Receptors, Histamine H3: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Receptors, Histamine H1: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Receptors, Histamine H2: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Histamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Receptors, Histamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Methylhistamines: Histamine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups. Many of these are agonists for the H1, H2, or both histamine receptors.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Dimaprit: A histamine H2 receptor agonist that is often used to study the activity of histamine and its receptors.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Metiamide: A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Impromidine: A highly potent and specific histamine H2 receptor agonist. It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Histamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC 2.1.1.8.Famotidine: A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.Histamine Agents: Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Burimamide: An antagonist of histamine that appears to block both H2 and H3 histamine receptors. It has been used in the treatment of ulcers.Pyrilamine: A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.Histidine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC 4.1.1.22.Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Doxepin: A dibenzoxepin tricyclic compound. It displays a range of pharmacological actions including maintaining adrenergic innervation. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, but it appears to block reuptake of monoaminergic neurotransmitters into presynaptic terminals. It also possesses anticholinergic activity and modulates antagonism of histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Isothiuronium: An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Tripelennamine: A histamine H1 antagonist with low sedative action but frequent gastrointestinal irritation. It is used to treat ASTHMA; HAY FEVER; URTICARIA; and RHINITIS; and also in veterinary applications. Tripelennamine is administered by various routes, including topically.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine: A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Terfenadine: A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.Triprolidine: Histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic rhinitis; ASTHMA; and URTICARIA. It is a component of COUGH and COLD medicines. It may cause drowsiness.Ketotifen: A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.DibenzoxepinsAnaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Betahistine: A histamine analog and H1 receptor agonist that serves as a vasodilator. It is used in MENIERE DISEASE and in vascular headaches but may exacerbate bronchial asthma and peptic ulcers.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Cetirizine: A potent second-generation histamine H1 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma. Unlike many traditional antihistamines, it does not cause drowsiness or anticholinergic side effects.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Dibenzazepines: Compounds with two BENZENE rings fused to AZEPINES.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Drug Inverse Agonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that bind to the same receptor binding-site as an agonist (DRUG AGONISM) for that receptor but exerts the opposite pharmacological effect.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Nizatidine: A histamine H2 receptor antagonist with low toxicity that inhibits gastric acid secretion. The drug is used for the treatment of duodenal ulcers.Astemizole: Antihistamine drug now withdrawn from the market in many countries because of rare but potentially fatal side effects.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Dimethindene: A histamine H1 antagonist. It is used in hypersensitivity reactions, in rhinitis, for pruritus, and in some common cold remedies.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Cyproheptadine: A serotonin antagonist and a histamine H1 blocker used as antipruritic, appetite stimulant, antiallergic, and for the post-gastrectomy dumping syndrome, etc.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Pheniramine: One of the HISTAMINE H1 ANTAGONISTS with little sedative action. It is used in treatment of hay fever, rhinitis, allergic dermatoses, and pruritus.Promethazine: A phenothiazine derivative with histamine H1-blocking, antimuscarinic, and sedative properties. It is used as an antiallergic, in pruritus, for motion sickness and sedation, and also in animals.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Sneezing: The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Gastrins: A family of gastrointestinal peptide hormones that excite the secretion of GASTRIC JUICE. They may also occur in the central nervous system where they are presumed to be neurotransmitters.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Phenoxypropanolamines: Compounds based on a propanolamine attached via an OXYGEN atom to a phenoxy ring. The side chain is one carbon longer than PHENYLETHYLAMINES.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hypothalamic Area, Lateral: Area in the hypothalamus bounded medially by the mammillothalamic tract and the anterior column of the FORNIX (BRAIN). The medial edge of the INTERNAL CAPSULE and the subthalamic region form its lateral boundary. It contains the lateral hypothalamic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, lateral tuberal nuclei, and fibers of the MEDIAL FOREBRAIN BUNDLE.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.PiperazinesBronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Parietal Cells, Gastric: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate: Skin irritant and allergen used in the manufacture of polyurethane foams and other elastomers.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Benztropine: A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Radioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Enterochromaffin Cells: A subtype of enteroendocrine cells found in the gastrointestinal MUCOSA, particularly in the glands of PYLORIC ANTRUM; DUODENUM; and ILEUM. These cells secrete mainly SEROTONIN and some neuropeptides. Their secretory granules stain readily with silver (argentaffin stain).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Atropine: An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Phleum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Phl p 4 allergen.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Aminopyridines: Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Inositol Phosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of inositol. They include mono- and polyphosphoric acid esters, with the exception of inositol hexaphosphate which is PHYTIC ACID.Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.PyrrolidinesSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bethanechol CompoundsRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Dermatophagoides farinae: Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.Capsaicin: An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Inbred C57BLDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.2S Albumins, Plant: A major class of water-soluble seed storage proteins. Many proteins from this class are major PLANT ALLERGENS.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.HistoryEdema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Maprotiline: A bridged-ring tetracyclic antidepressant that is both mechanistically and functionally similar to the tricyclic antidepressants, including side effects associated with its use.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Vas Deferens: The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate): Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.ThiazolesAmbrosia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Depression, Chemical: The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Mice, Inbred ICRAdenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.BenzothiepinsElectric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.

*H1 antagonist

... as opposed to receptor antagonists, at the histamine H1-receptor. In type I hypersensitivity allergic reactions, an allergen (a ... H1 antagonists, also called H1 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor, ... refers only to H1 antagonists, also known as H1-receptor antagonists and H1-antihistamines. It has been discovered that some H1 ... Once released, the histamine can react with local or widespread tissues through histamine receptors. Histamine, acting on H1- ...

*Alcaftadine

It is a H1 histamine receptor antagonist. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2010 under the trade name ... By blocking these three receptors, Alcaftadine has been shown to significantly reduce the effects of allergens. This effect on ... Alcaftadine is an antagonist at three of the histamine receptors (1, 2 and 4). The main indication for Alcaftadine is for ... histamine receptors seems to show lower rates of itching, eosinophil recruitment and redness after exposure to an allergen. The ...

*Histamine

... neurons increase wakefulness and prevent sleep. Classically, antihistamines (H1 histamine receptor antagonists) which ... Antibiotics like polymyxin are also found to stimulate histamine release. Histamine release occurs when allergens bind to mast- ... Histamine intolerance Histamine receptor antagonist Red wine headache Scombroid food poisoning Histamine Material Safety Data ... Antagonist molecules, like ranitidine, block the H2 receptor and prevent histamine from binding, causing decreased hydrogen ion ...

*Bilastine

... a new selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist: Receptor selectivity and in vitro antihistaminic activity". Drugs in R&D. 6 ( ... and placebo on allergen-induced nasal and ocular symptoms in patients exposed to aeroallergen in the Vienna Challenge Chamber ... a new selective histamine H1 receptor antagonist. Receptor selectivity and in vitro antihistaminic activity". Drugs RD. 6 (6): ... Bilastine binds to guinea-pig cerebellar histamine H1-receptors (Ki=44 nM) and to human recombinant histamine H1-receptors (Ki= ...

