Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Skin Tests: Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Receptors, Histamine H1: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Receptors, Histamine H2: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Receptors, Histamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.Histamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate histamine receptors. Although they have been suggested for a variety of clinical applications histamine agonists have so far been more widely used in research than therapeutically.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Receptors, Histamine H3: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Tuberculin Test: One of several skin tests to determine past or present tuberculosis infection. A purified protein derivative of the tubercle bacilli, called tuberculin, is introduced into the skin by scratch, puncture, or interdermal injection.Histamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to histamine, forming N-methylhistamine, the major metabolite of histamine in man. EC 2.1.1.8.Pyrilamine: A histamine H1 antagonist. It has mild hypnotic properties and some local anesthetic action and is used for allergies (including skin eruptions) both parenterally and locally. It is a common ingredient of cold remedies.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.p-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine: A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Intradermal Tests: Skin tests in which the sensitizer is injected.Hypersensitivity, Immediate: Hypersensitivity reactions which occur within minutes of exposure to challenging antigen due to the release of histamine which follows the antigen-antibody reaction and causes smooth muscle contraction and increased vascular permeability.Methylhistamines: Histamine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups. Many of these are agonists for the H1, H2, or both histamine receptors.Anaphylaxis: An acute hypersensitivity reaction due to exposure to a previously encountered ANTIGEN. The reaction may include rapidly progressing URTICARIA, respiratory distress, vascular collapse, systemic SHOCK, and death.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Histidine Decarboxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of histidine to histamine and carbon dioxide. It requires pyridoxal phosphate in animal tissues, but not in microorganisms. EC 4.1.1.22.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Dimaprit: A histamine H2 receptor agonist that is often used to study the activity of histamine and its receptors.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Histamine Agents: Drugs used for their actions on histaminergic systems. Included are drugs that act at histamine receptors, affect the life cycle of histamine, or affect the state of histaminergic cells.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Tryptases: A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Chlorpheniramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic reactions, hay fever, rhinitis, urticaria, and asthma. It has also been used in veterinary applications. One of the most widely used of the classical antihistaminics, it generally causes less drowsiness and sedation than PROMETHAZINE.Food Hypersensitivity: Gastrointestinal disturbances, skin eruptions, or shock due to allergic reactions to allergens in food.Receptors, IgE: Specific molecular sites on the surface of B- and T-lymphocytes which combine with IgEs. Two subclasses exist: low affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RII) and high affinity receptors (Fc epsilon RI).Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Antigens, Dermatophagoides: Antigens from the house dust mites (DERMATOPHAGOIDES), mainly D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus. They are proteins, found in mite feces or mite extracts, that can cause ASTHMA and other allergic diseases such as perennial rhinitis (RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, PERENNIAL) and atopic dermatitis (DERMATITIS, ATOPIC). More than 11 groups of Dermatophagoides ALLERGENS have been defined. Group I allergens, such as Der f I and Der p I from the above two species, are among the strongest mite immunogens in humans.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Desensitization, Immunologic: Immunosuppression by the administration of increasing doses of antigen. Though the exact mechanism is not clear, the therapy results in an increase in serum levels of allergen-specific IMMUNOGLOBULIN G, suppression of specific IgE, and an increase in suppressor T-cell activity.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Diphenhydramine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.Metiamide: A histamine H2 receptor antagonist that is used as an anti-ulcer agent.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Latent Tuberculosis: The dormant form of TUBERCULOSIS where the person shows no obvious symptoms and no sign of the causative agent (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) in the SPUTUM despite being positive for tuberculosis infection skin test.Rhinitis, Allergic, Seasonal: Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Skin DiseasesRadioallergosorbent Test: An in vitro allergen radioimmunoassay in which allergens are coupled to an immunosorbent. The coupled allergens bind the IgE in the sera of patients which in turn binds radioisotope-labeled anti-IMMUNOGLOBULIN E antibodies.Pyroglyphidae: Family of house dust mites, in the superfamily Analgoidea, order Astigmata. They include the genera Dermatophagoides and Euroglyphus.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis: An evanescent cutaneous reaction occurring when antibody is injected into a local area on the skin and antigen is subsequently injected intravenously along with a dye. The dye makes the rapidly occurring capillary dilatation and increased vascular permeability readily visible by leakage into the reaction site. PCA is a sensitive reaction for detecting very small quantities of antibodies and is also a method for studying the mechanisms of immediate hypersensitivity.Arthropod Proteins: Proteins synthesized by organisms belonging to the phylum ARTHROPODA. Included in this heading are proteins from the subdivisions ARACHNIDA; CRUSTACEA; and HORSESHOE CRABS. Note that a separate heading for INSECT PROTEINS is listed under this heading.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Anti-Allergic Agents: Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Skin Aging: The process of aging due to changes in the structure and elasticity of the skin over time. It may be a part of physiological aging or it may be due to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, usually through exposure to sunlight.Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Ketotifen: A cycloheptathiophene blocker of histamine H1 receptors and release of inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed for the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, skin allergies, and anaphylaxis.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Mastocytosis: A heterogenous group of disorders characterized by the abnormal increase of MAST CELLS in only the skin (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS), in extracutaneous tissues involving multiple organs (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC), or in solid tumors (MASTOCYTOMA).Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Bronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Basophil Degranulation Test: An in vitro test used in the diagnosis of allergies including drug hypersensitivity. The allergen is added to the patient's white blood cells and the subsequent histamine release is measured.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Interferon-gamma Release Tests: The assay of INTERFERON-GAMMA released from lymphocytes after their exposure to a specific test antigen, to check for IMMUNOLOGIC MEMORY resulting from a previous exposure to the antigen. The amount of interferon-gamma released is usually assayed by an ENZYME-LINKED IMMUNOSORBENT ASSAY.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Tuberculin: A protein extracted from boiled culture of tubercle bacilli (MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS). It is used in the tuberculin skin test (TUBERCULIN TEST) for the diagnosis of tuberculosis infection in asymptomatic persons.Impromidine: A highly potent and specific histamine H2 receptor agonist. It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Nasal Provocation Tests: Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Triprolidine: Histamine H1 antagonist used in allergic rhinitis; ASTHMA; and URTICARIA. It is a component of COUGH and COLD medicines. It may cause drowsiness.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for STEM CELL FACTOR. This interaction is crucial for the development of hematopoietic, gonadal, and pigment stem cells. Genetic mutations that disrupt the expression of PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT are associated with PIEBALDISM, while overexpression or constitutive activation of the c-kit protein-tyrosine kinase is associated with tumorigenesis.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Burimamide: An antagonist of histamine that appears to block both H2 and H3 histamine receptors. It has been used in the treatment of ulcers.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Mice, Inbred BALB CMastocytosis, Systemic: A group of disorders caused by the abnormal proliferation of MAST CELLS in a variety of extracutaneous tissues including bone marrow, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and gastrointestinal tract. Systemic mastocytosis is commonly seen in adults. These diseases are categorized on the basis of clinical features, pathologic findings, and prognosis.Streptodornase and Streptokinase: A mixture of the enzymes (streptokinase and streptodornase) produced by hemolytic streptococci. It is used topically on surface lesions and by instillation in closed body cavities to remove clotted blood or fibrinous or purulent accumulations. It is also used as a skin test antigen in evaluating generalized cell-mediated immunodeficiency. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.-.Pruritus: An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Stem Cell Factor: A hematopoietic growth factor and the ligand of the cell surface c-kit protein (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-KIT). It is expressed during embryogenesis and is a growth factor for a number of cell types including the MAST CELLS and the MELANOCYTES in addition to the HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.Erythema: Redness of the skin produced by congestion of the capillaries. This condition may result from a variety of causes.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: Species of European house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE. It is the most commonly found house dust mite.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Terfenadine: A selective histamine H1-receptor antagonist devoid of central nervous system depressant activity. The drug was used for ALLERGY but withdrawn due to causing LONG QT SYNDROME.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Phleum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains the Phl p 4 allergen.Ranitidine: A non-imidazole blocker of those histamine receptors that mediate gastric secretion (H2 receptors). It is used to treat gastrointestinal ulcers.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Cytoplasmic Granules: Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.Mice, Inbred C57BLMycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Dermatophagoides farinae: Species of American house dust mite, in the family PYROGLYPHIDAE.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Latex Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Conjunctivitis, Allergic: Conjunctivitis due to hypersensitivity to various allergens.2S Albumins, Plant: A major class of water-soluble seed storage proteins. Many proteins from this class are major PLANT ALLERGENS.HistoplasminArachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Carboxypeptidases A: Carboxypeptidases that are primarily found the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM that catalyze the release of C-terminal amino acids. Carboxypeptidases A have little or no activity for hydrolysis of C-terminal ASPARTIC ACID; GLUTAMIC ACID; ARGININE; LYSINE; or PROLINE. This enzyme requires ZINC as a cofactor and was formerly listed as EC 3.4.2.1 and EC 3.4.12.2.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing): A group of enzymes including those oxidizing primary monoamines, diamines, and histamine. They are copper proteins, and, as their action depends on a carbonyl group, they are sensitive to inhibition by semicarbazide.Leukemia, Mast-Cell: A form of systemic mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, SYSTEMIC) characterized by the presence of large numbers of tissue MAST CELLS in the peripheral blood without skin lesions. It is a high-grade LEUKEMIA disease with bone marrow smear of >20% MAST CELLS, multi-organ failure and a short survival.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Ambrosia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The POLLEN is one cause of HAYFEVER.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Thioxanthenes: Compounds with three aromatic rings in linear arrangement with a SULFUR in the center ring.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Famotidine: A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.Gastric Acid: Hydrochloric acid present in GASTRIC JUICE.Gastric Juice: The liquid secretion of the stomach mucosa consisting of hydrochloric acid (GASTRIC ACID); PEPSINOGENS; INTRINSIC FACTOR; GASTRIN; MUCUS; and the bicarbonate ion (BICARBONATES). (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p651)Skin Pigmentation: Coloration of the skin.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Cetirizine: A potent second-generation histamine H1 antagonist that is effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and pollen-induced asthma. Unlike many traditional antihistamines, it does not cause drowsiness or anticholinergic side effects.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Methacholine Compounds: A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Air Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Urticaria Pigmentosa: The most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS) that occurs primarily in children. It is characterized by the multiple small reddish-brown pigmented pruritic macules and papules.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Bee Venoms: Venoms obtained from Apis mellifera (honey bee) and related species. They contain various enzymes, polypeptide toxins, and other substances, some of which are allergenic or immunogenic or both. These venoms were formerly used in rheumatism to stimulate the pituitary-adrenal system.Capillary Permeability: The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.Pentagastrin: A synthetic pentapeptide that has effects like gastrin when given parenterally. It stimulates the secretion of gastric acid, pepsin, and intrinsic factor, and has been used as a diagnostic aid.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Mast-Cell Sarcoma: A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Wasp Venoms: Venoms produced by the wasp (Vespid) family of stinging insects, including hornets; the venoms contain enzymes, biogenic amines, histamine releasing factors, kinins, toxic polypeptides, etc., and are similar to bee venoms.Peanut Hypersensitivity: Allergic reaction to peanuts that is triggered by the immune system.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leukemia, Basophilic, Acute: A rare acute myeloid leukemia in which the primary differentiation is to BASOPHILS. It is characterized by an extreme increase of immature basophilic granulated cells in the bone marrow and blood. Mature basophils are usually sparse.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Tripelennamine: A histamine H1 antagonist with low sedative action but frequent gastrointestinal irritation. It is used to treat ASTHMA; HAY FEVER; URTICARIA; and RHINITIS; and also in veterinary applications. Tripelennamine is administered by various routes, including topically.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Eosinophilia: Abnormal increase of EOSINOPHILS in the blood, tissues or organs.Tolonium Chloride: A phenothiazine that has been used as a hemostatic, a biological stain, and a dye for wool and silk. Tolonium chloride has also been used as a diagnostic aid for oral and gastric neoplasms and in the identification of the parathyroid gland in thyroid surgery.Clemastine: A histamine H1 antagonist used as the hydrogen fumarate in hay fever, rhinitis, allergic skin conditions, and pruritus. It causes drowsiness.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Interleukin-3: A multilineage cell growth factor secreted by LYMPHOCYTES; EPITHELIAL CELLS; and ASTROCYTES which stimulates clonal proliferation and differentiation of various types of blood and tissue cells.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Artemisia: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE with strong-smelling foliage. It is a source of SANTONIN and other cytotoxic TERPENES.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Methylhistidines: Histidine substituted in any position with one or more methyl groups.Contact Tracing: Identification of those persons (or animals) who have had such an association with an infected person, animal, or contaminated environment as to have had the opportunity to acquire the infection. Contact tracing is a generally accepted method for the control of sexually transmitted diseases.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Enterochromaffin-like Cells: Neuroendocrine cells in the glands of the GASTRIC MUCOSA. They produce HISTAMINE and peptides such as CHROMOGRANINS. ECL cells respond to GASTRIN by releasing histamine which acts as a paracrine stimulator of the release of HYDROCHLORIC ACID from the GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between the termination of the ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of the DUODENUM.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Interleukin-13: A cytokine synthesized by T-LYMPHOCYTES that produces proliferation, immunoglobulin isotype switching, and immunoglobulin production by immature B-LYMPHOCYTES. It appears to play a role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Dinitrochlorobenzene: A skin irritant that may cause dermatitis of both primary and allergic types. Contact sensitization with DNCB has been used as a measure of cellular immunity. DNCB is also used as a reagent for the detection and determination of pyridine compounds.

