A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Reactions of an individual or groups of individuals with relation to the immediate surrounding area including the animate or inanimate objects within that area.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
(2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
A prolonged seizure or seizures repeated frequently enough to prevent recovery between episodes occurring over a period of 20-30 minutes. The most common subtype is generalized tonic-clonic status epilepticus, a potentially fatal condition associated with neuronal injury and respiratory and metabolic dysfunction. Nonconvulsive forms include petit mal status and complex partial status, which may manifest as behavioral disturbances. Simple partial status epilepticus consists of persistent motor, sensory, or autonomic seizures that do not impair cognition (see also EPILEPSIA PARTIALIS CONTINUA). Subclinical status epilepticus generally refers to seizures occurring in an unresponsive or comatose individual in the absence of overt signs of seizure activity. (From N Engl J Med 1998 Apr 2;338(14):970-6; Neurologia 1997 Dec;12 Suppl 6:25-30)
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.
The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.
The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of paroxysmal brain dysfunction due to a sudden, disorderly, and excessive neuronal discharge. Epilepsy classification systems are generally based upon: (1) clinical features of the seizure episodes (e.g., motor seizure), (2) etiology (e.g., post-traumatic), (3) anatomic site of seizure origin (e.g., frontal lobe seizure), (4) tendency to spread to other structures in the brain, and (5) temporal patterns (e.g., nocturnal epilepsy). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p313)
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.
Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)
A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.
A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Loss of the ability to recall information that had been previously encoded in memory prior to a specified or approximate point in time. This process may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organic forms may be associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENTS; SEIZURES; DEMENTIA; and a wide variety of other conditions that impair cerebral function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-9)
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A nucleoside that substitutes for thymidine in DNA and thus acts as an antimetabolite. It causes breaks in chromosomes and has been proposed as an antiviral and antineoplastic agent. It has been given orphan drug status for use in the treatment of primary brain tumors.
Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Conditions characterized by a significant discrepancy between an individual's perceived level of intellect and their ability to acquire new language and other cognitive skills. These disorders may result from organic or psychological conditions. Relatively common subtypes include DYSLEXIA, DYSCALCULIA, and DYSGRAPHIA.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical structure, often a vessel or a nerve.
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The first highly specific serotonin uptake inhibitor. It is used as an antidepressant and often has a more acceptable side-effects profile than traditional antidepressants.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA1 FIELD and the HIPPOCAMPUS CA3 FIELD.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.
Organic compounds composed of tin and three methyl groups. Affect mitochondrial metabolism and inhibit oxidative phosphorylation by acting directly on the energy conserving processes.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to GI-GO G-PROTEINS resulting in decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP levels.
Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
Type of declarative memory, consisting of personal memory in contrast to general knowledge.
A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4 and neurotrophin 5. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and plays a role in mediating the effects of neurotrophins on growth and differentiation of neuronal cells.
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.
Prolonged separation of the offspring from the mother.
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Remembrance of information for a few seconds to hours.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
Biogenic amines having only one amine moiety. Included in this group are all natural monoamines formed by the enzymatic decarboxylation of natural amino acids.
Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
A calbindin protein found in many mammalian tissues, including the UTERUS, PLACENTA, BONE, PITUITARY GLAND, and KIDNEYS. In intestinal ENTEROCYTES it mediates intracellular calcium transport from apical to basolateral membranes via calcium binding at two EF-HAND MOTIFS. Expression is regulated in some tissues by VITAMIN D.
The third type of glial cell, along with astrocytes and oligodendrocytes (which together form the macroglia). Microglia vary in appearance depending on developmental stage, functional state, and anatomical location; subtype terms include ramified, perivascular, ameboid, resting, and activated. Microglia clearly are capable of phagocytosis and play an important role in a wide spectrum of neuropathologies. They have also been suggested to act in several other roles including in secretion (e.g., of cytokines and neural growth factors), in immunological processing (e.g., antigen presentation), and in central nervous system development and remodeling.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.
Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Loss of the ability to form new memories beyond a certain point in time. This condition may be organic or psychogenic in origin. Organically induced anterograde amnesia may follow CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; SEIZURES; ANOXIA; and other conditions which adversely affect neural structures associated with memory formation (e.g., the HIPPOCAMPUS; FORNIX (BRAIN); MAMMILLARY BODIES; and ANTERIOR THALAMIC NUCLEI). (From Memory 1997 Jan-Mar;5(1-2):49-71)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.

Modulation of long-term synaptic depression in visual cortex by acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (1/19295)

In a slice preparation of rat visual cortex, we discovered that paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) elicits a form of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) in the superficial layers when carbachol (CCh) or norepinephrine (NE) is applied concurrently. PPS by itself, or CCh and NE in the absence of synaptic stimulation, produced no lasting change. The LTD induced by PPS in the presence of NE or CCh is of comparable magnitude with that obtained with prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS) but requires far fewer stimulation pulses (40 vs 900). The cholinergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by atropine and pirenzepine, suggesting involvement of M1 receptors. The noradrenergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by urapidil and was mimicked by methoxamine, suggesting involvement of alpha1 receptors. beta receptor agonists and antagonists were without effect. Induction of LTD by PPS was inhibited by NMDA receptor blockers (completely in the case of NE; partially in the case of CCh), suggesting that one action of the modulators is to control the gain of NMDA receptor-dependent homosynaptic LTD in visual cortex. We propose that this is a mechanism by which cholinergic and noradrenergic inputs to the neocortex modulate naturally occurring receptive field plasticity.  (+info)

Identification of the Kv2.1 K+ channel as a major component of the delayed rectifier K+ current in rat hippocampal neurons. (2/19295)