*Diphenhydramine

... in guinea pig ventricular myocytes and lengthening of cardiac repolarization in man by the histamine H1 receptor antagonist ... Heine A (November 1996). "Diphenhydramine: a forgotten allergen?". Contact Derm. 35 (5): 311-2. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0536.1996. ... Diphenhydramine acts primarily as an inverse agonist of the histamine H1 receptor. It is a member of the ethanolamine class of ... Krystal AD, Richelson E, Roth T (2013). "Review of the histamine system and the clinical effects of H1 antagonists: basis for a ...

*Diphenylpyraline

ISBN 0-444-52166-6. Lapa G, Mathews T, Harp J, Budygin E, Jones S (2005). "Diphenylpyraline, a histamine H1 receptor antagonist ... Diphenylpyraline (DPP; sold as Allergen, Arbid, Belfene, Diafen, Hispril, Histyn, Lergobine, Lyssipol, Mepiben, Neargal) is a ... quantitative evaluation by receptor-binding assay". Japanese Journal of Pharmacology. 43 (3): 277-82. doi:10.1254/jjp.43.277. ...

*Hives

Mechanisms other than allergen-antibody interactions are known to cause histamine release from mast cells. Many drugs, for ... Pacor ML, Di Lorenzo G, Corrocher R (2001). "Efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist in chronic urticaria. A double-blind, ... Non-sedating antihistamines that block the histamine H1 receptors are the first line of therapy. First generation ... AU Erbagci Z SO (2002). "The leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast in the treatment of chronic idiopathic urticaria: a ...

*Mast cell

Vasodilation and increased permeability of capillaries are a result of both H1 and H2 receptor types. Stimulation of histamine ... In general, allergens are proteins or polysaccharides. The allergen binds to the antigen-binding sites, which are situated on ... stabilizing the cell and preventing release of histamine and related mediators. Leukotriene antagonists (such as montelukast ... "Histamine-induced venodilation in human beings involves both H1 and H2 receptor subtypes". The Journal of Allergy and Clinical ...