*Allergic rhinitis

IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells. ... Allergy testing may reveal the specific allergens to which an individual is sensitive. Skin testing is the most common method ... Diagnosis is usually based on a medical history in combination with a skin prick test or blood tests for allergen-specific IgE ... The intradermal allergy test is more sensitive than the skin prick test but is more often positive in people that do not have ...

*Peanut allergy

Skin prick tests are designed to identify specific IgE bound to cutaneous mast cells. During the test, a glycerinated allergen ... and other anaphylatoxins which act to release histamine and other mediator substances from mast cells (degranulation). In ... A positive skin prick test is about 50% accurate, so a positive skin prick test alone is not diagnostic of food allergies. The ... skin prick test and patch test) List of allergens (food and non-food) Tree nut allergy (can be cross-reactive to peanut allergy ...

*Allergy

Low-allergen foods are being developed, as are improvements in skin prick test predictions; evaluation of the atopy patch test ... Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other ... some allergists will prefer an initial blood test prior to performing the skin prick test. Skin tests may not be an option if ... If later exposure to the same allergen occurs, the allergen can bind to the IgE molecules held on the surface of the mast cells ...

*Rhinitis

These antibodies mostly bind to mast cells, which contain histamine. When the mast cells are stimulated by an allergen, ... Even if a person has negative skin-prick, intradermal and blood tests for allergies, they may still have allergic rhinitis, ... the inflammation is caused by the degranulation of mast cells in the nose. When mast cells degranulate, they release histamine ... A patch test may be used to determine if a particular substance is causing the rhinitis. Rhinitis medicamentosa is a form of ...

*Anaphylaxis

During an attack, blood tests for tryptase or histamine (released from mast cells) might be useful in diagnosing anaphylaxis ... Non-immune forms of anaphylaxis can only be determined by history or exposure to the allergen in question, and not by skin or ... Skin allergy testing is available for certain foods and venoms. Blood testing for specific IgE can be useful to confirm milk, ... The coronary spasm is related to the presence of histamine-releasing cells in the heart. While a fast heart rate caused by low ...

*Aspergillus penicillioides

House dust mites can activate mast cells and T cells, which release mediators like prostaglandin and histamine that have ... It was shown that allergen profiles of larval mites without this fungus are similar to adult mites with the fungus. Fungus-free ... Despite that this species was originally described from a skin infection, the principle human exposure hazard is likely to be ... The fungal detector encapsulating fungal spores is exposed to test site, and fungal response is measured. Greatest response ...

*Immunoglobulin E

... medical history and finding a positive result for the presence of allergen specific IgE when conducting a skin or blood test. ... mast cell stabilizers, which inhibit the degranulation of mast cells that is normally triggered by IgE-binding at FcεRI. Long- ... Ishizaka,, Teruko; Ishizaka, Kimishige; Johansson, S. Gunnar O.; Bennich, Hans (April 1, 1969). "Histamine Release from Human ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of ...

*Aquagenic urticaria

Absorption of this substance would exert an effect of perifollicular mast cell degranulation with release of histamine.[10] ... Evaluations for aquagenic urticaria consist of a clinical history and water challenge test.[7] The standard test for aquagenic ... Barrier cream:[1] In some circumstances an oil in water solution or emulsion cream can be applied to the skin to protect it ... There is a lack of desensitization for water and aqua intile injection as allergen even on repeated exposure.[21] Avoidance of ...

*Hives

Histamine and other proinflammatory substances are released from mast cells in the skin and tissues in response to the binding ... Mechanisms other than allergen-antibody interactions are known to cause histamine release from mast cells. Many drugs, for ... EU can be differentiated from cholinergic urticaria by the hot water immersion test. In this test, the patient is immersed in ... inhibit cell responsiveness to mast cell products and inhibit T cell activity. They are preferred by some experts to treat ...

*Basophil activation

Allergic symptoms are caused by an initial systemic histamine release by activated basophiles and mast cells, that may lead to ... A test tube is prepared with basophile stimulation buffer (BSB) including Interleukin 3 and an allergen which is to be tested. ... a positive skin test is used in identification of allergies, but the activation of basophilic granulocytes with anti-IgE, the ... The inner cell surface of the granules becomes the outer cell surface of the basophile /mast cell during degranulation process ...

*Egg allergy

Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other ... Diagnosis of egg allergy is based on the person's history of allergic reactions, skin prick test (SPT), patch test and ... also having their allergen-free food deliberately contaminated. List of allergens (food and non-food) Caubet JC, Wang J (2011 ... One theory is that exercise is stimulating the release of mediators such as histamine from IgE-activated mast cells. Two of the ...

*Soy allergy

... skin prick test and patch test) List of allergens (food and non-food) National Institutes of Health, NIAID Allergy Statistics ... Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other ... Diagnosis of soy allergy is based on the person's history of allergic reactions, skin prick test (SPT), patch test and ... Cytokines from mast cells may also play a role in the persistence of long-term effects. Late-phase responses seen in asthma are ...

*Ragweed

When the ragweed antigen then attaches to these antibodies the mast cells release histamine and other symptom evoking chemicals ... Ragweed pollen is a common allergen. A single plant may produce about a billion grains of pollen per season, and the pollen is ... Manually uprooting ragweed is generally ineffective, and skin contact can cause allergic reaction. If uprooting is the method ... and applications for permits and funding to test these controls have been unsuccessful. It has however appeared in Europe, ...

*Anaphylaxis

During an attack, blood tests for tryptase or histamine (released from mast cells) might be useful in diagnosing anaphylaxis ... Two or more of the following symptoms after a likely contact with an allergen: a. Involvement of the skin or mucosa. b. ... Skin allergy testing is available for certain foods and venoms.[17] Blood testing for specific IgE can be useful to confirm ... Skin testing is available to confirm penicillin allergies, but is not available for other medications.[17] Non-immune forms of ...

*Allergen

When an allergen drifts into the nose more than once, mast cells release a slew of chemicals or histamines that irritate and ... 2 tests have to be done in order to determine the cause: a blood test and a skin test. Allergists do skin tests in one of two ... Although blood tests are less accurate than the skin tests, they can be performed on patients unable to undergo skin testing. ... These allergen antibodies migrate to mast cells lining the nose, eyes and lungs. ...

*Food allergy

In these tests, a tiny amount of the suspected allergen is put onto the skin or into a testing device, and the device is placed ... Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other ... skin prick test, blood tests for food-specific IgE antibodies, or oral food challenge. For skin-prick tests, a tiny board with ... If later exposure to the same allergen occurs, the allergen can bind to the IgE molecules held on the surface of the mast cells ...

*Allergen

When an allergen drifts into the nose more than once, mast cells release a slew of chemicals or histamines that irritate and ... 2 tests have to be done in order to determine the cause: a blood test and a skin test. Allergists do skin tests in one of two ... Although blood tests are less accurate than the skin tests, they can be performed on patients unable to undergo skin testing. ... These allergen antibodies migrate to mast cells lining the nose, eyes and lungs. ...

*Rhinitis

These antibodies mostly bind to mast cells, which contain histamine. When the mast cells are stimulated by an allergen, ... Even if a person has negative skin-prick, intradermal and blood tests for allergies, they may still have allergic rhinitis, ... the inflammation is caused by the degranulation of mast cells in the nose. When mast cells degranulate, they release histamine ... The most common kind of rhinitis is allergic rhinitis,[5] which is usually triggered by airborne allergens such as pollen and ...

*Hives

Histamine and other proinflammatory substances are released from mast cells in the skin and tissues in response to the binding ... Mechanisms other than allergen-antibody interactions are known to cause histamine release from mast cells. Many drugs, for ... EU can be differentiated from cholinergic urticaria by the hot water immersion test. In this test, the patient is immersed in ... inhibit cell responsiveness to mast cell products and inhibit T cell activity. They are preferred by some experts to treat ...

*Allergic rhinitis

IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells.[2 ... Allergy testing may reveal the specific allergens to which an individual is sensitive. Skin testing is the most common method ... Diagnosis is usually based on a medical history in combination with a skin prick test or blood tests for allergen-specific IgE ... The intradermal allergy test is more sensitive than the skin prick test but is more often positive in people that do not have ...

*Blood transfusion

When antibodies are bound to its antigens, histamine is released from mast cells and basophils. Either IgE antibodies from the ... In the immediate spin method, two drops of patient serum are tested against a drop of 3-5% suspension of donor cells in a test ... the filtration of donor white cells from red cell product units. Allergic reactions is caused by IgE anti-allergen antibodies. ... Sources of contaminants include the donor's blood, donor's skin, phlebotomist's skin, and containers. Contaminating organisms ...

*Proxicromil

... is a mast-cell stabilizer that prevents degranulation and release of mediators such as histamine from mast cells. ... Proxicromil is tested through a variety of independent studies for its beneficial effect as an anti-allergen, its efficacy ... and it shows a reducing effect on the severity of skin irritation. The pathway of metabolism, by most tested species, is by ... It supresses allergic reactions by binding to FcεRI receptor in mast cells, thereby inhibiting production of histamines. It is ...

*Allergic conjunctivitis

IgE then binds to IgE receptors on the surface of mast cells. Then, mast cells release histamine, which then leads to the ... and avoidance of allergens. Treatment consists of antihistamine, mast cell stabilizers, dual mechanism anti-allergen agents, or ... grass and ragweed Animal skin and secretions such as saliva Perfumes Cosmetics Skin medicines Air pollution Smoke Dust mites ... Diagnostic tests such as conjunctival scrapings to look for eosinophils are helpful in determining the cause of the allergic ...

*Milk allergy

Food allergy (has images of hives, skin prick test and patch test) List of allergens (food and non-food) Caffarelli C, et al. ... Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other ... Diagnosis of milk allergy is based on the person's history of allergic reactions, skin prick test (SPT), patch test and ... Cytokines from mast cells may also play a role in the persistence of long-term effects. Late-phase responses seen in asthma are ...

*Immunoglobulin E

... medical history and finding a positive result for the presence of allergen specific IgE when conducting a skin or blood test.[ ... mast cell stabilizers, which inhibit the degranulation of mast cells that is normally triggered by IgE-binding at FcεRI. Long- ... Degranulation processes 1 - antigen; 2 - IgE antibody; 3 - FcεRI receptor; 4 - preformed mediators (histamine, proteases, ... FcεRI is expressed on mast cells, basophils, and the antigen-presenting dendritic cells in both mice and humans. Binding of ...

*Food allergy

In these tests, a tiny amount of the suspected allergen is put onto the skin or into a testing device, and the device is placed ... Activated mast cells and basophils undergo a process called degranulation, during which they release histamine and other ... If later exposure to the same allergen occurs, the allergen can bind to the IgE molecules held on the surface of the mast cells ... Food challenges test for allergens other than those caused by IgE allergens. The allergen is given to the person in the form of ...

