Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)
Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex which encode polymorphic characteristics not related to immune responsiveness or complement activity, e.g., B loci (chicken), DLA (dog), GPLA (guinea pig), H-2 (mouse), RT-1 (rat), HLA-A, -B, and -C class I genes of man.
Human immune-response or Class II antigens found mainly, but not exclusively, on B-lymphocytes and produced from genes of the HLA-D locus. They are extremely polymorphic families of glycopeptides, each consisting of two chains, alpha and beta. This group of antigens includes the -DR, -DQ and -DP designations, of which HLA-DR is most studied; some of these glycoproteins are associated with certain diseases, possibly of immune etiology.
A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.
Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Antigens determined by leukocyte loci found on chromosome 6, the major histocompatibility loci in humans. They are polypeptides or glycoproteins found on most nucleated cells and platelets, determine tissue types for transplantation, and are associated with certain diseases.
Polymorphic class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens present on almost all nucleated cells. At least 20 antigens have been identified which are encoded by the A locus of multiple alleles on chromosome 6. They serve as targets for T-cell cytolytic responses and are involved with acceptance or rejection of tissue/organ grafts.
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by alleles on locus B of the HLA complex. The HLA-G antigens are considered non-classical class I antigens due to their distinct tissue distribution which differs from HLA-A; HLA-B; and HLA-C antigens. Note that several isoforms of HLA-G antigens result from alternative splicing of messenger RNAs produced from the HLA-G*01 allele.
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.
Allelic alloantigens often responsible for weak graft rejection in cases when (major) histocompatibility has been established by standard tests. In the mouse they are coded by more than 500 genes at up to 30 minor histocompatibility loci. The most well-known minor histocompatibility antigen in mammals is the H-Y antigen.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A group of the D-related HLA antigens found to differ from the DR antigens in genetic locus and therefore inheritance. These antigens are polymorphic glycoproteins comprising alpha and beta chains and are found on lymphoid and other cells, often associated with certain diseases.
Transmembrane proteins that form the beta subunits of the HLA-DQ antigens.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A lectin found in ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM membranes that binds to specific N-linked OLIGOSACCHARIDES found on newly synthesized proteins. It may play role in PROTEIN FOLDING or retention and degradation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum.
An 11-kDa protein associated with the outer membrane of many cells including lymphocytes. It is the small subunit of the MHC class I molecule. Association with beta 2-microglobulin is generally required for the transport of class I heavy chains from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface. Beta 2-microglobulin is present in small amounts in serum, csf, and urine of normal people, and to a much greater degree in the urine and plasma of patients with tubular proteinemia, renal failure, or kidney transplants.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.

Donor MHC and adhesion molecules in transplant arteriosclerosis. (1/5440)

Transplant-associated arteriosclerosis remains an obstacle to long-term graft survival. To determine the contribution to transplant arteriosclerosis of MHC and adhesion molecules from cells of the donor vasculature, we allografted carotid artery loops from six mutant mouse strains into immunocompetent CBA/CaJ recipients. The donor mice were deficient in either MHC I molecules or MHC II molecules, both MHC I and MHC II molecules, the adhesion molecule P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, or both P-selectin and ICAM-1. Donor arteries in which ICAM-1, MHC II, or both MHC I and MHC II were absent showed reductions in neointima formation of 52%, 33%, and 38%, respectively, due primarily to a reduction in smooth muscle cell (SMC) accumulation. In P-selectin-deficient donor arteries, neointima formation did not differ from that in controls. In donor arteries lacking both P-selectin and ICAM-1, the size of the neointima was similar to that in those lacking ICAM-1 alone. In contrast, neointima formation increased by 52% in MHC I-deficient donor arteries. The number of CD4-positive T cells increased by 2.8-fold in MHC I-deficient arteries, and that of alpha-actin-positive SMCs by twofold. These observations indicate that ICAM-1 and MHC II molecules expressed in the donor vessel wall may promote transplant-associated arteriosclerosis. MHC I molecules expressed in the donor may have a protective effect.  (+info)

A cytomegalovirus glycoprotein re-routes MHC class I complexes to lysosomes for degradation. (2/5440)

Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) early gene expression interferes with the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC class I) pathway of antigen presentation. Here we identify a 48 kDa type I transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by the MCMV early gene m06, which tightly binds to properly folded beta2-microglobulin (beta2m)-associated MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This association is mediated by the lumenal/transmembrane part of the protein. gp48-MHC class I complexes are transported out of the ER, pass the Golgi, but instead of being expressed on the cell surface, they are redirected to the endocytic route and rapidly degraded in a Lamp-1(+) compartment. As a result, m06-expressing cells are impaired in presenting antigenic peptides to CD8(+) T cells. The cytoplasmic tail of gp48 contains two di-leucine motifs. Mutation of the membrane-proximal di-leucine motif of gp48 restored surface expression of MHC class I, while mutation of the distal one had no effect. The results establish a novel viral mechanism for downregulation of MHC class I molecules by directly binding surface-destined MHC complexes and exploiting the cellular di-leucine sorting machinery for lysosomal degradation.  (+info)

Reduced phosphorylation of p50 is responsible for diminished NF-kappaB binding to the major histocompatibility complex class I enhancer in adenovirus type 12-transformed cells. (3/5440)

Reduced cell surface levels of major histocompatibility complex class I antigens enable adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)-transformed cells to escape immunosurveillance by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), contributing to their tumorigenic potential. In contrast, nontumorigenic Ad5-transformed cells harbor significant cell surface levels of class I antigens and are susceptible to CTL lysis. Ad12 E1A mediates down-regulation of class I transcription by increasing COUP-TF repressor binding and decreasing NF-kappaB activator binding to the class I enhancer. The mechanism underlying the decreased binding of nuclear NF-kappaB in Ad12-transformed cells was investigated. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay analysis of hybrid NF-kappaB dimers reconstituted from denatured and renatured p50 and p65 subunits from Ad12- and Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts demonstrated that p50, and not p65, is responsible for the decreased ability of NF-kappaB to bind to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. Hypophosphorylation of p50 was found to correlate with restricted binding of NF-kappaB to DNA in Ad12-transformed cells. The importance of phosphorylation of p50 for NF-kappaB binding was further demonstrated by showing that an NF-kappaB dimer composed of p65 and alkaline phosphatase-treated p50 from Ad5-transformed cell nuclear extracts could not bind to DNA. These results suggest that phosphorylation of p50 is a key step in the nuclear regulation of NF-kappaB in adenovirus-transformed cells.  (+info)

Structure of CD94 reveals a novel C-type lectin fold: implications for the NK cell-associated CD94/NKG2 receptors. (4/5440)

The crystal structure of the extracellular domain of CD94, a component of the CD94/NKG2 NK cell receptor, has been determined to 2.6 A resolution, revealing a unique variation of the C-type lectin fold. In this variation, the second alpha helix, corresponding to residues 102-112, is replaced by a loop, the putative carbohydrate-binding site is significantly altered, and the Ca2+-binding site appears nonfunctional. This structure may serve as a prototype for other NK cell receptors such as Ly-49, NKR-P1, and CD69. The CD94 dimer observed in the crystal has an extensive hydrophobic interface that stabilizes the loop conformation of residues 102-112. The formation of this dimer reveals a putative ligand-binding region for HLA-E and suggests how NKG2 interacts with CD94.  (+info)

Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent and Ehrlichia chaffeensis reside in different cytoplasmic compartments in HL-60 cells. (5/5440)

The human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent resides and multiplies exclusively in cytoplasmic vacuoles of granulocytes. Double immunofluorescence labeling was used to characterize the nature of the HGE agent replicative inclusions and to compare them with inclusions containing the human monocytic ehrlichia, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in HL-60 cells. Although both Ehrlichia spp. can coinfect HL-60 cells, they resided in separate inclusions. Inclusions of both Ehrlichia spp. were not labeled with either anti-lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 or anti-CD63. Accumulation of myeloperoxidase-positive granules were seen around HGE agent inclusions but not around E. chaffeensis inclusions. 3-(2, 4-Dinitroanilino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine and acridine orange were not localized to either inclusion type. Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase was not colocalized with HGE agent inclusions but was weakly colocalized with E. chaffeensis inclusions. E. chaffeensis inclusions were labeled with the transferrin receptor, early endosomal antigen 1, and rab5, but HGE agent inclusions were not. Some HGE agent and E. chaffeensis inclusions colocalized with major histocompatibility complex class I and II antigens. These two inclusions were not labeled for annexins I, II, IV, and VI; alpha-adaptin; clathrin heavy chain; or beta-coatomer protein. Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 colocalized to both inclusions. The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor was not colocalized with either inclusion type. Endogenously synthesized sphingomyelin, from C6-NBD-ceramide, was not incorporated into either inclusion type. Brefeldin A did not affect the growth of either Ehrlichia sp. in HL-60 cells. These results suggest that the HGE agent resides in inclusions which are neither early nor late endosomes and does not fuse with lysosomes or Golgi-derived vesicles, while E. chaffeensis resides in an early endosomal compartment which accumulates the transferrin receptor.  (+info)

Human uterine lymphocytes. (6/5440)

During the luteal phase and the early months of pregnancy, there is a dense mucosal infiltration of CD56+ natural killer (NK) cells. These uterine NK cells have a phenotype (CD56bright, CD16-, mCD3-) which distinguishes them from peripheral blood NK cells (CD56dim, CD16bright, mCD3-). The uterine NK cells are in close association with extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells which infiltrate into the decidua and maternal spiral arteries. This subpopulation of trophoblast expresses two human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules, HLA-G and HLA-C. Circulating NK cells express receptors for HLA class I molecules. We have recently found evidence that similar receptors are present on decidual NK cells belonging to both the Killer Inhibitory Receptor (KIR) and CD94 families. The repertoire of NK receptors expressed varies between different women. The findings indicate that decidual NK cells do have receptors for trophoblast HLA class I molecules. Experiments are underway to determine the effects of this interaction on NK cell function.  (+info)

Soluble HLA class I, HLA class II, and Fas ligand in blood components: a possible key to explain the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic blood transfusions. (7/5440)

The immunomodulatory effect of allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) has been known for many years. However, a complete understanding of the effects of ABT on the recipient's immune system has remained elusive. Soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I), HLA class II (sHLA-II), and Fas ligand (sFasL) molecules may play immunoregulatory roles. We determined by double-determinant immunoenzymatic assay (DDIA) sHLA-I, sHLA-II, and sFasL concentrations in different blood components. sHLA-I and sFasL levels in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for up to 30 days and in random-donor platelets are significantly (P <.001) higher than in other blood components and their amount is proportionate to the number of residual donor leukocytes and to the length of storage. Blood components with high sHLA-I and sFasL levels play immunoregulatory roles in vitro as in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR) and antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) activity, and induce apoptosis in Fas-positive cells. These data suggest that soluble molecules in blood components are functional. If these results are paralleled in vivo, they should be taken into account in transfusion practice. Blood components that can cause immunosuppression should be chosen to induce transplantation tolerance, whereas blood components that lack immunosuppressive effects should be preferred to reduce the risk of postoperative complications and cancer recurrence.  (+info)

Natural variation of the expression of HLA and endogenous antigen modulates CTL recognition in an in vitro melanoma model. (8/5440)

Increasing attention has been devoted to elucidating the mechanism of lost or decreased expression of MHC or melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs), which may lead to tumor escape from immune recognition. Loss of expression of HLA class I or MAA has, as an undisputed consequence, loss of recognition by HLA class I-restricted cytotoxic T cells (CTLs). However, the relevance of down-regulation remains in question in terms of frequency of occurrence. Moreover the functional significance of epitope down-regulation, defining the relationship between MHC/epitope density and CTL interactions, is a matter of controversy, particularly with regard to whether the noted variability of expression of MHC/epitope occurs within a range likely to affect target recognition by CTLs. In this study, bulk metastatic melanoma cell lines originated from 25 HLA-A*0201 patients were analyzed for expression of HLA-A2 and MAAs. HLA-A2 expression was heterogeneous and correlated with lysis by CTLs. Sensitivity to lysis was also independently affected by the amount of ligand available for binding at concentrations of 0.001 to 1 mM. Natural expression of MAA was variable, independent from the expression of HLA-A*0201, and a significant co-factor determining recognition of melanoma targets. Thus, the naturally occurring variation in the expression of MAA and/or HLA documented by our in vitro results modulates recognition of melanoma targets and may (i) partially explain CTL-target interactions in vitro and (ii) elucidate potential mechanisms for progressive escape of tumor cells from immune recognition in vivo.  (+info)