*Solar urticaria

Antihistamines suppress the activity of the histamine. Diphenhydramine, a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist or medicine ... another classification system is based on the type of allergen that initiates a breakout. The agent in the human body ... that combats the H1 receptor that is associated with many allergic reactions, has been found to be the most potent ... Histamines are proteins associated with many allergic reactions. When the UV radiation or light comes in contact with a person ...
A human histamine H1 receptor gene lacking introns was isolated by screening a human genomic library with a bovine histamine H1 receptor probe. The deduced protein of 487 amino acids showed characteristic properties of G-protein-coupled receptors. The coding region was subcloned into the expression vector pSVL (Pharmacia), and the resulting construct transfected into COS-7 cells. Binding studies with ...
Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. This gene encodes one of the histamine receptors (H3) which belongs to the family 1 of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein and can regulate neurotransmitter release. This ...
BioAssay record AID 600300 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at human histamine H1 receptor in SK-N-SH cells assessed as inhibition of histamine-induced calcium level increase during phase-1 compound incubated before histamine addition by Fura-2 based fluorometric assay.
We investigated the effects of thioperamide, a histamine H3-receptor antagonist, on a scopolamine-induced learning deficit in the step-through passive avoidance test in mice, and on contents of acetylcholine and choline in the brain. In a behavioral study, thioperamide (20 mg/kg) alone slightly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning deficit, and pretreatment with zolantidine, a histamine H2-receptor ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-affinity binding of [3H]doxepin to histamine H1-receptors in rat brain. T2 - Possible identification of a subclass of histamine H1-receptors. AU - Taylor, John E.. AU - Richelson, Elliott. PY - 1982/3/12. Y1 - 1982/3/12. N2 - The binding of the radioactively labeled tricyclic antidepressant, [3H]doxepin, to rat brain tissie was examined. Scatchard plots of specific [3H]doxepin binding indicated the presence of two ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Histamine H2 Receptor co-expressed with G|sub|saS|/sub| protein (ab90408). Please download our general protocols booklet
Histamine receptors provide feedback inhibition for the synthesis and release of histamine from the hypothalamus, as well as inhibition of other neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine from intestinal cholinergic nerves, and norepinephrines from the retina and cerebral cortex. Our previous results suggest that the regulation of histamine ...
Whether the job is waking the brain after a peaceful sleep, initiating gastric secretion when dinner is served or orchestrating the elements of inflammation after a mosquito bite, histamine has been a known biological messenger for decades (Green, 1964; Eichler and Farah, 1966). At the end of the twentieth century, in the midst of the genomics and bioinformatics revolution, researchers in ...
The Histamine H3 Receptor Volume 30 A Target For New Drugs Pharmacochemistry Library can be very useful guide, and The Histamine H3 Receptor Volume 30 A Target For New Drugs Pharmacochemistry Library play an important role in your products. The problem is that once you have gotten your nifty new product, the The Histamine H3 Receptor Volume ...
Discovered as inhibitory autoreceptors in central histaminergic pathways, histamine H3-receptors may also modulate peripheral cholinergic and central adrenergic function. Recently, H3-receptors were reported to inhibit adrenergic inotropic responses in guinea pig atria, possibly at prejunctional sites. We have assessed whether the H3-mediated modulation of cardiac adrenergic activities results from a reduction in ...
ABBREVIATIONS: H3R, histamine H3 receptor; CNS, central nervous system; h, human; [35S]GTPγS, guanosine-5′-O-(3-[35S]thio) triphosphate; IL3, intracellular loop 3; GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor; [3H]A-349821, {4′-[3-((2R, 5R)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-propoxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-morpholin-4-yl-methanone; RT, reverse transcriptase; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium; PKA, protein kinase A; PBS, ...
Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. This gene was thought to be intronless until recently. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. It mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, ...
H2 receptors are positively coupled to adenylate cyclase via Gs. It is a potent stimulant of cAMP production, which leads to activation of protein kinase A. PKA functions to phosphorylate certain proteins, affecting their activity. The drug betazole is an example of a histamine H2 receptor agonist. Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of endogenous histamine in altered lung mechanics in rabbits. AU - Habre, Walid. AU - Babik, Barna. AU - Chalier, Michel. AU - Peták, F.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Unlike the effects of exogenous histamine, those of endogenous histamine on the lung mechanics have not yet been characterized. The site of endogenous histamine liberation by mivacurium was determined, as were the ...
Upper airway diseases (e.g. allergic rhinitis (AR)) are one of most common causes of chronic cough in subjects with negative X-ray finding. In UACS (upper airway cough syndrome), cough is strongly associated with the ongoing nasal inflammation. Effective treatment of nasal inflammation may lead to down regulation of pathologically enhanced chronic cough. Histamine plays a critical role in upper airway diseases. All known histamine receptors (H1R, ...
This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Histamine H3 Antagonists" by people in this website by year, and whether "Histamine H3 Antagonists" was a major or minor topic of these publications ...
Histamine H4 Receptor antibody LS-C146254 is an unconjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to Histamine H4 Receptor (HRH4 ) from human and pig. Validated for WB.
The high expression of the histamine H4 receptor in cells of hemopoietic lineage and immune cells suggests that this new histamine receptor plays a role in inflammatory and immune responses. Activation of the Histamine receptor can mediate calcium mobilisation and chemotaxis in mast cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differentiation of monocytes into macrophages induces the upregulation of histamine H1 receptor. AU - Triggiani, Massimo. AU - Petraroli, Angelica. AU - Loffredo, Stefania. AU - Frattini, Annunziata. AU - Granata, Francescopaolo. AU - Morabito, Paolo. AU - Staiano, Rosaria Ilaria. AU - Secondo, Agnese. AU - Annunziato, Lucio. AU - Marone, Gianni. PY - 2007/2. Y1 - 2007/2. N2 - Background: Histamine modulates several functions in human monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. However, responses elicited by histamine differ depending on cell type, suggesting variable expression of ...
The H1 receptor is a histamine receptor belonging to the family of rhodopsin-like G-protein-coupled receptors. This receptor is activated by the biogenic amine histamine. It is expressed in smooth muscles, on vascular endothelial cells, in the heart, and in the central nervous system. The H1 receptor is linked to an intracellular G-protein (Gq) that ...
Title: Histaminergic Control of Sleep-Wake Cycles: Recent Therapeutic Advances for Sleep and Wake Disorders. VOLUME: 6 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):A. J. Barbier and M. J. Bradbury. Affiliation:Neurocrine Biosciences,12790 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 91230, USA.. Keywords:Histamine, antihistamines, sleep disorders, insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, EEG, histamine H1 receptor, histamine H3 receptor, wake-promoting agents. Abstract: The role of histaminergic neurotransmission in ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Biogenic amine neurotransmitters are important modulators of the central nervous system. Studies on the roles of the histaminergic system have revealed that it regulates many key brain functions. It has also been implicated to be involved in many brain disorders. Modulation of histamine signalling may thus provide an option for the treatment of these conditions. Due to its relatively recent discovery, many unanswered questions about the histaminergic system remain. In this ...
We have known about histamine receptors in the heart for many years (1). The human H1- and H2-histamine receptors were cloned and characterized in the early 1990s (2,3), followed closely by the human H3- and H4-histamine receptors several years later (4,5). Histamine is a natural body constituent ...
Histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) are widely used for treatment of allergic conditions such as rhinitis, urticaria and atopic dermatitis.
The study from Leary et al. (3) intriguingly reports that histamine H2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) prevent the onset of CHF in a cohort from the MESA study (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). This is definitively demonstrated by a prospective, observational, and longitudinal study, which is very difficult to perform but provides better evidence than cross-sectional or retrospective analyses like those used in our ...
There are very sensitive and specific histamine receptors on some Aplysia neurons which mediate either depolarizing or hyperpolarizating conductance increase responses. Some of these receptors are sensitive to H1 and others to H2 blocking agents.
Allergy symptoms are mostly caused by the release of histamine in response to allergens. The binding of histamine to the extracellular portion of the H1 receptor triggers a structural change of the transmembrane portion, leading to a change in the C terminal area. This c terminal region interacts with G proteins, leading to the activation of the Gq signalling pathway, ...
Drugs that bind to but do not activate Histamine Receptors, thereby blocking the actions of Histamine or Histamine Agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the Histamine H1 Receptors only ...
The binding from the selective histamine H3-receptor agonist ([3H]-bioassay studies (e. Therefore the prepared cells was identical compared to that found in our practical histamine H3-receptor bioassay (Watt for 12?min in 4C. The supernatants had been discarded and pellets rehomogenized in 100?ml ice-cold HEPES-NaOH buffer (pH?7.4 at 213C) utilizing a teflon-in-glass ...
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Reviews for A 943931 2HCl is a potent and selective histamine H4 receptor antagonist (pKi values are 7.15 and 8.12 at human and rat receptors respectively).