Molecular cloning studies have revealed the existence of a large family of voltage-gated K+ channel genes expressed in mammalian brain. This molecular diversity underlies the vast repertoire of neuronal K+ channels that regulate action potential conduction and neurotransmitter release and that are essential to the control of neuronal excitability. However, the specific contribution of individual K+ channel gene products to these neuronal K+ currents is poorly understood. We have shown previously, using an antibody, "KC, " specific for the Kv2.1 K+ channel alpha-subunit, the high-level expression of Kv2.1 protein in hippocampal neurons in situ and in culture. Here we show that KC is a potent blocker of K+ currents expressed in cells transfected with the Kv2.1 cDNA, but not of currents expressed in cells transfected with other highly related K+ channel alpha-subunit cDNAs. KC also blocks the majority of the slowly inactivating outward current in cultured hippocampal neurons, although antibodies to two other K+ channel alpha-subunits known to be expressed in these cells did not exhibit blocking effects. In all cases the blocking effects of KC were eliminated by previous incubation with a recombinant fusion protein containing the KC antigenic sequence. Together these studies show that Kv2.1, which is expressed at high levels in most mammalian central neurons, is a major contributor to the delayed rectifier K+ current in hippocampal neurons and that the KC antibody is a powerful tool for the elucidation of the role of the Kv2.1 K+ channel in regulating neuronal excitability.  (+info)

Metrifonate increases neuronal excitability in CA1 pyramidal neurons from both young and aging rabbit hippocampus. (3/19295)

The effects of metrifonate, a second generation cholinesterase inhibitor, were examined on CA1 pyramidal neurons from hippocampal slices of young and aging rabbits using current-clamp, intracellular recording techniques. Bath perfusion of metrifonate (10-200 microM) dose-dependently decreased both postburst afterhyperpolarization (AHP) and spike frequency adaptation (accommodation) in neurons from young and aging rabbits (AHP: p < 0.002, young; p < 0.050, aging; accommodation: p < 0.024, young; p < 0.001, aging). These reductions were mediated by muscarinic cholinergic transmission, because they were blocked by addition of atropine (1 microM) to the perfusate. The effects of chronic metrifonate treatment (12 mg/kg for 3 weeks) on CA1 neurons of aging rabbits were also examined ex vivo. Neurons from aging rabbits chronically treated with metrifonate had significantly reduced spike frequency accommodation, compared with vehicle-treated rabbits. Chronic metrifonate treatment did not result in a desensitization to metrifonate ex vivo, because bath perfusion of metrifonate (50 microM) significantly decreased the AHP and accommodation in neurons from both chronically metrifonate- and vehicle-treated aging rabbits. We propose that the facilitating effect of chronic metrifonate treatment on acquisition of hippocampus-dependent tasks such as trace eyeblink conditioning by aging subjects may be caused by this increased excitability of CA1 pyramidal neurons.  (+info)

Interaction of NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein, with calmodulin and PSD-95/SAP90. A possible regulatory role in molecular clustering at synaptic sites. (4/19295)

NE-dlg/SAP102, a neuronal and endocrine tissue-specific membrane-associated guanylate kinase family protein, is known to bind to C-terminal ends of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NR2B) through its PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1) domains. NE-dlg/SAP102 and NR2B colocalize at synaptic sites in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, and their expressions increase in parallel with the onset of synaptogenesis. We have identified that NE-dlg/SAP102 interacts with calmodulin in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The binding site for calmodulin has been determined to lie at the putative basic alpha-helix region located around the src homology 3 (SH3) domain of NE-dlg/SAP102. Using a surface plasmon resonance measurement system, we detected specific binding of recombinant NE-dlg/SAP102 to the immobilized calmodulin with a Kd value of 44 nM. However, the binding of Ca2+/calmodulin to NE-dlg/SAP102 did not modulate the interaction between PDZ domains of NE-dlg/SAP102 and the C-terminal end of rat NR2B. We have also identified that the region near the calmodulin binding site of NE-dlg/SAP102 interacts with the GUK-like domain of PSD-95/SAP90 by two-hybrid screening. Pull down assay revealed that NE-dlg/SAP102 can interact with PSD-95/SAP90 in the presence of both Ca2+ and calmodulin. These findings suggest that the Ca2+/calmodulin modulates interaction of neuronal membrane-associated guanylate kinase proteins and regulates clustering of neurotransmitter receptors at central synapses.  (+info)

Single synaptic events evoke NMDA receptor-mediated release of calcium from internal stores in hippocampal dendritic spines. (5/19295)

We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists block the synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients; the block by AMPA antagonists is relieved by low Mg2+. The Ca2+ transients are mainly due to the release of calcium from internal stores, since they are abolished by antagonists of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR); CICR antagonists, however, do not depress spine Ca2+ transients generated by backpropagating action potentials. These results have implications for synaptic plasticity, since they show that synaptic stimulation can activate NMDA receptors, evoking substantial Ca2+ release from the internal stores in spines without inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD).  (+info)

Characterization of elementary Ca2+ release signals in NGF-differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons. (6/19295)

Elementary Ca2+ release signals in nerve growth factor- (NGF-) differentiated PC12 cells and hippocampal neurons, functionally analogous to the "Ca2+ sparks" and "Ca2+ puffs" identified in other cell types, were characterized by confocal microscopy. They either occurred spontaneously or could be activated by caffeine and metabotropic agonists. The release events were dissimilar to the sparks and puffs described so far, as many arose from clusters of both ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (InsP3Rs). Increasing either the stimulus strength or loading of the intracellular stores enhanced the frequency of and coupling between elementary release sites and evoked global Ca2+ signals. In the PC12 cells, the elementary Ca2+ release preferentially occurred around the branch points. Spatio-temporal recruitment of such elementary release events may regulate neuronal activities.  (+info)

Response of hippocampal synapses to natural stimulation patterns. (7/19295)

We have studied the synaptic responses in hippocampal slices to stimulus patterns derived from in vivo recordings of place cell firing in a behaving rodent. We find that synaptic strength is strongly modulated during the presentation of these natural stimulus trains, varying 2-fold or more because of short-term plasticity. This modulation of synaptic strength is precise and deterministic, because the pattern of synaptic response amplitudes is nearly identical from one presentation of the train to the next. The mechanism of synaptic modulation is primarily a change in release probability rather than a change in the size of the elementary postsynaptic response. In addition, natural stimulus trains are effective in inducing long-term potentiation (LTP). We conclude that short-term synaptic plasticity--facilitation, augmentation, and depression--plays a prominent role in normal synaptic function.  (+info)

NMDA-dependent currents in granule cells of the dentate gyrus contribute to induction but not permanence of kindling. (8/19295)