MICA shedding is thought to be the principal mechanism by which tumor cells escape from NKG2D- mediated immunosurveillance.13 In this study, we demonstrated that ADAM9 was overexpressed in human HCC tissues and that ADAM9 knockdown resulted in increased expression of membrane-bound MICA, decreased production of soluble MICA, and up-regulation of NK sensitivity of human HCC cells. These results point to ADAM9 as a possible therapeutic target for inhibiting MICA shedding, thereby increasing immunity against HCC.. We identified the ADAM9 cleavage site of MICA in vitro, which is located at the intracellular domain of MICA. ADAM9 protease is usually located in the extracellular area, but we revealed that ADAM9 protease is required for the production of not only the 37 kD soluble MICA but also the 39 kD MICA in HCC cells. Based on our present data, it is speculated that ADAM9 protease may enable intracellular cleavage of MICA protein by activating some intracellular protease which can recognize a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interferons up-regulate with different potency HLA class I antigen expression in M14 human melanoma cell line. Possible interaction with glucocorticoid hormones. AU - Lanza, Lorella. AU - Peirano, Lorenza. AU - Bosco, Ornella. AU - Contini, Paola. AU - Filaci, Gilberto. AU - Setti, Maurizio. AU - Puppo, Francesco. AU - Indiveri, Francesco. AU - Scudeletti, Marco. PY - 1995/1. Y1 - 1995/1. N2 - The relative potency of interferon α (IFNα), interferon β (IFNβ), and interferon γ (IFNγ) in inducing the expression of HLA class I antigens, as well as their capacity to counteract the inhibition induced by glucocorticoid hormones on HLA class I antigen expression, were analysed in the human melanoma cell line M14, both at membrane and at mRNA level. The data obtained indicate that (a) IFN enhance with different potency (IFNγ,IFNβ,IFNα) the expression of HLA class I antigens in M14 cells, (b) prednisone inhibits HLA class I antigen expresion, (c) glucocorticoid hormones, when ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule Mamu-A*01 is associated with control of simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 replication. AU - Mothé, Bianca R.. AU - Weinfurter, Jason. AU - Wang, Chenxi. AU - Rehrauer, William. AU - Wilson, Nancy. AU - Allen, Todd M.. AU - Allison, David B.. AU - Watkins, David. PY - 2003/2/1. Y1 - 2003/2/1. N2 - Several HLA alleles are associated with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. We explored the relationship between the expression of particular major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I alleles and viremia in simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239-infected macaques. Of the common MHC class I alleles, animals that expressed Mamu-A*01 exhibited the best control of viral replication.. AB - Several HLA alleles are associated with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus disease progression. We explored the relationship between the expression of particular major histocompatibility complex ...
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BY55 is a human cell surface molecule whose expression is restricted to NK cells, a subset of circulating CD8+ T lymphocytes, and all intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes. Here, we report that BY55 is a novel NK receptor showing broad specificity for both classical and nonclassical MHC class I molecules, and that optimal binding requires a prior aggregation of MHC class I complexes. Using BY55 transfectants, we have identified functional consequences of MHC class I/ligand interactions for the class I-bearing cell. The triggering of MHC class I molecules on human T cell clones by BY55 delivered a potent proliferative signal in the presence of soluble CD3 mAb. The costimulatory signal provided by MHC class I ligation was only seen in activated, and not resting, peripheral blood T cells. This observation represents an additional and/or alternative pathway to CD28 costimulation and may be of particular relevance in memory T cells lacking CD28, such as intestinal intraepithelial T lymphocytes, which are
The peptide translocation from the cytosol into the lumen of the ER is accomplished by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). TAP is a member of the ABC transporter family and is a heterodimeric multimembrane-spanning polypeptide consisting of TAP1 and TAP2. The two subunits form a peptide binding site and two ATP binding sites that face the cytosol. TAP binds peptides on the cytoplasmic side and translocates them under ATP consumption into the lumen of the ER. The MHC class I molecule is then, in turn, loaded with peptides in the lumen of the ER. The peptide-loading process involves several other molecules that form a large multimeric complex called the Peptide loading complex[7] consisting of TAP, tapasin, calreticulin, calnexin, and Erp57 (PDIA3). Calnexin acts to stabilize the class I MHC α chains prior to β2m binding. Following complete assembly of the MHC molecule, calnexin dissociates. The MHC molecule lacking a bound peptide is inherently unstable and requires the ...
A large number of natural killer (NK) cells with high function are expected to generate especially in tumor adoptive immunotherapy. Here K562 cells were genetically modified to co-express major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related protein A (MICA), 4-1BB ligand, and IL-15, called K562-MICA-4-1BBL-IL-15. The modified K562 cells not only promoted activation, proliferation, and survival of NK cells, but also enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity. In long-term culture tests, K562-MICA-4-1BBL-IL-15 cells stimulated NK cell to expand mean 550 folds in 24-day culture and to cover from 14.8% of total peripheral blood monoclonal lymphocytes on day 1 to 86.7% on day 24. Prevalent NK cells after expansion enhanced the ability of killing targets and producing interferon gamma (IFN-γ), and kept high expression of activating receptors. The results indicated that K562-MICA-4-1BBL-IL-15 cells would be developed for expansion of NK cells ex vivo and may have important implications for clinical immunotherapy.
Mhc class I molecules display intracellularly derived peptides on the surface of almost all nucleated mammalian cells for recognition by the immune system. MHC class I heavy chain, which contains the peptide binding site, is a classical type I transmembrane protein with a large luminal/extracellular domain and a short cytosolic tail. The heavy chain enters the secretory pathway via the ER translocon, a channel whose major component is Sec61. The light chain β2 microglobulin (β2m)1 and the peptide associate with the heavy chain after it has been inserted into the ER membrane, and the complex is then transported, via the Golgi, to the plasma membrane. In humans, the MHC class I heavy chain is a 43-kD protein that contains a single N-linked glycan.. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) evades detection by the immune system by targeting MHC class I heavy chains for destruction soon after they have been synthesized. The HCMV proteins responsible for MHC class I heavy chain destruction are US11 and US2 ...
Human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA I) molecules composed of alpha (heavy) chain, including HLA-A, -B, or -C encoded by HLAgenes, and beta-2-microglobulin (β2M) are membrane proteins on all...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Bacterial and Host Factors Involved in the Major Histocompatibility Complex Class Ib-Restricted Presentation of Salmonella Hsp 60. T2 - Novel Pathway. AU - Lo, Wei Feng. AU - Dunn, Cory D.. AU - Ong, Helena. AU - Metcalf, Eleanor S.. AU - Soloski, Mark J.. PY - 2004/5/1. Y1 - 2004/5/1. N2 - Previously, a peptide epitope derived from the Hsp 60 molecule of Salmonella that is presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ib molecule Qa-1 to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells (CTLs) was described. In the present study we investigated the Salmonella-induced processing and presentation pathway for generating this Qa-1-restricted epitope. Live bacteria and, to a lesser extent, opsonized heat-killed bacteria are able to sensitize target cells for lysis by Salmonella-specific CTL. In contrast, heat-killed bacteria cannot sensitize target cells. Presentation of the Hsp 60 epitope appears independent of bacterial internalization, because cytochalasin D does not affect presentation. ...
Chimpanzees have got orthologs of the six, fixed, functional human genes. cytoplasmic tails. Systematic mutagenesis showed that each substitution contributes changes in cell-surface expression. The combination of residues present in Patr-AL appears unique, but each individual residue is present in other primate MHC class I molecules, notably MHC-E, the most ancient of Gusb the functional human MHC class I molecules. INTRODUCTION The selective pressures imposed by diverse, fast-evolving pathogens cause the MHC class I genes of their mammalian hosts also to evolve rapidly (1). As a consequence there is considerable species-specific character to gene families. Characteristics shared by most mammalian species are highly polymorphic classical MHC class I molecules that engage highly variable types of lymphocyte receptor and conserved non-classical MHC class I molecules that engage conserved types of lymphocyte receptors. Of the six human genes that are functional, and are highly polymorphic and ...
article{f66fe82b-15d5-4f5b-963e-718069cb47dc, abstract = {,p,The assembly of MHC class I molecules is regulated by a multi-protein complex in the endoplasmic reticules (ER) termed the loading complex. Tapasin is suggested to be one of the molecules forming this complex on the basis of its interaction with both the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) and MHC class I molecules. To address whether TAP is indispensable for the processing of the assembly of tapasin-associated MHC class I molecules, we studied the association of MHC class I molecules with tapasin, the assembly of tapasin-associated MHC class I with peptides and the peptide-mediated dissociation of MHC class I from tapasin in TAP-mutant T2 cells. In the absence of TAP, MHC class I heavy chain and beta(2)-microglobulin dimers were found to be properly associated with tapasin. The stable MHC class I dimer was required for its association with tapasin in the ER. In the absence of TAP, tapasin retained MHC class I ...
The Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) is a public database which contains frequency information of several immune genes such as Human Leukocyte Antigens (HLA), Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR), Major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related (MIC) genes, and a number of cytokine gene polymorphisms. The Allele Frequency Net Database (AFND) provides a central source, freely available to all, for the storage of allele frequencies from different polymorphic areas in the Human Genome. Users can contribute the results of their work into one common database and can perform database searches on information already available. We have currently collected data in allele, haplotype and genotype format. However, the success of this website will depend on you to contribute your data ...
Tcells recognize Ags complexed to MHC molecules. In general, MHC class I molecules are complexed with peptides (CD8 T cell epitopes) derived from cytosolic Ag, and MHC class II molecules are complexed with peptides from internalized Ag (CD4 T cell epitopes) (1, 2). However, when APC such as dendritic cells (DCs)3 internalize high amounts of Ag, they appear to be able to route internalized Ag into the MHC class I presentation pathway, a process termed cross-presentation (3). Cross-presentation of Ag via MHC class I molecules can lead to activation/priming of naive CD8 T cells, a process referred to as cross-priming (4), to paralysis/deletion, or to cross-tolerance (5).. Immature DCs lack costimulatory signals required for productive T cell activation but are well equipped to sample Ag, for example via receptor-mediated endocytosis or fluid phase pinocytosis (6). Because of its selectivity for the Ag in question, the efficacy of Ag internalization via receptor-mediated endocytosis is high, ...
We applied doses between 1-25 Gy, which is lower or comparable with doses received by patients, and observed that ionizing radiation induces a dose-dependent increase in MHC class I presentation in two phases (Fig. 6). The first phase represents peptides derived from existing proteins, because inhibition of translation does not affect the generation of these peptides. More polyubiquitinated proteins for proteasomal degradation are observed swiftly after radiation even at doses of 1-4 Gy, resulting in more peptides for MHC class I antigen presentation and enhanced MHC class I expression as peptides are the limiting step in complex formation (37). Irradiation will result in the formation of free radicals even at low doses, and proteins will be modified directly by radiation or indirectly by radicals formed after water radiolysis, resulting in oxidation of various amino acids. These modifications may target the affected proteins for rapid degradation by the proteasome. Although this will reflect a ...
Human cytomegalovirus encodes two glycoproteins, US2 and US11, which cause rapid degradation of MHC class I molecules, thus preventing recognition of virus-infected cells by the immune system. This degradation process involves retrograde transport or dislocation of MHC class I molecules from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cytosol, where they are deglycosylated by an N-glycanase and degraded by the proteasome. At present it is unknown whether ubiquitination is required for US2- and US11-mediated dislocation and degradation of MHC class I molecules. Here, we show that in E36ts20 hamster cells, which contain a temperature-sensitive mutation in the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme, US11-mediated degradation of MHC class I molecules is strongly impaired at the non-permissive temperature, indicating the necessity for ubiquitination in this process. We next addressed the question of whether ubiquitination is a condition for the retrograde movement of MHC class I molecules from the ER to the ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Location of the epitope for an anti-CD8α antibody 53.6.7 which enhances CD8α-MHC class I interaction indicates antibody stabilization of a higher affinity CD8 conformation. AU - Devine, Lesley. AU - Hodsdon, Michael E.. AU - Daniels, Mark A.. AU - Jameson, Stephen C. AU - Kavathas, Paula B.. PY - 2004/5/15. Y1 - 2004/5/15. N2 - MHC class I tetramers are widely used, usually in combination with an antibody to CD8, to detect antigen specific T cells. Some anti-CD8α antibodies block the interaction of murine MHC class I tetramers with CD8 T cells, while others such as 53.6.7, enhance. To understand the molecular basis for this effect, we mapped the epitope for the enhancing antibody 53.6.7 and three other blocking antibodies using a panel of murine CD8α (Lyt-2) mutants expressed on COS-7 transfectants. Mutations in residues that contact MHC class I affected binding of the blocking antibodies. In contrast, antibody 53.6.7 was affected by a mutation in the residue T81A located on ...
We have used an in vitro system to study the effects of major histocompatibility complex class I binding peptides on thymic development. Fetal thymus lobes from mice deficient in the class I light chain (beta 2 microglobulin or beta 2 M-/-) were cultured for 10 d in vitro, during which time T cell precursors develop into mature T cells. In these organ cultures, as in the adult or neonatal beta 2 M-/- thymus, CD8+ mature T cells did not develop, demonstrating that the mature T cells seen during early murine thymic development are the result of the positive selection process. To these cultures we added various class I binding peptides with or without a source of exogenous beta 2M. CD8+ T cells developed to various degrees only in the presence of beta 2M and peptides. Using peptide mixtures of differing complexity, we showed that the efficiency of this process is dependent more on peptide complexity than on peptide concentration. These data argue for a specific role for peptides in the process of ...
We have studied the role of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules in the regulation of intercellular adhesion of human B cells. We found that molecules able to bind to MHC class II molecules, such as monoclonal antibodies or staphylococcal enterotoxins, induced rapid and sustained homotypic adhesion of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B cell lines as well as peripheral blood B lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-MHC class I monoclonal antibodies also stimulated intercellular adherence. Adhesion induced upon MHC engagement was faster and stronger than that triggered by phorbol esters. It needed active metabolism, but divalent cations were not required. Monoclonal antibodies directed against LFA-1 (CD11a/CD18) or its ligand ICAM-1 (CD54) did not inhibit MHC class II-induced homotypic adhesion of various EBV-transformed B cell lines, nor of a variant of the B cell line Raji expressing very low LFA-1 surface levels. Moreover, EBV-transformed B cells from a severe lymphocyte adhesion deficiency
The major obstacle to successful islet transplantation is the potent T cell-mediated immune response occurring soon after the procedure that leads to β-cell damage (16). The interaction between MHC class I molecules and CD8+ T cells plays a major role in both allo- and xenograft rejection (33,34). MHC class I molecules are found on every nucleated cell of the body and consist of two components: the α chain (the heavy chain) and B2M (the light chain). The α chain and B2M are both essential for the proper folding of the entire MHC complex (35). Studies have shown that there is no detectable expression of MHC class I molecules on the surface of the cell in the absence of B2M (36).. We hypothesized that downregulation of B2M in pancreatic islet cells would lead to reduced recognition by T cells and, as a result, benefit the transplantation outcome. Therefore, the goal of our study was to downregulate B2M expression in human pancreatic islets before transplantation in B2M (null) NOD/scid mice ...
In this study, we describe the creation of class I MHC-deficient pigs by simultaneously disrupting seven alleles of classical class I SLA genes. At the time of publication, the animals have been healthy and growing well for 7 mo. All cell types tested from these animals exhibit total loss of cell surface class I MHC proteins. Inactivation of a single gene, β2m, also prevents expression of class I MHC heterotrimers at the cell surface. This disruption was not attempted because mice lacking β2m lose the ability to regulate iron homeostasis (30-32). The high efficiency of the gRNA/Cas9 technology enabled the rapid production of animals deficient in class I MHC. The relative ease of this approach may enable the rapid production of many novel species lacking class I MHC gene activity.. Multigene families can be difficult to analyze because of functional redundancies. Simultaneous inactivation of all related genes minimizes these challenges by creating a null background that enables the study of one ...
In the course of constructing a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) gene preceded by the hemagglutinin leader sequence, we isolated a single base-pair deletion mutant which gave rise to L+NP(1-159) in which only the first 159 amino acids were in frame. Despite this, when we infected target cells, we found that the point mutant was able to sensitize them for lysis not only by cytotoxic T cells recognizing residues 50-58 (the in-frame portion), but also by CTL to epitopes which are downstream of the mutation (366-374 and 378-386). Furthermore, normal C57BL/6 mice can be primed with the frameshift NP to recognize the immunodominant Db-restricted epitope 366-374 (which is out of frame). Experiments in which the mutant gene product was processed in the endoplasmic reticulum of target cells suggested that the apparent suppression occurred during polypeptide extension.
In the course of constructing a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding the influenza A nucleoprotein (NP) gene preceded by the hemagglutinin leader sequence, we isolated a single base-pair deletion mutant which gave rise to L+NP(1-159) in which only the first 159 amino acids were in frame. Despite this, when we infected target cells, we found that the point mutant was able to sensitize them for lysis not only by cytotoxic T cells recognizing residues 50-58 (the in-frame portion), but also by CTL to epitopes which are downstream of the mutation (366-374 and 378-386). Furthermore, normal C57BL/6 mice can be primed with the frameshift NP to recognize the immunodominant Db-restricted epitope 366-374 (which is out of frame). Experiments in which the mutant gene product was processed in the endoplasmic reticulum of target cells suggested that the apparent suppression occurred during polypeptide extension.
Little is known about the structure of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules outside of mammals. Only one class I molecule in the chicken MHC is highly expressed, leading to strong genetic associations with infectious pathogens. Here, we report two structures of the MHC class I molecule BF2*2101 from the B21 haplotype, which is known to confer resistance to Mareks disease caused by an oncogenic herpesvirus. The binding groove has an unusually large central cavity, which confers substantial conformational flexibility to the crucial residue Arg9, allowing remodeling of key peptide-binding sites. The coupled variation of anchor residues from the peptide, utilizing a charge-transfer system unprecedented in MHC molecules, allows peptides with conspicuously different sequences to be bound. This promiscuous binding extends our understanding of ways in which MHC class I molecules can present peptides to the immune system and might explain the resistance of the B21 haplotype to Mareks disease.
The role of exocytosis of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules in the presentation of antigens to mouse cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was examined by use of a recombinant vaccinia virus that expresses the E19 glycoprotein from adenovirus. E19 blocked the presentation of vaccinia and influenza virus proteins to CTLs in a MHC class I allele-specific manner identical to its inhibition of MHC class I transport from the endoplasmic reticulum. This finding indicates that (i) the relevant parameter for antigen presentation is the rate of MHC class I molecule exocytosis, not the level of class I cell surface expression, and (ii) association of class I molecules with antigen is likely to occur within the endoplasmic reticulum. ...
|strong|Mouse anti Sheep MHC Class I monoclonal antibody, clone VPM19|/strong| recognizes the ovine homologue of the human MHC Class I, a monomorphic determinant expressed on the heavy chain of sheep …
Author(s): Chen, Keling | Advisor(s): Shastri, Nilabh | Abstract: Cytotoxic T cells monitor MHC class I complexes on antigen presenting cells for the potential presence of any non-self peptides that could derive from viral infection or cancerous cells. Effective immune surveillance requires that MHC class I molecules display a peptide repertoire on the surface representing all cellular proteins. This ensures that foreign antigens from all sources are presented. How the peptide repertoire can be comprehensive despite the large differences in abundance and stability of individual proteins is not known. The pioneer round of translation is the first round of translation that occurs on newly spliced mRNA. It is associated with nonsense-mediated decay of mRNAs, allowing cells to detect and eliminate the aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons. We showed here that the peptide presentation by MHC I molecules was strongly influenced by the pioneer round of translation. Inhibition of the pioneer round of
Circumstantial evidence for transfer of MHC molecules between cells of the immune system was reported already 30 y ago (25, 26). More recent data have conclusively shown that effector T cells acquire both MHC class I and II molecules from APC (11, 12, 27). Also, B cells acquire membrane antigens from surrounding cells, a phenomenon which is followed by a very efficient presentation of these antigens to T cells (10). We show here for the first time that receptor-mediated ligand acquisition occurs also for NK cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Inhibitory Ly49 receptors on NK cells specifically acquired MHC class I molecules from surrounding cells, both when normal NK cells were transferred into a host expressing the ligand for the Ly49 molecule analyzed, and also in vitro when cells transfected with Ly49A were cocultured with cells transfected with H-2Dd. Ligand acquisition was a very rapid event, occurring within 30 min in both systems. The amount of acquired molecules remained high as long as the ...