Histamine intolerance occurs when the body is unable to adequately process the level of histamine present in the body. When DAO levels are low or its activity is inhibited, signs of excess histamine can appear.. Histamine is a powerful compound that is essential to our health. Excess histamine, however, can cause discomfort and distress. Those who are ...
histamines Definition, histamines Best Plays of histamines in Scrabble® and Words With Friends, Length tables of words in histamines, Word growth of histamines, Sequences of histamines
The H3-histamine receptor provides feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release as well as inhibition of other neurotransmitter release. We have characterized this receptor by radioligand binding studies with the H3 agonist N alpha-[3H]methylhistamine ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Whether the job is waking the brain after a peaceful sleep, initiating gastric secretion when dinner is served or orchestrating the elements of inflammation after a mosquito bite, histamine has been a known biological messenger for decades (Green, 1964; Eichler and Farah, 1966). At the end of the twentieth century, in the midst of the genomics and bioinformatics revolution, researchers in ...
An H3 receptor antagonist is a classification of drugs used to block the action of histamine at the H3 receptor. Unlike the H1 and H2 receptors which have primarily peripheral actions, but cause sedation if they are blocked in the brain, H3 receptors are primarily found in the brain and are inhibitory autoreceptors located on ...
Published November 3 2014. Histamine is a chemical which plays a role in the inflammatory process, and also acts as a neurotransmitter. It is produced by certain white blood cells, specifically basophils and mast cells, although a few other cells can produce it as well, such as platelets and microglial cells. Some people have an intolerance to histamine, and as a result can experience symptoms such as itching, redness of ...
α-Methylhistamine is a histamine agonist selective for the receptor subtype H3. It causes lowering of blood pressure and a decrease of heart rate in animal models.[2] ...
Clobenpropit dihydrobromide | H3 antagonist | VUF 9153 dihydrobromide | VUF9153 | VUF-9153 | CAS [145231-35-2] - [145231-45-4] | Axon 1209 | Axon Ligand™ with >99% purity available from supplier Axon Medchem, prime source of life science reagents for your
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Although one of the main functions of histamine is associated with allergic reactions, it is also an in important neurotransmitter and immune messenger molecule. Histamine is stored in mast cells and subsequently released when these cells are activated.. Even though histamine is small compared to other biological molecules (containing only 17 atoms), it plays an important role in the body. It is known to be involved in over 23 different physiological functions and its all ...
Histamine H4 Receptor antibody (histamine receptor H4) for IHC-P. Anti-Histamine H4 Receptor pAb (GTX71421) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Histamine H4 Receptor antibody (histamine receptor H4) for ICC/IF. Anti-Histamine H4 Receptor pAb (GTX78053) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Just a note on the mechanism of brain fog. Diphenhydramine is a non-selective histamine receptor antagonist - it blocks histamine receptors. Newer second-generation antihistamines, in contrast to diphenhydramine, do not easily pass the blood brain barrier (BBB). The BBB is created by astrocyte (support cells in the brain that are not actually neurons, or brain cells that can fire in the same way ...
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This Phase II exploratory study assessed GSK239512, a brain penetrant histamine H3 receptor antagonist, versus placebo on cognitive impairment in 50 stable outpatients with schizophrenia. Subjects were randomized to placebo or GSK239512 for 7weeks (4weeks titration). GSK239512 was associated with a small positive effect size (ES) on the CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSSB) Composite Score (ES=0.29, CI=-0.40, 0.99) relative to placebo (primary endpoint). GSK239512s ES on CSSB domains were generally positive or neutral except Processing Speed, ...
Histamine H2-receptor antagonists for urticaria. answers are found in the Evidence-Based Medicine Guidelines powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web.
Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) has been widely used in traditional medicine for treatment of variousdiseases including pediatric colic. This study was designed to assess the antinociceptive effects of aqueousextract of F. vulgare on visceral pain and possible involvement of opioidergic, serotonergic, adrenergic andhistaminergic systems. The results of this study showed that aqueous extract of F. vulgare (50, 100 and 200mg/kg, IP) induces antinociceptive effects (Pcimetidine significantly attenuate this effect (from 71.9% to 21.6%, PP=0.003, respectively). Furthermore, chlorpheniramine and ...
Toreforant is a potent and selective histamine H4 receptor (H4R) antagonist, with a Ki at the human receptor of 8.4 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Antisecretory effects of two new histamine H2-receptor antagonists.: N-(3-[3-(1-Piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy]propyl)acetoxyaceta mide hydrochloride (Hoe 760) and N
AequoScreen® Double Transfected Cell Lines: Histamine H1. Human Recombinant, in CHO-K1 host cell. Two vials of cryopreserved cells are shipped per order. A detailed technical dossier includes sequence, culture conditions and pharmacological properties of the recombinant receptor. All cell lines are tested for the absence of mycoplasma. Terms and conditions apply. Some products are not available in some countries. Please inquire at your local sales office for more information.. Features:. ...
G-protein-coupled receptors generally share a similar structure containing seven membrane-spanning domains and extracellular site(s) for N-glycosylation. The histamine H2 receptor is a member of the family of G-protein-coupled receptors, and has three extracellular potential sites for N-glycosylation (Asn-4, Asn-162 and Asn-168). To date, however, no information has been presented regarding N-glycosylation of the H2 receptor. To investigate the presence, location and functional roles of N-glycosylation of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of histamine on dentate granule cells in vitro. AU - Greene, R. W.. AU - Haas, H. L.. PY - 1990. Y1 - 1990. N2 - Hippocampal slices from rat brain were exposed to histamine and related substances in a perfusion chamber. Granule cells of the dentate gyrus were studied with conventional extra- and intracellular recording and a single electrode voltage clamp. Histamine caused, through activation of H2-receptors, a small depolarization, an increase in the number of synaptic and action ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of interleukin-10 secretion by histamine in TH2 cells and splenocytes. AU - Osna, Natalia. AU - Elliott, Kathleen. AU - Khan, Manzoor M.. PY - 2001/3/15. Y1 - 2001/3/15. N2 - Interleukin-10 is a potent suppressive factor that down-regulates cellular immune response via inhibition of the production of TH1 cytokines. Histamine shifts the TH1/TH2 balance from TH1 to TH2 cytokines making the effects of ...
BioAssay record AID 464130 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at rat histamine H4 receptor assessed as decrease in intracellular calcium by FLIPR.
When we look into histamine intolerance, an ever-growing term, we need to understand that it is a complicated and not a one size fits all solution. Our body needs histamine but we can only handle so much. So what happens when we have too much? A rash, sneezing? What about anxiety, insomnia and other like symptoms we dont associate with histamine reaction.. For some I have seen come into my ...
Buy discount Chlorpheniramine at the cheapest prices. Get the best prices on Chlorpheniramine antihistamines for allergic reactions in pets and people today from Vet Depot. No Chlorpheniramine coupons needed.
Background and Purpose Mind vascular endothelial cells express histamine H1 and H2 receptors, which regulate mind capillary permeability. receptor gene (in mind blood vessels by activating H4 receptors, as the H4 receptor-specific inverse agonists/antagonist JNJ 7777120, but not ciproxifan, H3 receptor antagonist, dose-dependently clogged this effect in RBE4 cells. Conclusions and Implications Both and receptors are indicated in rat mind endothelial cells, ...
Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and a calcium channel blocker. Histamines mediate a number of activities such as contraction of smooth muscle of the airways and gastrointestinal tract, vasodilatation, cardiac stimulation, secretion of gastric acid, promotion of interleukin release and chemotaxis of eosinophils and mast cells. Competitive antagonists at histamine H1 receptors may be divided into first (sedating) and second (non-sedating) generation agents. Some, such as Cinnarizine also block muscarinic acetylcholine ...
Cinnarizine is an antihistamine and a calcium channel blocker. Histamines mediate a number of activities such as contraction of smooth muscle of the airways and gastrointestinal tract, vasodilatation, cardiac stimulation, secretion of gastric acid, promotion of interleukin release and chemotaxis of eosinophils and mast cells. Competitive antagonists at histamine H1 receptors may be divided into first (sedating) and second (non-sedating) generation agents. Some, such as Cinnarizine also block muscarinic acetylcholine ...
Hello arek, You don?t tell why you have a high histamine. Histamine levels can become elevated for many reasons,and are usually temporary. Anything recommended for lowering your level must be run by your physician. Drug interactions can be problematic and even fatal in persons with an elevated histamine, so please check before attempting to treat yourself. Allergies, surgical procedures, parasitic infections (real parasitic infections such as those contracted from eating raw ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Immunological regulation of synaptic transmission in isolated guinea pig autonomic ganglia. AU - Weinreich, D.. AU - Undem, Bradley J. PY - 1987. Y1 - 1987. N2 - We have attempted to identify a role for mast cells in autonomic ganglia by examining the effects of antigen challenge on mast cell-associated mediator release and synaptic transmission through the superior cervical ganglion isolated from ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs. Ovalbumin induced the release of 7.9 ng of histamine, 40 pg of immunoreactive sulfidopeptide-leukotriene, and 140 pg of immunoreactive-PgD2 per ganglion. Ovalbumin produced long-lasting potentiation (51 ± 4%, mean ± SEM, n = 66) of synaptic ...