Single-electrode voltage-clamp techniques and bath application of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) were used to study the time course of seizure-induced alterations in NMDA-dependent synaptic currents in granule cells of the dentate gyrus in hippocampal slices from kindled and normal rats. In agreement with previous studies, granule cells from kindled rats examined within 1 wk after the last of 3 or 30-35 generalized tonic-clonic (class V) seizures demonstrated an increase in the NMDA receptor-dependent component of the perforant path-evoked synaptic current. Within 1 wk of the last kindled seizure, NMDA-dependent charge transfer underlying the perforant path-evoked current was increased by 63-111% at a holding potential of -30 mV. In contrast, the NMDA-dependent component of the perforant-evoked current in granule cells examined at 2.5-3 mo after the last of 3 or 90-120 class V seizures did not differ from age-matched controls. Because the seizure-induced increases in NMDA-dependent synaptic currents declined toward control values during a time course of 2.5-3 mo, increases in NMDA-dependent synaptic transmission cannot account for the permanent susceptibility to evoked and spontaneous seizures induced by kindling. The increase in NMDA receptor-dependent transmission was associated with the induction of kindling but was not responsible for the maintenance of the kindled state. The time course of alterations in NMDA-dependent synaptic current and the dependence of the progression of kindling and kindling-induced mossy fiber sprouting on repeated NMDA receptor activation are consistent with the possibility that the NMDA receptor is part of a transmembrane signaling pathway that induces long-term cellular alterations and circuit remodeling in response to repeated seizures, but is not required for permanent seizure susceptibility in circuitry altered by kindling.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and hippocampal neural progenitor cells. T2 - Implications to mood disorders. AU - Kino, Tomoshige. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can be either internal or external. Thus, this system has a strong impact on the brain hippocampus and its major functions, such as cognition, memory as well as behavior, and mood. The hippocampal area of the adult brain contains neural stem cells or more committed neural progenitor cells, which retain throughout the human life the ability of self-renewal and to differentiate into multiple neural cell lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these characteristic cells contribute significantly to the above-indicated functions of the hippocampus, while various stressors and glucocorticoids influence proliferation, differentiation, ...
The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis , an earlier name of the hippocampus. Structure There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex . Another significant output is to the subiculum . CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path . Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus , and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. The mossy fiber pathway ends in the stratum lucidum . The perforant path passes through the stratum lacunosum and ends in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neural representation of spatial topology in the rodent hippocampus. AU - Chen, Zhe. AU - Gomperts, Stephen N.. AU - Yamamoto, Jun. AU - Wilson, Matthew A.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Pyramidal cells in the rodent hippocampus often exhibit clear spatial tuning in navigation. Although it has been long suggested that pyramidal cell activity may underlie a topological code rather than a topographic code, it remains unclear whether an abstract spatial topology can be encoded in the ensemble spiking activity of hippocampal place cells. Using a statistical approach developed previously, we investigate this question and related issues in greater detail.We recorded ensembles of hippocampal neurons as rodents freely foraged in one- and two-dimensional spatial environments and used a decode-to-uncover strategy to examine the temporally structured patterns embedded in the ensemble spiking activity in the absence of observed spatial correlates during periods of rodent navigation or awake ...
Figure 1. The structure of hippocampus.. Hippocampus Structure. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system known as the hippocampal region. Hippocampus can be divided into: dentate gyrus, hippocampus, subiculum, presubiculum, parasubiculum, and entorhinal cortex. The cell layer of the dentate gyrus, hippocampus, and lower tray is a single layer, collectively referred to as a hippocampal formation. A low cell density layer and a cell free layer are sandwiched between the upper and lower sides. The other parts have a structure of plurality of layers.. Hippocampus function. The function of the hippocampus is to control the recent memory of human beings. It is a bit like the memory of a computer. It will keep the memory in a few weeks or months, so that the body can quickly access the memory. The memory in the hippocampus is actually the connection between nerve cells. However, storing or throwing away certain information is not a conscious judgment, but is handled by the hippocampus in the human ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral origin of IL-1Β production in the rodent hippocampus under in vivo systemic bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and its regulation by P2X7 receptors. AU - Csölle, C.. AU - Sperlágh, B.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - In this study we showed that in vivo bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge elevated IL-1Β level in the rodent hippocampus. Antagonists of P2X receptors inhibited LPS-induced IL-1Β level with a pharmacological profile similar to that of P2X7R and their inhibitory effect was attenuated in the absence of P2X7R. In wild-type mice, LPS overexpressed mRNA encoding P2X4 and P2X7 receptors in the hippocampus and caused also a remarkable increase in the levels of IL-1Β in the serum. The hippocampal increase of IL-1Β has substantially alleviated when contamination of circulating blood cells was excluded by transcardial perfusion, indicating the peripheral origin of hippocampal IL-1Β elevation. These results point to the key role of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intrahippocampal infusions of K-ATP channel modulators influence spontaneous alternation performance. T2 - Relationships to acetylcholine release in the hippocampus. AU - Stefani, Mark R.. AU - Gold, Paul E.. PY - 2001/1/15. Y1 - 2001/1/15. N2 - One mechanism by which administration of glucose enhances cognitive functions may be by modulating central ATP-sensitive potassium (K-ATP) channels. K-ATP channels appear to couple glucose metabolism and neuronal excitability, with channel blockade increasing the likelihood of neurosecretion. The present experiment examined the effects of glucose and the direct K-ATP channel modulators glibenclamide and lemakalim on spontaneous alternation performance and hippocampal ACh release. Rats received either artificial CSF vehicle or vehicle plus drug for two consecutive 12 min periods via microdialysis probes (3 mm; flow rate of 2.1 μl/min) implanted in the left hippocampus. During the second 12 min period, rats were tested for spontaneous ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Androgens selectively modulate c-fos messenger RNA induction in the rat hippocampus following novelty. AU - Kerr, J. E.. AU - Beck, S. G.. AU - Handa, R. J.. N1 - Funding Information: The authors thank Dr Alan Nagahara and George Henja for help in the preparation of this manuscript. This material is based on work supported by an Advanced Predoctoral Fellowship from the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Foundation (JEK), National Science Foundation grants BNS 9109226, IBN 94-08890 and USPHS grants AA08696 (RJH) and K02-MH00880 (SGB). PY - 1996/8/2. Y1 - 1996/8/2. N2 - We have previously shown that androgen receptors are found in high concentrations in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. To begin to explore the possible roles for androgen receptors in this area of the brain, we studied the effects of endogenous and exogenous androgen on tile behaviourally induced expression of cellular immediate early gene messenger RNAs. Adult male Fischer 344 rats were either ...
