific immune response. (
  • How many of those T cells can recognize any particular antigen? (
  • If so, how many T cells typically recognize an individual antigen? (
  • This may be due to studies using different types of antigen presenting cells for which the use of autophagy is not well defined. (
  • These findings highlight the differential use of autophagy and its machinery by primary cells equipped with specific immune function, and prompt careful reassessment of the participation of this endocytic pathway in antigen cross-presentation. (
  • Tax is also the immunodominant target antigen for cytotoxic T cells in HTLV-1 infection. (
  • Antigen is taken up by receptor-mediated endocytosis, digested, and presented to T cells in the context of class II MHC. (
  • Class I antigens (HLA A, B and C) are present on all nucleated cells, while class II antigens (HLA DR, DQ and DP) are found on antigen presenting cells and can be upregulated on vascular endothelium after ischemia reperfusion injury. (
  • Cellular alloimmunity: Cell-mediated alloimmunity is initiated by antigen-specific T cells that, in concert with other cellular components, result in cytolytic and cytokine-induced damage of a transplanted organ. (
  • Initial antigen recognition predominantly occurs in secondary lymphoid organs, where recipient T cells interact with antigens derived from the donor. (
  • The primed T cells then migrate back to the graft where they re-encounter antigens and mediate their effector functions. (
  • In this study, we report on the use of a transgenic mouse model to test the role of CD4-MHC class H interactions for the susceptibility of CD4 + T lymphocytes to AICD, and for the survival of resting CD4 + T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs. (
  • The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. (
  • The general applicability of this novel vaccination method for induction of major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted T cells is discussed. (
  • Therefore, early in the formation of oral lichen planus lesions, CD8 + T cells may recognize an antigen associated with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I on keratinocytes. (
  • After antigen recognition and activation, CD8 + cytotoxic T cells may trigger keratinocyte apoptosis. (
  • Several types of cells work together to form the correct antibody to fight a specific antigen . (
  • The first cells to interact with the antigen are called macrophages . (
  • Once the TCR has recognized the antigen, there are several different ways a T cell can act in order to destroy the invading cells. (
  • The T cells that help to produce antibodies, called T-helper cells, stimulate B cells to produce the blocking antibody specific to the antigen. (
  • The relationship between B cells and CD4 T cells has been carefully studied, revealing a collaborative effort in which B cells promote the activation, differentiation, and expansion of CD4 T cells while the so-called "helper" cells provide signals to B cells, influencing their class switching and fate. (
  • Here, we combine crystal structures and binding-free energies of a series of variant superantigen (SAG)-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II complexes exhibiting increasingly higher affinity to reveal that this affinity maturation pathway is controlled largely by two biophysical factors: shape complementarity and buried hydrophobic surface. (
  • Formation of MHC-antigen complexes occurs in specialized compartments where multiple protein trafficking routes, still incompletely understood, converge. (
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II-associated invariant chain (Ii) plays a critical role in antigen presentation, forming MHC class II peptide complexes for the generation of CD4+ T cell responses. (
  • Cell surface iodination assays and mass spectrometry of major histocompatibility complex class II-eluted peptides show that DO affects the antigenic peptide repertoire of class II. (
  • DO effectively inhibits antigen presentation of peptides that are loaded onto class II in endosomal compartments that are not very acidic. (
  • The HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-30 alpha chain (HLA-A) is a α- or alpha protein sometimes glycoprotein present in blood.Antigens are peptides or recombinant or native dependent on the production method. (
  • These findings suggest that these substitutions may eventually promote an involuntary cation-binding site within the otherwise metal-free peptide-binding pocket, consequently demoting the innate function of HLA by changing the specificity of antigen recognition. (
  • MHC restriction - MHC restricted antigen recognition, or MHC restriction, refers to the fact that a given T cell will recognize a peptide antigen only when it is bound to a particular MHC molecule. (
  • Role of target cell histocompatibility antigens in recognition and lysis. (
  • Although compelling genetic and serologic evidence implicate target cell (TC) MHC antigens in specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)-TC interaction leading to lysis, it is not entirely clear whether TC recognition through an MHC determinant(s) is a prerequisite for lysis to occur. (
  • And therefore, how may distinct antigens can your body detect? (
  • Even when limited to HLA A, B and DR there are over 100 distinct antigens. (
  • We are constantly working hard to ensure we provide our customers with best in class antibodies. (
  • Furthermore, these studies did not focus on the entire MICA system, that is to say on both genetics (histocompatibility) and the serological aspects (presence of anti-MICA antibodies in the recipient's blood). (
  • These findings suggest that MICA is a relevant histocompatibility gene to consider when envisaging a transplant, and that testing for anti-MICA antibodies may also be useful in predicting the success or failure of the graft. (
  • Following this research, we can now consider the inclusion in routine clinical practice of MICA gene sequencing and the identification of anti-MICA antibodies in patients prior to transplantation to assess histocompatibility with the donor and post-transplant to improve the prevention of rejection. (