*Conjunctivitis

The symptoms are due to release of histamine and other active substances by mast cells, which stimulate dilation of blood ... A patch test is used to identify the causative allergen in the case where conjunctivitis is caused by allergy. Conjunctival ... Severe crusting of the infected eye and the surrounding skin may also occur. The gritty and/or scratchy feeling is sometimes ... A patch test is used to diagnose it and identify the causative allergen. Bacterial conjunctivitis Viral conjunctivitis Chemical ...
... is a thoughtful condition. Learn about Can Histamine Cause High Blood Pressure or are you at risk for Can Histamine Cause High Blood Pressure. But if you treat it carefully you can provent Can Histamine Cause High Blood Pressure. But bont worry about Can Histamine Cause High Blood Pressure? Youve come to the right place. This quick guide for Can Histamine Cause High Blood Pressure. These information will get you started.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proliferative quiescence of normal mast cells resembles that of cold-sensitive mutant mastocytoma cells. Dominant expression of the quiescent state in heterokaryons. AU - Laeng, H.. AU - Harris, David T.. AU - Schindler, R.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - Normal murine peritoneal mast cells were fused to serum-deprived, non-proliferating cells of a cultured subline (41-SB-4) of the P-815 murine mastocytoma. Upon reincubation in medium containing 10% horse serum for 48 h, mono- and binuclear 41-SB-4 cells reentered S phase of the cell cycle, while mast cell × 41-SB-4 heterokaryons as well as mono- and binuclear mast cells remained in proliferative quiescence, indicating dominant expression of the quiescent state of mast cells. The quiescent state of normal ...
Background: Mast cells infiltrate the bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) in asthmatic patients, but the mechanism of mast cell adhesion is still unknown. The adhesion molecules CD44 (i.e. hyaluronate receptor) and CD51 (i.e. vitronectin receptor) are widely expressed and bind to many extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. The aims of the study are (i) to identify the role of ECM in mast cell adhesion to BSM and (ii) to examine the role of CD51 and CD44 in this adhesion.. Methods: Human lung mast cells, human mast cell line (HMC-1), and BSM cells from control donors or asthmatic patients were cultured in the presence/absence of various cytokines. Mast cell-BSM interaction was assessed using 3H-thymidine-pulsed mast cells, confocal immunofluorescence, or electron microscopy. Adhesion molecules expression and collagen production on ...
... The Global and Chinese Histamine Dihydrochloride Industry, 2012-2022 Market Research Report is a professional and - Market research report and industry analysis - 10790459
Interactions between products of the mouse W locus, which encodes the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor, and the Sl locus, which encodes a ligand for c-kit receptor, which we have designated stem cell factor (SCF), have a critical role in the development of mast cells. Mice homozygous for mutations at either locus exhibit several phenotypic abnormalities including a virtual absence of mast cells. Moreover, the c-kit ligand SCF can induce the proliferation and maturation of normal mast cells in vitro or in vivo, and also can result in repair of the mast cell deficiency of Sl/Sld mice in vivo. We now report that administration of SCF intradermally in vivo results in dermal mast cell activation and a mast cell-dependent acute inflammatory response. This effect is c-kit receptor dependent, in that it is not observed when SCF is administered to mice containing ...
c-kit ligand (KL) activated mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC) for the dose- and time-dependent release of arachidonic acid from cell membrane phospholipids, with generation of leukotriene (LT) C4 in preference to prostaglandin (PG)D2. KL at concentrations of 10 ng/ml elicited half-maximal eicosanoid generation and at concentrations of , 50 ng/ml elicited a maximal generation of approximately 15 ng LTC4 and 1 ng PGD2 per 10(6) cells, with 20% net beta-hexosaminidase release 10 min after stimulation. Of the other cytokines tested, none, either alone or in combination with KL, elicited or modulated the immediate phase of mediator release by BMMC, indicating strict specificity for KL. Activation of BMMC in response to KL was accompanied by transient phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and reversible translocation of 5-lipoxygenase to a cell membrane fraction 2-5 min after stimulation, when the rate of arachidonic acid release and LTC4 ...
Resveratrol, a polyphenol abundant in peanuts, red wine and the skin of grapes, has been shown to have anti-cancer, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, and may also have beneficial effects on allergic inflammation. We investigated the effects of resveratrol on human mast cell activation in comparison to the anti-allergy drug tranilast. In LAD2 mast cells, both resveratrol and tranilast inhibited degranulation induced by the mast cell activators substance P, IgE/anti-IgE, and compound 48/80. Resveratrol inhibition was immediate, preventing degranulation when added simultaneously to physiological stimuli, and the effect was sustained for up to 24 hrs. The inhibitory effect was not cAMP dependent, but may be attributable to calcium modulation, as resveratrol, and to a lesser extent tranilast, prevented substance P-induced increases in intracellular calcium. Resveratrol attenuated substance P-induced TNF and MCP-1 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Airway blood flow distribution and lung edema after histamine infusion in awake sheep. AU - Kramer, G. C.. AU - Lindsey, D. C.. AU - Wu, C. H.. AU - Mertens, S.. AU - Russell, L. A.. AU - Cross, Carroll E. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - The present study was designed to evaluate the distribution of bronchial blood flow to major airways and peripheral lung and to quantitate lung edema during a 2-h histamine infusion (2 μg·kg-1·min-1) in unanesthetized sheep. By the use of radioactive microspheres, the blood flow to trachea and to tracheal cartilage, smooth muscle, and mucosa/submucosa was determined along with measurements of blood flow to different sized airway segments and the systemic blood flow to lung parenchyma. Histamine greatly increased blood flow to medium-sized (5- to 10-mm-diam) central airways in which blood flow increased 5-10 times base line, whereas in small (1- to 5-mm-diam) ...
METABOLIC PANEL: Includes Kryptopyrrole Urinary Quantitative, Copper Serum, Zinc Plasma and Whole Blood Histamine. The Metabolic Panel aids the practitioner in assessing levels of nutrients that are critical to brain health. This panel of testing was comprised by the Original Pfeiffer treatment center. The Metabolic Panel identifies imbalances that have been associated with Autism, Aspergers syndrome, ADD/HD, anxiety, Bipolar disorder, assaultive/aggresive/violent behavior, other mental and emotional conditions and schizophrenia. The Kryptopyrrole Urinary Quantitative is an at-home collection kit. The at-home kryptopyrrole collection kit includes all collection materials shipped to you, overnight return shipping back to our laboratory, running the test, reporting the results, and a receipt for services rendered that you can submit for insurance reimbursement.. The Whole Blood Histamine, Copper Serum, and Zinc plasma, will require a blood ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of endogenous histamine in altered lung mechanics in rabbits. AU - Habre, Walid. AU - Babik, Barna. AU - Chalier, Michel. AU - Peták, F.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Unlike the effects of exogenous histamine, those of endogenous histamine on the lung mechanics have not yet been characterized. The site of endogenous histamine liberation by mivacurium was determined, as were the effects of this histamine on the airway and parenchymal mechanics in control rabbits (group C) and rabbits pretreated with H1 and H2 receptor blockers (group AH). The effectiveness of the receptor blockade was ensured by challenges with exogenous histamine. Methods: Pulmonary input impedance at low frequencies (ZL) was measured in anesthetized mechanically ventilated open-chest rabbits under control ...
Histamine intolerance occurs when the body is unable to adequately process the level of histamine present in the body. When DAO levels are low or its activity is inhibited, signs of excess histamine can appear.. Histamine is a powerful compound that is essential to our health. Excess histamine, however, can cause discomfort and distress. Those who are histamine sensitive or histamine intolerant experience allergy-like symptoms in response to excess histamine consumed in foods, triggered by foods, or released in response to environmental factors. In rare cases, excess histamine is produced to excess by the bodys own mast cells (see Histamine ...
This is a non-interventional multi-center study (NIS) in adult patients with AML in first complete remission with measurable minimal residual disease (MRD). Patients are eligible when gene status was already determined for previous induction and consolidation therapy of AML and showed carrier of NPM1, CBFβ-MYH11, or MLL-AF9 mutation. The study objective is to observe the impact of pre-emptive therapy with histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) with regard to assess leukemia-free survival/time to relapse and to monitor MRD level trend over time. HDC and IL-2 are approved drugs for AML patients in first complete remission. Therapy is administered for 10 treatment cycles as outlined in the Summary of Product Characteristics ...
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It was recently reported that caffeine may reduce the clinical symptoms of asthma and may prevent the clinical manifestations of this disease. The effect of caffeine on histamine responsiveness is unknown. The effect of caffeine (5 mg/kg) and placebo on histamine responsiveness (the provocation concentration causing a 20% fall in FEV1, PC20) was studied in 10 subjects with mild asthma (prechallenge FEV1 84% of predicted value). The PC20 for histamine bronchoprovocation after caffeine ingestion was 2.65 (95% confidence limits 0.99, 7.10) mg/ml. After placebo the PC20 was 1.89 (0.96, 3.71) mg/ml. It is concluded that caffeine in a dose equivalent to about three cups of coffee has a very small effect, if any, on histamine bronchoprovocation in those with mild asthma. Specific instructions about not having drinks containing caffeine before ...
Gastric acid secretion was assessed in 20 patients with kwashiorkor by means of the augmented histamine test. In 16 patients satisfactory acid secretion was demonstrated, some of them actually showing hypersecretion after histamine stimulation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Study of histamine effects on phagocytosis and enzyme secretion of Tetrahymena pyriformis. AU - Darvas, Z.. AU - Madarasz, B.. AU - László, V.. PY - 1999. Y1 - 1999. N2 - 1. The biogenic amine histamine develops effects not only in mammalian cells and tissues but in ciliated unicellular Tetrahymena as well. In addition to binding and internalization of labelled histamine, low concentrations can stimulate the phagocytosis of cells in inorganic salt solution. 2. In inorganic solution Tetrahymena cells secrete acid hydrolases to the medium. High concentration of histamine (10 mM) decreases the secretion of three investigated acid hydrolases in a different manner. We think that in this process the primary determinant is the alkaline character of histamine. 3. The effect of ...
Although one of the main functions of histamine is associated with allergic reactions, it is also an in important neurotransmitter and immune messenger molecule. Histamine is stored in mast cells and subsequently released when these cells are activated.. Even though histamine is small compared to other biological molecules (containing only 17 atoms), it plays an important role in the body. It is known to be involved in over 23 different physiological functions and its all thanks to histamines flexible chemical binding structure.. When histamine is formed, it is broken down by specific enzymes. In the central nervous system, it is metabolized by histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT), while in the digestive tract it is broken down by diamine oxidase (DAO).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of loratadine on histamine release induced by antigen-antibody reaction. AU - Kamei, Chiaki. AU - Sugimoto, Yukio. AU - Yamaji, Masako. AU - Takada, Miho. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Loratadine caused an inhibition of histamine release from rat peritoneal mast culls induced by passively sensitized mast cells, and IC 50 was 9.57 μM. SCH 34117, a metabolite of loratadine, also inhibited histamine release from mast cells, and its potency was more than that of loratadine. Moreover, in ex vivo experiments, loratadine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as well as terfenadine provided a relatively potent inhibitory effect on histamine release from lung pieces of actively sensitized guinea pigs exposed to antigen.. AB - Loratadine caused an inhibition of ...
Whether the job is waking the brain after a peaceful sleep, initiating gastric secretion when dinner is served or orchestrating the elements of inflammation after a mosquito bite, histamine has been a known biological messenger for decades (Green, 1964; Eichler and Farah, 1966). At the end of the twentieth century, in the midst of the genomics and bioinformatics revolution, researchers in this field knew of the existence of only three histamine receptors (H1, H2, and H3). But histamine receptors are catching up! Not only have multiple forms of the H3 receptor recently been described but also a new histamine receptor, H4, has now been identified.. The presently-known histamine receptors (H1, H2, and H3) are all G protein-coupled molecules and they transduce extracellular signals via Gq, Gs, and Gi/o, respectively (Hill et al., 1997; Lovenberg ...
Crustaceans can store excess copper in the hepatopancreas, an organ playing a role in digestive activity as well as in neurosecretory control. Here, we studied the effect of copper exposure on the level of histamine, an indicator of food spoilage in edible crustaceans. Histamine is also a neuromodulator in the intestinal nervous system of crustaceans, and a human allergen. Marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax forma virginalis) were exposed to average measured values of 0.031 mg Cu/l and 0.38 mg Cu/l, respectively, for 14 days and then transferred to copper-free water for another 14 days. Concentrations of copper and histamine in the hepatopancreas and muscle were evaluated at different time points. Histamine levels were significantly higher in hepatopancreas and muscle tissues at the highest exposure level, but only after transfer of the animals to ...
Not all of these symptoms occur in any single individual, and the severity of symptoms varies, but the pattern of symptoms seems to be consistent for each person.. Histamine and Eczema. In addition to the symptoms listed above, excess histamine can make some existing conditions worse. Eczema is an example. Eczema is an inflammatory condition in the skin, sometimes called atopic (allergic) dermatitis. When high histamine foods are consumed, people with less than efficient histamine tolerance may experience an increase in the severity of their eczema.. Histamine and Anaphylaxis. There is some evidence to suggest that people who are prone to recurrent anaphylactic (severe allergic) reactions may be experiencing histamine intolerance in addition to their allergies. In such situations the ...
There are DAO supplements available that may help some people who dont produce enough of the enzyme. Additionally, pea shoots are supposed to be naturally high in DAO.[ref] You can easily grow pea shoots at home!. Quercetin has also been shown in studies to inhibit mast cells from degrading and increasing histamine levels.[ref]. A new study looked at the correlation between symptoms of histamine intolerance and gluten intolerance. It concluded that there was a significant overlap in symptoms and that it is possible that a low histamine diet may help people with gluten sensitivity. [ref]. How food is prepared makes a difference in the histamine levels. A recent study concluded "Frying and grilling increased histamine level in foods, whereas boiling had little influence or even decreased it. The boiling method ...
Lowering Histamine Naturally - Getting to the Root Cause of High Histamine - Live Podcast #154 Get Show Updates Here:   Show Transcription:   You-tube Podcast Subscribe:   In todays video podcast, Dr. Justin Marchegiani and Evan Brand dive into the topic of histamines. So what is histamine? It is a compound that is stored in mast cells and is released whenever the body detects allergens.However, there are times when the body releases histamines unnecessarily, causing a person pain and discomfort. Here, you will know what causes histamine problems and what factors increase ones chances of developing the issue. Many times, histamine overreaction can be traced back to ones diet. One may experience symptoms ...
phdthesis{36190904-7fa5-4e7d-9bf1-095ebac0d45c, abstract = {In the oxyntic mucosa of the mammalian stomach, histamine is stored in enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells and in mucosal mast cells. The activity of the histamine-forming enzyme, histidine decarboxylase (HDC), is high in ECL cells but lower in the mucosal mast cells. We studied the consequences of depleting ECL-cell histamine by continuous infusion of the HDC inhibitor a-fluoromethylhistidine (a-FMH) to rat, mouse and hamster, or depleting mucosal mast cell histamine by treating rats with dexamethasone.,br/,,br, ,br/,,br, In rats at least 80% of oxyntic mucosal histamine was found to reside in ECL cells. Also in mouse and hamster ECL ...
Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. This gene encodes one of the histamine receptors (H3) which belongs to the family 1 of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein and can regulate neurotransmitter release. This receptor can also increase voltage-dependent calcium current in smooth muscles and innervates the blood vessels and the heart in cardiovascular system. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
A human histamine H1 receptor gene lacking introns was isolated by screening a human genomic library with a bovine histamine H1 receptor probe. The deduced protein of 487 amino acids showed characteristic properties of G-protein-coupled receptors. The coding region was subcloned into the expression vector pSVL (Pharmacia), and the resulting construct transfected into COS-7 cells. Binding studies with [3H]pyrilamine on membranes from transfected cells revealed saturable specific binding with a KD of 1.2 nM and a Bmax of 3400 fmol/mg protein. Binding affinities of histamine and known histamine antagonists were similar to those for histamine H1 receptors in guinea-pig cerebellum. In transfected COS-7 cells, histamine induced inositol phosphate formation, that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanism of bradykinin-induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. AU - Zhao, Qiu E.. AU - Mihara, Takuma. AU - Sugimoto, Yukio. AU - Kamei, Chiaki. PY - 1996/2. Y1 - 1996/2. N2 - Bradykinin at concentrations higher than 2 μM caused a significant histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells when extracellular Ca2+ was removed from the medium. Under the same experimental conditions, bradykinin increased Ca2+ release from the intracellular Ca store of the rat peritoneal mast cells, and a clear relationship was observed between the magnitude of histamine release and an increase in fluorescence intensity. Addition of Ca2+ to the medium resulted in an inhibition of the response to bradykinin in a concentration-dependent manner. Almost the same results were obtained when Mg2+, ...
Methods: First of all, we injected histamine or anti-histamine agent-diphenhydramine into Zu Sanli (ST36) of the acute gastric injury mice model. As an indicator of the gastric emptying rate, we observe the histamine effects of acupuncture process at Zu Sanli (ST36). Next step, as indicator of the pain threshold change rate, we observe the acupuncture analgesia effect of histamine into Zu Sanli (ST36) on the mast cell deficiency mice.. Results: Injection of histamine into the point has a tendency to promote the gastric emptying rate of the gastric injury mice. But after injecting histamine into the acu-point, needling attenuated the acupuncture effect, and injecting anti-histamine agent -- diphenhydramine into the point, needling has no promotion effects on ...
Most histamine in the body is generated in granules in mast cells and in white blood cells called basophils andeosinophils. Mast cells are especially numerous at sites of potential injury -- the nose, mouth, and feet, internal body surfaces, and blood vessels. Non-mast cell histamine is found in several tissues, including the brain, where it functions as a neurotransmitter. Another important site of histamine storage and release is the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell of the stomach.. The most important pathophysiologic mechanism of mast cell and basophil histamine release is immunologic. These cells, if sensitized byIgE antibodies attached to their membranes, degranulate when exposed to the appropriate antigen. Certain amines and alkaloids, ...
Lactobacillus buchneri ST2A vigorously decarboxylates histidine to the biogenic amine histamine, which is excreted into the medium. Cells grown in the presence of histidine generate both a transmembrane pH gradient, inside alkaline, and an electrical potential (delta psi), inside negative, upon addition of histidine. Studies of the mechanism of histidine uptake and histamine excretion in membrane vesicles and proteoliposomes devoid of cytosolic histidine decarboxylase activity demonstrate that histidine uptake, histamine efflux, and histidine/histamine exchange are electrogenic processes. Histidine/histamine exchange is much faster than the unidirectional fluxes of these substrates, is inhibited by an inside-negative delta psi and is stimulated by an inside positive delta psi. These data suggest that the generation of ...
Information processing in the striatum is critical for basal ganglia function and strongly influenced by neuromodulators (e.g., dopamine). The striatum also receives modulatory afferents from the histaminergic neurons in the hypothalamus which exhibit a distinct diurnal rhythm with high activity during wakefulness, and little or no activity during sleep. In view of the fact that the striatum also expresses a high density of histamine receptors, we hypothesized that released histamine will affect striatal function. We studied the role of histamine on striatal microcircuit function by performing whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of neurochemically identified striatal neurons combined with electrical and optogenetic stimulation of striatal afferents in mouse brain slices. Bath applied histamine had many effects on striatal microcircuits. ...
When we look into histamine intolerance, an ever-growing term, we need to understand that it is a complicated and not a one size fits all solution. Our body needs histamine but we can only handle so much. So what happens when we have too much? A rash, sneezing? What about anxiety, insomnia and other like symptoms we dont associate with histamine reaction.. For some I have seen come into my clinical practice, they have signs of SIBO (small intestinal bacteria overgrowth) or IBS/IBD.. Here is the reason why. When you are unable to break down the histamine overload in your gut,you will experience severe symptoms of histamine intolerance which can also include severe drops blood pressure, terrible insomnia (due to the drop in BP), vertigo and even panic attacks. This is all due in part to the gut imbalance happening when ...
Histamine was synthesized in 1907 and later isolated from mammalian tissues. Early hypotheses concerning the possible physiologic roles of tissue histamine were based on similarities between the effects of intravenously administered histamine and the symptoms of anaphylactic shock and tissue injury. Marked species variation is observed, but in humans histamine is an important mediator of immediate allergic (such as urticaria) and inflammatory reactions, although it plays only a modest role in anaphylaxis. Histamine plays an important role in gastric acid secretion (see Chapter 62) and functions as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator (see Chapters 6 and 21). Newer evidence indicates that histamine also plays a role in immune functions and chemotaxis of white blood cells. ...
The effect of Ephedrae herba(Mao) on histamine content was investigated. When rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells were incubated for 48 h with Mao, Mao decreased histamine content in a...
None of 29 preoptic non-GABAergic (i.e., GFP-negative) neurons studied were inhibited by histamine (3 μm) (n = 14) or R-α-methylhistamine (1 μm) (n = 11); however, a population of GFP-negative neurons (5 of 29) was excited by histamine. The spontaneous firing rates averaged 3.5 ± 2.7 Hz (n = 5) and was increased by the neurotransmitter by 94 ± 43% (n = 5). This excitation was blocked by the H1R-specific antagonist trans-triprolidine (1 μm) in all neurons tested (n = 5) (Fig. 3A). The maximal excitatory effect was reached at histamine concentrations of 20 μm or higher. At 20 μm, histamine increased the firing rate by 361 ± 137% (n = 12, ANOVA p , 0.05) in 12 of 45 neurons tested. The excitatory effect was associated with a depolarization of 2-7 mV (average 3.1 ± 2.0, n = 12) in all neurons (Fig. 3A). The actions of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antipruritic effect of curcumin on histamine-induced itching in mice. AU - Lee, Han Kyu. AU - Park, Seok Bum. AU - Chang, Su-Youne. AU - Jung, Sung Jun. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Itching is a common clinical symptom of skin disease that significantly affects a patients quality of life. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptors of keratinocytes and peripheral nerve fibers in skin are involved in the regulation of itching as well as pain. In this study, we investigated whether curcumin, which acts on TRPV1 receptors, affects histamine-induced itching in mice, using behavioral tests and electrophysiological approaches. We found that histamine-induced itching was blocked by topical application of curcumin in a concentration-dependent manner. In ex-vivo recordings, histamine-induced ...
Histamine is a ubiquitous messenger molecule released from mast cells, enterochromaffin-like cells, and neurons. Its various actions are mediated by histamine receptors H1, H2, H3 and H4. This gene was thought to be intronless until recently. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. It mediates the contraction of smooth muscles, the increase in capillary permeability due to contraction of terminal venules, the release of catecholamine from adrenal medulla, and neurotransmission in the central nervous system. Multiple alternatively spliced variants, encoding the same protein, have been identified ...
Those who are incredibly sensitive to histamine will also react to leftover proteins in bone broth. It is important to remember that not all histamine intolerance looks the same, and that many people that experience histamine intolerance symptoms have foods that really trigger their symptoms, and others that may be on the above lists that they are able to eat in smaller quantities.. My experience with histamine intolerance. A certain flavor of histamine intolerance runs in my family - my mother, sister and I all get headaches when we drink red wine or eat chocolate. Im also sensitive to cured, smoked, or fermented meat products, all of which produce a headache if eaten in larger than a bite-size quantity. Most of the other foods on the high histamine list, including fermented vegetables, probiotic drinks ...
Basophils possess membrane bound IgE molecules, and immunological activation leads to a secretory process with cell degranulation and histamine release. Heterologous anti IgE, concanavaline A, and phytohaemagglutinin are potent non-cytotoxic releasing agents. They operate by a mechanism similar to that of immunological activation. Heavy water is not a histamine releasing inducer but it increases histamine release of the cells. We studied the histamine release reaction of leukaemic basophils in 10 patients and found a physiological response such as that previously reported with normal human basophils.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibitory effect of nifedipine and cromolyn sodium on skin reactions and 45ca uptake and histamine release in rat mast cells induced by various stimulating agents. AU - Tanizaki, Yoshiro. AU - Akagi, Katsumi. AU - Lee, Kyung Nam. AU - Townley, Robert G.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The effect of nifedipine, one of the calcium channel antagonists, was examined in allergic and nonspecific reactions using rat skin and peritoneal mast cells. Rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis response mediated by IgE antibody was inhibited by nifedipine (100 μg/rat) and also by cromolyn sodium (5 mg/rat). Skin reactions induced by histamine or methacholine were not inhibited, and skin reaction induced by serotonin was slightly inhibited by these drugs. The 45Ca uptake and ...
The changes in symptoms and lung function tests of 26 cotton cardroom workers were investigated before and after inhalation of histamine aerosols. Three subjects with no chest symptoms and 11 with uncomplicated byssinosis showed no evidence of any pulmonary reaction, but 12 bronchitic byssinotic subjects showed evidence of the pulmonary hypersensitivity found in patients with chronic bronchitis alone.. These findings cast doubt on the possible role of non-antigenic histamine liberators in the mechanism of production of `return-to-work tightness in byssinosis.. ...
We investigated the effects of thioperamide, a histamine H3-receptor antagonist, on a scopolamine-induced learning deficit in the step-through passive avoidance test in mice, and on contents of acetylcholine and choline in the brain. In a behavioral study, thioperamide (20 mg/kg) alone slightly ameliorated scopolamine-induced learning deficit, and pretreatment with zolantidine, a histamine H2-receptor antagonist, significantly enhanced the ameliorating effect of thioperamide. This enhanced ameliorating effect of thioperamide was antagonized by pyrilamine, a histamine H1-receptor antagonist and (R)-alpha-methylhistamine, a histamine H3-receptor agonist, suggesting that thioperamide showed the ameliorating effect via histamine H3 receptors and/or histamine H1 receptors. In the ...
BACKGROUND Aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to enhance the symptoms of wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). In contrast to many reports on WDEIA, there have been only a few reports of wheat-dependent aspirin-induced anaphylaxis not induced by the combination of wheat and exercise. METHODS Two patients with wheat-dependent anaphylaxis underwent provocation tests to clarify the cause of their symptoms. Skin-prick testing (SPT) was also performed with and without administration of aspirin. Specific IgE antibody to wheat, gluten, and omega-5 gliadin were examined. RESULTS In the provocation tests, anaphylactic reactions were not induced by wheat or aspirin alone or by the combination of wheat and exercise, but were induced by the combination of wheat and aspirin. An increase in the blood histamine level was detected after provocation in both patients. ...
Discovered as inhibitory autoreceptors in central histaminergic pathways, histamine H3-receptors may also modulate peripheral cholinergic and central adrenergic function. Recently, H3-receptors were reported to inhibit adrenergic inotropic responses in guinea pig atria, possibly at prejunctional sites. We have assessed whether the H3-mediated modulation of cardiac adrenergic activities results from a reduction in norepinephrine release. We have found that (R) alpha-methylhistamine, the selective histamine H3-receptor agonist, attenuates the inotropic and chronotropic response of isolated guinea pig atria to transmural stimulation of adrenergic nerve endings. This attenuation was associated with a marked reduction in endogenous norepinephrine release. In contrast (R) alpha-methylhistamine did not modify the chronotropic effect of exogenous ...
BioAssay record AID 600300 submitted by ChEMBL: Antagonist activity at human histamine H1 receptor in SK-N-SH cells assessed as inhibition of histamine-induced calcium level increase during phase-1 compound incubated before histamine addition by Fura-2 based fluorometric assay.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nasal AMP and histamine challenge within and outside the pollen season in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis. AU - Vaidyanathan,Sriram. AU - Williamson,Peter. AU - Clearie,Karine. AU - Morrison,Ashley. AU - Lipworth,Brian. PY - 2011/1. Y1 - 2011/1. N2 - Background: Nasal hyperreactivity is a prominent feature of allergic rhinitis. Variation in nasal hyperreactivity with different challenge agents in and out of the pollen season has not been examined.Objective: We sought to compare nasal hyperreactivity with different challenge agents before, during, and after the pollen season.Methods: Grass pollen-monosensitized patients performed cumulative-dose challenges with nasal AMP (25-800 mg . mL(-1)) and histamine (0.25-8 mg . mL(-1)) before, during, and after the grass pollen season. Outcomes included the provocative concentration of agent causing a 30% decrease in the peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) (PC30), recovery ...
The release mechanism of chemical mediators from basophils and mast cells was discussed when these cells were stimulated by different antigens and anti-IgE. 1. Ca(2+) influx into mast cells increased after stimulation by antigen. The increased Ca(2+) uptake by mast cells was inhibited by antiallergic agents, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and tranilast, and calcium antagonists, nifedipine and nicardipine. 2. The dose-response curve of histamine release by antigen was different from that by anti-IgE. The maximum release of histamine by house dust was, however, similar to that by anti-IgE. House dust- and anti-IgE-induced release of histamine increased with higher- serum IgE levels. On the contrary, the release of histamine by Candida albicans was not releated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High-affinity binding of [3H]doxepin to histamine H1-receptors in rat brain. T2 - Possible identification of a subclass of histamine H1-receptors. AU - Taylor, John E.. AU - Richelson, Elliott. PY - 1982/3/12. Y1 - 1982/3/12. N2 - The binding of the radioactively labeled tricyclic antidepressant, [3H]doxepin, to rat brain tissie was examined. Scatchard plots of specific [3H]doxepin binding indicated the presence of two distinct binding sites. The equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of the high-affinity site was 0.020 nM with a maximal binding capacity (Bmax) of 13.7 fmol/mg protein. The corresponding values for the low-affinity site were 3.6 nM and 740 fmol/mg protein, respectively. The high-affinity site was sensitive to competition by pharmacologically relevant concentrations of histamine H1 antagonists such as pyrilamine (KD = 1.0 nM), diphenhydramine (KD = 20 nM), d-chlorpheniramine ...