The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can be either internal or external. Thus, this system has a strong impact on the brain hippocampus and its major functions, such as cognition, memory as well as behavior, and mood. The hippocampal area of the adult brain contains neural stem cells or more committed neural progenitor cells, which retain throughout the human life the ability of self-renewal and to differentiate into multiple neural cell lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these characteristic cells contribute significantly to the above-indicated functions of the hippocampus, while various stressors and glucocorticoids influence proliferation, differentiation, and fate of these cells. This review offers an overview of the current understanding on the interactions between the HPA axis/glucocorticoid stress-responsive system and hippocampal
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age dependence of homosynaptic non-NMDA mediated long-term depression in field CA1 of rat hippocampal slices. AU - Velíšek, Libor. AU - Moshé, Solomon L.. AU - Stanton, Patric K.. PY - 1993/10/15. Y1 - 1993/10/15. N2 - It has been hypothesized that high levels of presynaptic activity that fail to activate postsynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may lead to long-term depression (LTD). Therefore, we tested the ability of high-frequency (50 Hz) synaptic stimulation in the presence of a blocker of NMDA receptors to elicit homosynaptic LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices from 15-, 30- and 60-day-old rats. In control slices, there were no developmental differences in the incidence of long-term potentiation (LTP) of either EPSP slope or population spike amplitude. However, while NMDA receptor blockade with the specific antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; 25 μM) completely eliminated LTP in 30 and 60-day-olds, a significant number ...
Starting at the dentate gyrus and working inward along the S-curve of the hippocampus means traversing a series of narrow zones. The first of these, the dentate gyrus (DG), is actually a separate structure, a tightly packed layer of small granule cells wrapped around the end of the hippocampus proper, forming a pointed wedge in some cross-sections, a semicircle in others. Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3, then a very small zone called CA2, then CA1. The CA areas are all filled with densely packed Pyramidal cells similar to those found in the neocortex. After CA1 comes an area called the subiculum. After this comes a pair of ill-defined areas called the presubiculum and parasubiculum, then a transition to the cortex proper (mostly the entorhinal area of the cortex). Most anatomists use the term hippocampus proper to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and ...
The CA (Cornu Ammonis) fields, too, contain 3 distinct strata and house excitatory neurons known as pyramidal cells. The alveus is the most superficial layer and contains the commissural fibers of pyramidal cells via the fimbria, a major source of output from the hippocampus. Stratum oriens layer contains basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and a large body of basket cells (inhibitory interneurons). This strata includes fibers from the septal and commissural areas that are received from the contralateral hippocampus. This region also contains the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The next layer is the stratum pyramidale, named so because it contains the soma, or cell body, of the pyramidal cell. This layer in CA3 contains the mossy fiber connections and also houses interneurons. The stratum moleculare is divided into sublayers. The stratum lucidum is the thinnest layer and, in CA3, this area receives input from the dentate gyrus mossy fibers. Stratum radiatum contains apical dendrites ...
Newer approaches to characterizing hippocampal morphology can provide novel insights regarding cognitive function across the lifespan. We comprehensively assessed the relationships among age, hippocampal morphology, and hippocampal-dependent cognitive function in 137 healthy individuals across the a …
The ventral subiculum (vSUB) plays a key role in addiction, and identifying the neuronal circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which vSUB alters the excitability of dopamine neurons is a necessary step to understand the motor changes induced by cocaine. Here, we report that high-frequency stimulation of the vSUB (HFSvSUB) over-activates ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in vivo and triggers long-lasting modifications of synaptic transmission measured ex vivo. This potentiation is caused by NMDA-dependent plastic changes occurring in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Finally, we report that the modification of the BNST-VTA neural circuits induced by HFSvSUB potentiates locomotor activity induced by a sub-threshold dose of cocaine. Our findings unravel a neuronal circuit encoding behavioral effects of cocaine in rats and highlight the importance of adaptive modifications in the BNST, a structure that influences motivated behavior as well as maladaptive behaviors associated ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. T2 - Effects of estrogen from the gonads or hippocampus?. AU - Rune, G. M.. AU - Lohse, C.. AU - Prange-Kiel, J.. AU - Fester, L.. AU - Frotscher, M.. PY - 2006/2/1. Y1 - 2006/2/1. N2 - Different effects of estrogen on synaptic plasticity has been reported. Here, we summarise effects of low, gonad-derived serum estrogen concentrations, of intermediate concentrations, provided by hippocampal cells, and of pharmacological doses of estrogen on synapses and spines and on the expression of synaptic proteins. No effects of low concentrations were found. To study the effects of hippocampus-derived estradiol, we inhibited hippocampal estrogen synthesis by treatment of hippocampal cell cultures with letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor. Alternatively, we used siRNA against Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). Spines, synapses, and synaptic proteins were significantly downregulated in response to letrozole and in siRNA-StAR transfected cells. ...
The hippocampus is well known for its roles in spatial navigation and memory, but it is organized into regions that have different connections and functional specializations. Notably, the region CA2 has a role in social and not spatial cognition, as is the case for the regions CA1 and CA3 that surround it. Here, we investigated the evolution of the hippocampus in terms of its size and organization in relation to the evolution of social and ecological variables in primates, namely home range, diet and different measures of group size. We found that the volumes within the whole cornu ammonis coevolve with group size, while only the volume of CA1 and subiculum can also be predicted by home range. On the other hand, diet, expressed as a shift from folivory towards frugivory, was shown to not be related to hippocampal volume. Interestingly, CA2 was shown to exhibit phylogenetic signal only against certain measures of group size, but not with ecological factors. We also found that sex differences in ...