None of 29 preoptic non-GABAergic (i.e., GFP-negative) neurons studied were inhibited by histamine (3 μm) (n = 14) or R-α-methylhistamine (1 μm) (n = 11); however, a population of GFP-negative neurons (5 of 29) was excited by histamine. The spontaneous firing rates averaged 3.5 ± 2.7 Hz (n = 5) and was increased by the neurotransmitter by 94 ± 43% (n = 5). This excitation was blocked by the H1R-specific antagonist trans-triprolidine (1 μm) in all neurons tested (n = 5) (Fig. 3A). The maximal excitatory effect was ...
Looking at the extensive history of structure-activity relationships of H3R antagonists, rigid antagonists fulfil many criteria, display very high potency, and have apparently reached clinical studies. Keeping this view in mind, many diverse and conformationally restricted compounds have been developed. Moreover, the synthesis of a series of cyclopropanated analogues with different linker has been described in an efficient way. All novel compounds were screened for H3R ...
Mammalian retinae express histamine receptors. In the macaque retinal bipolar cell, histamine has been reported to enhance the potassium current via histamine receptors. Recent immunohistochemical studies showed that histamine H1 receptor (HR1) was expressed in the mammalian amacrine cells. Here we investigated the effect of ...
Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells ...
[video]The Brain 013: Histamine boosts memory recall, Bottled water doubles Green Tea benefits, And More Nootropics News - posted in Brain Health: Histamine boosts memory recall, Bottled water doubles Green Tea benefits, And More Nootropics News https://youtu.be/td9X1_MavyQ 00:45 Betahistine, Histamine, for memory: Central Histamine Boosts Perirhinal Cortex Activity and Restores Forgotten Object Memories https://www.biologic...2021-3/fulltext https://medicalxpres......
A selective Histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of Central Nervous System depressant activity. The drug was used for Allergy but withdrawn due to causing Long QT Syndrome ...
Genetically encoded biosensors based on Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) can visualize responses of individual cells in real time. Here, we evaluated whether FRET based biosensors provide sufficient contrast and specificity to measure activity of G protein coupled receptors. The four histamine receptor subtypes (H1R, H2R, H3R and H4R) respond to the ligand histamine by activating three canonical heterotrimeric G-protein mediated signaling pathways ...
Secretion of acid by the stomach depends on the binding of gastric acetylcholine and histamine to their respective receptor on the parietal cell surface. Blocking either of these leads to a reduction in acid secretion. H1 receptors are located on blood vessels, smooth muscle and in the skin. H2 receptor are located in the stomach and stimulation results in gastric acid secretion. Drugs ...
0069]Particularly preferred compounds according to formula (I) include: [0070]N-[1-cyano-1-(5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl)ethyl]-4-[(trif- luoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0071]N-{(1R*)-1-cyano-1-[(2R*)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]eth- yl}-4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0072]N-{(1R)-1-cyano-1-[(2R)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]ethyl- }-4-[(trifluoromethyl)thio]benzamide, [0073]N-{(1S)-1-cyano-1-[(2S)-5-cyano-2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran-2-yl]ethyl- ...
(7-acetyloxy-1,3-dioxo-2-benzofuran-4-yl) acetate 124511-82-6 safety info, (7-acetyloxy-1,3-dioxo-2-benzofuran-4-yl) acetate chemical safety search, Chemical (7-acetyloxy-1,3-dioxo-2-benzofuran-4-yl) acetate safety technical specifications ect.
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1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3H-2-benzazepin-3-one - chemical structural formula, chemical names, chemical properties, synthesis references
This study is designed to use PET scans in order to measure activity of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system is the portion of the nervous system that maintains a normal supply of blood and fuel to organs during stressful situations.. PET scan or Positron Emission Tomography is an advanced form of an X-ray. It is used to detect radioactive substances in the body. During this study researchers plan to inject small amounts of the radioactive drug fluorodopamine into patients. Fluorodopamine is very similar to the ...
Background Vestibular vertigo is associated with substantially reduced quality of life. Betahistine is effective in improving vertigo-associated symptoms, with longer treatment periods leading to greater improvements; however, it is not known whether these effects persist after treatment cessation. Methods VIRTUOSO was a prospective, multinational, non-comparative, post-marketing observational programme investigating the effectiveness of betahistine (48 mg/day) and the course of vertigo after the discontinuation of treatment. Patients with vestibular vertigo ...
Histamine (2-[4-imidazole]ethylamine) is a low-molecular-weight amine synthesized from L-histidine. It is produced by various cells throughout the…
Prostacyclin (PGI2) induced a dose-dependent decrease in blood pressure with slight increases in heart rate and body temperature, when administered at the doses of 0.1-100 ~g into the lateral cerebral ventricle (i.c.v.) of the urethane-anaesthetised rat. When the same doses were administered intravenously, both the blood pressure and heart rate decreased. Central pretreatment wib~ sodiurn meclofenamate (1 mg/rat i.c.v.) antagonised the central hypotensive effect of PGI2 but ...
The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis an essential component of agroecosystems was CTLA4 assayed as a rhizosphere biosensor for evaluation of the impact of certain antifungal inoculants used to control soil-borne plant pathogens. germinating in ground and tomato root colonization. Strain F113(pCU203) did not adversely affect overall performance. Mycelial development but not spore germination is usually sensitive to 10 μM DAPG a concentration that might be present in the rhizosphere. The results of scanning electron and confocal microscopy exhibited ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary File. revealed a specific impairment of NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD) at Schaffer collateralC region 1 (SCCCA1) synapses. Furthermore, these defects were associated with dysfunction in NMDA-induced …. ...
TrendTerms displays relevant terms of the abstract of this publication and related documents on a map. The terms and their relations were extracted from ZORA using word statistics. Their timelines are taken from ZORA as well. The bubble size of a term is proportional to the number of documents where the term occurs. Red, orange, yellow and green colors are used for terms that occur in the current document; red indicates high interlinkedness of a term with other terms, orange, yellow and green decreasing ...
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses. It also regulates physiological function in the gut, and acts as a neurotransmitter.[1] Histamine is involved in the inflammatory response, where tissues get red, swollen and painful. As part of an immune response to foreign pathogens, histamine is produced by basophils and by mast cells found in nearby connective tissues. Histamine increases the permeability of the capillaries to white blood cells and some proteins. ...
The histamine H2-receptor (H2R) is a Gs protein-coupled receptor. Its activation leads to increases in the second messenger adenosine-3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Presently, several systems are established to characterize the pharmacological profile of the H2R, mostly requiring radioactive material, animal models or human blood cells. This prompted us to establish a flow cytometric analysis ...
The determination of quercetin in Plectranthus scutellarioides(L.) R.Br. leaves extract and its In SilicoStudy on Histamine H4 Receptor
None of 29 preoptic non-GABAergic (i.e., GFP-negative) neurons studied were inhibited by histamine (3 μm) (n = 14) or R-α-methylhistamine (1 μm) (n = 11); however, a population of GFP-negative neurons (5 of 29) was excited by histamine. The spontaneous firing rates averaged 3.5 ± 2.7 Hz (n = 5) and was increased by the neurotransmitter by 94 ± 43% (n = 5). This excitation was blocked by the H1R-specific antagonist trans-triprolidine (1 μm) in all neurons tested (n = 5) (Fig. 3A). The maximal excitatory effect was ...
Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express H antigen (also called substance H), the antigen which is present in blood group O. As a result, they cannot make A antigen (also called substance A) or B antigen (substance B) on their red blood cells, whatever alleles they may have of the A and B blood-group genes, because A antigen and B antigen are made from H antigen ...
Individuals with the rare Bombay phenotype (hh) do not express H antigen (also called substance H), the antigen which is present in blood group O. As a result, they cannot make A antigen (also called substance A) or B antigen (substance B) on their red blood cells, whatever alleles they may have of the A and B blood-group genes, because A antigen and B antigen are made from H antigen ...
Vitamin C can lower high histamine levels. Conversely, high doses of vitamin Cs cofactors, taken without C, might raise histamine.
Kronborg, Thit Mynster ; Hansen, Juliana Frohnert ; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh ; Vorkamp, Katrin ; Nielsen, Claus Henrik ; Frederiksen, Marie ; Hofman-Bang, Jacob ; Hahn, Christoffer Holst ; Ramhøj, Louise ; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla ...
Consumer information about the medication BETAHISTINE - ORAL , includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Read more about the prescription drug BETAHISTINE - ORAL.
Betahistine 2HCl Biogened is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Betahistine 2HCl Biogened is available on the Drugs.com website.
Asenapine Maleate Novel psychopharmacologic agent. Displays antagonist activity at 5-HT, dopamine, noradrenalin and histamine receptor subtypes (pKi values are 8.60, 8.40, 10.15, 9.75, 10.46, 8.84, 9.60, 9.94, 8.85, 8.90, 8.84, 9.38, 8.95, 8.93, 8.9, 9.49, 8.91, 9.00 and 8. ...
Adenosine acts as a break in biological systems, having inhibiting effects, but caffeine doesnt just stop this break, it also makes other neurotransmitters more active. For instance, it prevents breakdown of acetylcholine (ACh), so ACh sticks around longer, increasing its effect ...
One has to continue application for 2 weeks after the itch disappears to prevent any recurrence. However, I got it on my genitals, most likely after receiving oral sex from someone who has it. The name cortisol (often: cortisone) comes from Latin and means "bark". . I am proud of myself for telling. i have genital herpes and i got it from a guy i was dating and fooling around with. These neurotransmitters relay a signal to the brain, which interprets it and reacts by releasing other neurotransmitters.. Nine ...