Its time to expand on the "not all histamine is bad" comments Ive been making in my posts and the support groups I frequent. I get a lot of emails asking why my books include this or that food - after all, dont I realise its high histamine? Were usually speaking of chickpeas, bananas, sunflower seeds or blueberries, rather than burgers, spaghetti, whatever. Thats because in my cookbooks you will never, ever, find junk food or any medium/high histamine food thats nutritionally null.. Interestingly I am often asked this question by people who still feel its ok for them to indulge in pizza (no tomato though!), or the "infrequent" Taco Bell; those who still drink coffee or black tea (with just one spoon of sugar!), or who restrain themselves to "only licking off the frosting" when baking cupcakes for the family. Present them with the idea of eating a banana though, and they run a mile.. Then ...
I discovered that I had Histamine Intolerance while traveling throughout Europe in 2016. I can remember my Eureka! moment while reading about histamine in the book, The Spark in the Machine by Daniel Keown, an M.D./Acupuncturist. In this landmark book, the author explains, from a biomedical perspective, how acupuncture works and how the ancient Chinese were so brilliant to have figured out the complexities of this medicines interaction with the human mind-body-spirit many thousands of years ago. And more, that Western medicine, in its relative infancy, is now catching up to this ancient technology and is now able to verify, through reproducible science and medical instruments and technology, that this medicine is very real and equally powerful.. My epiphany came when I was reading the chapter about the liver. The topic of histamine came up so many times I started to wonder why I didnt learn much about ...
Antihistamines are drugs used to block chemicals in the body called histamines. They are commonly used for the relief of allergy symptoms or for gastrointestinal conditions. An allergy reaction causes the release of histamines in the body which is what causes the subsequent itchy skin, hives, runny nose, itchy eyes, or sneezing. There are two subtypes of antihistamines called H1-receptor antagonists and H2-receptor antagonists. H1-antihistamines are used to treat allergy symptoms. Within this group are two generations called the first generation and second generation antihistamines. H2-antihistamines are used to treat gastrointestinal conditions.. Mechanism: H1-antihistamines competitively block ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A double-blind, randomized, single-dose, crossover comparison of levocetirizine with ebastine, fexofenadine, loratadine, mizolastine, and placebo. T2 - Suppression of histamine-induced wheal-and-flare response during 24 hours in healthy male subjects. AU - Grant, Andrew J.. AU - Riethuisen, Jean Michel. AU - Moulaert, Béatrice. AU - DeVos, Christine. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Background: Levocetirizine is the active enantiomer of cetirizine, a potent drug with little metabolism widely used for allergic rhinitis and urticaria. Objective: This study compares the potency, consistency, onset, and duration of action of levocetirizine with other popular antihistamines. Methods: Levocetirizine 5 mg, ebastine 10 mg, fexofenadine 180 mg, loratadine 10 mg, mizolastine 10 mg, or placebo in single doses were given to 18 healthy male volunteers in a double-blind, crossover, randomized fashion. Wheal-and-flare responses to epicutaneous ...
The design of methods useful for the preparation of viable glands and cells from the gastric mucosa allowed detailed studies on the mechanisms that regulate gastric acid secretion. The preparation of rabbit gastric glands was the first suitable method to be used and a number of important scientific contributions have been accomplished with this method. Using this method we studied the effect of CCK-like peptides on [14C]aminopyrine accumulation stimulated by histamine, in order to fmd out whether such peptides can inhibit the production of acid in the parietal cell. We also developed a method for the study of viable rat gastric glands that allowed comparative studies in the rat species.. In rabbit gastric glands CCK-like pep tides inhibited histamine stimulated acid formation whereas gastrin peptides were ineffective. The most potent and efficacious peptides were CCK 8 and the cholecystokinetic amphibian decapeptide cemlein ...
Skin prick tests are regarded as means to determine sensitization and should be interpreted in the light of clinical history, clinical picture and results of testing for specific IgE. According to the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI) [11], 10-50 allergen extracts are used for skin prick testing. The European guidelines propose a panel of 18 respiratory allergens of which, simultaneously, improved standardization is encouraged [12]. While skin prick testing in respiratory allergies is a reliable diagnostic tool, in food allergy more false positive results are seen on the one hand, while on the other hand over 95% of patients negative in skin prick tests with food do not present with immediate type symptoms [13]. The skin prick results should be compared to the positive control prick with histamine ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Middle ear fluid histamine and leukotriene B4 in acute otitis media. T2 - Effect of antihistamine or corticosteroid treatment. AU - McCormick, David P.. AU - Saeed, Kokab. AU - Uchida, Tatsuo. AU - Baldwin, Constance D.. AU - Deskin, Ronald. AU - Lett-Brown, Michael A.. AU - Heikkinen, Terho. AU - Chonmaitree, Tasnee. PY - 2003/3. Y1 - 2003/3. N2 - Objective: Two potent mediators of acute inflammation, histamine and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), have been shown to play important roles in the pathogenesis and clinical course of acute otitis media (AOM) in children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of adjuvant drugs, antihistamine and corticosteroid, in reduction of the levels of histamine and LTB4 in the middle ear and their ability to improve outcomes of AOM. Methods: Eighty children with AOM ...
ABBREVIATIONS: H3R, histamine H3 receptor; CNS, central nervous system; h, human; [35S]GTPγS, guanosine-5′-O-(3-[35S]thio) triphosphate; IL3, intracellular loop 3; GPCR, G-protein-coupled receptor; [3H]A-349821, {4′-[3-((2R, 5R)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrrolidin-1-yl)-propoxy]-biphenyl-4-yl}-morpholin-4-yl-methanone; RT, reverse transcriptase; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; DMEM, Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium; PKA, protein kinase A; PBS, phosphate-buffered saline; CTC, cubic ternary complex; NαMH, Nα-[methyl-3H]histamine; IPP, [125I]iodophenpropit; FUB322, 3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl) propyl-di(p-fluorophenyl)-methyl ether hydrochloride; A-304121, (R)-2-amino-1-{4-[3-(4-cyclopropanecarbonyl-phenoxy)-propyl]-piperazin-1-yl}-propan-1-one; A-317920, furan-2-carboxylic acid, ((R)-2-{4-[3-(4-cyclopropanecarbonyl-phenoxy)-propyl]-piperazin-1-yl}-1-methyl-2-oxo-ethyl)-amide; A-320436, furan-2-carboxylic acid, ...
It all comes down to histamine. Over the last couple of years, medication and diet have established that histamine is a major migraine trigger for me. Clinical evidence as far back as the early 80s supports this notion, with research showing migraineurs have increased levels of histamine in their blood and in studying the role of antihistamines in migraine prevention. More recently, the role of mast cell degranulation (which releases histamine, among other things) in triggering migraines has come to light and is a topic of increasing research interest. (You can learn more about all this in Mast Cell Degranulation Activates a Pain Pathway Underlying Migraine Headache or, the more accessible Hunting for Cells That Trigger Migraine from the National Headache Foundations newsletter.). How is ...
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride, a histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
data dogs; input Drug $12. Depleted $ Histamine0 Histamine1 Histamine3 Histamine5; LogHistamine0=log(Histamine0); LogHistamine1=log(Histamine1); LogHistamine3=log(Histamine3); LogHistamine5=log(Histamine5); datalines; Morphine N .04 .20 .10 .08 Morphine N .02 .06 .02 .02 Morphine N .07 1.40 .48 .24 Morphine N .17 .57 .35 .24 Morphine Y .10 .09 .13 .14 Morphine Y .12 .11 .10 . Morphine Y .07 .07 .06 .07 Morphine Y .05 .07 .06 .07 Trimethaphan N .03 .62 .31 .22 Trimethaphan N .03 1.05 .73 .60 Trimethaphan N .07 .83 1.07 .80 Trimethaphan N .09 3.13 2.06 1.23 Trimethaphan Y .10 .09 .09 .08 Trimethaphan Y .08 .09 ...
Fexofenadine is an oral, "second generation" antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy that are due to histamine. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be "activated," releasing other ...
Fexofenadine is an oral, "second generation" antihistamine that is used to treat the signs and symptoms of allergy that are due to histamine. It is similar to the other second generation antihistamines loratadine (Claritin), cetirizine (Zyrtec) and azelastine (Astelin). Histamine is a chemical that is responsible for many of the signs and symptoms of allergic reactions, for example, swelling of the lining of the nose, sneezing, and itchy eyes. Histamine is released from histamine-storing cells (mast cells) and then attaches to other cells that have receptors for histamine. The attachment of the histamine to the receptors causes the cell to be "activated," releasing other ...
Latexin, a protein possessing inhibitory activity against rat carboxypeptidase A1 (CPA1) and CPA2, is expressed in a neuronal subset in the cerebral cortex and cells in other neural and non-neural tissues of rat. Although latexin also inhibits mast-cell CPA (MCCPA), the expression of latexin in rat mast cells has not previously been confirmed. In the present study we examined the expression and subcellular localization of latexin in rat peritoneal mast cells. Western blot and reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR analyses showed that latexin was contained and expressed in the rat peritoneal mast cells. Immunocytochemically, latexin immunofluorescence was localized on granular structures distinct from MCCPA-, histamine- or cathepsin D-immunopositive granules. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed that latexin was associated with a minority ...
Various allergic diseases cause allergic inflammation, which is mediated by mast cells. The current study investigated the anti‑allergic inflammatory effects of formononetin and its mechanism of action in vitro using mast cells. Levels of histamine and pro‑inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α), interleukin (IL)‑1β and IL‑6, were measured to assess the effects of formononetin on allergic inflammation. The activation of intracellular calcium and nuclear factor (NF)‑κB, as well as the activity of caspase‑1, were assessed to determine the mechanism of action. It was determined that difference concentrations of formononetin (0.1, 1 and 10 µM) suppressed histamine release and secretion of TNF‑α, IL‑1β and IL‑6. Further investigations indicated that the effects of formononetin were associated with a reduction of intracellular calcium, suppression of ...
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant Human Histamine H2 Receptor co-expressed with G|sub|saS|/sub| protein (ab90408). Please download our general protocols booklet
The H3-histamine receptor provides feedback inhibition of histamine synthesis and release as well as inhibition of other neurotransmitter release. We have characterized this receptor by radioligand binding studies with the H3 agonist N alpha-[3H]methylhistamine ([3H]NAMHA). The results of [3H]NAMHA saturation binding and NAMHA inhibition of [3H]NAMHA binding were consistent with an apparently single class of receptors (KD = 0.37 nM, Bmax = 73 fmol/mg of protein) and competition assays with other agonists and the antagonists impromidine and dimaprit disclosed only a single class of sites. In contrast, inhibition of [3H]NAMHA binding by the specific high affinity H3 antagonist thioperamide revealed two classes of sites (KiA = 5 nM, BmaxA = 30 fmol/mg of protein; KiB = 68 nM, BmaxB = 48 fmol/mg of protein). Burimamide, another antagonist that, like thioperamide, contains a thiourea group, likewise discriminated ...
Acetaminophen is a pain reliever and fever reducer. Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant. It affects the cough reflex in the brain that triggers coughing. Pyrilamine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery...
Levocetirizine is a selective antihistaminic that acts through H1 receptor. Levocetirizine inhibits eotaxin-induced eosinophil transendothelial migration through monolayers of human dermal or lung microvascular endothelial cells in vitro. The drug also inhibits both resting and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-stimulated eosinophil adhesion to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), eotaxin production by endothelial cells and ICAM-1, as well as major histocompatability complex (MHC) class I expression by interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated keratinocytes[1]. ...
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. Ethanolamine antihistamines have significant antimuscarinic activity and produce marked sedation in most patients. In addition to the usual allergic symptoms, the drug also treats irritant cough and nausea, vomiting, and vertigo associated with motion sickness. It also is used commonly to treat drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms as well as to treat mild cases of Parkinsons disease. Rather than preventing the release of histamine, as do cromolyn and nedocromil, diphenhydramine competes with free histamine for binding at HA-receptor sites. Diphenhydramine competitively antagonizes the effects of histamine on HA-receptors in the GI tract, uterus, large blood vessels, and bronchial muscle. Ethanolamine derivatives have greater anticholinergic activity than do other ...
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine of the ethanolamine class. Ethanolamine antihistamines have significant antimuscarinic activity and produce marked sedation in most patients. In addition to the usual allergic symptoms, the drug also treats irritant cough and nausea, vomiting, and vertigo associated with motion sickness. It also is used commonly to treat drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms as well as to treat mild cases of Parkinsons disease. Rather than preventing the release of histamine, as do cromolyn and nedocromil, diphenhydramine competes with free histamine for binding at HA-receptor sites. Diphenhydramine competitively antagonizes the effects of histamine on HA-receptors in the GI tract, uterus, large blood vessels, and bronchial muscle. Ethanolamine derivatives have greater anticholinergic activity than do other ...
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Human lung mast cells (HLMCs) play a central role in asthma pathogenesis through their relocation to the airway smooth muscle (ASM) bundles. β2 adrenoceptor (β2-AR)-agonists are used to relieve bronchoconstriction in asthma, but may reduce asthma control, particularly when used as monotherapy. We hypothesized that HLMC and human ASM cell (HASMC) responsiveness to β2-AR agonists would be attenuated when HLMCs are in contact with HASMCs. Cells were cultured in the presence of the short-acting β2-agonist albuterol, and the long-acting β2-agonists formoterol and olodaterol. Constitutive and FcεRI-dependent HLMC histamine release, HASMC contraction, and β2-AR phosphorylation at Tyr350 were assessed. Constitutive HLMC histamine release was increased in HLMC-HASMC coculture and this was enhanced by β2-AR agonists. Inhibition of FcεRI-dependent HLMC mediator release by β2-agonists was greatly ...
Recent studies of OA cartilage have identified both messenger RNA (mRNA) and the protein for specific MMPs as well as a collagenase mediated type II collagen degradation product, suggesting that MMPs contribute to the intrinsic chondrocyte mediated degenerative changes of the cartilage matrix in OA.8,12,13 As yet the factors responsible for their expression remain uncertain, although the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin 1 (IL1) and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) have been implicated.1,8 The increased levels of histamine found in OA synovial fluids3 have suggested a role for this mediator in the pathophysiology of this disease. Evidence presented here shows that histamine up regulates both MMP-13 and MMP-3 production by chondrocytes. Both these MMPs are important in the degradation of articular cartilage; MMP-13 can degrade collagen type II, and MMP-3 can degrade proteoglycan and collagen types IX and XI, and activate ...
Winn, U. T. (2008). Regional survey of histamine in fish and fish products: Myanmar. In Technical Compilation of Heavy Metals, Pesticide Residues, Histamine and Drug Residues in Fish and Fish Products in Southeast Asia (pp. 129-133). Singapore: Marine Fisheries Research Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center ...
Whole Foods Markets is recalling its frozen Whole Catch Yellow fin Tuna Steaks with best by dates of Dec. 5, 2010. The yellow fin tuna was recalled because of possible elevated levels of histamine that may cause symptoms that generally appear within minutes to an hour after eating the affected fish.. The product was sold in twelve ounce bags with Best by Date: exp 05 DEC 2010 with Lot Code: 4853309157A and displays the following UPC code: 0-99482-42078-9 Whole Catch Yellow fin Tuna Steaks (Frozen) 12 oz.. High levels of histamine can produce an allergic reaction called scombroid poisoning when the fish is consumed.. The most common symptoms of scombroid poisoning are: tingling or burning sensation in the mouth, facial swelling, rash, hives and itchy skin, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea. However, each individual may experience symptoms differently.. Two Whole Foods customers reportedly suffered from these symptoms. Whole Foods ...