  • New laboratory panels, including the new 2014 HEDIS Value Sets, CBC with Differential panel for Cord blood , MICA (Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related antigen A ) IgG antibodies, MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome) coronavirus RNA panel, and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulated gamma interferon & spot count panel. (
  • Dendritic cell maturation enhances CD8+ T-cell responses to exogenous antigen via a proteasome-independent mechanism of major histocompatibility complex class I loading. (
  • Class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens are expressed predominantly on B lymphocytes and macrophages of tadpoles of the South African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, as is the pattern in lymphocyte populations of most mammals. (
  • However, unlike most mammals, young postmetamorphic frogs show expression of class II MHC antigens on a high proportion of thymocytes and most peripheral T and B lymphocytes. (
  • In contrast, larvae, whose metamorphosis was inhibited by treatment with sodium perchlorate, had relatively few class II+ thymic lymphocytes throughout the 6-month period of study, and the proportion of class II+ splenic lymphocytes was approximately equal to that of IgM+ B lymphocytes. (
  • Any antibody, including a blocking antibody, is specific to an antigen, meaning it will only work against that particular antigen. (
  • However, the contribution of autophagy to cross-presentation varied depending on the form of antigen: it was negligible in the case of cell-associated antigen or antigen delivered via receptor-mediated endocytosis, but more prominent when the antigen was a soluble protein. (
  • We describe the frequency and distribution of MHC class I antigens present in the A, B and C loci based on data obtained from 200 healthy unrelated individuals from different parts of Lebanon. (
  • Nous décrivons la fréquence et la répartition des antigènes de la classe I du complexe majeur d'histocompatibilité présents dans les loci A, B et C en fonction des données obtenues auprès de 200 sujets sains n'ayant aucun lien de parenté et originaires de différentes parties du Liban. (
  • In this work, we describe antigen and gene frequencies of the A, B and C loci of the major histocompatibility (MHC) class I gene in a sample of 200 healthy Lebanese individuals. (
  • mean = 3.2 ± 0.7 SD alleles), indicating that we amplified duplicated MHC Class II DRB loci. (
  • This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta chain, both anchored in the membrane. (
  • In other words, the largest number of antigens you could possibly recognize is 10 8 - 10 11 , if each naive T cell recognized a distinct antigen. (
  • The predictive signature of nonresponse is associated with high frequencies of TCRs predicted to recognize tumor-specific antigens, and these tumor-specific TCRs undergo a higher degree of dynamic changes on therapy in nonresponders versus responders. (
  • The TCR can only recognize antigens that have been bound to an MHC protein. (
  • For most class II alleles, peptide binding depends on the catalytic action of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigens (HLA)-DM. (
  • Many studies have been published demonstrating the association of pemphigoid with HLA class II system alleles in different populations, however there are no data on the Brazilian population, one of the most heterogeneous in the world. (
  • Our data show that non-beneficial HLA class I alleles can elicit an effective antiviral response through early presentation of HIV virion-derived epitopes and also demonstrate the importance of SP2 as an immune target. (
  • There is a fairly strong genetic background to pemphigus vulgaris with linkage to HLA class II alleles. (
  • HLA is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. (
  • HLA antigens: Grafts transplanted from one member of a species to a different non-identical member of that same species (e.g., one human to another) are termed allografts. (
  • matory response, IL-10 has been shown to inhibit macrophage and Chronic beryllium disease (CBD) provides a human disorder in T lymphocyte cytokine synthesis and MHC class II and B7 ex- which to study the delayed type hypersensitivity response to persistent pression. (
  • Clone REA516 recognizes the human and mouse interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF-8) antigen, a 50 kDa transcription factor, which is also known as interferon consensus sequence-binding protein (ICSBP). (
  • Genes in this complex are categorized into three basic groups: class I, class II, and class III. (
  • The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is an extraordinarily diverse cluster of genes that play a major role in vertebrate adaptive immunity. (
  • This phenomenon suggests that other as yet unidentified histocompatibility genes may play a role. (
  • A complex of genes on chromosome 6 that code for the antigens that determine tissue and blood compatibility. (
  • En ratones, dos genes llamados IA e IE sobre el cromosoma 17 codifican para los antígenos H-2. (
  • El término antígenos IA, usado para referirse sólo a las proteínas codificadas por los genes IA en los ratones, ahora se usa como un término genérico para cualquier antígeno de histocompatibilidad de clase II. (
  • In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. (
  • Moreover, DNA extracted from the blood samples was amplified for analysis of the genetic diversity in the major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ Alpha ( MHC-DQA ) gene. (
  • Approximately 80 new codes in microbiology and serology, including codes for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus and Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related antigen A (MICA) antigens. (
  • HLA-G is a member of the non-classical major histocompatibility complex class I antigens and serves a key function in maternal-fetal tolerance during pregnancy ( 19 ). (
  • Although several bird species preferentially mate with partners that are dissimilar at the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), it remains unknown whether they can use olfactory cues to assess MHC similarity with potential partners. (