Abcam provides specific protocols for Anti-HLA Class I antibody [W6/32] (ab22432) : Flow cytometry protocols, Immunoprecipitation protocols…
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-independent, T cell-mediated targeting of cancer cells would allow immune destruction of malignancies in all individuals. Here, we use genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screening to establish that a T cell receptor (TCR) recognized and killed most human cancer types via the monomorphic MHC class I-related protein, MR1, while remaining inert to noncancerous cells. Unlike mucosal-associated invariant T cells, recognition of target cells by the TCR was independent of bacterial loading. Furthermore, concentration-dependent addition of vitamin B-related metabolite ligands of MR1 reduced TCR recognition of cancer cells, suggesting that recognition occurred via sensing of the cancer metabolome. An MR1-restricted T cell clone mediated in vivo regression of leukemia and conferred enhanced survival of NSG mice. TCR transfer to T cells of patients enabled killing of autologous and nonautologous melanoma. These findings offer opportunities for HLA-independent, pan-cancer, pan-population ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against native MHC Class I. Native purified whole mouse spleen cells. (MAB1363) - Products - Abnova
Motivation: MHC:peptide binding plays a central role in activating the immune surveillance. Computational approaches to determine T-cell epitopes restricted to any given major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule are of special practical value in the development of for instance vaccines with broad population coverage against emerging pathogens. Methods have recently been published that are able to predict peptide binding to any human MHC class I molecule. In contrast to conventional allele-specific methods, these methods do allow for extrapolation to uncharacterized MHC molecules. These pan-specific human lymphocyte antigen (HLA) predictors have not previously been compared using independent evaluation sets.. Result: A diverse set of quantitative peptide binding affinity measurements was collected from Immune Epitope database (IEDB), together with a large set of HLA class I ligands from the SYFPEITHI database. Based on these datasets, three different pan-specific HLA web-accessible ...
Understanding the structure and variability of adaptive loci such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes is a primary research goal for evolutionary and conservation genetics. Typically, classical MHC genes show high polymorphism and are under strong balancing selection, as their products trigger the adaptive immune response in vertebrates. Here, we assess the allelic diversity and patterns of selection for MHC class I and class II loci in a threatened shorebird with highly flexible mating and parental care behaviour, the Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus) across its broad geographic range. We determined the allelic and nucleotide diversity for MHC class I and class II genes using samples of 250 individuals from eight breeding population of Snowy Plovers. We found 40 alleles at MHC class I and six alleles at MHC class II, with individuals carrying two to seven different alleles (mean 3.70) at MHC class I and up to two alleles (mean 1.45) at MHC class II. Diversity was higher in the peptide
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain E (HLA-E) also known as MHC class I antigen E is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-E gene. The human HLA-E is a non-classical MHC class I molecule that is characterized by a limited polymorphism and a lower cell surface expression than its classical paralogues. The functional homolog in mice is called Qa-1b, officially known as H2-T23. Like other MHC class I molecules, HLA-E is a heterodimer consisting of an α heavy chain and a light chain (β-2 microglobulin). The heavy chain is approximately 45 kDa and anchored in the membrane. The HLA-E gene contains 8 exons. Exon one encodes the signal peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the α1 and α2 domains, which both bind the peptide, exon 4 encodes the α3 domain, exon 5 encodes the transmembrane domain, and exons 6 and 7 encode the cytoplasmic tail. HLA-E has a very specialized role in cell recognition by natural killer cells (NK cells). HLA-E binds a restricted subset of peptides derived ...
Mouse monoclonal HLA Class I antibody [MEM-123] validated for IP, ELISA, Flow Cyt, ICC/IF and tested in Human and Mk. With 2 independent reviews. Immunogen…
MHC Class I antibody LS-C745701 is an unconjugated mouse monoclonal antibody to sheep MHC Class I. Validated for Flow, IHC, IP and WB.
Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) are expert evaders of nearly every aspect of our immune system. One of these strategies is the downregulation of surface MHC I molecules (major histocompatibility molecules class I). As MHC I molecules present peptides (small fragments) of all proteins generated within the cells to cytotoxic T cells, downregulation of MHC I molecules is an effective way of hiding a viral presence inside the cell from T cells.. Natural killer (NK) cells, lymphocytes that belong to innate immune systems, possess receptors called Ly49 in mice or KIR in humans. These receptors recognize MHC I molecules on the cell surface and inhibit the NK cell, preventing it from uncontrolled killing of cells. The NK cell is thus said to recognize self molecules. When MHC I molecules are downregulated upon virus infection, the NK cell is no longer inhibited by KIR or Ly49 receptors. In particular, when there are other activating signals or inflammation, the NK cell will kill the infected cell with ...
MHC class I molecules are key in the presentation of antigen and initiation of adaptive CD8+ T cell responses. In addition to its classical activity, MHC I may possess nonclassical functions. We have previously identified a regulatory role of MHC I in TLR signaling and antibacterial immunity. However, its role in innate antiviral immunity remains unknown. In this study, we found a reduced viral load in MHC I-deficient macrophages that was independent of type I IFN production. Mechanically, MHC I mediated viral suppression by inhibiting the type I IFN signaling pathway, which depends on SHP2. Cross-linking MHC I at the membrane increased SHP2 activation and further suppressed STAT1 phosphorylation. Therefore, our data revealed an inhibitory role of MHC I in type I IFN response to viral infection and expanded our understanding of MHC I and antigen presentation.
The rapid and extensive spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic provides a rare opportunity to witness host-pathogen co-evolution involving humans. A focal point is the interaction between genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and those encoding HIV proteins. HLA molecules present fragments (epitopes) of HIV proteins on the surface of infected cells to enable immune recognition and killing by CD8(+) T cells; particular HLA molecules, such as HLA-B*57, HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*51, are more likely to mediate successful control of HIV infection. Mutation within these epitopes can allow viral escape from CD8(+) T-cell recognition. Here we analysed viral sequences and HLA alleles from |2,800 subjects, drawn from 9 distinct study cohorts spanning 5 continents. Initial analysis of the HLA-B*51-restricted epitope, TAFTIPSI (reverse transcriptase residues 128-135), showed a strong correlation between the frequency of the escape mutation I135X and HLA-B*51 prevalence in the 9 study cohorts (P =
Viruses encounter changing selective pressures during transmission between hosts, including host-specific immune responses and potentially varying functional demands on specific proteins. The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef protein performs several functions potentially important for successful infection, including immune escape via down-regulation of class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC-I) and direct enhancement of viral infectivity and replication. Nef is also a major target of the host cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response. To examine the impact of changing selective pressures on Nef functions following sexual transmission, we analyzed genetic and functional changes in nef clones from six transmission events. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the diversity of nef was similar in both sources and acutely infected recipients, the patterns of selection across transmission were variable, and regions of Nef associated with distinct functions evolved similarly in sources and ...
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-MHC Class I Antibody (F21-2) [DyLight 488]. Validated: WB, Flow, IHC, IHC-Fr. Tested Reactivity: Avian, Chicken, Turkey. 100% Guaranteed.
Toward demonstrating functional significance for the transmembrane and/or cytoplasmic portions of MICA, we generated a transfectant of Daudi expressing a truncated form of MICA in which the cysteine at position 331 was replaced with a stop codon (Daudi/Class I+/MICA/C331*). The level of cell surface staining of this transfectant with a MICA mAb was similar to that of wild-type MICA in Daudi/Class I+/MICA (Fig. 4, b and c). We tested the susceptibility of these transfectants to NK cell cytotoxicity (Fig. 4 d). A peripheral blood NK cell line was efficiently able to kill untransfected Daudi, which lacks endogenous expression of MHC class I protein, but was inhibited from killing Daudi-expressing MHC class I protein (Daudi/Class I+). In agreement with previous data (5), Daudi-expressing MHC class I protein and MICA was efficiently killed, demonstrating how activation via NKG2D recognition can overcome inhibitory signaling. However, Daudi transfectants expressing MHC class I protein and the ...
NetCTL 1.2 server predicts CTL epitopes in protein sequences. The current version 1.2 is an update to the version 1.0. The version 1.2 expands the MHC class I binding predicition to 12 MHC supertypes including the supertypes A26 and B39. The accuracy of the MHC class I peptide binding affinity is significantly improved compared to the earlier version. Also the prediction of proteasonal cleavage has been improved and is now identical to the predictions obtained by the NetChop-3.0 server. The updated version has been trained on a set of 886 known MHC class I ligands. NOTE. On Aug 16 2006 a minor update to the server has been implemented improving the prediction accuracy for MHC binding. The earlier version of the NetCTL 1.2 server (1.2 beta) is available via the versions history for the server. View the version history of this server. All the previous versions are available on line, for comparison and reference. The method integrates prediction of peptide MHC class I binding, proteasomal C ...
Author SummaryOne of the greatest challenges facing HIV-1 vaccine design today is the formidable capacity of the virus for mutation and adaptation, a characteristic that has contributed to the extensive worldwide genetic variability of HIV-1 strains observed today. On an individual basis, evolutionary selective pressures imposed by each infected persons unique immune response results in the selection and outgrowth of viral
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational resource for the prediction of peptide binding to Indian rhesus macaque MHC class I molecules. AU - Peters, B.. AU - Bui, H. H.. AU - Sidney, J.. AU - Weng, Z.. AU - Loffredo, J. T.. AU - Watkins, D. I.. AU - Mothé, B. R.. AU - Sette, A.. PY - 2005/11/1. Y1 - 2005/11/1. N2 - Non-human primates, in general, and Indian rhesus macaques, specifically, play an important role in the development and testing of vaccines and diagnostics destined for human use. To date, several frequently expressed macaque MHC molecules have been identified and their binding specificities characterized in detail. Here, we report the development of computational algorithms to predict peptide binding and potential T cell epitopes for the common MHC class I alleles Mamu-A*01, -A*02, -A*11, -B*01 and -B*17, which cover approximately two thirds of the captive Indian rhesus macaque populations. We validated this method utilizing an SIV derived data set encompassing 59 antigenic peptides. Of all ...
BACKGROUND: MICA and MICB (MHC class I-related chain A and B) are polymorphic genes that encode molecules related to MHC class I and are expressed on epithelial cells in response to stress. Incompatible donor MIC antigens can stimulate antibody production in transplant recipients. This study was designed to determine MICB expression in kidney pretransplant and any subsequent changes in expression following transplantation and to correlate changes with inflammatory markers and clinical events. METHODS: Paired renal biopsies obtained from living donor (n=10) and cadaveric allografts (n=50) before and 7 days posttransplant were stained for MICB, leukocytic infiltration, and HLA class II antigens. RESULTS: Variable tubular MICB expression was evident in donor biopsies [high 6/60 (10%), low/negative 13/60 (22%), intermediate 41/60 (68%)]. Following transplantation, MICB was up-regulated on renal tubules of 17/60 (28%) biopsies and was associated with MHC class II antigen induction (P=0.02) and leukocyte
TY - JOUR. T1 - Specific human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles associated with hepatitis C virus viremia. AU - Kuniholm, Mark H.. AU - Kovacs, Andrea. AU - Gao, Xiaojiang. AU - Xue, Xiaonan. AU - Marti, Darlene. AU - Thio, Chloe L.. AU - Peters, Marion G.. AU - Terrault, Norah A.. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth M.. AU - Goedert, James J.. AU - Cohen, Mardge H.. AU - Minkoff, Howard. AU - Gange, Stephen J.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Fazzari, Melissa. AU - Harris, Tiffany G.. AU - Young, Mary A.. AU - Strickler, Howard D.. AU - Carrington, Mary. PY - 2010/5/1. Y1 - 2010/5/1. N2 - Studies of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and their relation with hepatitis C virus (HCV) viremia have had conflicting results. However, these studies have varied in size and methods, and few large studies assessed HLA class I alleles. Only one study conducted high-resolution class I genotyping. The current investigation therefore involved high-resolution HLA class I and II genotyping of a large multiracial ...
Background A major group of murine inhibitory receptors on Natural Killer (NK) cells belong to the Ly49 receptor family and recognize MHC class I molecules. Infected or transformed target cells frequently downmodulate MHC class I molecules and can thus avoid CD8+ T cell attack, but may at the same time develop NK cell sensitivity, due to failure to express inhibitory ligands for Ly49 receptors. The extent of MHC class I downregulation needed on normal cells to trigger NK cell effector functions is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we show that cells expressing MHC class I to levels well below half of the host level are tolerated in an in vivo assay in mice. Hemizygous expression (expression from only one allele) of MHC class I was sufficient to induce Ly49 receptor downmodulation on NK cells to a similar degree as homozygous expression, despite a strongly reduced cell surface level of MHC class I. Co-expression of weaker MHC class I ligands in the host did not have any further
Background: A major group of murine inhibitory receptors on Natural Killer (NK) cells belong to the Ly49 receptor family and recognize MHC class I molecules. Infected or transformed target cells frequently downmodulate MHC class I molecules and can thus avoid CD8(+) T cell attack, but may at the same time develop NK cell sensitivity, due to failure to express inhibitory ligands for Ly49 receptors. The extent of MHC class I downregulation needed on normal cells to trigger NK cell effector functions is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study, we show that cells expressing MHC class I to levels well below half of the host level are tolerated in an in vivo assay in mice. Hemizygous expression (expression from only one allele) of MHC class I was sufficient to induce Ly49 receptor downmodulation on NK cells to a similar degree as homozygous expression, despite a strongly reduced cell surface level of MHC class I. Co-expression of weaker MHC class I ligands in the host did not have any ...
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The basic pattern of MHC variation in fish, with MHC class I versus class II, and polymorphic classical versus nonpolymorphic nonclassical, is similar in fish and mammals. Nevertheless, in many or all teleost fishes, important differences with mammalian or human MHC were observed: (1) The allelic/haplotype diversification levels of classical MHC class I genes tend to be much higher than in mammals; (2) Teleost fish classical MHC class I and class II loci are not linked. The present article summarizes previous studies that performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for mapping differences in teleost fish disease resistance, and discusses them from MHC point of view. Overall, those studies suggest the possible importance of genomic regions including classical MHC class II and nonclassical MHC class I genes, whereas similar observations were not made for the genomic regions with the highly diversified classical MHC class I alleles. The present study is a review and discussion of the fish MHC
TY - JOUR. T1 - Human cytomegalovirus UL18 utilizes US6 for evading the NK and T-cell responses. AU - Kim, Youngkyun. AU - Park, Boyoun. AU - Cho, Sunglim. AU - Shin, Jinwook. AU - Cho, Kwangmin. AU - Jun, Youngsoo. AU - Ahn, Kwangseog. PY - 2008/8/1. Y1 - 2008/8/1. N2 - Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) US6 glycoprotein inhibits TAP function, resulting in down-regulation of MHC class I molecules at the cell surface. Cells lacking MHC class I molecules are susceptible to NK cell lysis. HCMV expresses UL18, a MHC class I homolog that functions as a surrogate to prevent host cell lysis. Despite a high level of sequence and structural homology between UL18 and MHC class I molecules, surface expression of MHC class I, but not UL18, is down regulated by US6. Here, we describe a mechanism of action by which HCMV UL18 avoids attack by the self-derived TAP inhibitor US6. UL18 abrogates US6 inhibition of ATP binding by TAP and, thereby, restores TAP-mediated peptide translocation. In addition, UL18 together ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The transmembrane sequence of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-C as a determinant in inhibition of a subset of natural killer cells. AU - Davis, Daniel M.. AU - Mandelboim, Ofer. AU - Luque, Isabel. AU - Baba, Eishi. AU - Boyson, Jonathan. AU - Strominger, Jack L.. PY - 1999/4/19. Y1 - 1999/4/19. N2 - Molecular interactions with the extracellular domains of class I major histocompatibility complex proteins are major determinants of immune recognition that have been extensively studied both physically and biochemically. However, no immunological function has yet been placed on the transmembrane or cytoplasmic amino acid sequences of these proteins despite strict conservation of unique features within each class I major histocompatibility complex locus. Here we report that lysis by a subset of natural killer (NK) cells inhibited by target cell expression of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-Cw6 or -Cw7 was not inhibited by expression of chimeric ...
For a proper development of the placenta, maternal NK cells should not attack the fetal extravillous cytotrophoblast cells. This inhibition of maternal NK cells is partially mediated via the nonclassical MHC class I molecule HLA-G. Recently, we demonstrated that HLA-G forms disulfide-linked high molecular complexes on the surface of transfected cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that HLA-G must associate with beta(2)m for its interaction with CD85J/leukocyte Ig-like receptor-1 (LIR-1). Although HLA-G free H chain complexes are expressed on the surface, they are not recognized and possibly interfere with CD85J/LIR-1 and HLA-G interaction. The formation of these complexes on the cell surface might represent a novel mechanism developed specifically by the HLA-G protein aimed to control the efficiency of the CD85J/LIR-1-mediated inhibition. We also show that endogenous HLA-G complexes are expressed on the cell surface. These findings provide novel insights into the delicate interaction between
Major histocompatibility (MHC)-restricted, human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-specific, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were detected in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HIV-1-infected individuals. Using a system of autologous B and T lymphoblastoid cell lines infected with recombinant vaccinia vectors (VVs) expressing HIV-1 gene products, we were able to detect HIV-1-specific cytolytic responses in the PBMCs of 88% of HIV-1-seropositive hemophiliac patients in the absence of in vitro stimulation. These cytolytic responses were directed against both HIV-1 envelope and gag gene products. The responses were resistant to natural killer (NK) cell depletion and were inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) to the T cell receptor, CD8 surface antigens, and MHC class I antigens, suggesting a classical MHC class I restricted, virus-specific CTL response.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT), or cloning, is a form of artificial reproductive technology that can be used to improve economic traits of domestic animals. However, extreme inefficiency of producing viable offspring via this method is a major limitation. An aggressive immune response at the maternal-fetal interface is an important reason for SCNT pregnancy loss. The goal of this project was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of immune-mediated miscarriage in cloned cattle pregnancies. Many publications hint that immune-mediated miscarriage is associated with abnormal MHC-I expression in the placenta. The regulation of bovine MHC-I genes was systematically studied to identify the cause of abnormal MHC-I expression during immune-mediated miscarriage. We also produced cloned pregnancies to study immune- mediated pregnancy loss. MHC-I and cytokines involved in proinflammatory responses were highly expressed in the placental trophoblast cells of cloned fetuses and in the uterine endometrium of
Major histocompatibility complex class I and II expression on macrophages containing a virulent strain of Brucella abortus measured using green fluorescent protein-expressing brucellae and flow cytometry ...
In neuroblastoma, N-myc suppresses the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class I antigens by reducing the binding of a nuclear factor to the enhancer-A element in the MHC Class I gene promoter. We show here that the p50 subunit of NF-kappa B is part of this complex and that expres …
A general method has been developed for measuring the stabilization of class I MHC molecules in extracts of the mutant cell lines .174/T2 and RMA-S. 35S-Met-labeled class I molecules which have been stabilized by peptides in vitro are immunoprecipitated with conformation dependent monoclonal antibodies and electrophoresed on polyacrylamide gels. The heavy and light chains are excised from the dried gel and quantified on a flat bed scintillation counter. The stabilizing effect of peptides on class I molecules in vitro correlates well with peptide binding measured by direct methods and can be therefore used to assess peptide binding affinity. We show that a peptide from HIV-1 gag (which has a high affinity for Db) is a CTL epitope restricted through Db, and also use the assay to analyse the effects of amino acid substitution on peptide affinity. In addition, the effect of a given peptide on a class I molecule within a mixture of human class I molecules can be distinguished by immunoprecipitation with the
TY - JOUR. T1 - High resolution structures of highly bulged viral epitopes bound to major histocompatibility complex class I: implications for T-Cell receptor engagement and T-cell immunodominance. AU - Tynan, Fleur Elizabeth. AU - Borg, Natalie. AU - Miles, John J. AU - Beddoe, Travis Clarke. AU - Elhassen, Diah. AU - Silins, Sharon L. AU - van Zuylen, Wendy JM. AU - Purcell, Anthony W. AU - Kjer-Nielsen, Lars. AU - McCluskey, James. AU - Burrows, S R. AU - Rossjohn, Jamie. PY - 2005. Y1 - 2005. U2 - 10.1074/jbc.M503060200. DO - 10.1074/jbc.M503060200. M3 - Article. VL - 280. SP - 23900. EP - 23909. JO - Journal of Biological Chemistry. JF - Journal of Biological Chemistry. SN - 1083-351X. IS - 25. ER - ...