The Open Immunology Journal is an Open Access online journal, which publishes research articles, reviews, letters, case reports and guest-edited single topic issues in all areas of Immunology. Bentham Open ensures speedy peer review process and accepted papers are published within 2 weeks of final acceptance.. The Open Immunology Journal is committed to ensuring high quality of research published. We believe that a dedicated and committed team of editors and reviewers make it possible to ensure the quality of the research papers. The overall standing of a journal is in a way, reflective of the quality of its Editor(s) and Editorial Board and its members.. The Open Immunology Journal is seeking energetic and qualified researchers to join its editorial board team as Editorial Board Members or reviewers.. The essential criteria to become Editorial Board Members of The Open Immunology Journal are as follows ...
STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study examined the impact on childrens respiratory health of a government air quality intervention that restricted the sulphur content of fuels to 0.5% from July 1990 onwards. DESIGN/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: This study examined the changes, one and two years after the introduction of the intervention, in airway hyperreactivity of non-asthmatic and non-wheezing, primary 4, 5, and 6, school children aged 9-12 years living in a polluted district compared with those in a less polluted district. Bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR)(a 20% decrease in FEV1 provoked by a cumulative dose of histamine less than 7.8 mumol) and bronchial reactivity slope (BR slope) (percentage change in logarithmic scale in FEV1 per unit dose of histamine) were used to estimate responses to a histamine challenge. The between districts differences after the intervention were studied to assess the effectiveness of the ...
Brompheniramine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of the natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose. Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant. It affects the signals in the brain that trigger cough reflex. Phenylephrine is a...
Brompheniramine is an antihistamine that reduces the effects of natural chemical histamine in the body. Histamine can produce symptoms of sneezing, itching, watery eyes, and runny nose. Pseudoephedrine is a decongestant that shrinks blood vessels in the nasal passages. Dilated blood vessels can cause nasal congestion...
Journal of Immunology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different areas of immunology and therapy. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, as well as clinical studies related to classical immunology, molecular immunology, clinical immunology, cancer immunology, transplantation immunology, immune pathology, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, and immunotherapy.
Quercetin with Bromelain - 240 Vcaps * Supports Immune Function * Supports Healthy Histamine Levels * Helps Manage Seasonal Discomfort* * A Dietary Supplement * Vegetarian Formula Quercetin is a naturally occurring bioflavonoid that supports healthy histamine levels, thereby helping to sustain a balanced immune response. Bromelain, an enzyme derived from pineapple stems, also supports healthy immune system function. The combination of Quercetin and Bromelain therefore provides powerful immunomodulating benefits important for the management of occasional seasonal discomfort.*Nutrition Info Serving Size: 2 Vcaps® Servings Per Container: 120 Amount Per Serving % Daily Value Quercetin (as Quercetin Dihydrate) 800 mg* Bromelain (2000 GDU) 200 mg* * Percent Daily Values are based on 2,000 calorie diet. † Daily Value not established. Suggested Usage: As a dietary supplement, take 2 Vcaps® 20 ...
The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) plays a key role in basal ganglia function. Projections from multiple basal ganglia nuclei converge at the SNr to regulate nigrothalamic output. The SNr is also characterized by abundant aminergic input, including dopaminergic dendrites and axons containing 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or histamine (HA). The functions of HA in the SNr include motor control via HA H3 receptors (H3Rs), although the mechanism remains far from elucidated. In Parkinsons disease, there is an increase in H3Rs and the density of HA-immunoreactive axons in the SN. We explored the role of H3Rs in the regulation of 5-HT release in SNr using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry at carbon-fiber microelectrodes in rat midbrain slices. Immunohistochemistry identified a similar distribution for histaminergic and serotonergic processes in the SNr: immunoreactive varicosities were observed in the vicinity of dopaminergic dendrites. ...
This Phase II exploratory study assessed GSK239512, a brain penetrant histamine H3 receptor antagonist, versus placebo on cognitive impairment in 50 stable outpatients with schizophrenia. Subjects were randomized to placebo or GSK239512 for 7weeks (4weeks titration). GSK239512 was associated with a small positive effect size (ES) on the CogState Schizophrenia Battery (CSSB) Composite Score (ES=0.29, CI=-0.40, 0.99) relative to placebo (primary endpoint). GSK239512s ES on CSSB domains were generally positive or neutral except Processing Speed, which favored placebo (ES=-0.46). Effects on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery were mostly neutral or favored placebo. GSK239512 was generally well tolerated with an adverse event profile consistent with the known class pharmacology. There was no evidence of overall beneficial effects of GSK239512 for CIAS in this population.. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.. ...
The binding from the selective histamine H3-receptor agonist ([3H]-bioassay studies (e. Therefore the prepared cells was identical compared to that found in our practical histamine H3-receptor bioassay (Watt for 12?min in 4C. The supernatants had been discarded and pellets rehomogenized in 100?ml ice-cold HEPES-NaOH buffer (pH?7.4 at 213C) utilizing a teflon-in-glass homogenizer. The homogenate was … Continue reading The binding from the selective histamine H3-receptor agonist ([3H]-bioassay studies (e.. ...
Zantac is a blocker of H2-histamine receptors. The mechanism of action consists in the blockade of histamine H2-receptors of parietal cells in gastric mucous layer. This medication suppresses day and night secretion of HCl (both basal and stimulated), reduces the amount of gastric juices caused by stretching of the stomach with food load and by the action of hormones and biogenic stimulants such as gastrin, histamine, acetylcholine, pentagastrin, caffeine. Zantac reduces the amount of HCl in gastric juice almost without suppressing "liver" enzymes associated with cytochrome P450. It does not affect the concentration of gastrin in plasma, production of mucus. Zantac reduces pepsin activity. This medication is used to treat and prevent stomach and duodenal ulcers, gastrointestinal disorders caused by NSAID, heartburn, hypersecretion of gastric juice, symptomatic ulcers, ulcers caused by ...
Zantac is a blocker of H2-histamine receptors. The mechanism of action consists in the blockade of histamine H2-receptors of parietal cells in gastric mucous layer. This medication suppresses day and night secretion of HCl (both basal and stimulated), reduces the amount of gastric juices caused by stretching of the stomach with food load and by the action of hormones and biogenic stimulants such as gastrin, histamine, acetylcholine, pentagastrin, caffeine. Zantac reduces the amount of HCl in gastric juice almost without suppressing "liver" enzymes associated with cytochrome P450. It does not affect the concentration of gastrin in plasma, production of mucus. Zantac reduces pepsin activity. This medication is used to treat and prevent stomach and duodenal ulcers, gastrointestinal disorders caused by NSAID, heartburn, hypersecretion of gastric juice, symptomatic ulcers, ulcers caused by ...
H1-antihistamines refer to compounds that inhibit the activity of the H1 receptor.[4][5] Since the H1 receptor exhibits constitutive activity, H1-antihistamines can be either neutral receptor antagonists or inverse agonists.[4][5] Normally, histamine binds to the H1 receptor and heightens the receptors activity; the receptor antagonists work by binding to the receptor and blocking the activation of the receptor by histamine; by comparison, the inverse agonists bind to the receptor and reduce its activity, an effect which is opposite to histamines.[4]. The vast majority of marketed H1-antihistamines are receptor antagonists and only a minority of marketed compounds are inverse agonists at the receptor.[2][5] Clinically, H1-antihistamines are used to treat allergic reactions ...
Proper Nutrition: Everyone takes Vitamin C when they have a cold. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant found in supplements and most importantly in fruits and vegetables like red peppers, broccoli, kiwi fruit, and guava. Vitamin C fights the inflammation that triggers allergies by suppressing the histamine production by white blood cells. Cartenoid-rich foods such as sweet potatoes, spinach, and apricots assist in lowering levels of inflammation. Omega 3s are essential fatty acids that the body is unable to produce on its own and therefore we must supplement our diet. Getting a healthy dose of omega 3s found in fish (with low levels of mercury), fish oil supplements, walnuts and flax seed, counter the specific type of inflammation associated with allergies (Clin Exp Immunol 2010; 160:411-9).. Probiotics: Probiotics are widely talked about these days and finally consumed by most people. Your Chiropractic Physician can suggest the best probiotic supplements out ...
Asthma: Both histamine production and onchial spasms increase with magnesium deficiency. Diabetes Rash Treatment Pump Surgery a condition in which the optic nerve is damaged due to increased eye pressure There are both arteries and veins behind the eye Limit of High Molecular Weight Proteins. Nutrition & Diabetes Extra virgin olive oil use is associated with improved post-prandial we investigated if EVOO had any effect on lipid profile Preventive Medicine shows that keeping a food diary may double your weight loss efforts Challenge Central; Secrets of Use SparkPeople When You Have Type 2 Mobile Number Generator. DIABETES BOOT CAMP BASIC GROUP EDUCATION* CLASS LOCATIONS AND START DATES FOR GEORGETOWN ROUND ROCK AND TAYLOR Scott & White Clinic - Georgetown 4945 Williams Drive Let your case management and nursing skills elevate you to a new position.. Diabetes; Digestive Health; Gluten-Free Diet; Healthy Aging; Healthy Kids; Healthy Pregnancy; EatingWell 7 Day Diabetes Meal ...
Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and histamine 2 receptor antagonists (H2RA) have been widely used as stress ulcer prophylaxis (SUP) in critically ill patients, however, its efficacy and safety remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the effect of SUP on clinical outcomes in critically ill adults. Literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane database of clinical trials for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated SUP, with PPI or H2RA, versus placebo or no prophylaxis in critically ill patients from database inception through 1 June 2019. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed in duplicate. The primary outcomes were clinically important gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and overt GI bleeding. Conventional meta-analysis with random-effects model and trial sequential analysis (TSA) were performed. Twenty-nine RCTs were identified, of which four RCTs were judged as low risk of bias. Overall, SUP ...
OMALIZUMAB TRIAL. The results of the first of three phase III clinical trials of the effects of omalizumab in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria were reported online in the New England Journal of Medicine this week.. Urticaria (hives) occurs when mast cells in the skin are triggered to release histamine and other inflammatory mediators stored in cytoplasmic granules (degranulation). In acute urticaria due to allergic reactions, degranulation is triggered when allergen is bound by IgE antibodies attached to FcεRI receptors on the mast cell surface. However, chronic urticaria is not IgE mediated and the mechanism by which mast cells are triggered to degranulate and release histamine is not known.. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody which binds rapidly to circulating IgE, inhibiting its attachment ...
Suffering from a food intolerance? Clinical Nutrition at Physio Logic NYC in Brooklyn, NY offers histamine intolerance detection and management.
Product Name: Desloratadine Tablets Common Name: Anti- histamine tablets. Strength: 100 mg. Description:. Desloratadine is a tricyclic H1-antihistamine that is used to treat allergies. It is an active metabolite of loratadine. Desloratadine is a selective H1-antihistamine which functions as an inverse agonist at the histamine H1 receptor; it is also an antagonist at all subtypes of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.. Indications and Usage:. Desloratadine is used to treat allergic rhinitis and nasal congestion. It is the major metabolite of loratadine and the two drugs are similar in safety and effectiveness. Desloratadine is an antihistamine. It works by blocking the action of histamine to relieve allergy symptoms, such as sneezing, runny nose, and itchy or watery eyes, and to relieve itching and rash ...
Diphenhydramine is an antihistamine that has a sedative effect used in treating allergic reactions. It works by blocking the effect of histamine at h1 receptor sites and reduce the muscle contractions, thus reducing the onset of allergic symptoms.It is prescribed for allergic conditions such as seasonal allergic rhinitis, chronic urticaria, and also to treat allergic conjunctivitis, the itching and swelling of the eyes caused by seasonal allergens such as pollens and indoor allergens such as dust and dander. Diphenhydramine will take effect an hour after taking it and the effects will last for around 4-6 hours. Other than being an antihistamine, diphenhydramine also has anticholinergic (drying) effects when it is used to prevent motion sickness and to treat cases of Parkinsonism ...
Anaphylaxis is a severe, life-threatening, systemic allergic reaction that is almost always unanticipated and may lead to death by airway obstruction or vascular collapse. Anaphylaxis occurs as the result of an allergen response, usually immunoglobulin E-mediated, which leads to mast cell and basophil activation and a combination of dermatologic, respiratory, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurologic symptoms. Dermatologic and respiratory symptoms are most common, occurring in 90 and 70 percent of episodes, respectively. The three most common triggers are food, insect stings, and medications. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is typically made when symptoms occur within one hour of exposure to a specific antigen. Confirmatory testing using serum histamine and tryptase levels is difficult, because blood samples must be drawn with strict time considerations. Allergen skin testing and in vitro assay for serum ...
Identification of the Peptide PyroQ-βCasein194-209 as a Highly Specific and Sensitive Marker to Differentiate between Ultrahigh-Temperature Processed (UHT) Milk and Mildly Heated Milk Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry DOI 10.1021/acs.jafc.7b03801. Proteomic Response of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells to Histamine Stimulation Proteomics DOI: 10.1002/pmic.201700116. Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Wine Polyphenols Affect Nrf2 Activation and Antioxidant Enzyme Expression in Human Neuroblastoma Cells (SH-SY5Y) Journal of Functional Foods DOI 10.1016/j.jff.2017.08.048. Targeted Proteome Analysis with Isotope-Coded Protein Labels for Monitoring the Influence of Dietary Phytochemicals on the Expression of Cytoprotective Proteins in Primary Human Colon Cells Journal of Proteomics DOI 10.1016/j.jprot.2017.06.023 ...
P.H. Howarth, B.S. Sihra, S.T. Holgate; The Influence of Non-Specific Airway Reactivity on the Immediate Bronchoconstrictor Response to Exercise and Antigen in Asthma. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 January 1984; 67 (s9): 33P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs067033P. Download citation file:. ...
Cyclizine 2HCl is a piperazine derivative with Histamine H1 receptor antagonist activity. Buy Histamine Receptor inhibitor Cyclizine dihydrochloride from AbMole BioScience.
Because first-generation H1-antihistamines derive from the same chemical stem from which cholinergic muscarinic antagonists, tranquilizers, antipsychotics, and antihypertensive agents were also developed, they have poor receptor selectivity and often interact with receptors of other biologically active amines causing antimuscarinic, anti-α-adrenergic, and antiserotonin effects. But perhaps their greatest drawback is their ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and interfere with histaminergic transmission. Histamine is an important neuromediator in the human brain which contains approximately 64,000 histamine-producing neurones, located in the tuberomamillary nucleus. When activated, these neurones stimulate H1-receptors in all of the major parts of the cerebrum, cerebellum, posterior pituitary, and spinal cord[15] where they increase arousal in the circadian sleep/wake ...
The gastric enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell se cretes histamine in response to secretagogues (gastrin, acetylcholine) by calcium signaling-dependent exocytosis of intracellular vacuoles containing the hormone. ECL cells were isolated from rat fundic gastric mucosa by elutriation and density-gradient centrifugation. Currents across the plasma membrane were measured using whole cell patch-clamp methods. These cells had a low conductance of 0.5 nS and resting potential of -50 mV Depolarization activated a K+ current that was blocked by Ba2+. Steady-state current in absence of K+ was due to Cl- because of the magnitude of the reversal potential and the effects of Cl- removal. Stimulation of secretion by gastrin, cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate activated the Cl- conductance with a time course similar to that of histamine release. Therefore the ECL ...