The relationship between context-dependent hippocampal activity and tasks that are hippocampus dependent is not clear-cut. Although in some hippocampus-dependent tasks context-dependent place field ... More. The relationship between context-dependent hippocampal activity and tasks that are hippocampus dependent is not clear-cut. Although in some hippocampus-dependent tasks context-dependent place field firing is seen, in others it is not. Furthermore, in some tasks that dont require a hippocampus, context-dependent activity is observed. This chapter reviews these three patterns of results and identifies the task characteristics that yield context-dependent place cell firing, as well as the characteristics of tasks that require the hippocampus. It is argued that at the very least, structures outside the hippocampus are capable of mediating context discrimination sufficient to support some kinds of context-dependent behaviors. This suggests that the hippocampus is one component of a network of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Learning-induced afterhyperpolarization reductions in hippocampus are specific for cell type and potassium conductance. AU - de Jonge, M. C.. AU - Black, J.. AU - Deyo, R. A.. AU - Disterhoft, J. F.. PY - 1990/5. Y1 - 1990/5. N2 - Hippocampal slices were prepared from rabbits trained in a trace eye-blink conditioning task and from naive and pseudoconditioned controls. Measurements of the post-burst afterhyperpolarization (AHP), action potential, and other cellular properties were obtained from intracellular recordings of CA1 pyramidal (N=49) and dentate gyrus granule cells (N=52). A conditioning-specific reduction in the amplitude of the AHP was found in CA1 cells but not in dentate granule cells. This reduction in the AHP was apparent at 50 ms after the end of a depolarizing current pulse, and was maintained for at least 650 ms. Other measured cell characteristics (input resistance, resting membrane potential, action potential shape, inward rectification, spike threshold) were ...
In the present study, to better understand the role of different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in hippocampus-dependent forms of learning, we examined the expression of neural, endothelial, and inducible NOS in the hippocampus of young-adult rats classified as poor and good learners on the basis of their performance in the partially baited 12-arm radial maze. Taking into consideration strain-dependent differences in learning skills and NOS expression, experiments were performed on two different lines of laboratory rats: the inbred Wistar (W) and the outcrossed Wistar/Spraque-Dawley(W/S) line. The hippocampal levels of NOS proteins were assessed by Western Blotting. In the present study, genetically more homogenous W rats showed a slower rate of learning compared to the genetically less homogenous outcrossed W/S rats. The deficient performance in the W rat group compared to outcrossed W/S rats, and in poor learners of both groups compared to good learners was due to a higher ...
Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a growth factor involved in neurodevelopment and plasticity. It is a schizophrenia candidate gene, and hippocampal expression of the NRG1 type I isoform is increased in the disorder. We have studied transgenic mice overexpressing NRG1 type I (NRG1(tg-type I)) and their wild-type littermates and measured hippocampal electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes. Young NRG1(tg-type I) mice showed normal memory performance, but in older NRG1(tg-type I) mice, hippocampus-dependent spatial working memory was selectively impaired. Hippocampal slice preparations from NRG1(tg-type I) mice exhibited a reduced frequency of carbachol-induced gamma oscillations and an increased tendency to epileptiform activity. Long-term potentiation in NRG1(tg-type I) mice was normal. The results provide evidence that NRG1 type I impacts on hippocampal function and circuitry. The effects are likely mediated via inhibitory interneurons and may be relevant to the involvement of NRG1 in schizophrenia. However
The hippocampus is a section of the brain located below the cerebral cortex. It is a part of the limbic system and plays a part in memory.. The name derives from the fact that its curved shape resembles that of a sea horse (Greek: hippocampus).. There is substantial evidence (from animal studies and from patients with brain injury) that the hippocampus is crucial in the conversion of short term memory into long memory, though it is not yet clear how this occurs. Individuals whose hippocampus becomes damaged (for instance, those with Korsakoffs syndrome), whilst retaining the ability to access long-term memories from before their injury, become unable to form new ones. They can, however, learn new skills (such as playing a musical instrument) but will be totally unable to remember how they gained those skills.. There is also evidence, that the hippocampus is involved in storing unique information, as for example locations. Without a fully functional hippocampus a person may no more be able ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Implication of Cyclooxygenase-2 on Enhanced Proliferation of Neural Progenitor Cells in the Adult Mouse Hippocampus after Ischemia by 勉 佐々木
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide-containing pyramidal neurons of the subiculum innervate the CA1 area. AU - Seress, László. AU - Ábrahám, Hajnalka. AU - Lin, Hong. AU - Totterdell, Susan. PY - 2002/10/31. Y1 - 2002/10/31. N2 - Neurons and axon terminals containing neuron-specific nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were examined in the rat subiculum and CA1 area of Ammons horn. In the subiculum, a large subpopulation of the pyramidal neurons and non-pyramidal cells are immunoreactive for nNOS, whereas in the neighbouring CA1 area of Ammons horn only non-pyramidal neurons are labelled with the antibody against nNOS. In the pyramidal layer of the subiculum, nNOS-positive axon terminals form both asymmetric and symmetric synapses. In the adjacent CA1 area the nNOS-positive terminals that form symmetric synapses are found in all layers, whereas those terminals that form asymmetric synapses are only in strata radiatum and oriens, but not in stratum lacunosum-moleculare. In both the subiculum and CA1 area, ...
The hippocampus has long been understood to play a critical role in flexible relational learning, episodic memory, and navigation. More recently, a growing body of work implicates the hippocampus in value-based decision making. However, a dichotomy exists between research performed in different organisms and from distinct theoretical traditions. For instance, results in rodent models support an active role for the hippocampus in evaluating potential next-step actions and outcomes. Meanwhile, human research has mainly emphasized the role of the hippocampus in forming representations that may then support later decisions. Other divisions concern the nature of spatial versus more general relational processing, various algorithms for active sampling in support of decisions, and whether the hippocampus plays a part in tasks that require short-term memory or well-learned outcomes. These divergences are in part due to different experimental methods, but they also reveal fundamental gaps in the theory. ...