Fascinating recent discoveries have focused attention on the nonclassical class I molecules. They can exert their function at most levels of the immune response, being part of both innate and adaptive immune systems. They not only have specialized antigen-presentation functions but also play important immunoregulatory roles: HLA-E regulates natural killer cells by interacting with CD94/NKG2 receptors; the MIC (MHC class I chain related) glycoproteins appear crucial to the activation of gammadelta T cells in the gastrointestinal epithelium; HLA-G may play a role in controlling the immune response to the fetus; and CD1 molecules are important in defense against bacterial infections, as well as in the development and regulation of a subset of NKT cells expressing a highly restricted TCR repertoire; however not all nonclassical class I molecules have an immunological function, as demonstrated by HFE which is implicated in iron metabolism.
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We have analyzed peptides associated with six human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I allomorphs expressed by the U937 cell line. Peptides were isolated by mild acid elution or by MHC class I immunoprecipitation by using W6/32 monoclonal antibody. Eighty-five peptides were sequenced by mass spectrometry, and their putative binding alleles were assigned using bioinformatic tools. Only three peptides isolated by the two approaches were identical, suggesting that the approaches may yield distinct partially overlapping peptide populations. Mild acid treatment-derived peptides manifested overall characteristics suggestive of relatively lower affinity of binding for MHC class I. Interestingly, a large proportion of putative HLA-B*5101-binding peptides was evident among the mild acid treatment-eluted peptides, and to a lesser degree in the affinity-purified peptide pool. These results suggest that HLA-B*5101 may bind a potentially large pool of peptides with relatively lower affinity. We suggest
Clone REA176 recognizes HLA B7 and B27 class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Expressed on the surface of most nucleated cells, class I molecules are heterodimeric molecules and consist of a type I integral membrane α heavy chain and soluble β2 microglobulin protein. The extracellular region of the heavy chain further consists of three domains, of which one comprises the peptide binding groove. Antigens binding to class I molecules are 8-10 amino acids long and play an important role in recognition of the virus infected and malignant cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). In addition, class I molecules interact with NK cell receptors to modulate the activity of NK cells. HLA-B7 is a risk factor for cervical cancer, sarcoidosis, and early-onset spondylarthropathies. HLA-B27 is known for its strong association with inflammatory spondyloarthropathies. It has been also discovered as a protective factor against some severe viral infections.Additional information: Clone REA176 displays negligible binding
The highly polymorphic nonclassical MHC class I chain-related (MIC) genes MICA and MICB encode stress inducible glycoproteins expressed on a variety of epithelial cells including intestinal cells. Interaction with the receptor NKG2D is likely to provide an important costimulatory signal for activation and proliferation of NK cells, activated macrophages and CD8 αβ and γδ T cells. Fifty-four MICA and 17 MICB alleles have been described to date. Although the functional significance of this polymorphism is not known, the high degree of nonconservative substitution, concentration to the putative ligand-binding site and recent observation that different MICA alleles bind to NKG2D with varying affinity has generated much interest. The MIC genes are attractive functional and positional candidate genes for inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility as a consequence of their position in the HLA region and expression on the gastrointestinal epithelium. We developed a robust, high-resolution PCR-SSP ...
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a collection of genes coding for MHC molecules found on the surface of all nucleated cells of the body. In humans, the MHC genes are also referred to as human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Mature red blood cells, which lack a nucleus, are the only cells that do not express MHC molecules on their surface.. There are two classes of MHC molecules involved in adaptive immunity, MHC I and MHC II (Figure 14.11). MHC I molecules are found on all nucleated cells; they present normal self-antigens as well as abnormal or nonself pathogens to the effector T cells involved in cellular immunity. In contrast, MHC II molecules are only found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells; they present abnormal or nonself pathogen antigens for the initial activation of T cells.. Both types of MHC molecules are transmembrane glycoproteins that assemble as dimers in the cytoplasmic membrane of cells, but their structures are quite different. MHC I molecules are ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes encode proteins that initiate adaptive immune responses through the presentation of foreign antigens to T cells. The high polymorphism found at these genes, thought to be promoted and maintained by pathogen-mediated selection, contrasts with the limited number of MHC loci found in most vertebrates. Although expressing many diverse MHC genes should broaden the range of detectable pathogens, it has been hypothesized to also cause deletion of larger fractions of self-reactive T cells, leading to a detrimental reduction of the T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. However, a key prediction of this TCR depletion hypothesis, that the TCR repertoire should be inversely related to the individual MHC diversity, has never been tested. Here, using high-throughput sequencing and advanced sequencing error correction, we provide evidence of such an association in a rodent species with high interindividual variation in the number of expressed MHC molecules, the bank ...
The x-ray structures of a murine MHC class I molecule (H-2Kb) were determined in complex with two different viral peptides, derived from the vesicular stomatitis virus nucleoprotein (52-59), VSV-8, and the Sendai virus nucleoprotein (324-332), SEV-9. The H-2Kb complexes were refined at 2.3 A for VSV-8 and 2.5 A for SEV-9. The structure of H-2Kb exhibits a high degree of similarity with human HLA class I, although the individual domains can have slightly altered dispositions. Both peptides bind in extended conformations with most of their surfaces buried in the H-2Kb binding groove. The nonamer peptide maintains the same amino- and carboxyl-terminal interactions as the octamer primarily by the insertion of a bulge in the center of an otherwise beta conformation. Most of the specific interactions are between side-chain atoms of H-2Kb and main-chain atoms of peptide. This binding scheme accounts in large part for the enormous diversity of peptide sequences that bind with high affinity to class I ...
Virus or tumor Ag-derived peptides that are displayed by MHC class I molecules are attractive starting points for vaccine development because they induce strong protective and therapeutic cytotoxic T cell responses. In thus study, we show that the MHC binding and consequent T cell reactivity against several HLA-A*02 restricted epitopes can be further improved through the incorporation of nonproteogenic amino acids at primary and secondary anchor positions. We screened more than 90 nonproteogenic, synthetic amino acids through a range of epitopes and tested more than 3000 chemically enhanced altered peptide ligands (CPLs) for binding affinity to HLA-A*0201. With this approach, we designed CPLs of viral epitopes, of melanoma-associated Ags, and of the minor histocompatibility Ag UTA2-1, which is currently being evaluated for its antileukemic activity in clinical dendritic cell vaccination trials. The crystal structure of one of the CPLs in complex with HLA-A*0201 revealed the molecular interactions likely
A comparison of methionine, histidine and cysteine in copper(I)-binding peptides reveals differences relevant to copper uptake by organisms in diverse environments.
NetCTLpan 1.1 INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS DESCRIPTION The NetCTLpan 1.1 software predicts CTL epitopes in protein sequences. The current version 1.1 is an update to the original NetCTL server that allows for prediction of CTL epitope with restriction to any MHC molecules of known protein sequence. NetCTLpan integrates prediction of peptide MHC class I binding, proteasomal C terminal cleavage and the efficiency of TAP transport. MHC class I binding and proteasomal cleavage is performed using artificial neural networks. TAP transport efficiency is predicted using weight matrix. The method is described in detail in the following article: NetCTLpan - Pan-specific MHC class I epitope predictions. Stranzl T., Larsen M. V., Lundegaard C., Nielsen M. Immunogenetics. 2010 Jun;62(6):357-68. [Epub ahead of print] Apr 9, 2010. More information about the method can be found at: http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/NetCTLpan/ DOWNLOAD The netCTLpan 1.1 software package is a property of Center for Biological Sequence ...
Human immunodeficiency computer virus (HIV) Nef is a membrane-associated protein decreasing surface expression of CD4 CD28 and major histocompatibility complex class I on infected cells. by the same mutations in Nef that impact CD4 down-regulation FK866 suggesting common molecular interactions. The ability to down-regulate the human CD8 β-chain was conserved in HIV-1 HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency computer FK866 virus SIVmac239 Nef and required an intact AP-2 complex. The Nef-mediated internalization of receptors such as CD4 major histocompatibility complex class I CD28 and CD8αβ may contribute to the subversion of the host immune system and progression towards AIDS. The human immunodeficiency computer virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef protein is usually a 27-kDa protein that is abundantly produced during the early phase of viral gene expression (28 54 Nef is usually posttranslationally altered by phosphorylation and due to irreversible attachment of myristic acid to its N terminus it is targeted ...
Human tumours typically harbour a remarkable number of somatic mutations. If presented on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHCI), peptides containing these mutations could potentially be immunogenic as they should be recognized as non-self neo-antigens by the adaptive immune sys …
POSTDOCTORAL POSITIONS AVAILABLE My laboratory is investigating various aspects of how the immune system carries out surveillance to detect viral infections, cancers and cell death. Among the areas of research are: (1) The alarm signals and the receptors that alert the immune system to potential danger; (2) The mechanisms by which sentinel cells (dendritic cells) acquire and display antigens to CD8 T cells (cross presentation), a process that is essential for immune surveillance of tissues; and, (3) The antigen presentation pathway by which virally infected or cancer cells display their antigens to effector CD8 T cells (MHC class I antigen presentation), a process that is essential for the immune system to detect and eliminate these pathological cells. The laboratory is in a new state of the art research building and part of a very strong and interactive immunology community at UMass Medical School. UMass Medical School is located in Worcester Massachusetts, just outside of Boston. Interested ...
Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHCI) is known to modulate activity-dependent synaptic remodeling in the visual system and to regulate synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Here, the authors show that MHCI negatively regulates the density and function of cortical synapses during their initial establishment. Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules modulate activity-dependent refinement and plasticity. We found that MHCI also negatively regulates the density and function of cortical synapses during their initial establishment both in vitro and in vivo. MHCI molecules are expressed on cortical neurons before and during synaptogenesis. In vitro, decreasing surface MHCI (sMHCI) on neurons increased glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse density, whereas overexpression decreased it. In vivo, synapse density was higher throughout development in β2m−/− mice. MHCI also negatively regulated the strength of excitatory, but not inhibitory, synapses and controlled the balance of
Kawashima Y., Pfafferott K., Frater J., Matthews P., Payne R., Addo M., Gatanaga H., Fujiwara M., Hachiya A., Koizumi H., Kuse N., Oka S., Duda A., Prendergast A., Crawford H., Leslie A., Brumme Z., Brumme C., Allen T., Brander C., Kaslow R., Tang J., Hunter E., Allen S., Mulenga J., Branch S., Roach T., John M., Mallal S., Ogwu A., Shapiro R., Prado J.G., Fidler S., Weber J., Pybus O.G., Klenerman P., Ndungu T., Phillips R., Heckerman D., Harrigan P.R., Walker B.D., Takiguchi M., Goulder P. (2009) Adaptation of HIV-1 to human leukocyte antigen class I. Nature ...
Effects of HIV-1 Tat on expression of HLA class I molecules. Dendritic cells transduced with HIV Nef express normal levels of HLA-A and HLA-\b class I molecules
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mamu-A*01/Kb transgenic and MHC Class I knockout mice as a tool for HIV vaccine development. AU - Li, Jinliang. AU - Srivastava, Tumul. AU - Rawal, Ravindra. AU - Manuel, Edwin. AU - Isbell, Donna. AU - Tsark, Walter. AU - La Rosa, Corinna. AU - Wang, Zhongde. AU - Li, Zhongqi. AU - Barry, Peter A. AU - Hagen, Katharine D.. AU - Longmate, Jeffrey. AU - Diamond, Don J.. PY - 2009/4/25. Y1 - 2009/4/25. N2 - We have developed a murine model expressing the rhesus macaque (RM) Mamu-A*01 MHC allele to characterize immune responses and vaccines based on antigens of importance to human disease processes. Towards that goal, transgenic (Tg) mice expressing chimeric RM (α1 and α2 Mamu-A*01 domains) and murine (α3, transmembrane, and cytoplasmic H-2Kb domains) MHC Class I molecules were derived by transgenesis of the H-2KbDb double MHC Class I knockout strain. After immunization of Mamu-A*01/Kb Tg mice with rVV-SIVGag-Pol, the mice generated CD8+ T-cell IFN-γ responses to several known ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of O-glycosylated decapeptides within the MUC1 repeat domain as potential MHC class I (A2) binding epitopes. AU - Ninkovic, Tanja. AU - Kinarsky, Leo. AU - Engelmann, Katja. AU - Pisarev, Vladimir. AU - Sherman, Simon. AU - Finn, Olivera J.. AU - Hanisch, Franz Georg. N1 - Funding Information: The work was supported by NIH grant 1RO1 CA84106 and the Köln-Fortune Programme (to F.G.H.) and by NIH grant 2PO CA73743 (to O.J.F.).. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - The MUC1 glycoprotein is considered a tumor antigen due to its over expression and aberrant glycosylation in cancer tissues. The latter results in appearance of new antigenic tumor specific glycopeptides not found on normal glycoforms of the mucin. MUC1 glycopeptides can be presented by APCs on MHC class II molecules to activate glycopeptide specific helper T-cells. No study has yet reported presentation of MUC1 glycopeptides on MHC class I molecules as stimulators of cytotoxic T-cells. In this study we show ...
When T cells, B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells of the immune system interact with target cells, signaling molecules are accumulated in the plasma membrane at structures known as the immunological synapse. Evidence is accumulating that proteins, as well as signals, are transferred between the interacting cells at such contacts. NK cells receive inhibitory signals from cells that express self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on their surface. Earlier evidence had shown that NK cells can actually acquire MHC class I proteins during interactions with target cells. Now Vanherberghen et al. show that the exchange goes both ways and that NK receptors are transferred to cells that express MHC class I ligands. The authors monitored transfer of biotinylated killer Ig-like receptor (KIR) KIR2DL1 by immunoblotting or green fluorescent protein-tagged receptor by fluorescence-activated cell sorting or laser-scanning confocal microscopy and observed transfer of KIRs. The NK cell receptor ...
We found that this phenomenon was associated with the different susceptibility of human and mouse NK cells to autologous tumour cell-induced NK cell abnormalities (NKCA). The latter includes CD16 down-regulation and NK cell depletion. Induction of NKCA by leukaemia and solid tumour cells was influenced neither by IL2 treatment nor by HLA class I antigen expression, but was abrogated by a 10 day culture. Following a 10 day of PBMCs culture, NK cells became resistant to leukaemia and solid tumor cell induced NKCA but maintained their cytotoxic activity. Actinomycin D restored the susceptibility of long term NK (LTNK) cells to NKCA suggesting that the generation of resistance to NKCA required RNA transcription. TAPI-0, a functional analogue of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP) 3 inhibited cancer cell induced NKCA underlying a role for a restricted number of metalloproteinases in the generation of this phenomenon. Finally, we found an association of TIMP3 gene and protein ...
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether IgG, non-donor-specific anti-HLA class I antibodies (HLAabI) detected after renal transplantation recognize immunogenic amino acid triplets expressed on the foreign graft. In addition, we sought to evaluate the effect of these antibodies as well as other posttransplant HLAabI on graft outcome. Posttransplant sera from 264 renal recipients were tested for the presence of IgG HLAabI and HLA class II-specific alloantibodies (HLAabII) by ELISA. The HLAMatchmaker computer algorithm was used to define the HLA class I non-donor-specific antibodies, which seem to recognize immunogenic amino acid triplets. Donor-specific triplet antibodies (DSTRab) were detected in 16 of 22 (72.7%) recipients based on at least one HLA-A or -B mismatched antigen with the donor. DSTRab were found either without (n = 7) or with (n = 9) HLA donor-specific antibodies (HLA-DSA). The presence of DSTRab alone in the periphery was associated with acute rejection, whereas the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Class I HLA folding and antigen presentation in β2- microglobulin-defective daudi cells. AU - Martayan, Aline. AU - Sibilio, Leonardo. AU - Tremante, Elisa. AU - Monaco, Elisa Lo. AU - Mulder, Arend. AU - Fruci, Doriana. AU - Cova, Agata. AU - Rivoltini, Licia. AU - Giacomini, Patrizio. PY - 2009/3/15. Y1 - 2009/3/15. N2 - To present virus and tumor Ags, HLA class I molecules undergo a complex multistep assembly involving discrete but transient folding intermediates. The most extensive folding abnormalities occur in cells lacking the class I L chain subunit, called β2-microglobulin (β2m). Herein, this issue was investigated taking advantage of eight conformational murine mAbs (including the prototypic W6/32 mAb) to mapped H chain epitopes of class I molecules, four human mAbs to class I alloantigens, as well as radioimmunoprecipitation, in vitro assembly, pulse-chase, flow cytometry, and peptide-pulse/ELISPOT experiments. We show that endogenous (HLA-A1, -A66, and -B58) as ...
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DISI : Determining class I human leukocyte antigens (HLA) antigens on specimens for those who have become refractory to platelet transfusions and identify potential disease association
"Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2". Nature. 329 (6139): 506-12. Bibcode:1987Natur.329..506B. ... Wang Z, Cao Y, Albino AP, Zeff RA, Houghton A, Ferrone S (February 1993). "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma ... Saper MA, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (May 1991). "Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A ... β2 microglobulin also known as B2M is a component of MHC class I molecules, MHC class I molecules have α1, α2, and α3 proteins ...
"Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2". Nature. 329 (6139): 506-512. Bibcode:1987Natur.329..506B. ... Saper MA, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (1991). "Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A resolution ... the HLA-A2 human histocompatibility antigen. This work was published in 1987, first at 3.5Å resolution (PDB entry 1HLA) and ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Awards - American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics". www.ashi-hla.org ...
"Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-54. ... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ... Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells, possibly due to genetic predisposition or acute ... Positive antibodies against soluble liver antigen (this group behaves like group 1) (anti-SLA, anti-LP) AIH with no ...
Desoye, G.; Dohr, G. A.; Ziegler, A. (1991). "Expression of human major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens on germ cells and ... In addition, HLA-G expresses oligosaccharides that are very different from those linked to other HLA class I molecules, so the ... These immune markers are also known as major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens or more specifically in humans as human ... Ljunggren, H. G.; Karre, K. (1990). "In search of "missing self"? MHC class I molecules and NK cell recognition". Immunol. ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A alpha chain) at the PDBe-KB.. ... "HLA-A major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [Homo sapiens (human)]". National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S ... HLA is a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen specific to humans. HLA-A is one of three major types of human MHC ... "Major Histocompatibility Complex, Class I, A". Gene Cards. Weizmann Institute of Science. 7 November 2013. Retrieved 16 ...
CD74 (англ. HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain; HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain) - мембранный белок ... Ia-associated invariant chainMHC HLA-DR gamma chainCD74HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chaingamma chain of class ... Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class II histocompatibility antigens (англ.) // Nucleic Acids ... cDNA clone for the human invariant gamma chain of class II histocompatibility antigens and its implications for the protein ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain also known as HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain or CD74 (Cluster ... The stable MHC class II + antigen complex is then presented on the cell surface. Without CLIP, MHC class II aggregates ... "cDNA clone for the human invariant gamma chain of class II histocompatibility antigens and its implications for the protein ... "Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class II histocompatibility antigens". Nucleic Acids Research ...
"An N-acetylated natural ligand of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B39. Classical major histocompatibility ... complex class I proteins bind peptides with a blocked NH(2) terminus in vivo". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 191 (12): ...
York IA, Rock KL (1996). "Antigen processing and presentation by the class I major histocompatibility complex". Annu. Rev. ...
Class 2 major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on macrophages are up-regulated at sites of VUE. Neutrophils should not ... Foetal macrophages in VUE proliferate and are activated as a result of the up-regulation of MHC class 2 antigen expression. ... Majority of the antigen-presenting cells were Hofbauer cells (macrophages) were of foetal origin. Perivillous monocyte- ... The trafficking of maternal lymphocytes responding to an antigen in the chronic deciduitis could activate and enter via the ...
"The major histocompatibility complex class I antigen-binding protein p88 is the product of the calnexin gene". Proceedings of ... This association prepares the MHC class I for binding an antigen for presentation on the cell surface. A prolonged association ... the job of chaperoning the MHC class I protein while the tapasin links the complex to the transporter associated with antigen ... As newly synthesized MHC class I α-chains enter the endoplasmic reticulum, calnexin binds on to them retaining them in a partly ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ(6) alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQA2 gene. Also ... 1984). "Isotypic and allotypic variation of human class II histocompatibility antigen alpha-chain genes". Nature. 308 (5957): ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. Comparisons of the DQ and DX alpha and beta genes". J. ...