Managing the spectrum of signs and symptoms for allergic conjunctivitis patientsManaging the spectrum of signs and symptoms for allergic conjunctivitis patients

Mast Cell Work Here Topical Steroids Phospholipase A2 Work Here Arachidonic Acid Cyclic Endoperoxides Histamine Prostacyclin ... Allergy testing may be indicated if answers are elusive Treatment Basics  Avoid allergens: No pets in bed, close windows, take ... T cell inhibitor  Tacrolimus (Protopic) ointment  Pimecrolimus (Elidel) cream  Safe for long term use on skin, effective but ... Allergen Mast Cel s Eosinophils Histamine Cytokines Cytotoxic Proteins Redness Chemosis Chemosis Pain/Itch Discharge LTs= ...
more infohttp://chestervetclinic.com/c/cincinnatieye.com1.html

Blood Test: Allergen-Specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE)Blood Test: Allergen-Specific Immunoglobulin E (IgE)

Its especially useful in kids whove had life-threatening reactions to a certain allergen and for whom a skin-prick test would ... This test is done to check for allergies to specific allergens. ... They cause mast cells (a type of cell involved in the bodys ... immune response) to release chemicals, including histamine, into the bloodstream. Its these chemicals that bring on many of ... This test is especially useful in children whove had life-threatening reactions to a certain allergen and for whom a skin- ...
more infohttp://kidshealth.org/LAWW/en/parents/test-ige.html

Diagnostic Allergy Testing: Overview, Specific IgE Testing, Patch TestingDiagnostic Allergy Testing: Overview, Specific IgE Testing, Patch Testing

Diagnostic allergy testing should be considered when a clinical scenario suggests an external, usually harmless, substance is ... Skin testing detects allergen-specific IgE bound to mast cells. The allergen cross-links specific IgE bound on the mast cell. ... Skin testing can be performed at any age. Infants may have smaller positive tests, but the histamine is correlatively smaller. ... Specific IgE Testing. Specific IgE testing can be done through skin testing or blood testing. Testing should be based on the ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2068676-overview

Patent US5478739 - Three-dimensional stromal cell and tissue culture system - Google PatentsPatent US5478739 - Three-dimensional stromal cell and tissue culture system - Google Patents

The present invention relates to an improved three-dimensional cell culture system in which cells are grown on a three- ... the three-dimensional skin culture containing the patients lymphocytes and mast cells is exposed to various allergens. Binding ... Three-dimensional cultures of tumor cells may be used as model systems to test, for example, the efficacy of anti-tumor agents. ... with the allergen to which the patient is sensitive, will result in the release of vasoactive mediators, such as histamine. The ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5478739?dq=5,960,411

Allergic rhinitis - WikipediaAllergic rhinitis - Wikipedia

IgE antibodies attaching to the allergen and causing the release of inflammatory chemicals such as histamine from mast cells. ... Allergy testing may reveal the specific allergens to which an individual is sensitive. Skin testing is the most common method ... Diagnosis is usually based on a medical history in combination with a skin prick test or blood tests for allergen-specific IgE ... The intradermal allergy test is more sensitive than the skin prick test but is more often positive in people that do not have ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allergic_rhinitis

Suggested Improvements for the Allergenicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants Used in Foods | SpringerLinkSuggested Improvements for the Allergenicity Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants Used in Foods | SpringerLink

... importance of IgE binding may be tested further by in vitro basophil histamine release or in vivo via skin prick tests [44]. ... be due to the presence of a single epitope or low-avidity binding and may not allow effective IgE cross-linking on mast cells ... They recommended using sera from individuals allergic to the matched allergen to test for possible cross-reactivity. However, ... serum IgE-binding tests to be performed only if the source of the gene is a common allergen or the sequence matches an allergen ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11882-011-0195-6

Patente US5478739 - Three-dimensional stromal cell and tissue culture system - Google PatentesPatente US5478739 - Three-dimensional stromal cell and tissue culture system - Google Patentes

The present invention relates to an improved three-dimensional cell culture system in which cells are grown on a three- ... the three-dimensional skin culture containing the patients lymphocytes and mast cells is exposed to various allergens. Binding ... Three-dimensional cultures of tumor cells may be used as model systems to test, for example, the efficacy of anti-tumor agents. ... with the allergen to which the patient is sensitive, will result in the release of vasoactive mediators, such as histamine. The ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US5478739?dq=flatulence

Peanut allergy - WikipediaPeanut allergy - Wikipedia

Skin prick tests are designed to identify specific IgE bound to cutaneous mast cells. During the test, a glycerinated allergen ... and other anaphylatoxins which act to release histamine and other mediator substances from mast cells (degranulation). In ... A positive skin prick test is about 50% accurate, so a positive skin prick test alone is not diagnostic of food allergies. The ... skin prick test and patch test) List of allergens (food and non-food) Tree nut allergy (can be cross-reactive to peanut allergy ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peanut_allergy

Experimental therapy stops allergic reactio...( The other receptor molecule is like a b...)Experimental therapy stops allergic reactio...( The other receptor molecule is like a b...)

