Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Osteoarthritis, Hip: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the hip joint which usually appears in late middle or old age. It is characterized by growth or maturational disturbances in the femoral neck and head, as well as acetabular dysplasia. A dominant symptom is pain on weight-bearing or motion.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip: Replacement of the hip joint.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Hip Fractures: Fractures of the FEMUR HEAD; the FEMUR NECK; (FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES); the trochanters; or the inter- or subtrochanteric region. Excludes fractures of the acetabulum and fractures of the femoral shaft below the subtrochanteric region (FEMORAL FRACTURES).Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Hip Prosthesis: Replacement for a hip joint.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Arthroplasty, Replacement, Knee: Replacement of the knee joint.Hip Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the hip.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Hip Dislocation, Congenital: Congenital dislocation of the hip generally includes subluxation of the femoral head, acetabular dysplasia, and complete dislocation of the femoral head from the true acetabulum. This condition occurs in approximately 1 in 1000 live births and is more common in females than in males.Knee Injuries: Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.Hip Dislocation: Displacement of the femur bone from its normal position at the HIP JOINT.Joint DiseasesFemoracetabular Impingement: A pathological mechanical process that can lead to hip failure. It is caused by abnormalities of the ACETABULUM and/or FEMUR combined with rigorous hip motion, leading to repetitive collisions that damage the soft tissue structures.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Femur Head: The hemispheric articular surface at the upper extremity of the thigh bone. (Stedman, 26th ed)Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Osteoarthritis, Spine: A degenerative joint disease involving the SPINE. It is characterized by progressive deterioration of the spinal articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR), usually with hardening of the subchondral bone and outgrowth of bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE).Pain, Postoperative: Pain during the period after surgery.Pain Management: A form of therapy that employs a coordinated and interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those experiencing pain.Acetabulum: The part of the pelvis that comprises the pelvic socket where the head of FEMUR joins to form HIP JOINT (acetabulofemoral joint).Chronic Pain: Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.Femur Head Necrosis: Aseptic or avascular necrosis of the femoral head. The major types are idiopathic (primary), as a complication of fractures or dislocations, and LEGG-CALVE-PERTHES DISEASE.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Low Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.Back Pain: Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.Prosthesis Failure: Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Femoral Neck Fractures: Fractures of the short, constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters. It excludes intertrochanteric fractures which are HIP FRACTURES.Bursitis: Inflammation or irritation of a bursa, the fibrous sac that acts as a cushion between moving structures of bones, muscles, tendons or skin.Ischium: One of three bones that make up the coxal bone of the pelvic girdle. In tetrapods, it is the part of the pelvis that projects backward on the ventral side, and in primates, it bears the weight of the sitting animal.Pain, Intractable: Persistent pain that is refractory to some or all forms of treatment.Neck Pain: Discomfort or more intense forms of pain that are localized to the cervical region. This term generally refers to pain in the posterior or lateral regions of the neck.Abdominal Pain: Sensation of discomfort, distress, or agony in the abdominal region.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Hip Dysplasia, Canine: A hereditary disease of the hip joints in dogs. Signs of the disease may be evident any time after 4 weeks of age.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Medical Illustration: The field which deals with illustrative clarification of biomedical concepts, as in the use of diagrams and drawings. The illustration may be produced by hand, photography, computer, or other electronic or mechanical methods.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Osteonecrosis: Death of a bone or part of a bone, either atraumatic or posttraumatic.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Pelvic Pain: Pain in the pelvic region of genital and non-genital origin and of organic or psychogenic etiology. Frequent causes of pain are distension or contraction of hollow viscera, rapid stretching of the capsule of a solid organ, chemical irritation, tissue ischemia, and neuritis secondary to inflammatory, neoplastic, or fibrotic processes in adjacent organs. (Kase, Weingold & Gershenson: Principles and Practice of Clinical Gynecology, 2d ed, pp479-508)Facial Pain: Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Acute Pain: Intensely discomforting, distressful, or agonizing sensation associated with trauma or disease, with well-defined location, character, and timing.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Pain, Referred: A type of pain that is perceived in an area away from the site where the pain arises, such as facial pain caused by lesion of the VAGUS NERVE, or throat problem generating referred pain in the ear.Knee Dislocation: Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Patella: The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.Anterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Musculoskeletal Pain: Discomfort stemming from muscles, LIGAMENTS, tendons, and bones.Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Intervertebral Disc Degeneration: Degenerative changes in the INTERVERTEBRAL DISC due to aging or structural damage, especially to the vertebral end-plates.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Shoulder Pain: Unilateral or bilateral pain of the shoulder. It is often caused by physical activities such as work or sports participation, but may also be pathologic in origin.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Lower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Bone Malalignment: Displacement of bones out of line in relation to joints. It may be congenital or traumatic in origin.