... histocompatibility antigen, class I, G, also known as human leukocyte antigen G (HLA-G), is a protein that in humans is ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-G HLA-G histocompatibility antigen, class I, G". Castelli, Erick C.; Mendes-Junior, Celso T.; Veiga-Castelli, ... "Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, a nonclassical major histocompatibility ... HLA-G belongs to the HLA nonclassical class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a ...
2004). "Minor histocompatibility antigen DBY elicits a coordinated B and T cell response after allogeneic stem cell ... 2003). "The male-specific region of the human Y chromosome is a mosaic of discrete sequence classes". Nature. 423 (6942): 825- ... 2002). "The DBY gene codes for an HLA-DQ5-restricted human male-specific minor histocompatibility antigen involved in graft- ...
... vivo staining of metastatic lymph nodes by class I major histocompatibility complex tetramers reveals high numbers of antigen- ... Presentation of viral antigen controlled by a gene in the major histocompatibility complex. Nature 345:449-452. Moins- ... The binding affinity and dissociation rates of peptides for class I major histocompatibility complex molecules. 1991. Eur J ... NKT cells enhance CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to soluble antigen in vivo through direct interaction with dendritic cells. J ...
"Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31. ... Parham P, Ohta T (1996). "Population biology of antigen presentation by MHC class I molecules". Science. 272 (5258): 67-74. ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRA gene. HLA-DRA ... "Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain". Nucleic Acids Res ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The alpha ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DRA major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha". Bénichou S, Benmerah A (2003). "[The HIV nef and ...
"Association of canine hypothyroidism with a common major histocompatibility complex DLA class II allele". Tissue Antigens. 68 ( ... Recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1955, it was placed in the Miscellaneous class.[citation needed] It was not until the ... Day, M.J (1999). "Antigen specificity in canine autoimmune haemolytic anaemia". Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 69 ( ... Tissue Antigens. 66 (6): 656-65. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00508.x. PMID 16305682.. ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex. The proteasome ... Many MHC class I alleles prefer hydrophobic C-terminal residues, and the immunoproteasome complex is more likely to generate ... The strength of MHC class I ligand binding is dependent on the composition of the ligand C-terminus, as peptides bind by ...
Major histocompatibility complex Human leukocyte antigen HLA-DQ "Entrez Gene: HLA-DQB1 major histocompatibility complex, class ... Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 3, also known as HLA-DQB3, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic ... While the overall sequence of the protein encoded by this gene is similar to other HLA class II beta chains, the translated ... "Mapping and nucleotide sequence of a new HLA class II light chain gene, DQB3". Immunogenetics. 30 (4): 243-9. doi:10.1007/ ...
2002). "HLA class I-minor histocompatibility antigen tetramers select cytotoxic T cells with high avidity to the natural ligand ... 2005). "Cord blood comprises antigen-experienced T cells specific for maternal minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1". Blood. ... "Genomic identification of the minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 locus by allele-specific PCR". Tissue Antigens. 52 (4): 312 ... 2005). "Minor histocompatibility antigen HA-1 and HPA-5 polymorphisms in HLA-identical related bone marrow transplantation". ...
iNKT cells recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, a non-polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class I-like antigen ... a member of the CD1 family of antigen-presenting molecules, rather than peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs). As ... The best known antigen of iNKT cells is alpha-galactosylceramide (αGalCer), which is a synthetic form of a chemical purified ... The highly conserved TCR is made of Va24-Ja18 paired with Vb11 in humans, which is specific for glycolipid antigens. ...
... ceruloplasmin and class I major histocompatibility antigens". Experimental Cell Research. 143 (1): 91-102. doi:10.1016/0014- ...
... antigens. In B lymphocytes (B cells), interferon gamma stimulates antibody class switching. All of these cells have different, ... interferon gamma upregulates expression of macrophages and both types of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) ... Dendritic cells phagocytose invaders; then they present the antigen on their surface to stimulate the acquired immune system ( ... These cells can differentiate into many subtypes once activated by antigen presenting cells (APCs) like dendrites. They divide ...
... tolerance can be established in vitro and in vivo for both MHC class I and II as well as minor histocompatibility antigens. ... This means that T-cells with a T-cell receptor specific to antigens presented on the veto cell, bind to the veto cell, and are ... Because veto cells can only suppress T-cell progenitors that are directed against antigens on the veto cells themselves, but ... Veto activity is thought to be a form of antigen-specific suppression that maintains continuous self-tolerance. Cells with veto ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1 beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DRB1 gene. DRB1 ... Class II molecules are constitutively expressed in professional antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DRB1 major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1". Gregersen PK, Silver J, Winchester RJ (November ... The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. The class II molecule is a heterodimer ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOB gene. HLA-DOB ... DO suppresses peptide loading of MHC class II molecules by inhibiting HLA-DM. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen ... "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. The DO beta gene is a divergent member of the class II beta gene ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DM beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DMB gene. HLA-DMB ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). The beta chain ... "Entrez Gene: HLA-DMB major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM beta". Kinseth MA, Jia Z, Rahmatpanah F, Sawyers A, Sutton ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DX beta chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DQB2 gene. ... class II, DQ beta 2". Piatier-Tonneau D, Gastinel LN, Amblard F, et al. (1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... 1987). "Class II genes of the human major histocompatibility complex. Comparisons of the DQ and DX alpha and beta genes". J. ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DO alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HLA-DOA gene. HLA-DOA ... class II, DO alpha". Piatier-Tonneau D, Gastinel LN, Amblard F, et al. (1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens ... 1994). "HLA class II antigens and the HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 bind to the same face of CD4". J. Immunol. 152 (9): 4475- ... "Isolation and characterization of the cDNA clone and genomic clones of a new HLA class II antigen heavy chain, DO alpha". J. ...
A1::DQ2 was at the forefront of histocompatibility science, A1 was the first numerical antigen HL-A1 identified in the late ... so that susceptibility moves from class II to Class III or Class I loci.[3] The association with class I would be unusual since ... this includes 3 class I genes, the class III gene region, and 2 class II genes.[40] Research published in October 2015 by the ... Goldberg MA, Arnett FC, Bias WB, Shulman LE (1976). "Histocompatibility antigens in systemic lupus erythematosus". Arthritis ...
... antigen - antigen presentation - antigen-presenting cell (APC) - antineoplastic - antiprotozoal - antiretroviral drugs - ... histocompatibility testing - histoplasmosis - HIV disease - HIV prevention trials network (HPTN) - HIV set point - HIV vaccine ... AIDS education and training centers (AETC) - AIDS orphan - AIDS research advisory committee (ARAC) - AIDS service organization ... human leukocyte antigens (HLA) - human papilloma virus (HPV) - human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) - human T cell ...
... bind antigenic peptides presented on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells. ... or display stress markers such as MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence A (MIC-A). Decreased expression of MHC class I and ... These cells bind antigens presented on MHC I complex of virus-infected or tumour cells and kill them. Nearly all nucleated ... Basophils are chiefly responsible for allergic and antigen response by releasing the chemical histamine causing the dilation of ...
rid the body of neutralized antigen-antibody complexes.. Elements of the complement cascade can be found in many non-mammalian ... They are found among all classes of life. These peptides are potent, broad spectrum antibiotics. They kill both gram negative ... major histocompatibility complex). This can occur in viral infections of host cells.[8] They were named "natural killer" ... Activates the adaptive immune system through a process known as antigen presentation. ...
... cells from autologous natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity despite the reduction of major histocompatibility complex class ... Lee YJ، Luisiri P، Clark MR (1996). "A novel complex, p40/42, is constitutively associated with the B cell antigen receptor and ... "Distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in ZAP-70 mediate activation and negative regulation of antigen receptor function" ...
Peptide antigens are displayed by the major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC) proteins on the surface of antigen- ... helping the virus propagate by preventing antigen presentation on the major histocompatibility complex.[63] ... Many MHC class I alleles prefer hydrophobic C-terminal residues, and the immunoproteasome complex is more likely to generate ... The strength of MHC class I ligand binding is dependent on the composition of the ligand C-terminus, as peptides bind by ...
Normal body cells are not recognized and attacked by NK cells because they express intact self MHC antigens. Those MHC antigens ... Toll-like receptors are a major class of pattern recognition receptor, that exists in all coelomates (animals with a body- ... major histocompatibility complex) - a situation that can arise in viral infections of host cells.[8] They were named "natural ... Members of every class of pathogen that infect humans also infect plants. Although the exact pathogenic species vary with the ...
Minor histocompatibility antigens, a conceptually similar antigen class are also correctly identified by MHC binding algorithms ... Tumor antigens[edit]. Tumor antigens are those antigens that are presented by MHC class I or MHC class II molecules on the ... Antigens can be classified according to their source. Exogenous antigens[edit]. Exogenous antigens are antigens that have ... T-independent antigen - Antigens that stimulate B cells directly.. *Immunodominant antigens - Antigens that dominate (over all ...
... that is responsible for recognizing fragments of antigen as peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules ... MHC class II) or any other cell type (MHC class I) [11] High on-rate and off-rate is characteristic for TCR and peptide/MHC ... T-cell sensitivity to antigen could be increased via avidity-based mechanism. The antigen sensitivity is higher in antigen- ... Each recombined TCR possess unique antigen specificity, determined by the structure of the antigen-binding site formed by the α ...
Seperti reseptor sel T, CD8 mengikat pada molekul major histocompatibility complex (MHC), tetapi CD8 spesifik pada MHC kelas I. ... Gao G, Jakobsen B (2000). "Molecular interactions of coreceptor CD8 and MHC class I: the molecular basis for functional ... Human CD Antigen Chart. *CD8 alpha - Marker for cytotoxic T lymphocytes [1] ...
CD4+ Th1 helper T cells recognize antigen in a complex with the MHC class II major histocompatibility complex on the surface of ... Schwann cell antigen. Neuritis, paralysis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis[1]. Thyroglobulin antigen. Hypothyroidism, hard goiter, ... Target antigen. Effects. Allergic contact dermatitis[1]. Environmental chemicals, like urushiol (from poison ivy and poison oak ... Myelin antigens (e.g., myelin basic protein). Myelin destruction, inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis[1]. Possibly collagen and/ ...
... pathogen clippings as antigen on their cell surface by coupling them to a special receptor known as a major histocompatibility ... Classes. *Conjugate vaccine. *DNA vaccination. *Inactivated vaccine. *Live vector vaccine *Attenuated vaccine ... Second, adjuvants may provide physical protection to antigens which grants the antigen a prolonged delivery. This means that ... or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens."[2] ...
... that can recognize a tumor cell antigen in a manner that is independent of the major histocompatibility complex and which can ... Education Program. 2013 (1): 596-600. doi:10.1182/asheducation-2013.1.596. PMC 4729208. PMID 24319237.. ... Human Antibodies Against Cell Surface Tumor Antigens Selected From Repertoires Displayed on T Cell Chimeric Antigen Receptors" ... "In Kantarjian HM, Wolff RA (eds.). The MD Anderson Manual of Medical Oncology (3 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education. ...
The major histocompatibility complexes (MHC).. The first two, which are involved in the recognition of antigens, are inherently ... 2002) injected an anti-MHC Class II antibody into mice expressing a single type of MHC Class II molecule (H-2b) to temporarily ... any antibody produced against this antigen (which mimics the self-antigens) can also, in theory, bind to the host antigens, and ... Molecular Mimicry - An exogenous antigen may share structural similarities with certain host antigens; thus, ...
Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility complex and T-cell receptors in the absence of antigen presentation ... Education[edit]. A large international collaboration entitled the "Surviving Sepsis Campaign" was established in 2002[122] to ... Upon detection of microbial antigens, the host systemic immune system is activated. Immune cells not only recognise pathogen- ...
Vertebrates inherit several copies of both MHC class I and MHC class II from each parent, which are used in antigen ... Major histocompatibility complex in animals[edit]. One example of where particular genes may be important in vertebrate animals ... This will also mean that the immunity acquired to the pathogen will be against a greater range of antigens, meaning that the ... are a class of non-coding small RNAs which repress the translation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or cause degradation of mRNAs.[14] ...
HLA-DQ is part of the MHC class II antigen-presenting receptor (also called the human leukocyte antigen) system and ... Marsh MN (1992). "Gluten, major histocompatibility complex, and the small intestine. A molecular and immunobiologic approach to ... Modern anti-tTG assays rely on a human recombinant protein as an antigen.[89] tTG testing should be done first as it is an ... Tissue Antigens. 47 (2): 127-33. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.1996.tb02525.x. PMID 8851726.. ...
Mizuki N, Meguro A, Tohnai I, Gül A, Ohno S, Mizuki N (2007). "Association of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Chain- ... B51 is a split antigen of the broad antigen B5, and is a sister serotype of B52.[2] There are a large number of alleles within ... Tissue Antigens. 61 (1): 20-48. doi:10.1034/j.1399-0039.2003.610103.x. PMID 12622774. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008- ... "Tissue Antigens. 65 (4): 301-69. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0039.2005.00379.x. PMC 2396006. PMID 15787720.. .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Major histocompatibility complex/. Human leukocyte antigen. MHC class I. *HLA-A. *HLA-B ... antigen processing and presentation. • antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class I, TAP- ... HLA-B (major histocompatibility complex, class I, B) is a human gene that provides instructions for making a protein that plays ... antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via MHC class I. • regulation of dendritic cell differentiation. • ...
Genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, as well as the class I and class II genes, are closely linked within the ... all cells are capable of presenting antigen through the function of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules.[5] Some ... antigen complex is recognized by T-cells passing through the lymph node. Exogenous antigens are usually displayed on MHC class ... Endogenous antigens are typically displayed on MHC class I molecules, and activate CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells. With the exception ...
"Expression of class I and class II major histocompatibility complex antigens on human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 8 (3): 449-54. ... anti soluble liver antigen (SLA), liver-pancreas antigen (LP), and anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA)) are of use, as is finding ... Anomalous presentation of MHC class II receptors on the surface of liver cells,[2] possibly due to genetic predisposition or ... Positive antibodies against soluble liver antigen[14] (this group behaves like group 1)[15] (anti-SLA, anti-LP) ...
Antigens of phagocytosed graft cells can also be presented by the host's class I MHC molecules to CD8+ T cells.[1][29] ... This is the reason the organs would have to be altered to fit the patients' DNA (histocompatibility). ... Indirect xenorecognition involves the presentation of antigens from the xenograft by recipient antigen presenting cells to CD4+ ... In direct xenorecognition, antigen presenting cells from the xenograft present peptides to recipient CD4+ T cells via ...
A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... Huard B, Tournier M, Hercend T, Triebel F, and Faure F. Lymphocyte-activation gene 3/major histocompatibility complex class II ... A new ligand for human leukocyte antigen class II antigens". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 176 (2): 327-37. doi:10.1084 ... antigen processing and presentation of exogenous peptide antigen via MHC class II. ...
... can recognize their target antigen that is presented by the MHC class II molecules. The memory helper T cell subsequently ... encoding cell surface molecules called major histocompatibility complex (MHC), classes I and II, correlate with the rapidity ... When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the surfaces of the target ... Unlike virtually all other mammals, humans and other primates do not make αGal, and in fact recognize it as an antigen.[12] ...
Major histocompatibility complex/. Human leukocyte antigen. MHC class I. *HLA-A. *HLA-B ... HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DOA, DOB, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. ... Different classes have different functions:. HLAs corresponding to MHC class I (A, B, and C) present peptides from inside the ... Self-antigens are suppressed by regulatory T cells.. HLAs corresponding to MHC class III encode components of the complement ...
The human butyrophilin gene is localized in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I region of 6p and may have arisen ... Butyrophilin has been presented as a potential antigen which may be similar enough to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG ... 2001). "The cluster of BTN genes in the extended major histocompatibility complex". Genomics. 71 (3): 351-62. doi:10.1006/geno. ... 1999). "Multiple forms of lactadherin (breast antigen BA46) and butyrophilin are secreted into human milk as major components ...
MHC class I molecules are the main mechanism by which cells display viral or tumor antigens to cytotoxic T cells. A common ... Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine ... Infusions of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor that recognizes an antigen molecule on leukemia cells ... which subsequently enables antigen-specific T and B cell responses. Instead of acting via antigen-specific receptors, lysis of ...
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and body odor preferencesEdit. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a genotype ... Oracle Education Foundation (25 Aug 2010). "Your Sense of Smell - The Senses". ThinkQuest Library. Archived from the original ... diversity within the MHC genotype is beneficial for the immune system due to a greater range of antigens available to the host ... In 2001, a study found that the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (a polymorphic set of genes which is important for ...
In mice, a nonamer peptide originating from the SPP protein serves as minor histocompatibility antigen HM13 that plays a role ... Physiologically SPP processes signal peptides of classical MHC class I preproteins. A nine amino acid-long cleavage fragment is ... Snell GD, Cudkowicz G, Bunker HP (Jun 1967). "Histocompatibility genes of mice. VII. H-13, a new histocompatibility locus in ... "Entrez Gene: H13 histocompatibility (minor) 13". Friedmann E, Hauben E, Maylandt K, et al. (2006). "SPPL2a and SPPL2b promote ...
Schwartz O, Maréchal V, Le Gall S, Lemonnier F, Heard JM (1996년 3월). "Endocytosis of major histocompatibility complex class I ... "HIV-1 Nef impairs MHC class II antigen presentation and surface expression". 》Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.》 98 (21): 12144-9. ... Nef단백질(p27)은 T세포의 CD4(주요 바이러스 수용체)뿐만 아니라 MHC class I, MHC class II분자를 저해한다.[62][63][64] Nef는 또한 SH3도메인과 상호작용한다. Vpu단백질(p16)은 ... AEGiS.org: AIDS Education Global Information System- Patient/clinician information & Historical news and treatment database ...
Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2.. Bjorkman PJ1, Saper MA, Samraoui B, Bennett WS, Strominger ... The class I histocompatibility antigen from human cell membranes has two structural motifs: the membrane-proximal end of the ... A large groove between the alpha-helices provides a binding site for processed foreign antigens. An unknown antigen is found ...
Major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent antigen presentation by human intestinal endothelial cells.. Haraldsen G1, ... class II molecules. Enhanced expression is found in chronic inflammation. We examined the cytokine regulation of MHC class II ... Tumor necrosis factor alpha had no effect alone but enhanced class II expression in combination with IFN-gamma, most notably ... This response was inhibited by blocking monoclonal antibody to HLA-DR and by chloroquine when compared to professional antigen- ...
To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta ... also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain). In the endosomal/lysosomal system; CD74 ... Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the ... MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in B-cells, in order to release CLIP and facilitate the binding of ...
... reticulum to the endosomal/lysosomal system where the antigen processing and binding of antigenic peptides to MHC class II ... Plays a critical role in MHC class II antigen processing by stabilizing peptide-free class II alpha/beta heterodimers in a ... HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chainAdd BLAST. 296. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... MHC class II protein binding Source: BHF-UCL. *MHC class II protein binding, via antigen binding groove Source: UniProtKB ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 3 chain - P79483 (DRB3_HUMAN) ... To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta ... also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain). In the endosomal/lysosomal system; CD74 ... Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells (APC) and presents them on the ...
Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a ... Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a ... Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a ... Beta 2-microglobulin is not required for cell surface expression of the murine class I histocompatibility antigen H-2Db or of a ...
cDNA FLJ51376, highly similar to HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain GImported. ,p>Information which has been ... tr,B4DXN2,B4DXN2_HUMAN cDNA FLJ51376, highly similar to HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain G OS=Homo sapiens ... cDNA FLJ51376, highly similar to HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain G. ... State Secretariat for Education, Research and InnovationSERI. Wed like to inform you that we have updated our Privacy Notice ...