We determined whether basal excitatory synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus were altered in MAGL−/− mice. fEPSPs were evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation at 0.05 Hz, and the recording electrode was placed in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region of the hippocampal slices prepared from MAGL+/+ and MAGL−/− mice. We first determined the I/O relationship between presynaptic axon fiber volley and fEPSP slopes by stimulating Schaffer collateral with incremental intensities. MAGL−/− mice did not exhibit significant changes in the slope of I/O curves compared with that of MAGL+/+ mice (n = 7-8 slices from 4 mice each; p , 0.05; data not shown). These results indicate that basal synaptic strength was not significantly changed in MAGL−/− mice.. Next, we compared the paired-pulse ratio (PPR), which is used as a measure of the probability of transmitter release. Synapses with high probability of transmitter release often display low PPR, whereas ...
Aging is characterized by an increased risk of cognitive deficits. It was shown using rodents that aging is associated with a significant reduction in the function of hippocampus, the brain structure important in forming spatial memories. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an electrophysiologically induced phenomenon, whereby high frequency currents, artificially passed across specific axonal pathways, elicit a long-lasting change in the activity of the postsynaptic neurone. LTP induced in vivo in the adult rat hippocampus can last for months. Interestingly, LTP and learning activate common molecular mechanisms, which when impeded, can affect LTP persistence and memory. Thus, LTP serves as an excellent experimental model for studying memory-related mechanisms. It was previously established that LTP consists of distinct temporal phases, and that LTP-related gene expression changes in the early phase influence the late phase of LTP. Specifically, the robust expression of important immediate early ...
Purified Human Hippocampus Cytoplasmic Lysate from Creative Biomart. Human Hippocampus Cytoplasmic Lysate can be used for research.
Hippocampus hippocampus is a coastal marine seahorse that inhabits mud, sand, rubble and other habitats in the Northeast Atlantic. It occurs from the UK and the Netherlands to Senegal, including the Mediterranean Sea and coastal waters of the Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands. The species is under threat from being caught as bycatch in beach seines, gillnets, traps, and trawls. In addition its coastal habitats have suffered as a result of development and pollution. There is some evidence for a large (73%) decrease in population census size from one location (Ria Formosa, Portugal), but a lack of reliable survey data in many parts of this species range means that no consistent trends have been observed across the species range. Thus, based on a lack of data the extinction risk of this species cannot be reliably categorised on a global level. Hippocampus hippocampus is therefore listed as Data Deficient ...
The CA2 region of the mammalian hippocampus is a unique region with its own distinctive properties, inputs and pathologies. Disruption of inhibitory circuits in this region appears to be linked with the pathology of specific psychiatric disorders, promoting interest in its local circuitry, its role in hippocampal function and its dysfunction in disease. In previous studies, CA2 interneurons, including a novel subclass of CA2 dendrite-preferring interneurons that has not been identified in other CA regions, have been shown to display physiological, synaptic and morphological properties unique to this sub-field and may therefore play a crucial role in the hippocampal circuitry. The distributions of immuno-labeled interneurons in dorsal CA2 were studied and compared with those of interneurons in CA1 and CA3. Like those in CA1 and CA3, the somata of CA2 parvalbumin-immunoperoxidase-labeled interneurons were located primarily in Stratum Pyramidale (SP) and Stratum Oriens (SO), with very few cells in Stratum
Stažení (download) souboru Family Guy - 08x10 - Big Man on Hippocampus.avi, Velikost 182340402|bytes, Typ: avi, Délka: 20:55, Bitrate:1 127,13 kB/s, Video kodek: XviD MPEG-4 (www.xvid.org), Rozlišení: 512 x 384, Video FPS: 24, Audio kodek: mp3, Vzorkování: 48000, Audio kanálů: 2, Typ audia: joint stereo
et_pb_section bb_built=1][et_pb_row][et_pb_column type=4_4][et_pb_text _builder_version=3.0.82 background_layout=light border_style=solid box_shadow_position=outer]. Lets get into the technical stuff. The prefrontal cortex - the part of your brain responsible for everything from cognition to decision-making - is flanked by both the hippocampus and the amygdala. Both pay integral roles in learning, but they react very specifically in terms of modlette learning.. The hippocampus is your brains message centre: It filters through information and makes quick judgements based on how important that information actually is. The hippocampus is then responsible for sending the important stuff to the long-term memory for storage and later retrieval.. Information is only held within the working memory of the hippocampus for about 20 minutes. If data is not converted to a long term memory by then, its usually discarded by the brain and no longer available for recall or future ...
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Looking for hippocampus minor? Find out information about hippocampus minor. A ridge that extends over the floor of the descending horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain. A genus of marine fishes in the order Gasterosteiformes... Explanation of hippocampus minor
Hippocampal responses to electrical stimulation of the prepyriform cortex in the cat were studied both in acute experiments under halothane anesthesia and in awake cats with chronically indwelling electrodes. Analysis of field potentials and unit activity indicated the extent to which different hippocampal subareas were activated, the laminar level at ... read more which the synaptic action took place and the dynamics of the evoked responses. It was found that: (1) the main generator of evoked responses in the hippocampus upon prepyriform cortex stimulation is localized in the fascia dentata and CA3 (CA1 pyramidal cells, and probably also subiculum cells, are activated but in a lesser degree); (2) the initial synaptic activity takes place at the most distal part of the dendrites of fascia dentata granule cells and CA3 pyramidal cells; and (3) this synaptic activity corresponds to an EPSP that leads to a transient increase in the firing rate of the hippocampal units, which is often followed by a ...
I am super-jazzed that my essay, Future Perfect, will be published in the August 2017 edition of Hippocampus Magazine. I love Hippocampus, and I am honored to be a contributor.. In Future Perfect, during a chance encounter in the grocery store, I grapple with what the future will look like for my family. I started this essay years ago, and it needed a little time to germinate. I am glad it has found a home with Hippocampus.. Oh! And BTW, if you dont know about HippoCamp, you should check it out. Its a great CNF conference put on by Hippocampus that takes place in Lancaster, PA. I went last year, and Ill be back again for this one. Check out those keynotes! (And theyre not even the best part of the conference!) Heck, I just realized I even am wearing the shirt from last years conference as I write this.. ...
BioAssay record AID 194727 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for the selective increase in K+ stimulated AcCh release in brain region of hippocampus at 10 uM concentration.