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Cementation: The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.Menisci, Tibial: The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Medial Collateral Ligament, Knee: The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Hip Contracture: Permanent fixation of the hip in primary positions, with limited passive or active motion at the hip joint. Locomotion is difficult and pain is sometimes present when the hip is in motion. It may be caused by trauma, infection, or poliomyelitis. (From Current Medical Information & Technology, 5th ed)Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Arthrography: Roentgenography of a joint, usually after injection of either positive or negative contrast medium.Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Polyethylene: A vinyl polymer made from ethylene. It can be branched or linear. Branched or low-density polyethylene is tough and pliable but not to the same degree as linear polyethylene. Linear or high-density polyethylene has a greater hardness and tensile strength. Polyethylene is used in a variety of products, including implants and prostheses.Femur Neck: The constricted portion of the thigh bone between the femur head and the trochanters.Actigraphy: The measurement and recording of MOTOR ACTIVITY to assess rest/activity cycles.Pelvic Bones: Bones that constitute each half of the pelvic girdle in VERTEBRATES, formed by fusion of the ILIUM; ISCHIUM; and PUBIC BONE.Orthopedic Procedures: Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Leg Length Inequality: A condition in which one of a pair of legs fails to grow as long as the other, which could result from injury or surgery.Nociceptive Pain: Dull or sharp aching pain caused by stimulated NOCICEPTORS due to tissue injury, inflammation or diseases. It can be divided into somatic or tissue pain and VISCERAL PAIN.Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Posterior Cruciate Ligament: A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Neuralgia: Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Bone Diseases, DevelopmentalArthrometry, Articular: Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Femoral Fractures: Fractures of the femur.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Arthritis, Infectious: Arthritis caused by BACTERIA; RICKETTSIA; MYCOPLASMA; VIRUSES; FUNGI; or PARASITES.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Osteophyte: Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease: A particular type of FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS occurring in children, mainly male, with a course of four years or so.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Bone Transplantation: The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Synovitis: Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Osteolysis: Dissolution of bone that particularly involves the removal or loss of calcium.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Analgesia: Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.Myofascial Pain Syndromes: Muscular pain in numerous body regions that can be reproduced by pressure on TRIGGER POINTS, localized hardenings in skeletal muscle tissue. Pain is referred to a location distant from the trigger points. A prime example is the TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT DYSFUNCTION SYNDROME.Polyethylenes: Synthetic thermoplastics that are tough, flexible, inert, and resistant to chemicals and electrical current. They are often used as biocompatible materials for prostheses and implants.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Visceral Pain: Pain originating from internal organs (VISCERA) associated with autonomic phenomena (PALLOR; SWEATING; NAUSEA; and VOMITING). It often becomes a REFERRED PAIN.Metal-on-Metal Joint Prostheses: Types of prosthetic joints in which both wear surfaces of the joint coupling are metallic.Ossification, Heterotopic: The development of bony substance in normally soft structures.Patellofemoral Joint: The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.Surgery, Computer-Assisted: Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Traction: The pull on a limb or a part thereof. Skin traction (indirect traction) is applied by using a bandage to pull on the skin and fascia where light traction is required. Skeletal traction (direct traction), however, uses pins or wires inserted through bone and is attached to weights, pulleys, and ropes. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed)Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Hemarthrosis: Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Surgical Procedures, Minimally Invasive: Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Joint Capsule: The sac enclosing a joint. It is composed of an outer fibrous articular capsule and an inner SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.Synovial Fluid: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.Pelvis: The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.Orthopedic Equipment: Nonexpendable items used in the performance of orthopedic surgery and related therapy. They are differentiated from ORTHOTIC DEVICES, apparatus used to prevent or correct deformities in patients.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Chromium Alloys: Specific alloys not less than 85% chromium and nickel or cobalt, with traces of either nickel or cobalt, molybdenum, and other substances. They are used in partial dentures, orthopedic implants, etc.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Canes: Sticks used as walking aids. The canes may have three or four prongs at the end of the shaft.Patellar Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.ShoesProprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Splints: Rigid or flexible appliances used to maintain in position a displaced or movable part or to keep in place and protect an injured part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Anesthetics, Local: Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Spine: The spinal or vertebral column.Debridement: The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Nails: Rods of bone, metal, or other material used for fixation of the fragments or ends of fractured bones.Osseointegration: The growth action of bone tissue as it assimilates surgically implanted devices or prostheses to be used as either replacement parts (e.g., hip) or as anchors (e.g., endosseous dental implants).Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
8 Steps to a Pain-Free Back: Natural Posture Solutions for Pain in the Back, Neck, Shoulder, Hip, Knee, and Foot. Pendo Press. ... hips and knees, and incorporates yoga and dance. Moreover, the method aims to elongate the spine and lessen the burden on the ... "Back Pain: Is Your Yoga Practice Hurting You?". Yogi Times. Retrieved April 21, 2017. Bryant, Lauren. "Esther Gokhale: Primal ... Gokhale started searching for a method to cope with her own back pain, including sciatica and spinal disc herniation which ...