epinephrine for bee stings - MedHelpepinephrine for bee stings - MedHelp

Chances are that the antihistamine was a histamine H1-receptor antagonist. Many protein based allergens (bee/wasp stings, etc ... Since Copaxone is a copolymer, histamine H1-receptor antagonist may not work well. The histamine H2-receptor antagonists, like ... I know, it sounds goofy, but the histamine response causes the acid pumps in the stomach to turn on. ...
more infohttps://healthquestions.medhelp.org/epinephrine-for-bee-stings

A nebulized complex traditional Chinese medicine inhibits Histamine and IL-4 production by ovalbumin in guinea pigs and can...A nebulized complex traditional Chinese medicine inhibits Histamine and IL-4 production by ovalbumin in guinea pigs and can...

... suggesting that the CTCM has a bronchodilator effect that is associated with beta-adrenergic receptor. Our results also showed ... The levels of histamine and IL-4 released from the cells were quantified. We found that the inhibition of bronchoconstriction ... Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples were collected 5 min after OVA challenge, and the histamine and IL-4 contents in ... that the CTCM inhibited histamine and IL-4 secretion in the OVA-induced airway hypersensitivity in guinea pigs at 5 min post- ...
more infohttps://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6882-13-174

H1 antagonist - WikipediaH1 antagonist - Wikipedia

... as opposed to receptor antagonists, at the histamine H1-receptor. In type I hypersensitivity allergic reactions, an allergen (a ... H1 antagonists, also called H1 blockers, are a class of medications that block the action of histamine at the H1 receptor, ... refers only to H1 antagonists, also known as H1-receptor antagonists and H1-antihistamines. It has been discovered that some H1 ... Once released, the histamine can react with local or widespread tissues through histamine receptors. Histamine, acting on H1- ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H1_antagonist

Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Histamine H 1 Receptor Antagonists Unrelated to H 1 Receptor Blockade | SpringerLinkAnti-Inflammatory Actions of Histamine H 1 Receptor Antagonists Unrelated to H 1 Receptor Blockade | SpringerLink

Histamine H1 receptor antagonists (antihistamines) are widely used for treatment of allergic conditions such as rhinitis, ... Effect of the H1-antagonist astemizole on the skin reactions induced by histamine, codeine and allergens. Curr Ther Res 1990; ... Histamine receptor-subtype affinities, selectivities, and potencies of emedastine, a novel H1-selective antagonist, and other ... Anti-Inflammatory Actions of Histamine H1 Receptor Antagonists Unrelated to H1 Receptor Blockade. *Claus Kroegel. 1. , ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF03259340

Alcaftadine - WikipediaAlcaftadine - Wikipedia

It is a H1 histamine receptor antagonist. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2010 under the trade name ... By blocking these three receptors, Alcaftadine has been shown to significantly reduce the effects of allergens. This effect on ... Alcaftadine is an antagonist at three of the histamine receptors (1, 2 and 4). The main indication for Alcaftadine is for ... histamine receptors seems to show lower rates of itching, eosinophil recruitment and redness after exposure to an allergen. The ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcaftadine

Impact of AIT on Allergic Rhinitis and AsthmaImpact of AIT on Allergic Rhinitis and Asthma

A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ... asthma frequently coexist, and may both be caused by allergen exposure. While the efficacy of AIT, i.e. reduce symptoms and ... A method of treating an ALLERGY by administering ALLERGENS, in liquid formulation or tablets, to the ORAL MUCOSA under the ... Effectiveness and Safety of Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Low-Dose Oral Immunotherapy with Low Allergen Egg-Containing ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/253231/Impact-of-AIT-on-Allergic-Rhinitis-and-Asthma.html