Presentation of exogenous antigen with class I major histocompatibility complex molecules Message Subject. (Your Name) has ... Soluble antigens (Ags) in the extracellular fluids are excluded from the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)- ... These APCs express class II molecules and can simultaneously present exogenous Ags to both class I and class II MHC-restricted ... However, an exogenous Ag can be internalized, processed, and presented in association with class I MHC molecules on specialized ...
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [Golgi membrane] HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 ... Homologues of HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [plasma membrane] (Sus scrofa) * HLA class II ... Homologues of HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [plasma membrane] (Sus scrofa) * HLA class II ... Homologues of HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DR beta 5 chain [plasma membrane] (Sus scrofa) * HLA class II ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 alpha chain [Golgi membrane] HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 alpha ... MHC Class I [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 alpha chain [plasma membrane] (Homo ... MHC Class I [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 alpha chain [plasma membrane] (Homo ... MHC Class I [plasma membrane] (Homo sapiens) * HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 alpha chain [plasma membrane] (Homo ...
In this disease a marked increase in MHC class I expression was found, closely associated with viral antigens and inflammatory ... The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens in the brain differs markedly in acute and persistent ... In this disease a marked increase in MHC class I expression was found, closely associated with viral antigens and inflammatory ... but no inflammatory cells or focal increase in MHC class I. Failure of infected neurons to express MHC class I allows them to ...
Cytokines Required for Induction of Histocompatibility Leukocyte Antigen-class I-restricted and Tumor-specific Cytotoxic T ... INF-gamma gene transfer restores HLA-class I expression and MAGE-3 antigen presentation to CTL in HLA-deficient small cell lung ... Role of antigen, CD8, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) avidity in high dose antigen induction of apoptosis of effector CTL ... Analysis of the MHC class I antigen presentation machinery in human embryonal carcinomas: evidence for deficiencies in TAP, LMP ...
Compare and order HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain E ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, E alpha chain , HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain E , MHC HLA-E alpha ... HLAE Antigen Profile Antigen Summary HLA-E belongs to the HLA class I heavy chain paralogues. This class I molecule is a ... HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain E ELISA Kit. 13 products by 9 suppliers: Abbexa , Elabscience , Biomatik , ...
Compare and order HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, ... HLA G antigen , HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, alpha chain G , HLA class I molecule , HLA-G histocompatibility antigen ... HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G (HLAG) ELISA Kit HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G ( ... HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G (HLAG) ELISA Kit HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain G ( ...
H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain, Ia antigen-associated invariant chain, Ii, MHC class II-associated ... Product Description: Immunotag™ H-2 class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain ELISA Kit ...
Expression of Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens in Epstein-Barr Virus-carrying Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and ... Expression of Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens in Epstein-Barr Virus-carrying Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and ... Expression of Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens in Epstein-Barr Virus-carrying Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and ... Expression of Class I Major Histocompatibility Complex Antigens in Epstein-Barr Virus-carrying Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and ...
... a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class 1 molecule on cytotrophoblasts.. S K Sanders, P A Giblin, P Kavathas ... Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, a nonclassical major histocompatibility ... Of particular interest is human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G which is expressed on placental cytotrophoblast ... Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, ...
Histocompatibility Antigens Class II information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical ... Histocompatibility Antigens Class II. Description of Histocompatibility Antigens Class II. Histocompatibility Antigens Class II ... Terms Similar to Histocompatibility Antigens Class II:. *Antigens, Immune Response *Class II Antigens *Ia Antigens *Ia-Like ... HLA-D Antigens Source - MeSH 2007 Broader terms for Histocompatibility Antigens Class II. *Histocompatibility Antigens Source ...
In vitro expression of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens by conditionally immortalized murine neural stem ... In vitro expression of major histocompatibility class I and class II antigens by conditionally immortalized murine neural stem ... Here we report that MHP36 cells express both MHC class I and class II antigens when grown in culture under proliferative ... The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on the surface of cells is intimately linked to in vivo graft ...
... prevents antigen presentation by blocking the transport of peptide-loaded major histocompatibility complex class I molecules ... genes leads to the presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule L a of a peptide derived from ... The finding that during the E phase of MCMV gene expression the MHC class I heavy chain glycosylation remained in an Endo H- ... 58:305). We report on the mechanism by which MCMV early genes interfere with antigen presentation. Expression of the IE ...
Viral gene inhibition of class I major histocompatibility antigen expression: not a general mechanism governing the ... Viral gene inhibition of class I major histocompatibility antigen expression: not a general mechanism governing the ... Viral gene inhibition of class I major histocompatibility antigen expression: not a general mechanism governing the ... Viral gene inhibition of class I major histocompatibility antigen expression: not a general mechanism governing the ...
... antigens in the Lebanese population. We describe the frequency and distribution of MHC class I antigens present in the A, B and ... there have been no studies on the major histocompatibility (MHC) ... Major histocompatibility class I antigens in the Lebanese ... In this work, we describe antigen and gene frequencies of the A, B and C loci of the major histocompatibility (MHC) class I ... Major histocompatibility class I antigens in the Lebanese population Section menu. You are here. *Eastern Mediterranean Health ...
Recombinant Protein and RT1 class I histocompatibility antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein ... Shop RT1 class I histocompatibility antigen ELISA Kit, ... RT1 class I histocompatibility antigen. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT CART ... RT1 class I histocompatibility antigen, AA alpha chain. RT1 class I histocompatibility antigen, AA alpha chain ELISA Kit. RT1 ... RT1 class I histocompatibility antigen, AA alpha chain Antibody. a class Ib gene of the rat major histocompatibility complex [ ...
Recombinant Protein and Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein ... Shop Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen ELISA Kit, ... Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen. LOG IN MY ACCOUNT ... Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain. Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain ELISA Kit. ... Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain Antibody. Also known as Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR ...
Tag: Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complexMHC). The bacterial cell ... In comparison to Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complex(MHC),is a ... Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complexMHC), PHA-665752 ... This molecule plays a major role in cellular interaction during antigen presentation the cytoplasmic proteins (the rest of the ...
HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain E, MHC Class I Antigen E, HLA-6.2, H, item number: H6098-68F.50 from United ... Anti-HLA-E (HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain E, MHC Class I Antigen E, HLA-6.2, H ... Customer review for "Anti-HLA-E (HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain E, MHC Class I Antigen E, HLA-6.2, H" ... Product information "Anti-HLA-E (HLA Class I Histocompatibility Antigen, alpha Chain E, MHC Class I Antigen E, HLA-6.2, H" ...
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 alpha chain [plasma membrane] HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 alpha ... Class I MHC heavy chain (MHC HC) [recycling endosome membrane] (Homo sapiens) * HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 ... Class I MHC mediated antigen processing & presentation (Homo sapiens) * Antigen processing-Cross presentation (Homo sapiens) * ... HLA class I histocompatibility antigen, A-66 alpha chain [recycling endosome membrane] Stable Identifier ...
... and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene-A (MICA) antibodies and proteinuria with graft survival 5 years ... BACKGROUND Association of de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ... leukocyte antigen and major histocompatibility complex class I ... BACKGROUND Association of de novo human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene ... Association of de novo human leukocyte antigen and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene-A antibodies and ...
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Antigen capture and major histocompatibility class II compartments of freshly isolated and cultured human blood dendritic cells ... Antigen capture and major histocompatibility class II compartments of freshly isolated and cultured human blood dendritic cells ... Major histocompatibility complex class II compartments in human B lymphoblastoid cells are distinct from early endosomes. ... c-DC express much more cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II than f-DC. The uptake of colloidal gold- ...
  • In the normal gut, human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (HIMECs) express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. (nih.gov)
  • We examined the cytokine regulation of MHC class II molecules and the associated invariant chain (Ii) in HIMECs and investigated whether such cells can process and present a complex protein antigen to T cells. (nih.gov)
  • The peptides presented by MHC class II molecules are generated mostly by degradation of proteins that access the endocytic route, where they are processed by lysosomal proteases and other hydrolases. (rcsb.org)
  • Exogenous antigens that have been endocytosed by the APC are thus readily available for presentation via MHC II molecules, and for this reason this antigen presentation pathway is usually referred to as exogenous. (rcsb.org)
  • In addition to APC s, other cells of the gastrointestinal tract, such as epithelial cells, express MHC class II molecules and CD74 and act as APC s, which is an unusual trait of the GI tract. (rcsb.org)
  • To produce a MHC class II molecule that presents an antigen, three MHC class II molecules (heterodimers of an alpha and a beta chain) associate with a CD74 trimer in the ER to form a heterononamer. (rcsb.org)
  • HLA-DM stabilizes MHC class II molecules until primary high affinity antigenic peptides are bound. (rcsb.org)
  • In B-cells, the interaction between HLA-DM and MHC class II molecules is regulated by HLA-DO. (rcsb.org)
  • Lysosomal microenvironment has been implicated in the regulation of antigen loading into MHC II molecules, increased acidification produces increased proteolysis and efficient peptide loading. (rcsb.org)
  • 3 MHC class II molecules bind to a CD74 homotrimer (also known as invariant chain or HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain). (rcsb.org)
  • However, an exogenous Ag can be internalized, processed, and presented in association with class I MHC molecules on specialized Ag-presenting cells (APCs). (sciencemag.org)
  • These APCs express class II molecules and can simultaneously present exogenous Ags to both class I and class II MHC-restricted T cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • The lymphocyte differentiation marker CD8 acts as a coreceptor with the T cell receptor (TCR) during recognition of peptide presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. (rupress.org)
  • While the ability of the CD8 alpha/alpha homodimer to bind to classical MHC class I molecules has been shown, it is unclear whether CD8 can also bind nonclassical molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Here we report that MHP36 cells express both MHC class I and class II antigens when grown in culture under proliferative conditions (33 degrees C), whereas cells with a differentiated morphology in the non-proliferative (37-39 degrees C) condition express low to undetectable levels of either MHC molecules. (open.ac.uk)
  • HLA-E belongs to the MHC Class I molecules (MHC Class Ib, nonclassical) and it is expressed on. (biomol.com)
  • The published results revealed that the antibody cross-reacts with some classical MHC Class I molecules (MHC Class Ia): HLA-B7 (strongly), HLA-B8 (moderately), HLA-B27, -B44 (weakly). (biomol.com)
  • The most striking discovery is that the majority of MHC class II molecules in both f-DC and c-DC occur in intracellular vacuoles with a complex shape (multivesicular and multilaminar). (rupress.org)
  • When engaged by human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen class I molecules, CD94 downmodulates activation of human TCR-γ/δ by phosphorylated ligands. (rupress.org)
  • Activation of NK cells is modulated by inhibitory receptors that interact with MHC class I molecules. (rupress.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-E and HLA-G molecules act as powerful modulators of the innate immune response. (elsevier.com)
  • Class I molecules play a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from endoplasmic reticulum lumen. (nih.gov)
  • The heterodimer, HLA-DO, is found in lysosomes in B cells and regulates HLA-DM-mediated peptide loading on MHC class II molecules. (nih.gov)
  • In comparison with classical HLA class II molecules, this gene exhibits very little sequence variation, especially at the protein level. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusions - These results emphasize the importance of specifically screening heart transplantation candidates for the presence of IgG antibodies directed against MHC class II molecules and suggest that strategies aimed at their reduction may have an impact on the onset and frequency of high-grade cellular rejections after transplantation. (elsevier.com)
  • However, there is death by apoptosis of thymocytes that do not interact with MHC molecules or have high-affinity receptors for self MHC plus self antigen a process referred to as negative selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stroynowski, I 1990, ' Molecules related to class-I major histocompatibility complex antigens ', Annual Review of Immunology , vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 501-530. (elsevier.com)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules bind processed peptide (p) fragments ( 1 ) within a defined cleft. (pnas.org)
  • Peptide antigens were presented by class II molecules displayed on BLS cells, although the conformation of these class II proteins was altered as indicated by epitope mapping. (elsevier.com)
  • Thus, two important functionally linked pathways of class II molecules, structural gene expression and antigen presentation, share a common regulatory pathway defective in BLS. (elsevier.com)
  • This interaction is mediated through the T cell receptor complex with associate recognition of class II molecules by the CD4 molecule. (duke.edu)
  • Induction of homotypic adhesion was dependent on energy metabolism and a functional cytoskeleton, and class II+ pre-B cells did not exhibit adhesion in response to these stimuli, suggesting that cross-linking of class II molecules generated a transmembrane signal and did not simply aggregate cells. (duke.edu)
  • We used an epitope discovery system, based on recombinant MHC class I molecules that cover the most frequent Caucasian alleles [human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-A*0101, A*0201, A*0301, A*1101, A*2402, B*0702, B*0801 and B*1501], to identify MHC class I-binding peptides from overlapping 9-mer peptides representing the Mtb protein TB10.4. (jpt.com)
  • Thus, sequestration of self antigens and MHC II molecules in distinct cell types in the thymic microenvironment allows potentially autoreactive and functionally competent CD4 + T cells that recognize cryptic MHC II-restricted self peptides to mature into the peripheral T cell repertoire under normal physiological circumstances. (elsevier.com)
  • Studies in vitro have suggested that a species barrier exists in functional interaction between human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II and mouse CD4 molecules. (elsevier.com)
  • However, whether mouse CD4 + T cells restricted by HLA class II molecules are generated in HLA class II transgenic mice and respond to peptide antigens across this barrier has remained unclear. (elsevier.com)
  • Inhibition studies with several monoclonal antibodies showed that transgenic HLA class II molecules presented these peptides to mouse CD4 + T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, T cell lines specific for HA 307 or M6C2 obtained from the transgenic mice could respond to the peptide in the context of relevant HLA class II molecules expressed on mouse L cell transfectants that lack the expression of mouse MHC class II. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings indicate that interaction between HLA class II and mouse CD4 molecules is sufficient for provoking peptide-specific HLA class II-restricted T cell responses in HLA class II transgenic mice. (elsevier.com)
  • We used a "hit and run" gene targeting strategy to generate mice expressing only the p31 isoform of the conserved invariant (Ii) chain associated with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Binding of viral antigens to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules is a critical step in the activation process of CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (scripps.edu)
  • Our findings were validated by showing that a single mutation of a favorable non-anchor residue in the sequence of known viral epitopes for a negative element resulted in dramatic reduction of antigen presentation properties, while conversely, substitution of one negative for a positive element in the sequence of a non-binder conferred to the peptide an ability to now bind to MHC molecules. (scripps.edu)
  • Cresswell P. Assembly, transport, and function of MHC class II molecules (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Histocompatibility antigens are molecules on the surface of all cells in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Class II molecules are expressed in antigen presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages). (cancerindex.org)
  • T cells require presentation via MHC molecules to recognize foreign antigens - a requirement known as MHC restriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-cell adhesion mediated by CD8 and human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen G, a nonclassical major histocompatibility complex class 1 molecule on cytotrophoblasts. (rupress.org)
  • Of particular interest is human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G which is expressed on placental cytotrophoblast cells. (rupress.org)
  • Data on histocompatibility antigens in patients and in population groups are becoming increasingly important, not only in the ever-expanding field of organ transplantation, but also in the area of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) association with a number of diseases. (who.int)
  • Association of de novo human leukocyte antigen and major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene-A antibodies and proteinuria with graft survival 5 years after renal transplantation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G-specific receptor expressed on all natural killer cells. (receptome.org)
  • Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) , any of the numerous antigens (substances capable of stimulating an immune response) involved in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in humans. (britannica.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the possible role of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) as a peptide carrier between TAP and MHC-I. Analysis of PDI-peptide complexes reconstituted in vitro showed that PDI exhibits some degree of specificity for peptides corresponding to antigenic ligands of various human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles. (elsevier.com)
  • Synergistic effect of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain a and human leukocyte antigen-DPB1 mismatches in association with acut. (cdc.gov)
  • Synergistic effect of major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain a and human leukocyte antigen-DPB1 mismatches in association with acute graft-versus-host disease after unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (cdc.gov)
  • Linkage disequilibrium between the human leukocyte antigen class II region of the major histocompatibility complex and Graves' disease: replication using a population case control and family-based study. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Recent reports, claim the DQA1 allele, DQA1*0501, to be the primary susceptibility determinant within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II region. (ox.ac.uk)
  • HLA-B is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene is part of a family of genes called the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a group of related proteins that are encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene complex in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • As membrane proteins on their way to degradation in lysosomes as part of their normal turn-over are also contained in the endosomal/lysosomal compartments, exogenous antigens must compete with those derived from endogenous components. (rcsb.org)
  • The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • These peptides are normally around 9-12 amino acids in length and are bound to both the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and class II proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • This contrasts with MHC class II molecules's antigens which are peptides derived from phagocytosis/endocytosis and molecular degradation of non-self entities' proteins, usually by antigen-presenting cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Minor histocompatibility antigens are due to normal proteins that are in themselves polymorphic in a given population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even when a transplant donor and recipient are identical with respect to their major histocompatibility complex genes, the amino acid differences in minor proteins can cause the grafted tissue to be slowly rejected. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that while infection with wild-type Ad enhances synthesis of the NKG2D ligands, major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related proteins A and B (MICA and MICB), their expression on the cell surface is actively suppressed. (nih.gov)
  • The proteasome is a major enzyme that cleaves proteins for antigen presentation. (nebraska.edu)
  • Cleaved peptides traffic to the cell surface, where they are presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Recognition of these complexes by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is crucial for elimination of cells bearing "nonself" proteins. (nebraska.edu)
  • The organisms, now called schistosomula, incorporate host proteins, including major histocompatibility complexes (MHCs) and blood group antigens, into their integuments. (medscape.com)