Another stretching exercise is to lie on the side opposite of the pain with the hip and knee of the upper leg flexed and ... This position externally rotates the hip, lessening the stretch on the piriformis and relieving the pain slightly. Piriformis ... It usually only affects one hip at a given time, though both hips may produce piriformis syndrome at some point in the ... quadriceps pain, lower leg pain, and buttock pain. These symptoms include tenderness, tingling and numbness initiating in lower ...
Roundhouse kick (돌려 차기 dollyeo chagi): The practitioner raises the knee, turns the hips, pivots on the non-kicking foot, and ... There are three types of pressure point that can induce one or a combination of the following: pain, paralysis, or death. These ... With proper execution opponents may be incapacitated with a single blow, which lessens the number of attacks in encounters with ... the back hand is simultaneously pulled back to the back hip and ready for a counter punch. Double Forearm Block - This is a ...
In small children: adopting of a frog-leg position when sitting (hips abducted and knees flexed) ... Skeletal problems associated with weak muscles in SMA include tight joints with limited range of movement, hip dislocations, ... spinal deformity, osteopenia, an increase risk of fractures and pain.[9] Weak muscles that normally stabilize joints such as ... "Delivery of recombinant follistatin lessens disease severity in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy". Human Molecular ...
... hips abducted and knees flexed) Loss of strength of the respiratory muscles: weak cough, weak cry (infants), accumulation of ... hip dislocations, spinal deformity, osteopenia, an increase risk of fractures and pain. Weak muscles that normally stabilize ... Rose, F. F.; Mattis, V. B.; Rindt, H.; Lorson, C. L. (2009). "Delivery of recombinant follistatin lessens disease severity in a ...
It turns out that running longer distances actually decreases a persons risk of osteoarthritis and hip replacements, according ... Stronger hips improved running mechanics, lessened knee pain. June 2, 2011 Hip strengthening exercises performed by female ... UK says metal hip replacements more troublesome. September 16, 2011 (AP) -- People who get metal hip replacements are more ... runners not only significantly reduced patellofemoral pain -- a common knee pain experienced by runners -- but they also ...
Corticosteroid shots are widely used to reduce inflammation and lessen pain in knee and hip joints. ... Steroid injections to knee and hips can relieve pain but may cause damage. Getty Images. *A new study finds that corticosteroid ... Exercising an arthritic knee can be a great way to relieve your pain and discomfort. Learn about easy exercises you can do at ... Knee Surgery That Reduces Pain… But Doesnt Heal the Injury. An outpatient procedure could provide patients relief from the ...
Yoga or other stretching activities that focus on opening and releasing your hips will help lessen the knee pain.. posted by ... Achy breaky hip flexor November 30, 2009. Help me find useful yoga and/or pilates DVDs. October 26, 2009. ... I also have bad knees, and have seen an orthopedist for knee pain. His recommendations to me for reducing my knee pain were:. ... sitting cross-legged: if youre experiencing knee pain in that position, theres a good chance than your hips arent ...
A short, simple exercise program can significantly lessen that pain, according to a new study, and could even lead to better ... If so, you might be one of the many office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain. ... Bringing relief to those areas should allow you to get closer to the ideal of head, shoulders, hips, knees and feet aligning ... Patellar Pain Exercise Program * More Exercise Means Less Chronic Inflammation * Ask the Doctor: Hip/Knee Pain In Danger of ...