WikiGenes - ALRH - Allergic rhinitisWikiGenes - ALRH - Allergic rhinitis

Regulatory effect of histamine H1 receptor antagonist on the expression of messenger RNA encoding CC chemokines in the human ... Long-lived Th2 clones specific for seasonal and perennial allergens can be detected in blood and skin by their TCR- ... Clinical comparison of histamine H1-receptor antagonist drugs. Du Buske, L.M. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. (1996) [Pubmed] ... Reduced allergen-induced nasal congestion and leukotriene synthesis with an orally active 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor. Knapp, H.R ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/gene/e/260328.html

Mudge Gym | Be BuiltMudge Gym | Be Built

Specifically, Zaditor is an H1 receptor antagonist that blocks specific type of histamine receptor. It also decreases histamine ... Visine allergy eye drop can relief eye itchiness, soreness and redness caused by hay fever and other allergens such as pollen, ... distribution in the body and inhibits production of substances that react to an allergen. ...
more infohttp://www.mudgeegym.com

Best Eye Drops for Dry EyesBest Eye Drops for Dry Eyes

Specifically, Zaditor is an H1 receptor antagonist that blocks specific type of histamine receptor. It also decreases histamine ... Visine allergy eye drop can relief eye itchiness, soreness and redness caused by hay fever and other allergens such as pollen, ... distribution in the body and inhibits production of substances that react to an allergen. ...
more infohttp://plugandplayegypt.com/best-eye-drops-for-dry-eyes/

Tox and Hound - Twisted InteractionsTox and Hound - Twisted Interactions

The H1 antihistamines are not structurally related to histamine and they do not bind the active site of the histamine receptor ... Histamine. In an allergic response, a foreign substance - an allergen - is bound by IgE, which, in turn, activates mast cells. ... The first H1 antagonist, thymoxyethyldiethylamine, was identified in 1937.3 A much less toxic drug, diphenhydramine, aka beta- ... The H1 histamine receptor, which mediates allergic response, is coupled to a G protein that triggers a cascade of responses in ...
more infohttps://emcrit.org/toxhound/twisted-interactions/

decrease formation of cytokines,decrease formation of cytokines,

... receptor antagonists,Histamine H1-receptor antagonists. * ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS Mainly glucocorticoids Cromoglicate and ... Corticosteroids inhibit the allergen-induced influx of eosinophils into the lung. Glucocorticoids up-regulate β2 adrenoceptors ... Muscarinic receptor Cromoglicate and antagonists, nedocromil ,Cysteinyl leukotriene Anti-IgE treatment . ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/ankit_2408/anti-inflammatory-agents-used-in-asthma-and-cough-suppressants/8-decrease_formation_of_cytokines_in

characterised by: inflammation of thecharacterised by: inflammation of the

... receptor antagonists,Histamine H1-receptor antagonists. * ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AGENTS Mainly glucocorticoids Cromoglicate and ... Corticosteroids inhibit the allergen-induced influx of eosinophils into the lung. Glucocorticoids up-regulate β2 adrenoceptors ... Muscarinic receptor Cromoglicate and antagonists, nedocromil ,Cysteinyl leukotriene Anti-IgE treatment . ...
more infohttps://www.slideshare.net/ankit_2408/anti-inflammatory-agents-used-in-asthma-and-cough-suppressants/4-characterised_by_inflammation_of_the

Histamine H1 receptor - Proteopedia, life in 3DHistamine H1 receptor - Proteopedia, life in 3D

Histamine H1 receptor with an antagonist doxepin, lipid and phosphate (PDB code 3rze) ... Allergy symptoms are mostly caused by the release of histamine in response to allergens. The binding of histamine to the ... The structure of the H1 histamine receptor bound to an antihistamine, doxepin was published in 2011 [1]. A view colors the N ... Like other G protein-coupled receptors, the Histamine H1 Receptor contains a (aspartate (D), arginine (R), tyrosine (Y)) motif ...
more infohttp://proteopedia.org/wiki/index.php/Histamine_H1_receptor

ISTA Pharmaceuticals Initiates Phase 2 Clinical Study of Bepotastine Besilate Nasal Spray for the Treatment of Symptoms...ISTA Pharmaceuticals Initiates Phase 2 Clinical Study of Bepotastine Besilate Nasal Spray for the Treatment of Symptoms...

Bepotastine besilate is a non-sedating, highly selective antagonist of the histamine H1 receptor. It has a stabilizing effect ... an inflammation of the nasal passages caused by exposure to certain allergens, such as pollen from trees, grass and plants, ...
more infohttp://www.bio-medicine.org/medicine-technology-1/ISTA-Pharmaceuticals-Initiates-Phase-2-Clinical-Study-of-Bepotastine-Besilate-Nasal-Spray-for-the-Treatment-of-Symptoms-Associated-with-Seasonal-Aller-13253-1/

Diphenhydramine - Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, OverdoseDiphenhydramine - Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Overdose

H1) receptor blocker or antagonist] medicine that relieves allergy by blocking the action of histamine in your body. Histamine ... is a chemical thats released by Mast cells in your body when an allergen is encountered that can produce symptoms of sneezing ... Histamine H1 receptor participation in the control of prolactin secretion in postpartum. J Endocrinol Invest. 1985;8:143-6. ... Diphenhydramine competitively inhibits the histamine-1 (H1) receptor, thereby alleviating the symptoms caused by endogenous ...
more infohttps://healthjade.com/diphenhydramine/

Recreational Drugs - THE STREETS DONT LOVE YOU BACKRecreational Drugs - THE STREETS DON'T LOVE YOU BACK

... but the term is usually reserved for the classical antihistamines that act upon the H1 histamine receptor. Antihistamines are ... or "histamine antagonists") inhibit the release or action of histamine. "Antihistamine" can be used to describe any histamine ... Allergies are caused by an excessive response of the body to allergens, such as the pollen released by grasses and trees. An ... allergic reaction causes release of histamine by the body. Other uses of antihistamines are to help with normal symptoms of ...
more infohttp://thestreetsdontloveyouback.ning.com/page/recreational-drugs-1

ISTAs Bepreve™ Receives FDA Approval for Allergic ConjunctivitisISTA's Bepreve™ Receives FDA Approval for Allergic Conjunctivitis

Bepreve is a non-sedating, highly selective antagonist of the histamine (H1) receptor. It has a stabilizing effect on mast ... ISTA had conducted two Phase 3 double-masked, placebo-controlled, conjunctival allergen challenge (CAC) studies demonstrated ...
more infohttp://eyedocnews.com/002149-ista-pharmaceuticals-bepreve%E2%84%A2-receives-fda-approval-for-ocular-itching-associated-with-allergic-conjunctivitis/

ECNM - The European Competence Network on Mastocytosis - EnglishECNM - The European Competence Network on Mastocytosis - English