  • The molecular definition of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-presented CD8(+) T-cell epitopes from clinically relevant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) target proteins will aid in the rational design of T-cell-based diagnostics of tuberculosis (TB) and the measurement of TB vaccine-take. (jpt.com)
  • MHC class I genes provide instructions for making proteins that are present on the surface of almost all cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • MHC class I proteins display these peptides to the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes code for key proteins of the adaptive immune system, which present antigens from intra-cellular (MHC class I) and extra-cellular (MHC class II) pathogens. (nature.com)
  • The proteins encoded by certain genes are also known as antigens, as a result of their historic discovery as factors in organ transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • MHC class I proteins associate with β2-microglobulin, which unlike the HLA proteins is encoded by a gene on chromosome 15. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aside from the genes encoding the six major antigen-presenting proteins, there are many other genes, many involved in immune function, located on the HLA complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins from the pathogen are digested into small pieces (peptides) and loaded onto HLA antigens (to be specific, MHC class II). (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a similar process, proteins (both native and foreign, such as the proteins of virus) produced inside most cells are displayed on HLAs (to be specific, MHC class I) on the cell surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent antigen presentation by human intestinal endothelial cells. (nih.gov)
  • Soluble antigens (Ags) in the extracellular fluids are excluded from the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-restricted pathway of Ag presentation in most cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Selective expression of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) immediate-early (IE) genes leads to the presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecule L a of a peptide derived from MCMV IE protein pp89 (Reddehase, M. J., J. B. Rothbard, and U. H. Koszinowski. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We report on the mechanism by which MCMV early genes interfere with antigen presentation. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Expression of the IE promoter-driven bacterial gene lacZ by recombinant MCMV subjected antigen presentation of B-galactosidase to the same control and excluded antigen specificity. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Involved in the presentation of foreign antigens to the immune system. (mybiosource.com)
  • Previous work on antigen uptake and presentation by human DC is based largely on studies of blood DC that have been cultured for various periods of time before analysis. (rupress.org)
  • These cultured cells may therefore have undergone a maturation process from precursors that have different capacities for antigen capture and presentation. (rupress.org)
  • We have now used immunoelectron microscopy and antigen presentation assays to compare freshly isolated DC (f-DC) and cultured DC (c-DC). (rupress.org)
  • PURPOSE CD74 (HLA-DR-associated invariant chain) plays a role in antigen presentation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Important modulator in the HLA class II restricted antigen presentation pathway by interaction with the HLA-DM molecule in B-cells. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, the capacity of E3/19K to inhibit transport of HLA class I (HLA-I) to the cell surface, thereby preventing peptide presentation to CD8(+) T cells, has long been recognized as a paradigm for viral immune evasion. (nih.gov)
  • We hypothesized that proteasome suppression reduces the hydrolysis of antigenic peptides, thereby decreasing the presentation of the peptide MHC class I complexes on the cell surface. (nebraska.edu)
  • However, in primary hepatocytes, even in the absence of IFNγ, we observed a similar decline in proteasome activity and antigen presentation after ethanol exposure. (nebraska.edu)
  • The RMA-S mutant T cell line is defective in H-2 b restricted antigen presentation and has markedly reduced surface expression of K b and D b . (elsevier.com)
  • For major histocompatibility complex class I-restricted presentation to CD8 + T cells, this can occur via the cross-presentation pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • We show that the level of antigen expressed by peripheral tissues must be relatively high to facilitate cross-presentation to naive CD8 + T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Below this level, peripheral antigens did not stimulate by cross-presentation and were ignored by naive CD8 + T cells, although they could sensitize tissue cells for destruction by activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). (elsevier.com)
  • Interestingly, CTL-mediated tissue destruction facilitated cross-presentation of low dose antigens for activation of naive CD8 + T cells. (elsevier.com)
  • This represents the first in vivo evidence that cellular destruction can enhance access of exogenous antigens to the cross-presentation pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • These data indicate that the cross-presentation pathway focuses on high dose antigens and those released during tissue destruction. (elsevier.com)
  • Immunocompetence- as assessed by functional exogenous antigen presentation, was not restored in immortalized B cells, derived from a BLS patient, after transfection with HLA-DR class II structural genes. (elsevier.com)
  • This defect in antigen presentation was independent of the specific class II DR allele transfected into BLS cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Similarly, functional class II dimers were restored after in vitro fusion of cells derived from two distinct BLS complementation groups, implying that specific transcriptional control elements are shared by a gene critical for antigen presentation and genes encoding HLA class II antigens. (elsevier.com)
  • Major histocompatibility class II peptide occupancy, antigen presentation, and CD4+ T cell function in mice lacking the p41 isoform of invariant chain. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The protein encoded by this gene associates with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and is an important chaperone that regulates antigen presentation for immune response. (cancerindex.org)
  • Stress presents a problem for dendritic cells: corticosterone and the fate of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • DCs are specialized for antigen acquisition (by direct infection or uptake from neighboring cells), transport, processing, and MHC class I-restricted presentation of antigen to CTL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This minireview provides an overview of the components of MHC class I antigen processing and presentation pathway and describes our recent published work on the effects of corticosterone on this process in virally infected DCs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This impairment of antigen processing and presentation by corticosterone was also observed in non-immune cells, suggesting that stress may affect essential cellular protein management functions in all cells, and having possible implications for neurological or other diseases that may result from aberrant protein processing. (biomedsearch.com)
  • also referred as MHC class II molecule. (rcsb.org)
  • leaving a small fragment termed CLIP on each MHC class II molecule. (rcsb.org)
  • MHC class II molecule interacts with HLA_DM, and HLA_DO in B-cells, in order to release CLIP and facilitate the binding of antigenic peptides. (rcsb.org)
  • The conformation of the Db antigen expressed by the R1E transfectant is very different from that of the native molecule. (pnas.org)
  • This class I molecule is a heterodimer consisting of a heavy chain and a light chain (beta-2 microglobulin). (nih.gov)
  • Polymorphisms within exon 2 and exon 3 are responsible for the peptide binding specificity of each class one molecule. (nih.gov)
  • Antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecule. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Both the peptide and the MHC molecule are recognized by TCR, the peptide is responsible for the fine specificity of antigen recognition and MHC residues account for the MHC restriction of T cells (PubMed:12796775, PubMed:18275829, PubMed:19542454, PubMed:28250417). (icr.ac.uk)
  • These endogenous or self peptides are then transported into the endoplasmic reticulum with a peptide transporter pump called TAP where they encounter and bind to the MHC class I molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • During thymic selection occurring in the thymus, only a thymocyte TCR that recognizes either class I or class II MHC molecule plus peptide should survive positive selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most antigenic peptides are generated by proteasomes in the cytosol and are transported by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) into the endoplasmic reticulum, where they bind with nascent major histocompatibilitiy complex class I molecule (MHC-I). Although the overall process of peptide-MHC-I complex assembly is well studied, the mechanism by which free peptides are delivered from TAP to MHC-I is unknown. (elsevier.com)
  • Antibody - A molecule produced by the body that is part of the immune response to attack antigens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Antigen - A molecule that causes the body to produce an immunological response to attack the antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. (cancerindex.org)
  • Once a T cell recognizes a peptide within an MHC class II molecule, it can stimulate B-cells that also recognize the same molecule in their B cell receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because each person has their own histocompatibility antigen "fingerprint," there is no true normal result. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A large groove between the alpha-helices provides a binding site for processed foreign antigens. (nih.gov)
  • To activate naive T cells, foreign antigens must traffic from the site of infection to the draining lymph nodes, where they can be presented by professional antigen presenting cells. (elsevier.com)
  • Foreign antigens presented by MHC class I attract T-lymphocytes called killer T-cells (also referred to as CD8-positive or cytotoxic T-cells) that destroy cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Killer cell inhibitory receptors and CD94-NKG2-A/B heterodimers are major histocompatibility complex class I-specific inhibitory receptors expressed by natural killer cells, T cell antigen receptor (TCR)-γ/δ cells, and a subset of TCR-α/β cells. (rupress.org)
  • Minor histocompatibility antigen (also known as MiHA) are receptors on the cellular surface of donated organs that are known to give an immunological response in some organ transplants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both IFN-γ and IFN-α/β increase the steady-state level of Class I mRNA within 60 min of the treatment which leads to the subsequent surface expression of the H-2K b and H-2D b antigens, suggesting that undifferentiated F9 cells express IFN receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Both IFN-γ and IFN-α/β increase the steady-state level of Class I mRNA within 60 min of the treatment which leads to the subsequent surface expression of the H-2Kb and H-2Db antigens, suggesting that undifferentiated F9 cells express IFN receptors. (elsevier.com)
  • Residues within processed protein fragments bound to major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) glycoproteins have been considered to function as a series of "independent pegs" that either anchor the peptide (p) to the MHC-I and/or interact with the spectrum of αβ-T-cell receptors (TCRs) specific for the pMHC-I epitope in question. (pnas.org)
  • T cells have receptors that are similar to B cell receptors, and each T cell recognizes only a few MHC class II-peptide combinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. (umassmed.edu)
  • In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • The recipient developed GVHD despite having a HLA- matched genes at the Major Histocompatibility locus. (wikipedia.org)
  • H-Y antigens are encoded by genes on the Y chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • This Class I antigen induction in F9 cells is reminiscent of that observed in somite stage mouse embryos by IFN treatment and may offer a model system to study activation of MHC genes during development. (elsevier.com)
  • HLA antigens are programmed by a highly variable gene complex consisting of more than 200 genes, all of which occur on chromosome 6. (britannica.com)
  • HLA genes are divided into three distinct groups: class I, class II, and class III. (britannica.com)
  • The possibility of numerous variations in these genes serves a key role in providing the immune system with the ability to defend against a wide range of antigens. (britannica.com)
  • The human immunoddiciency, type II bare lymphocyte syndrome (BLS), has been attributed to a defect in the transcription of class II histocompatibility genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Genes in this complex are categorized into three basic groups: class I, class II, and class III. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In humans, the HLA-B gene and two related genes, HLA-A and HLA-C , are the main genes in MHC class I. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The PCR test is a new DNA-based test that can detect the presence or absence of antigens by determining whether cells have the genes for the antigens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene belongs to a group of MHC genes called MHC class II. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus, our data have important implications for the use of the B16 melanoma model in immunotherapeutical studies and the interpretation of their results as well as for the identification of the underlying mechanisms of the impaired expression of the antigen-processing genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we compared the evolution of MHC class I and class II genes in three sister clades of common passerine birds, finches (Fringillinae and Carduelinae) and buntings (Emberizidae) using a uniform methodological (genotyping and data processing) approach and uniform sample sizes. (nature.com)
  • In contrast, MHC class II genes showed greater allele divergence (in terms of nucleotide diversity) and a much stronger recombination (gene conversion) signal. (nature.com)
  • Gene copy numbers at both MHC class I and class II evolved via fluctuating selection and drift (Brownian Motion evolution), but the evolutionary rate was higher at class I. Our study constitutes one of few existing examples, where evolution of MHC class I and class II genes was directly compared using a multi-species approach. (nature.com)
  • 2007) Evolution of the major histocompatibility complex class I genes in Serinus canaria from the Canary Islands is different from that of Asian and African continental Serinus species. (nature.com)
  • Balasubramaniam S, Bray RD, Mulder RA, Sunnucks P, Pavlova A, Melville J (2016) New data from basal Australian songbird lineages show that complex structure of MHC class II β genes has early evolutionary origins within passerines. (nature.com)
  • This Db antigen is not recognized by Db-allospecific and Db-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes or by most monoclonal antibodies to the native Db. (pnas.org)
  • Identification of the immunodominant peptides of the MART-1 human melanoma antigen recognized by the majority of HLA-A2-restricted tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, down-regulation of class I antigens may contribute to the resistance of BL cells to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, whereas their enhanced expression may improve the recognition of EBV-infected LCLs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Although graft or bone marrow rejection can have detrimental effects, there are immunotherapy benefits when cytotoxic T lymphocytes are specific for a self antigen and can target antigens expressed selectively on leukemic cells in order to destroy these tumor cells referred to as graft-versus- leukemia effect (GVL). (wikipedia.org)
  • Incubation of protein antigens, as well as infectious virus, with DR-transfected BLS cells failed to induce activation of antigen-specific helper T lymphocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • CD4 binding to major histocompatibility complex class II antigens induces LFA-1-dependent and -independent homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes. (duke.edu)
  • Tetrameric HLA class I-minor histocompatibility antigen peptide complexes demonstrate minor histocompatibility antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in patients with graft-versus-host disease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The antigens can be grouped into two classes: class I antigens are found on almost all cells, and class II antigens are normally found only on B lymphocytes, macrophages, monocytes, dendritic cells, and endothelial cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • HLAs corresponding to MHC class II (DP, DM, DO, DQ, and DR) present antigens from outside of the cell to T-lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The frequency of bright tetramer-staining, high avidity minor histocompatibility antigen-specific CTLs increases significantly upon appropriate antigen-specific restimulations. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • This response was inhibited by blocking monoclonal antibody to HLA-DR and by chloroquine when compared to professional antigen-presenting cells, HIMECs activated T-cell clones quite efficiently. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that microvascular endothelial cells can present complex protein antigens in the human gut. (nih.gov)
  • Binds peptides derived from antigens that access the endocytic route of antigen presenting cells ( APC ) and presents them on the cell surface for recognition by the CD4 T-cells. (rcsb.org)
  • Mice inoculated at birth had persistent infections, with LCMV antigens found primarily in neurons, but no inflammatory cells or focal increase in MHC class I. Failure of infected neurons to express MHC class I allows them to escape destruction by cytotoxic T cells (CTL) but may increase their susceptibility to be persistently infected by non-lytic viruses. (nih.gov)
  • Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. (umassmed.edu)
  • These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells. (umassmed.edu)
  • In general, LCLs expressed significantly higher amounts of class I antigens than BL cells, the latter showing class I densities similar to or lower than peripheral resting B-cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In two BL cells studied, class I expression could be enhanced by γ-interferon, whereas the corresponding LCLs seemed to be refractory to this treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on the surface of cells is intimately linked to in vivo graft survival. (open.ac.uk)
  • However, morphologically undifferentiated cells persisting under non-proliferating conditions continued to express both MHC antigens. (open.ac.uk)
  • The downregulation of MHC antigens upon differentiation following cell transplantation could therefore contribute to the graft survival of MHP36 cells. (open.ac.uk)
  • The La-dependent presence of naturally processed antigenic peptides also in nonpresenting cells located the inhibitory function subsequent to the step of antigen processing. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Viral gene inhibition of class I major histocompatibility antigen expression: not a general mechanism governing the tumorigenicity of adenovirus type 2-, adenovirus type 12-, and simian virus 40-transformed Syrian hamster cells. (asm.org)
  • Mouse monoclonal to HLA-DR.HLA-DR a human class II antigen of the major histocompatibility complex(MHC),is a transmembrane glycoprotein composed of an alpha chain (36 kDa) and a beta subunit(27kDa) expressed primarily on antigen presenting cells:B cells, monocytes, macrophages and thymic epithelial cells. (cylch.org)
  • Antigen capture and major histocompatibility class II compartments of freshly isolated and cultured human blood dendritic cells. (rupress.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DC) represent potent antigen-presenting cells for the induction of T cell-dependent immune responses. (rupress.org)
  • CD94-mediated inhibition is more effective at low than at high doses of TCR ligand, which may focus T cell responses towards antigen-presenting cells presenting high amounts of antigen. (rupress.org)
  • Immune responses are initiated and primed by dendritic cells (DCs) that cross-present exogenous antigen. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Dendritic cells (DCs) sample peripheral tissues of the body in search of antigens to present to T cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The established human monoblast or early monocyte cell line, U937, was evaluated for modulating influences of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) on human gamma interferon (HuIFN(γ)) induction of MHC class-II (Ia) antigens on U937 cells and the HuIFN(γ) induction of responsiveness of U937 colony-forming cells (CFC) to inhibition by lactoferrin (LF), transferrin (TF), acidic isoferritins (AIF), and prostaglandin E (PGE). (elsevier.com)
  • When MHC class-II antigens were induced on U937 cells and the cells sorted on the fluorescence activated cell sorter (FACS) IV into positive and negative cells, colony formation by the MHC class-II antigen + population of cells was suppressed by LF, TF, AIF, and PGE 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • Colony formation by the sorted population of MHC class-II antigen - cells was not influenced significantly by LF, TF, AIF, or PGE 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • When PGE was present in the suspension culture for 72 h with U937 cells exposed to HuIFN(γ) plus indomethacin, it blocked the induction of MHC class-II antigens as well as the associated inhibition of U937 CFC by LF, TF, AIF, and PGE 2 . (elsevier.com)
  • MiHA antigens are either ubiquitously expressed in most tissue like skin and intestines or restrictively expressed in the immune cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lack of recognition of a T cell to this self antigen is the reason why allogeneic stem cell transplantation for an HLA matched gene or a developing fetus's MiHAs during pregnancy may not be recognized by T cells and marked as foreign leading to an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these antigens are ubiquitously expressed in nucleated male cells, and the presence of these antigens has been associated with a greater risk of developing GVHD allogeneic stem cell transplantation for a HLA matched gene when there's a male recipient and female donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a monoclonal proliferation of antigen presenting cells (APC). (elsevier.com)
  • Mouse embryonal carcinoma F9 cells, upon treatment with interferons (IFNs), express major histocompatibility (MHC) Class I antigens, which are otherwise not expressed in these cells. (elsevier.com)
  • IFNs induce Class I antigen expression in F9 cells in a highly selective manner: unlike retinoic acid treatment which also stimulates the antigen expression, IFNs induce neither morphological differentiation, increased binding of epidermal growth factor, nor reduction of expression of stage specific embryonic antigen. (elsevier.com)
  • HLA class I-minor histocompatibility antigen tetramers select cytotoxic T cells with high avidity to the natural ligand. (ox.ac.uk)
  • INTRODUCTION: Cytotoxic T cells specific for the hematopoietic system-restricted minor histocompatibility antigens HA-1 and HA-2 are potential tools for the treatment of relapsed leukemia after minor histocompatibility antigen mismatched bone marrow transplantation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • HA-1/HA-2-specific cytotoxic T cells with strong cytotoxic activity against HA-1/HA-2 positive target cells can be generated in vitro using HA-1 and HA-2 peptide-pulsed dendritic cells as antigen presenting cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that HLA class I-minor histocompatibility antigen tetramers are useful tools for monitoring and selection of high avidity HA-1- and HA-2-specific cytotoxic T cells for adoptive immunotherapy. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Pancreatic β-cells express major histocompatibility complex class II: Do diabetic β-cells have the capacity of antigen-presenting cells? (cdc.gov)