  • At the genetic level, the diversity of the major histocompatibility complex ( MHC ) is an essential reference index for monitoring the rabbit scabies. (
  • The virally encoded US2, US3, US6 and US11 gene products all interfere with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation. (
  • MHC - Abbreviation for major histocompatibility complex, minor histocompatibility complex. (
  • HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-30 alpha chain (HLA-A) is a recombinant protein expressed in E. coli. (
  • HLA-DRA is one of the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. (
  • TAPBPR bridges UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 onto MHC class I to provide quality control in the antigen presentation pathway. (
  • Applying immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibody (MAb) W6/32 against a common framework determinant of HLA class I antigens revealed a deficient expression in 33.0% of the cases analysed, while neo-expression of either HLA class II antigens (MAb TAL.1B5) or ICAM-1 (MAb PA3.58-14) was observed in 26.4 or 29.7% of tumours, respectively. (
  • Using the J-strain of Xenopus and the anticlass II monoclonal antibody, 14A2, we have studied, by indirect immunofluorescence, whether inhibition of metamorphosis would alter the pattern of expression of class II antigens during ontogeny. (
  • Although tumor immunity and autoimmune neuronal degeneration in PCD correlates with a specific antibody response to the tumor and brain antigen cdr2, this humoral response has not been shown to be pathogenic. (
  • STAT4 Is Largely Dispensable for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-like Autoimmune- and Foreign Antigen-Driven Antibody-Forming Cell, Germinal Center, and Follicular Th Cell Responses. (
  • When a B cell binds to the antigen, it cannot immediately produce the correct antibody. (
  • The T-helper cell then produces a chemical that stimulates the B cell to produce the antibody specific to that antigen. (
  • In the specific case of a blocking antibody, the antibody does not produce any visible reaction with the antigen. (
  • Thus, a blocking antibody can prevent a harmful organism from infecting a host cell, because once the antigen is bound to the antibody it cannot bind to anything else. (
  • Exploiting these parameters in MHC class I (MHC I) and MHC class II (MHC II) Ag presentation assays, we showed that receptor expression level, proportion of surface turnover, or speed of receptor internalization did not impact MHC I or MHC II Ag presentation efficiency. (
  • Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) signal through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) to activate immune responses, but prolonged exposure to PAMPs from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and other pathogens inhibits class II MHC (MHC-II) expression and Ag processing, which may allow MTB to evade CD4 + T cell immunity. (
  • The HLA-B gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. (
  • In a new study, researchers from Inserm, Université de Strasbourg and Strasbourg University Hospitals at Unit 1109 "Molecular Immunology and Rheumatology", and their partners from the Laboratory of Excellence (LabEx) Transplantex, report that the MICA gene is a new histocompatibility gene, in that it helps to better explain and predict the success or failure of a kidney transplant. (
  • The MHC class I MICA gene is a histocompatibility antigen in kidney transplantation. (
  • That TcR is what interacts with, say, a viral antigen, and what allows the T cell to respond in its specific and (hopefully) appropriate way. (
  • The expression or unmasking of the lichen planus antigen may be induced by drugs (lichenoid drug reaction), contact allergens in dental restorative materials or toothpastes (contact hypersensitivity reaction), mechanical trauma (Koebner phenomenon), viral infection, or other unidentified agents. (
  • This strategy could be used to develop more potent HCV vaccines that may contribute to the HCV elimination targets and paves the way for developing class II Ii vaccines against cancer and other infections. (
  • Preclinical studies evaluating the fusion of Ii to antigens encoded in vector delivery systems have shown that this strategy may enhance T cell immune responses to the encoded antigen. (
  • These invaders, including any substance that elicits a reaction from the immune system, are called antigens . (
  • DO may serve to increase the threshold for nonspecific B cell activation, restricting class II-peptide binding to late endosomal compartments, thereby affecting the peptide repertoire. (
  • Only antigens with an "optimal" stability are able to induce an allergic response on T-cell level. (
  • A superantigen (SAg, pink) is being presented by an antigen-presenting cell (bottom) to a T-cell (top). (
  • Enhancement of MHC class I-restricted peptide-specific T cell induction by a DNA prime/MVA boost vaccination regime. (
  • 3) antisera to target cell H-2-coded products block lysis in both LDCC and ODCC, whereas antisera to other cell surface antigens do not. (
  • Instead, it first degrades the antigen and presents it to a T-helper cell. (
  • To reduce this risk, physicians are now able to look at a certain number of genetic and immunological parameters in order to evaluate the histocompatibility between donor and recipient - i.e. how compatible their organs and tissues are. (
  • Genotyping and HLA allele data from 101 HLA-matched donor-recipient pairs (DRPs) were computationally analyzed to predict both class I and class II mHAs likely to induce either GVL or GVHD. (
  • Except for two reports on Lebanese immigrants, there have been no studies on the major histocompatibility [‎MHC]‎ antigens in the Lebanese population. (
  • Information on HLA antigens can be utilized to assess genetic risk in such disorders. (
  • Highly diverse and specific to each individual, this system makes it possible to assess the histocompatibility between donors and recipients - i.e. how compatible their organs and tissues are. (
  • The HLA antigens are both polygenic and polymorphic, making it extremely unlikely that two unrelated individuals have the same HLA antigen combination. (