If youve lived long enough inflammation in the ankle knee hip... 1.Control your weight. Obesity puts extra stress on weight- ... joint pain from a lifetime of lifting bendin... ... hips, knees and feet.. 2. Be aware of body position, using good ... But theres a lot you can do yourself-apart from taking your medication-to lessen joint pain. Following are some time-proven ... If youve lived long enough, inflammation in the ankle, knee, hip, shoulder, elbow and wrist can cause pain, swelling and ...
During the next 2 years, he experienced joint pain in the hips, knees, ankles, wrists, and metacarpal joints.. There was also ... She had pain on external rotation of her left hip, and 7 of 18 tender points were present.. The findings of routine blood ... This improvement continued over the ensuing 2 weeks, by which time his fatigue had lessened.. The arthritis was somewhat slower ... At this time, his hips, knees, and ankles were virtually free of pain. This improvement continued until he achieved a complete ...
Additional symptoms include a dull, aching pain in the groin, outer thigh, knee, or buttocks. ... A hip affected by inflammatory arthritis will feel painful and stiff. ... Pain that is worse in the morning or after sitting or resting for a while, but lessens with activity ... Rheumatoid arthritis often involves the same joint on both sides of the body, so both hips may be affected. ...
Hip stability is your ability to maintain your center of gravity and produce strength and coordination in your hips and trunk ... Bend your hips and knees, and bring your heels close to your buttocks. Keep your legs about hip-width apart and your toes ... you can alleviate some back pain and tight hip flexors. This is good for those who have weak hips and mild back stiffness, ... since the supine position on the floor lessens pressure upon the spine. ...
My pain is thoracic in nature and does finally seem to be lessening. I have 2 artificial hips and one of them is talking to me ... Ive just been thinking of this problem as a hip/lower back pain that goes down into my leg. I just recently (as in real ... Knee surgery is in my future but it will have to wait until I am finally through with school. Thanks for the topic.. Avis:D ... It is much smaller, my shoulders/hips are even and I have no pain ... PS - No pain to speak of. There was a time at about 18 months ...
It is a chronic disease of the joints, especially the weight-bearing joints of the knee, hip, and spine. It destroys the ... This blocks pain signals to the brain and changes pain perception.. *Acupuncture. This is the use of thin needles that are ... Weight loss. Extra weight puts more stress on weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees. ... This can help protect your joints and lessen your symptoms.. *Using assistive devices. Canes, crutches, and walkers can help ...
Are you suffering from sciatic nerve pain in pregnancy? Did you know you could perform some simple stretches for managing ... Knees Rocking:. Knee rocking is the ultimate appeasing exercise used in back pain relief programs. It relieves the engorgement ... Bring in a yoga block beneath your hips. It helps lessen the intensity of the stretch and allows room for your tummy. ... 4. Hip Flexor Stretch:. Hip flexor muscles run through the front of the hip and help in forward movement of the leg as in ...
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are common conditions that cause pain, swelling, and limited movement. They affect ... It is a chronic disease of the joints, especially the weight-bearing joints of the knee, hip, and spine. It destroys the ... Weight loss. Extra weight puts more stress on weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees. ... Heat and cold. Pain may be eased by using moist heat (warm bath or shower) or dry heat (heating pad) on the joint. Pain and ...
Arthritis and other rheumatic diseases are common conditions that cause pain, swelling, and limited movement. They affect ... It is a chronic, degenerative disease of the joints, especially the weight-bearing joints of the knee, hip, and spine. It ... This blocks pain signals to the brain and changes pain perception.. *Acupuncture. This is the use of thin needles that are ... Weight loss. Extra weight puts more stress on weight-bearing joints, such as the hips and knees. ...
... side effects in my right leg and then my hip which became excruciatingly painful and the pain extended down to my right knee. ... I have never had problems in my hips and if this problem persists then I will be fit for nothing. I have 2 sons aged 15 and 7 ... These areas are still very painful but it is beginning to lessen. I think I am having a Herxheimer reaction. I have always been ... Right now though I have developed extreme pain in my right hip and I think it is the joint itself, also my right leg is numb ...
Steroid Injections and Bone Changes in Arthritic Hips: Study. Early research suggests bone deterioration in the hip many occur ... Steroid injections into painful joints, like knees, shoulders, and hips, are a common practice for osteoarthritis. While they ... Ultimately, researchers hypothesize that patients go on to use their weight-bearing joints more strenuously after pain- ... or even allergy shots may also lessen symptoms. ... offer pain relief, its only a temporary fix. New, preliminary ...