  • showed that major histocompatibility complex class II is expressed in pancreatic β-cells by a highly accurate method called transcriptome analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Pancreatic β-cells might have the capacity as antigen-presenting cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Genetic complementation analysis has been used with BLS cells to demonstrate that the defect in class II gene transcription is linked to the absence of a tram-acting factor. (elsevier.com)
  • T helper cells recognize processed antigen (Ag) in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigens present on the surface of B cells and other Ag-presenting cells. (duke.edu)
  • In this study, the binding of a soluble recombinant CD4/Ig heavy chain fusion protein (CD4-gamma 3) or monoclonal antibody (mAb) to class II antigens on human B cells was shown to induce rapid and specific homotypic adhesion of B cells and most B lymphoblastoid cell lines. (duke.edu)
  • Removal of these cells with monoclonal antibody plus complement (C') ablated the enhancing activity, high concentrations of certain monoclonal antibodies in the absence of C' blocked the enhancing activity and, when monocytes were sorted into MHC class II antigen-positive and -negative cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, it was only the positive cell fraction that responded to the enhancing activity of HuIFN gamma. (unito.it)
  • Antigen peptides represent specific epitopes for stimulation of T cells in T cell assays such as ELISPOT. (jpt.com)
  • MHC Multimers for reproducible detection, enumeration and isolation of antigen-specific T cells with disease specific peptides. (jpt.com)
  • Effect of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 on surface expression of class I major histocompatibility complex antigens on infected cells. (duke.edu)
  • This suggested that one important factor contributing to reduced lysis of HSV-2-infected cells may be the altered or reduced expression of the class I H-2 self-antigens. (duke.edu)
  • We conclude that self MHC I antigens include tolerance in the CD8 + T cell compartment via negative selection when expressed exclusively by lymphoid cells. (elsevier.com)
  • This suggests that effective transfer of self antigens from lymphoid cells to MHC II-positive cells that can process and present them as self-peptides to thymocytes or CD4 + T cells does not take place in vivo. (elsevier.com)
  • Schulz, R & Mellor, AL 1996, ' Self major histocompatibility complex class I antigens expressed solely in lymphoid cells do not induce tolerance in the CD4 + T cell compartment ', Journal of Experimental Medicine , vol. 184, no. 4, pp. 1573-1578. (elsevier.com)
  • Spleen cells from these mice appear indistinguishable from wild type with respect to class II subunit assembly, transport, peptide acquisition, surface expression, and the ability to present intact protein antigens. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, these mutant mice have normal numbers of thymic and peripheral CD4+ T cells, and intact CD4+ T-dependent proliferative responses towards a soluble antigen. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We obtained a sequence of high-affinity ACC-1Y-specific TCR after the antigen-specific expansion of T cells derived from a healthy ACC-1Y -/- donor. (springer.com)
  • Tissue typing is a group of procedures that determines the type of histocompatibility antigens on a person's cells or tissues. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The specific types of histocompatibility antigens present on a person's cells determine their identity and distinguish each person. (encyclopedia.com)
  • There are a number of different techniques used to identify the antigens on the cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Lymphocyte - A class of white blood cells that are responsible for creating the immune response to antigens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The murine B16 melanoma system represents an important in vivo model for the evaluation of T cell-based immunization and vaccination strategies, although deficient MHC class I surface expression has been identified in these cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We postulate here that the MHC class I-deficient phenotype of B16 melanoma cells is attributable to down-regulation or the loss of the expression and function of multiple components of the MHC class I antigen-processing pathway, including the peptide transporter associated with antigen processing, the proteasome subunits LMP2, LMP7, and LMP10, PA28α and -β, and the chaperone tapasin. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus, B16 melanoma cells can be used as a model for the characterization of the mechanisms underlying the coordinated dysregulation of the antigen-processing components, which should provide new insights into the development of tumors and the factors controlling this process. (aacrjournals.org)
  • B16 melanoma cells have deficient MHC class I surface expression and demonstrate weak immunogenicity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Abnormalities of MHC class I surface antigens are often associated with an immune escape of tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The underlying mechanism of the impaired MHC class I surface expression in B16 melanoma cells has not yet been identified. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We now present evidence that the deficient H-2 expression of B16 melanoma cells is attributable to a coordinate suppression of multiple components of the MHC class I APM. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These defects could be corrected by IFN-γ administration, which transcriptionally induces the expression of various APM components, thereby also enhancing MHC class I surface expression in B16 cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The antigen is found on B-cells, interdigitating cells and macrophages in peripheral lymphoid organs but is absent from T-cells. (abcam.com)
  • These particular antigens stimulate the multiplication of T-helper cells (also called CD4-positive T cells), which in turn stimulate antibody-producing B-cells to produce antibodies to that specific antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-antigens are suppressed by regulatory T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • When a foreign pathogen enters the body, specific cells called antigen-presenting cells (APCs) engulf the pathogen through a process called phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are then displayed by the antigen-presenting cells to CD4+ helper T cells, which then produce a variety of effects and cell to cell interactions to eliminate the pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • We show further that a deletion construct of the Db gene, which consists of exon 1 linked to exons 4-8, expresses a truncated Db antigen lacking domains 1 and 2 [Db-(1 + 2)] at the cell surface after transfection into the R1E line. (pnas.org)
  • The finding that during the E phase of MCMV gene expression the MHC class I heavy chain glycosylation remained in an Endo H-sensitive form suggested a block within the endoplasmic reticulum/c/s-Golgi compartment. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • In this work, we describe antigen and gene frequencies of the A, B and C loci of the major histocompatibility (MHC) class I gene in a sample of 200 healthy Lebanese individuals. (who.int)
  • HLA class II histocompatibility antigen gamma chain (296 aa, ~34 kDa) is encoded by the human CD74 gene. (semanticscholar.org)
  • removal of IFNs, even after prolonged exposures, results in a rapid loss of the Class I gene expression. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, MHC class II-induced adhesion was Fc receptor independent, as 15 mAb of different Ig isotypes reactive with HLA-D or HLA-DQ gene products induced adhesion. (duke.edu)
  • Kudo J., Chao L.Y., Narni F., Saunders G.F. Structure of the human gene encoding the invariant gamma-chain of class II histocompatibility antigens (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HLA-B gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • HLA is the human version of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), a gene family that occurs in many species. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The HLA-DRB1 gene provides instructions for making a protein that plays a critical role in the immune system. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each MHC class II gene has many possible variations, allowing the immune system to react to a wide range of foreign invaders. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bentkowski P, Radwan J (2019) Evolution of major histocompatibility complex gene copy number. (nature.com)
  • Biedrzycka A, Sebastian A, Migalska M, Westerdahl H, Radwan J (2017b) Testing genotyping strategies for ultra‐deep sequencing of a co‐amplifying gene family: MHC class I in a passerine bird. (nature.com)
  • These results strongly suggest that a gene for familial psoriasis is associated with the class I side of the extended haplotype Cw6-B57-DRB1*0701-DQA1*0201-DQB1*0303. (diva-portal.org)
  • Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2. (nih.gov)
  • The class I histocompatibility antigen from human cell membranes has two structural motifs: the membrane-proximal end of the glycoprotein contains two domains with immunoglobulin-folds that are paired in a novel manner, and the region distal from the membrane is a platform of eight antiparallel beta-strands topped by alpha-helices. (nih.gov)
  • Validated for use on a panel of 21 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) human tissues after heat induced antigen retrieval in pH 6.0 citrate buffer. (biomol.com)
  • Release of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factors from major histocompatibility complex class II antigen-positive monocytes is enhanced by human gamma interferon. (unito.it)
  • Claesson L., Larhammar D., Rask L., Peterson P.A. cDNA clone for the human invariant gamma chain of class II histocompatibility antigens and its implications for the protein structure (англ. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human Lymphocyte Antigens (HLA) is the name given to the most commonly used histocompatibility antigens. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In benign APCs, antigen loading occurs in the major histocompatibility class II (MHCII)-lysosomal compartment of the endocytic pathway followed by transport to the cell surface upon antigen stimulation. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we investigated the conditions allowing antigen access to this pathway. (elsevier.com)
  • The level of down-regulation of the components of the antigen-processing pathway is either transcriptionally or posttranscriptionally controlled and could be corrected in all cases by IFN-γ treatment, which also reconstituted MHC class I surface expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The complexity of the MHC class I antigen pathway has been well defined in the last decade. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The cytoplasmic perinuclear globular localization of MHCII may possibly be useful in diagnostics and may result from an immature/antigen-naïve differentiation state of the neoplastic cell. (elsevier.com)
  • Regulation of dendritic cell migration by CD74, the MHC class II-associated invariant chain. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Antibodies against MICA antigens and kidney-transplant rejection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However, the effect of preformed anti-HLA antibodies directed against allogeneic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I or II antigens of a donor panel on heart transplantation outcome has not been extensively studied. (elsevier.com)
  • The effect of preformed antibodies against allogeneic MHC class I or class II antigens on the development of early high-grade cellular rejection and on cumulative annual rejection frequency was determined. (elsevier.com)
  • 0.0001), whereas the frequency of IgG anti- MHC class I antibodies (IgG anti-I) was elevated only in patients with left ventricular assist devices. (elsevier.com)
  • The predominant cause of late graft loss is antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), a process whereby injury to the organ is caused by donor-specific antibodies, which bind to HLA and non-HLA (nHLA) antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Specific antibodies to streptococcal antigens also indicate true infection rather than mere carriage of the organism. (medscape.com)
  • The MiHAs encoded by the Y chromosome are known as HY antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen in question with higher specificity in approved samples than the available alternatives. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Holman N, Weinfurter JT, Harsla TR, Wiseman RW, Belli AJ, Michaels AJ, Reimann KA, DeMars RI, Reynolds MR. Isolation of a monoclonal antibody from a phage display library binding the rhesus macaque MHC class I allomorph Mamu-A1*001. (umassmed.edu)
  • Peptide microarrays that display overlapping peptide scans through antigens from infectious organisms or tumor associated antigens for antibody or serum profiling. (jpt.com)
  • Each antibody preparation is specific for one histocompatibility antigen. (encyclopedia.com)
  • If the antigen is present, the antibody will bind to it. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Further Class I mRNA induction is not inhibited by cycloheximide, suggesting possible independence from de novo protein synthesis. (elsevier.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor alpha had no effect alone but enhanced class II expression in combination with IFN-gamma, most notably for DQ and DP. (nih.gov)
  • In this disease a marked increase in MHC class I expression was found, closely associated with viral antigens and inflammatory infiltrates, in meninges, choroid plexus and ventricular ependyma but not within the brain parenchyma. (nih.gov)
  • From analysis of the expression of class I-specific RNA, there is some evidence that class I antigen expression is regulated on the transcriptional level. (aacrjournals.org)
  • One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that in some BL lines, in addition to the generally lower class I expression, distinct class I specificities were down-regulated. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Accordingly, at later stages of infection a significant decrease of surface MHC class I expression was seen, whereas other membrane glycoproteins remained unaffected. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We examined RMA-S for the expression of the medial class I histocompatibility antigens Qa1 b and Mta. (elsevier.com)
  • We examined RMA-S for the expression of the medial class I histocompatibility antigens Qa1b and Mta. (elsevier.com)
  • Thirty-eight cases of lupus nephritis, all satisfying the American Rheumatism Association criteria for diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with renal involvement and biopsy were immunohistochemically studied for the expression of HLA-DR (DAKO: HLA-DR/alpha, TAL.1B5), one of the three known families belonging to the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC), using a standard streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • This increased expression did not correlate with the WHO class, activity or chronicity scores. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • It therefore appears that MHC class II shows increased expression in the arterial system of lupus nephritis kidneys. (dundee.ac.uk)
  • Consistent with this, homotypic adhesion induced by engagement of MHC class II antigens was observed with LFA-1-deficient B cell lines, and was independent of CD49d or CD18 expression. (duke.edu)
  • Infection with both HSV-1 and HSV-2 caused a reduction in the expression of the class I H-2 antigens. (duke.edu)
  • In short, MHC class II expression and function are surprisingly unaffected in mice lacking p41 invariant chain, implying that the p31 and p41 isoforms may be functionally redundant in the intact animal. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Major-histocompatibility-complex class I alleles and antigens in hematopoietic-cell transplantation. (scicurve.com)
  • Both HLA class I and II alleles have been found to present these antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding of individual peptides or closely related peptide species to different MHC class I alleles was frequently observed. (jpt.com)
  • EH-57.1+ individuals therefore carry a 26 times higher risk of developing type I psoriasis than individuals who are EH-57.1-negative Further analysis of individual HLA alleles revealed that within EH-57.1, HLA class I antigens (Cw6-B57) were associated to a much higher extent with type I psoriasis than the HLA class II alleles (DRB1*0701-DQA1*0201-DQB1* 0303). (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, tolerance to MHC class II-restricted self peptides derived by processing of such MHC I antigens is not induced in the CD4 T cell compartment. (elsevier.com)
  • beta 2-Microglobulin (beta 2m) has been thought essential for transport of all major histocompatibility complex class I antigens to the cell surface. (pnas.org)
  • The recognition of a mature T cell to this self antigen should not induce an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anti-class II mAb and CD4-gamma 3 were able to induce adhesion at concentrations as low as 10 ng/ml and 100 ng/ml, respectively. (duke.edu)
  • HLA class I-mHag peptide tetramers may serve as clinical tools for the diagnosis and monitoring of GvHD patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: HLA class I antigen mismatches that are serologically detectable confer an enhanced risk of graft failure after hematopoietic-cell transplantation. (scicurve.com)
  • In HLA-identical bone marrow transplantation, GvHD may be induced by disparities in minor histocompatibility antigens (mHags) between the donor and the recipient, with the antigen being present in the recipient and not in the donor. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The clinical relevance of mismatches at the MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unclear. (cdc.gov)
  • Mismatches of minor histocompatibility antigens between HLA-identical donors and recipients and the development of graft-versus-host disease after bone marrow transplantation. (springer.com)
  • Transplant rejection is the critical clinical end-point limiting indefinite survival after histocompatibility antigen (HLA) mismatched organ transplantation. (frontiersin.org)
  • To further evaluate the nature of the HLA association with psoriasis, HLA haplotypes of 60 patients with type 1 (early onset, positive family history) and 30 patients with type II (late onset, no family history) psoriasis were investigated by polymerase chain reaction sequence-specific oligonucleotide hybridization (HLA class II) and serology (HLA class I). Ethnically matched blood donors (146) served as controls. (diva-portal.org)
  • The recommended ELISA Kit will likely detect the antigen better in the approved sample types than the available alternatives. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Intended Use Porcine SLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ haplotype D alpha chain ELISA Kit allows for the in vitro quantitative determination of SLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ haplotype D alpha chain , concentrations in serum, Plasma , tissue homogenates and Cell culture supernates and Other biological fluids. (biobool.com)
  • Inquiry About Porcine SLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DQ haplotype D alpha chain ELISA Kit If you hope to order it or contact us directly, please contact us via [email protected] (biobool.com)
  • The failure to present antigenic peptides was explained by a general retention of nascent assembled trimolecular MHC class I complexes. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The structural basis for the increased immunogenicity of two HIV-reverse transcriptase peptide variant/class I major histocompatibility complexes. (expasy.org)
  • What is the role of histocompatibility complexes and blood group antigens in the pathophysiology of schistosomiasis (bilharzia)? (medscape.com)
  • Tetrameric HLA-peptide complexes have been used to visualize and quantitate antigen-specific CTLs in HIV-infected individuals and during Epstein-Barr virus and lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Here we show the direct ex vivo visualization of mHag-specific CTLs during GvHD using tetrameric HLA-class and I-mHag HA-1 and HY peptide complexes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Typically presents intracellular peptide antigens of 8 to 13 amino acids that arise from cytosolic proteolysis via IFNG-induced immunoproteasome or via endopeptidase IDE/insulin-degrading enzyme (PubMed:17189421, PubMed:20364150, PubMed:17079320, PubMed:26929325, PubMed:27049119). (icr.ac.uk)
  • Soon after the entry of this complex into the endosomal/lysosomal system where antigen processing occurs, CD74 undergoes a sequential degradation by various proteases, including CTSS and CTSL , leaving a small fragment termed CLIP (class-II-associated invariant chain peptide). (rcsb.org)
  • HLA-DR antigens-associated invariant chain ) - мембранный белок , участвующий в функционировании иммунной системы , продукт гена человека CD74 [1] [2] . (wikipedia.org)
  • Disparities between HLA sequence polymorphisms that are serologically detectable are termed antigen mismatches, whereas those that can be identified only by DNA-based typing methods are termed allele mismatches. (scicurve.com)
  • abstract = "Transgenic mice expressing self major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I (H-2Kb) antigen solely in lymphoid cell lineages do not acquire tolerance to H-2Kb expressed on skin grafts. (elsevier.com)
  • Clinical relevance of a newly identified HLA-A*24:02-restricted minor histocompatibility antigen epitope derived from BCL2A1, ACC-1, in patients receiving HLA genotypically matched unrelated bone marrow transplant. (springer.com)
  • These polymorphic peptides are known as minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHAs). (springer.com)
  • Combination of these factors makes the minor antigen ACC-1Y a promising target for immunotherapy. (springer.com)
  • Proteogenomic-based discovery of minor histocompatibility antigens with suitable features for immunotherapy of hematologic cancers. (springer.com)
  • If the antigens on tissue or organs from a donor do not match that of the recipient, a rejection response can occur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • AMR is incompletely diagnosed as donor/recipient (D/R) matching is only limited to the HLA locus and critical nHLA immunogenic antigens remain to be identified. (frontiersin.org)
  • Tx occurs across histocompatibility antigen (HLA) barriers and requires life-long immunosuppression, to effectively suppress donor-specific injurious immune responses, while conserving immune recognition to foreign and infectious antigens. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transplants from donors with a single class I allele mismatch that is not serologically detectable may be used without an increased risk of graft failure. (scicurve.com)
  • Antigens from different pathogens are available as well as tumor associated antigens. (jpt.com)
  • Plays a critical role in MHC class II antigen processing by stabilizing peptide-free class II alpha/beta heterodimers in a complex soon after their synthesis and directing transport of the complex from the endoplasmic reticulum to the endosomal/lysosomal system where the antigen processing and binding of antigenic peptides to MHC class II takes place. (uniprot.org)
  • The functions of CD8 in the TCR complex are thought to be signaling through the association of CD8 with the protein tyrosine kinase p56lck and adhesion to MHC class I through the alpha 3 domain. (rupress.org)
  • Also known as Mamu class II histocompatibility antigen, DR alpha chain (MHC class II antigen DRA). (mybiosource.com)
  • HLA-DOA belongs to the HLA class II alpha chain paralogues. (nih.gov)
  • HLA-DR3-restricted and Mycobacterium tuberculosis heat shock 65-kilodalton-specific T-cell clones were activated to produce IFN-gamma in response to relevant antigen presented by IFN-gamma-treated HIMECs. (nih.gov)
  • mAb reactive with CD4 inhibited CD4-gamma 3-induced adhesion and a mutant B lymphoblastoid cell line deficient in class II antigens failed to respond. (duke.edu)
  • The enhancing activity of HuIFN gamma was confined to the MHC class II antigen-positive population of monocytes. (unito.it)