RESULTS: Both hippocampal volumes were small in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls, and the right hippocampal volume was negatively correlated with the number of episodes at marginal significance. Regional shape contractions were found in the ambient gyrus, basal hippocampal head, posterior subiculum, and dorsal hippocampus of the left hemisphere. The right hippocampus showed a similar pattern but was less atrophic compared with the left hippocampus. A negative correlation was found between the HDRS and shape deformation in the CA3, ambient gyrus, posterior subiculum, and gyrus fasciolaris of the left hippocampus. ...
Dietary effects of arachidonate-rich fungal oil and fish oil on murine hepatic and hippocampal gene expression Roberts, Matthew A; Berger, Alvin; Bruce German, J; Mutch, David M ...
To date, researchers have developed various animal models of Alzheimers disease (AD) to investigate its mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutic treatments. A widely recognized model that mimics the pathology of human sporadic AD involves intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection with streptozotocin (STZ). However, ICV injections are an invasive approach, which creates limitations in generalizing the results. In this study, we produced a rodent model of AD using STZ (3 mg/kg) injection via the cisterna magna (CM) once every week for 4 weeks, and analyzed at 4 weeks and 16 weeks after final injection. In the CM-STZ rodent model of AD, we observed increase in extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and decrease and abnormal morphology of post-synaptic protein, PSD95 in 16 weeks STZ-injected group. The model developed using our less-invasive method induced features of AD-like pathology, including significantly increased extracellular amyloid-beta deposition, and decreased synaptic protein in the
Binding. I think its important to distinguish between the type of binding that may occur in the hippocampus and the binding involved in, say, recognizing a novel configural stimulus (e.g., a word or face) in order to take an action. Although these two types of binding may use similar computation or at least yield similar results, it may be misleading to use one term for both processes. I think that when most people say binding, they are referring to the latter process.. Certainly, it seems as though the hippocampus is *able* to bind features, but cant people with hippocampal damage still bind, perceive, and make decisions on complex configural stimuli?. What about Hippocampal Consolidation?. In the studies you cited above, the increased activation of the hippocampus for novel objects during the working memory delays could simply reflect the fact that novel objects are ones that have yet to be learned, i.e., have not yet been consolidated. As per hippocampal consolidation theory, a ...
Although originally cloned from rat brain, the P2X7 receptor has only recently been localized in neurones, and functional responses mediated by these neuronal P2X7 receptors (P2X7 R) are largely unknown. Here we studied the effect of P2X7 R activation on the release of neurotransmitters from superfused rat hippocampal slices. ATP (1-30 mm) and other ATP analogues elicited concentration-dependent [3 H]GABA outflow, with the following rank order of potency: benzoylbenzoylATP (BzATP) | ATP | ADP. PPADS, the non-selective P2-receptor antagonist (3-30 microm), Brilliant blue G (1-100 nm) the P2X7 -selective antagonist and Zn2+ (0.1-30 microm) inhibited, whereas lack of Mg2+ potentiated the response by ATP. In situ hybridization revealed that P2X7 R mRNA is expressed in the neurones of the cell body layers in the hippocampus. P2X7 R immunoreactivity was found in excitatory synaptic terminals in CA1 and CA3 region targeting the dendrites of pyramidal cells and parvalbumin labelled structures. ATP (3-30 microm)
Disinhibition is a widespread circuit mechanism for information selection and transfer. In the hippocampus, disinhibition of principal cells is provided by the interneuron-specific interneurons that express the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP-IS) and innervate selectively inhibitory interneurons. By combining optophysiological experiments with computational models, we determined the impact of synaptic inputs onto the network state-dependent recruitment of VIP-IS cells. We found that VIP-IS cells fire spikes in response to both the Schaffer collateral and the temporoammonic pathway activation. Moreover, by integrating their intrinsic and synaptic properties into computational models, we predicted recruitment of these cells between the rising phase and peak of theta oscillation and during ripples. Two-photon Ca2+-imaging in awake mice supported in part the theoretical predictions, revealing a significant speed modulation of VIP-IS cells and their preferential albeit delayed recruitment ...
Disinhibition is a widespread circuit mechanism for information selection and transfer. In the hippocampus, disinhibition of principal cells is provided by the interneuron-specific interneurons that express the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP-IS) and innervate selectively inhibitory interneurons. By combining optophysiological experiments with computational models, we determined the impact of synaptic inputs onto the network state-dependent recruitment of VIP-IS cells. We found that VIP-IS cells fire spikes in response to both the Schaffer collateral and the temporoammonic pathway activation. Moreover, by integrating their intrinsic and synaptic properties into computational models, we predicted recruitment of these cells between the rising phase and peak of theta oscillation and during ripples. Two-photon Ca2+-imaging in awake mice supported in part the theoretical predictions, revealing a significant speed modulation of VIP-IS cells and their preferential albeit delayed recruitment ...
Gender differences in spatial memory favoring men are frequently reported, and the involvement of the hippocampus in these functions is well-established. However, little is known of whether this behavioral gender difference is mirrored in a gender difference in hippocampal function. Here we assessed hippocampal activity, using functional MRI, while 24 men and women moved through three-dimensional virtual mazes (navigation phase) of varying length, and at the end-point estimated the direction of the starting-point (pointing phase). Men were indeed more accurate than women at estimating direction, and this was especially true in longer mazes. Both genders activated the posterior hippocampus throughout the whole task. During the navigation phase, men showed a larger activation in the right hippocampus than women, while in the pointing phase, women showed a larger activation in the left hippocampus than men. Right-lateralized activation during the navigation phase was associated with greater task ...
During development, activity-dependent processes increase the specificity of neural responses to stimuli, but the role that this type of process plays in adult plasticity is unclear. We examined the dynamics of hippocampal activity as animals learned about new environments to understand how neural selectivity changes with experience. Hippocampal principal neurons fire when the animal is located in a particular subregion of its environment, and in any given environment the hippocampal representation is sparse: less than half of the neurons in areas CA1 and CA3 are active whereas the rest are essentially silent. Here we show that different dynamics govern the evolution of this sparsity in CA1 and upstream area CA3. CA1, but not CA3, produces twice as many spikes in novel compared with familiar environments. This high rate firing continues during sharp wave ripple events in a subsequent rest period. The overall CA1 population rate declines and the number of active cells decreases as the environment ...