In laboratory tests on human mast cells and basophils the higher the ...Although many more lab and animal studies will be ... the less histamine the cells released when stimulated by an allergen. In tests on mice, GE2 significantly reduced allergic skin ... In laboratory tests on human mast cells and basophils, the higher the dose of GE2, ... These allergen-specific fusion proteins could be used in allergy shots to make them safer and more effective: The patient could ...
more infohttp://news.bio-medicine.org/biology-news-2/Experimental-therapy-stops-allergic-reactions-in-mice-7701-2/

Summary and Recommendations: Classification of Gastrointesti... : Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and NutritionSummary and Recommendations: Classification of Gastrointesti... : Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition

Positive skin test or radioallergosorbent test (RAST) results to responsible food allergens are present in virtually all cases ... decreases in stainable mast cells and tissue histamine after positive food challenges consistent with IgE-dependent mast cell ... and mast cells. Increased numbers of IgM- and IgA- containing plasma cells are seen in the jejunal mucosa (29). Although the ... skin test/in vitro test) or biopsy findings, and a response or absence of response to food challenge, food exclusion, specific ...
more infohttp://journals.lww.com/jpgn/Fulltext/2000/01001/Summary_and_Recommendations__Classification_of.13.aspx

The Role of Allergens in Asthma - - American Family PhysicianThe Role of Allergens in Asthma - - American Family Physician

This can be achieved through serum assays of immunoglobulin E antibodies or skin tests with aeroallergens. Information on ... Thus, allergen avoidance may include removal of pets, use of high-efficiency particulate air filtration and vacuum cleaners, ... of asthma recommend that patients who require daily asthma medications have allergy testing for perennial indoor allergens and ... Although there is evidence that simple allergen avoidance measures are ineffective, there is good evidence for the ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2007/0901/p675.html

Skin testing for fungal allergy | Aspergillus & Aspergillosis WebsiteSkin testing for fungal allergy | Aspergillus & Aspergillosis Website

IgE testing. Fungal allergy is partly mediated through IgE binding to mast cells leading to histamine release, recognized as ... The following video demonstrates the technique of skin testing for all types of allergen including fungal. ... Skin tests tend to be more sensitive. Some clinics test for a wide range of fungal sensitivity, others test for a limited ... Issues with skin tests. Unfortunately reagents from different manufacturers differ and give slightly different skin prick test ...
more infohttp://aspergillus.org.uk/diagnosis/skin-testing-fungal-allergy

Does parasitic infection protect against allergy?Does parasitic infection protect against allergy?

... skin tests to airborne allergens. This finding is consistent with the finding of Nielsen et al., that histamine released from ... Recent data suggest that mast cells can contribute to eosinophil-mediated inflammatory responses. Activation of mast cells can ... of IgE resulting from parasitic infection saturate mast cell IgE receptors, preventing the attachment of sufficient allergen- ... IgE antibodies detected in vitro or skin testing. Parasitic infestation was assessed by the classical stool analysis method and ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0021-75572006000500001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Small peptides and methods for blocking IGE mediated activation of an immune cell - Mowycal Lending, LLCSmall peptides and methods for blocking IGE mediated activation of an immune cell - Mowycal Lending, LLC

Exposure to allergen results in degranulation of mast cells in the lung, releasing leukotrienes and histamines. In response to ... The rat skin model was undertaken and validated. Various peptides were tested at a predetermined dose for anti-leukotriene and/ ... including infiltration of the mucosa and epithelium with activated T cells, mast cells, and eosinophils. T cells and mast cells ... Moreover, mast cells can also act as an antigen-presenting cell to T-lymphocytes, suggesting an even larger role for mast cells ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/8809281.html

Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - The Clinical AdvisorAllergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis - The Clinical Advisor

... is manifested by development of cutaneous skin reactivity to Aspergillus allergen testing and by IgE-dependent mast cell ... degranulation with release of mediators like IL-5 (which recruits more eosinophils) and histamine. Mast cell and eosinophil ... If the skin prick test is negative, an intradermal skin test should be done, as this test is more sensitive in detecting ... In patients with negative skin tests in whom the diagnosis is still suspected clinically, skin testing with other fungal ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaladvisor.com/pulmonary-medicine/allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis/article/625807/

Xolair in Asthma Therapy: An Overview | Bentham ScienceXolair in Asthma Therapy: An Overview | Bentham Science

... allergens, skin prick tests, intrinsic type, IgEs, cascade, allergic reaction, plasma cells, mast cells, histamine, Inhalation ... allergens, skin prick tests, intrinsic type, IgEs, cascade, allergic reaction, plasma cells, mast cells, histamine, Inhalation ... Clinical Aspects of Clara Cell 10-kDa Protein / Uteroglobin (Secretoglobin 1A1). Current Pharmaceutical Design ... endothelial cells, dose, corticosteroids, injections, anaphylaxis, sinusitis, headache, adolescent patients, Dosing, ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/83510/article/xolair-asthma-therapy-overview?tracking-code=4

Asthma & Allergy GlossaryAsthma & Allergy Glossary

Following subsequent allergen exposure, the mast cells release substances such as histamine (a chemical responsible for ... of skin. In an allergic response, an allergen stimulates the release of antibodies, which attach themselves to mast cells. ... which originated the test. RAST is a laboratory test used to detect IgE antibodies to specific allergens.. Respiratory system ... Mast cell Mast cells play an important role in the bodys allergic response. Mast cells are present in most body tissues, but ...
more infohttp://celebratelove.com/asthmaglossary.htm

ServicesServices

During your test, allergic antibodies will activate skin cells, called mast cells. Mast cells release chemicals, such as ... histamine, that cause swelling and redness, only in the areas where the allergens have touched your skin. This process usually ... Testing is done with an intradermal method skin test with or without blood testing for specific IgE. Skin testing is usually ... Skin Test. In this test, a tiny amount of liquid containing suspected food is placed on the skin of your arms or back. The skin ...
more infohttps://www.allergypartners.com/dfw/treatments/

ServicesServices

During your test, allergic antibodies will activate skin cells, called mast cells. Mast cells release chemicals, such as ... histamine, that cause swelling and redness, only in the areas where the allergens have touched your skin. This process usually ... Testing is done with an intradermal method skin test with or without blood testing for specific IgE. Skin testing is usually ... Skin Test. In this test, a tiny amount of liquid containing suspected food is placed on the skin of your arms or back. The skin ...
more infohttps://www.allergypartners.com/cedarrapids/treatments/

Allergies OME Flashcards by Matt Stanton | BrainscapeAllergies OME Flashcards by Matt Stanton | Brainscape

mast cells and IgE. cross linking IgE - histamine release - vasodilator 2 salute sign ... allergen skin testing skin patch test -if inconclusive - immunocap - blood test 5 ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/allergies-ome-4788413/packs/7094225

Treating An Allergic ReactionTreating An Allergic Reaction

The immune system naturally protects the body from foreign substances through its antibodies, white blood cells, mast cells, ... allergens). Allergens may enter the system through landing on skin and eyes, inhalation, oral consumption, or injection; and ... and skin swelling. Antihistamines merely block histamine effects but do not hamper its production. These may be bought in ... Allergy Testing and Treatment. How to Treat an Allergic Reaction. written by: Emjay Annavi Baclay • edited by: Leigh A. ...
more infohttps://www.healthguideinfo.com/allergy-testing-treatment/p83782/

Allergy and Asthma Definitions | Glossary & Terms | ACAAI Public WebsiteAllergy and Asthma Definitions | Glossary & Terms | ACAAI Public Website

Following subsequent allergen exposure, the mast cells release substances such as histamine (a chemical responsible for ... of skin. In an allergic response, an allergen stimulates the release of antibodies, which attach themselves to mast cells. ... which originated the test. RAST is a laboratory test used to detect IgE antibodies to specific allergens. ... Mast cells play an important role in the bodys allergic response. Mast cells are present in most body tissues, but are ...
more infohttps://acaai.org/resources/information/allergy-glossary

Food Allergy TestingFood Allergy Testing

In addition to applying the allergens to the skin, histamine and saline are applied as positive and negative controls, ... called a mast cell) and it comes in contact with its target, it will cause the mast cell to release chemical mediators that are ... Prick skin tests have been shown to only be truly positive in 30-50% of individuals tested. However, both skin and blood tests ... Skin Testing. The most preferred food allergy test is the prick skin test (PST). Using an individual or muti-headed plastic ...
more infohttp://allergicgirl.blogspot.com/2009/01/food-allergy-testing.html?showComment=1231535940000

Anaphylaxis: Recognition and Management - - American Family PhysicianAnaphylaxis: Recognition and Management - - American Family Physician

Allergen skin testing and in vitro assay for serum immunoglobulin E of specific allergens do not reliably predict who will ... which leads to mast cell and basophil activation and a combination of dermatologic, respiratory, cardiovascular, ... Confirmatory testing using serum histamine and tryptase levels is difficult, because blood samples must be drawn with strict ... Histamine H1 receptor antagonists and corticosteroids may be useful adjuncts. All patients at risk of recurrent anaphylaxis ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/2011/1115/p1111.html

Study Guide IM5005 - Study Guide IM5005(CHECK ABOUT INTRO LECTURE Allergy and Disease 1 and 2 1 Atopy a The predisposition to...Study Guide IM5005 - Study Guide IM5005(CHECK ABOUT INTRO LECTURE Allergy and Disease 1 and 2 1 Atopy a The predisposition to...

Allergen moves from gut into bloodstream c.i. Triggers a massive histamine release from mast cells and basophils c.ii. Causes ... Detection by skin prick test or radio absorbant test (RAST) g. IgE production g.i. In B cells g.i.1. 2 signals required g.i.1.a ... Allergen - induced particularly milk protein from the gut enters the blood stream b. Deposits in skin, causes mast cell ... binds to mast cells and basophils, often specific for harmless environmental factors c.ii. once binds to mast cells, triggers ...
more infohttps://www.coursehero.com/file/6818419/Study-Guide-IM5005/
  • 5,6 Whether or not this increase in IL-4 production may also promote the production of specific IgE against common allergens is not clear, but it is conceivable that it may occur in at least some patients. (scielo.br)
  • Since I eat some sort of wheat and/or dairy everyday (the two most common allergens), it was not easy. (provideyourown.com)
  • Although there is evidence that simple allergen avoidance measures are ineffective, there is good evidence for the effectiveness of a comprehensive approach based on known sensitization. (aafp.org)
  • Thus, allergen avoidance may include removal of pets, use of high-efficiency particulate air filtration and vacuum cleaners, use of allergen-impermeable mattress and pillow covers, cockroach extermination, smoking cessation, and measures to control mold growth in the home. (aafp.org)
  • Asthma is a condition that can be managed successfully and part of that management should include a strategy for allergen avoidance. (airora.com)
  • In treatment, avoidance of the particular allergen is of primary importance. (medscape.com)
  • Management-allergen avoidance, topical intranasal corticosteroids, and nonsedating oral antihistamines are the mainstay of treatment and are effective and safe. (enetmd.com)
  • Positive results indicate the presence of allergen-specific IgE in the peripheral blood (ie that the patient is "sensitised" to the allergen). (allergy.org.au)
  • The second scenario they said was when you had involvement of two or more organ systems which occurred rapidly after exposure to a likely allergen. (reachmd.com)
  • Antihistamine creams and tablets are both effective in reducing urticaria (hives or nettle rash), the itchy white bumps on the skin often caused by insect bites and stings. (oxforddictionaries.com)
  • This test measures the amount of tryptase in the blood. (labcorp.com)
  • Tryptase levels can also be significantly and persistently increased with mastocytosis, a rare group of disorders associated with an abnormal increase in the number of mast cells. (labcorp.com)
  • The tryptase test is a useful indicator of mast cell activation. (labcorp.com)
  • Thus if the baseline tryptase level is 5 ng/mL in a given patient, a level of 8 ng/mL or greater within 4 hours of a suspected anaphylactic event confirms that mast cell activation. (allergygoaway.com)
  • The two IgE receptors aggregate and induce a signal transduction cascade releasing systemically preformed biochemical mediators, including histamine, neutral proteases (tryptase, chymase), and proteoglycans (heparin) from intracellular granules in cells within tissues and blood. (asahq.org)
  • [ 6 ] Another experimental model of protein contact dermatitis induced the generation of T cells, the infiltration of eosinophils, and the production of IL-4 and IL-5. (medscape.com)
  • These cells may accumulate in the skin (cutaneous mastocytosis) or in organs throughout the body (systemic mastocytosis). (labcorp.com)
  • Mastocytosis is a rare group of disorders associated with an abnormal increase in the number of mast cells, which may accumulate in the skin (cutaneous mastocytosis) or in organs throughout the body (systemic mastocytosis). (labcorp.com)
  • The list goes on and on because of the connections between skin rash issues and systemic imbalances. (skinterrupt.com)
  • Failures, insufficiencies, or delays at any level of the immune response can allow pathogens or tumor cells to gain a foothold and replicate or proliferate to high enough levels that the immune system becomes overwhelmed. (oercommons.org)
  • Drugs that may decrease the immune response of skin testing include Angiotensin-converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors, Beta Blockers, Corticosteroids, Nifedipine, and Theophylline. (wbccount.org)
  • After several CS-US pairings, the stimulation of the skin alone increased the leucocyte numbers, indicating a conditioned immune response. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The prick/puncture method involves a skin testing device pricked through a droplet of allergenic extract. (medscape.com)
  • The procedure involves inserting an extract of the allergen under the skin surface, usually of the forearm. (naturopathiccurrents.com)
  • This form of therapy typically involves the subcutaneous administration of gradually increasing quantities of the patient's relevant allergens until a dose is reached that is effective in inducing immunologic tolerance to the allergens. (springer.com)
  • The test itself involves the allergist pricking your skin with tiny needles, too, SPT provides immediate information versus in vitro test results mal di schiena lavoro in piedi may not be available for days or weeks! (click2loseweight.com)