IL talks about how to relieve hip and knee pain for good by seeing a physical therapist. ... Common Hip and Knee Conditions. There are several specific conditions that often affect the knees and hips. These conditions ... Heat & Ice Physical Therapy - Heat is often used during physical therapy to help increase mobility and lessen pain. A physical ... hip and knee pain.Call Power In Motion to find out how a trained physical therapist can help you relieve the pain in your hips ...
... and having a previous knee injury was associated with 5.1 percent of the cases. Vigorous exercise is not associated with knee ... Researchers reviewed 46 studies on risk factors for osteoarthritis of the knee and found that being overweight was associated ... However, if you have hip or knee pain, you are probably better off avoiding impact sports such as running or jumping and ... In both, the pain is usually worse in the morning when a person first gets up. In osteoarthritis, the pain usually lessens as ...
"Strengthening the hip and buttock muscles can also help to lessen back and knee pain common among runners. If you do get ... puts strain on the hips and knees) is helpful, but the stronger and fitter you get, the more you will find your running style ... Hip flexor swings, glute swings, lunges with arms swinging to the ceiling are all great as part of a warm-up. When it comes to ... If you feel pain at the back of the heel and lower leg, it is likely to be a result of achilles tendinitis or achilles ...
In one study, 55% of people with MS had clinically significant pain at some time, and almost half had chronic pain. ... This can result in pain typically in the ankles, knees, hips and back. ... For example, you may have weakness in your leg and now walk differently, causing pain in your back and hip. This pain is from ... Spasticity management may include medication to lessen the stiffness and stretching exercises that can reduce stiffness.. ...
... but becuase that is the position I have to be in to lessen the pain in the mid thigh (just when I put weight on my leg, never ... She had two total hips done two years ago. She relayed that 3 months after her second one (they were 3 months and 6 days apart ... Good luck dee I hope everything goes well and your new hip is how it should be I think when we have these hip/knee ops and we ... THR] End of stem pain - mid thigh pain?. Discussion in Hip Replacement Recovery Area started by dklewandow, Jun 2, 2012. ...
This safe technology is being used to heal painful arthritic joints such as knees and hips, and has also been successfully used ... and has also been successfully used to treat dogs with hip dysplasia. It has been shown to lessen pain, reduce reliance on ... This safe technology is being used to heal painful arthritic joints such as knees and hips, ... At the six-month point, results showed all dogs that suffered from osteoarthritis and joint pain, improved after the AdiCell ...
This causes pain, swelling, and loss of motion. Osteoarthritis most often affects the hands, neck, lower back, knees, and hips. ... To lessen pain and protect your joints from further damage you should:. * Balance rest with activity. Its important to be ... The knee and hip joints are replaced most often.. Talk with your healthcare provider about the benefits and risks of these ... It also lessens joint pain and stiffness. And, it helps to improve your overall health. You should try to do a variety of ...
Those Odd pains. Osteoarthritis usually is felt first in the knees, hips, feet, spine, or fingers. These are joints that bear ... Kirwan, J. R.; Currey, H. L.; Freeman, M. A.; Snow, S.; and Young, P. J. "Overall Long-term Impact of Total Hip and Knee Joint ... Appropriate exercise can strengthen the muscles around the joint and help lessen the stiffness. Often, the exercises are ... Many different joints can be replaced, but knees and hips are most important. Replacment reduces pain and improves function ...
But you can help lessen daily stress on your joints. This can make it less likely that osteoarthritis will happen, or get worse ... It can most hurt your hips, knees, ankles and feet. And extra fat causes changes in the cartilage. If you are overweight, talk ... Pay attention to pain. If you have joint pain that lasts 1 to 2 hours after activity or exercise, you may have done too much. ... A New Hip or Knee Can Do a Marriage Good, Study Finds ... But you can help lessen daily stress on your joints. This can ...
This allows for better cushioning of knee an hip joints. Orthotics may be useful to support or correct alignment of ankles and ... Obesity increases the risk of developing osteoarthritis by putting undue stress on the joints - knees and hips, for example, ... The pain is usually present with movement of the joint and relieved by rest. The pain arises in the joint capsule, ligaments, ... Patients complain of stiffness on arising that lessens with activity. The affected joints may make a crunching noise as they ...

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