... histamine receptor antagonists. Two major groups of antihistamines are available, i.e. H1 and H2 receptor antagonists. ... In case of a known allergy, the (suspected) allergen must be strictly avoided. Before surgery, the doctors (i.e. both the ... In general, the treatment is aimed at controlling symptoms with H1 and H2 anti-histamines alone (without other drugs). However ... histamine is a ´neuroactive´ mediator and can influence the blood pressure. Apart from histamine, mast cells also produce ...
more infohttp://ecnm.net/homepage/index.php/english

Claritin (loratadine) vs. Zyrtec (cetirizine) | New England Health CareClaritin (loratadine) vs. Zyrtec (cetirizine) | New England Health Care

far, named H1 through H4. They each kick off drastically different processes when exposed to histamine. A lot of H1 receptor ... Loratadine and cetirizine are H1 receptor antagonists. This means each molecule of the medication has a shape and chemical ... allergens and release way too much histamine, causing runny nose, itchy eyes, sneezing, and inflamed airways. ... histamine, the histamine molecules latch onto the H1 receptor proteins, which causes capillaries to open, tissue to swell, and ...
more infohttp://www.newenglandhealthcare.org/claritin-loratadine-vs-zyrtec-cetirizine/

Benadryl, Histamines, Mast cells and Microbiome | CFS RemissionBenadryl, Histamines, Mast cells and Microbiome | CFS Remission

A reader who has been very very limited in what they can eat due to histamine response -- so limited that a good day is just ... H1 receptor antagonist is the fancy way of saying H1-Blocker.. As with most things biological, there are multiple paths to a ... It is used for symptomatic relief of allergic symptoms caused by histamine released in response to allergens."[eMedicine] ... "Diphenhydramine is a sedating peripheral H1 receptor antagonist. ... Benadryl, Histamines, Mast cells and Microbiome. A reader who ...
more infohttps://cfsremission.com/2018/11/18/benadryl-histamines-mast-cells-and-microbiome/

The need for patient-focused therapy for children and teenagers with allergic rhinitis: a case-based review of current European...The need for patient-focused therapy for children and teenagers with allergic rhinitis: a case-based review of current European...

... symptomatic treatment with H1-anti-histamines, intranasal corticosteroids and oral leukotriene-receptor antagonists, and ... Allergen avoidance measures and anti-histamine therapy led to partial clinical improvement. It has been reported that allergen ... Histamine and H1-antihistamines: celebrating a century of progress. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(6):1139-50. e1134.PubMed ... Anti-leukotriene receptor antagonists have been shown to be effective for controlling exercise-induced asthma and preventing ...
more infohttps://ctajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13601-014-0044-5

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

Conclusions: The data suggest that the H-1 histamine receptor does not play a major role in the EAR, but is involved in LAR ... Rationale: The effect of Cetirizine, a selective H1-receptor antagonist, was studied in the Brown Norway rat (BNR) model of ... Allergens; Allergic-reactions; Allergies; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies; Animals; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary- ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=respiratory&f1=%2A&Startyear=&Adv=0&terms=1&EndYear=&Limit=10000&sort=&D1=10&PageNo=333&RecNo=3321&View=f&

NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full ViewNIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View

Conclusions: The data suggest that the H-1 histamine receptor does not play a major role in the EAR, but is involved in LAR ... Rationale: The effect of Cetirizine, a selective H1-receptor antagonist, was studied in the Brown Norway rat (BNR) model of ... Allergens; Allergic-reactions; Allergies; Laboratory-animals; Animal-studies; Animals; Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary- ...
more infohttp://www2a.cdc.gov/nioshtic-2/BuildQyr.asp?s1=asthma&f1=%2A&Startyear=&Adv=0&terms=1&EndYear=&Limit=10000&sort=&D1=10&PageNo=97&RecNo=969&View=f&

AllergyCases.org: Allergic Rhinitis: Brief ReviewAllergyCases.org: Allergic Rhinitis: Brief Review

Histamine H1-receptor antagonists alleviate most symptoms of allergic rhinitis but not nasal congestion. Decongestants may ... The mainstay of treatment is allergen avoidance. Allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is the only treatment to achieve clinical ... Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists (LTRA). Antagonists of the CysLT1 receptor (LTRA) are efficacious as controller therapy in ... Second generation antihistamines have greater H1-receptor specificity. Cetirizine, loratadine, and desloratadine have dose- ...
more infohttp://www.allergycases.org/2005/02/short-review-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis.html

Mequitazina [Inn-Spanish]
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        Bronchodilator Agents,  Histamine H1 Antagonists,  ATC:R06AD07Mequitazina [Inn-Spanish] - Bronchodilator Agents, Histamine H1 Antagonists, ATC:R06AD07

Mequitazine is a histamine H1 antagonist. It competes with histamine for the normal H1-receptor sites on effector cells of the ... In allergic reactions an allergen interacts with and cross-links surface IgE antibodies on mast cells and basophils. Once the ... Once released, histamine can react with local or widespread tissues through histamine receptors. Histamine, acting on H1- ... Histamine also increases vascular permeability and potentiates pain. ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Mequitazina_%5BInn-Spanish%5D.html
  • The function a histamine molecule performs in any given physiological process depends not on the chemical itself, but how cell proteins latch onto and interpret it. (newenglandhealthcare.org)
  • Researchers have identified four different histamine receptor proteins thus far, named H1 through H4. (newenglandhealthcare.org)
  • A lot of H1 receptor proteins are located on the outer membranes of nerve cells and blood vessel cells in the mucous membranes of the airways and gut - basically any tissue that has exposure to the outside environment. (newenglandhealthcare.org)
  • In non-professional histamine-producing cells, histamine is synthesized and crosses the cell membrane with specific carrier proteins according to the concentration gradient. (termedia.pl)
  • Histamine release by the tuberomammillary nucleus during the day causes arousal, while decreased nighttime histamine causes somnolence. (emcrit.org)
  • Professional histamine-producing cells such as mast cells, basophils, enterochromaffin-like cells of the gastric mucosa, and histaminergic neurons synthesize this mediator, collect it in special granules inside the cells and release it in large amounts after specific stimulation. (termedia.pl)
  • Biological effects of histamine: an overview. (springer.com)
  • Histamine [H] is a well-known biogenic amine whose biological properties were first characterized more than 100 years ago [ 1 , 2 ]. (termedia.pl)
  • Although their precise mode of action is incompletely understood, H 1 antagonists may interfere with cellular transmembrane signalling processes, including Ca ++ transmembrane flux and intracellular mobilisation, accumulation of intracellular adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), and the activities of both protein kinase C and NADPH oxidase. (springer.com)
  • Histamine can also augment other gastrointestinal problems or be involved in ulcerative diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (like gastric ulcer). (ecnm.net)
  • It competes with histamine for the normal H 1 -receptor sites on effector cells of the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels and respiratory tract. (pharmacycode.com)
  • This review discusses the clinical effects and the putative mode of anti-inflammatory action unrelated to H 1 receptor blockade of this class of drugs. (springer.com)