In the hippocampus, a structure extremely well-known for its role in learning and memory, the answer for why there would be a need for newborn neurons in the adult might seem a little more straightforward. And, as it turns out, it appears that newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are required for the formation of new memories. But, interestingly, the production of too many newborn neurons in the hippocampus may paradoxically induce forgetting. In a paper recently published in Science, Aker and colleagues suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of infantile amnesia. Dont vividly remember the first few years of your life? Based on the interesting evidence presented in the paper, the authors suggest that the production of new cells within the hippocampus actually regulates forgetting. When we are newborns, the process of neurogenesis is occurring at an alarming rate and because of this, we are not able to retain any of our first memories during early life. I found this particular study to be ...
Brain and hippocampus. Coloured magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of a coronal section through the head of a healthy 30-year-old, showing the location of the hippocampus (highlighted). The hippocampus is part of the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, as well as spatial navigation. - Stock Image C023/9772
Hi all there. I am new in cell culture and dont know anything about cell shape. My cells are spherical after isolation and their shape dont change even after 3-4 days. I like to know the normal pattern of hippocampal cell growth in cell culture. Meaning that how much time last to cells getting their projections ...
For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). Brain: Hippocampus The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at le
Looking for online definition of pyramidal layer in the Medical Dictionary? pyramidal layer explanation free. What is pyramidal layer? Meaning of pyramidal layer medical term. What does pyramidal layer mean?
Fig. 6 HSP105-siRNA in HT22 cells or stressed mouse brain decreased BDNF levels and abolished antidepressant effects.. (A) Level of HSP105 mRNA in HT22 cells (ANOVA, F2,13 = 544.1, n = 5 to 6). (B) Level of BDNF mRNA in HT22 cells (ANOVA, F2,13 = 10.74, n = 5 to 6). (C) The level of HSP105 protein in the hippocampus was detected by Western blotting (n = 3). (D) Immobility times in the forced swim test (ANOVA, F2,11 = 6.03). (E) Immobility times in the tail suspension test (ANOVA, F2,11 = 15.02). (F) Social interaction rate in the interaction test (ANOVA, F2,11 = 5.00). (G) Sucrose preference and total fluid intake in the sucrose preference test. (H) Level of BDNF mRNA and protein in the mouse hippocampus (ANOVA, F2,11 = 4.54 and F2,12 = 5.41, respectively) (n = 4 to 5 animals per group). Each bar indicates the mean ± SEM. GGA + NTC, GGA with nontargeting control; GGA + HSP105-siRNA, GGA with HSP105-siRNA treatment. Statistically different groups are indicated by letters. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Long-range temporal correlations in the spontaneous in vivo activity of interneuron in the mouse hippocampus. AU - Guo, Sheng Bo. AU - Wang, Ying. AU - Yan, Xing. AU - Lin, Longnian. AU - Tsien, Joseph Zhuo. AU - Huang, De Shuang. PY - 2007. Y1 - 2007. N2 - The spontaneous in vivo firings of neuron in mouse hippocampus are generally considered as neuronal noise, where there is no any correlation in the inter-spike interval (ISI) sequences. In the present study, we investigate the nature of the ISI sequences of neuron in CAl area of mouse hippocampus. By using the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), we calculated the fluctuation or scaling exponent of the ISI sequences. The results indicated that there exists the long-range power-law correlation over large time scale in the ISI sequences. To further investigate the long-range correlation of ISI, we studied the long-range correlation of ISI sequences from different types of neurons in mouse hippocampus, which are four types of ...
COMT polymorphism regulates the hippocampal subfield volumes in first-episode, drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder
Hippocampal neurons are vulnerable to injury, as indicated by the prevalence of learning and memory deficits following traumatic brain injury. Research indicates that proliferation of neural precursor cells increases following brain injury, which implies that there is an endogenous response in the hippocampus to replenish neurons and restore cognitive function. Studies show that mitogenic growth factors may drive this proliferative response; one of which is epidermal growth factor. Because adults and the elderly manifest the most enduring deficits following TBI, it is critical to investigate how EGF expression following injury may relate to injury-induced cell proliferation and the degree of cognitive recovery observed with aging. In the current study, we assessed the temporal and spatial expression of EGF in the injured hippocampus with age. Our results suggest that EGF expression increases following TBI, and this increase is more significant in the younger brain. Additionally, we investigated the
Memory formation and recall depend on a complex circuit that includes the hippocampus and associated cortical regions. The goal of this thesis was to understand how two of the cortical connections, the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), influence spatial and nonspatial activity in the hippocampus. Cells in the MEC exhibit prominent spatially selective activity and have been hypothesized to drive place representation in the hippocampus. In Experiment 1 the MEC was transiently inactivated using the inhibitory opsin ArchaerhodopsinT (ArchT), and simultaneous recordings from CA1 were made as rats ran on an elliptical track. In response to MEC disruption some cells in the hippocampus shifted the preferred location of activity, some changed firing rate and others were unaffected. The new representation that developed following MEC disruption remained stable despite the fact that inhibition was transient. If the MEC is the source of spatial activity in the hippocampus ...
In hippocampal neurons, AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory postsynaptic responses at glutamatergic synapses, and are involved in various forms of synaptic plasticity. Dendritic local protein synthesis of selected AMPAR subunit mRNAs is considered an additional mechanism to independently and rapidly control the strength of individual synapses.. We have used fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry to analyze the localization of AMPAR subunit (GluA1-4) mRNAs and their relationship with the translation machinery in principal cells and interneurons of the adult rat hippocampus. The mRNAs encoding all four AMPAR subunits were detected in the somata and dendrites of CA3 and CA1 pyramidal cells and those of six classes of CA1 γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic interneurons. GluA1-4 subunit mRNAs were highly localized to the apical dendrites of pyramidal cells, whereas in interneurons they were present in multiple dendrites. In contrast, in the dentate gyrus, GluA1-4 subunit ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Appearance of amyloid β-like substances and delayed-typed apoptosis in rat hippocampus CA1 region through aging and oxidative stress. AU - Fukui, Koji. AU - Takatsu, Hirokatsu. AU - Shinkai, Tadashi. AU - Suzuki, Shozo. AU - Abe, Kouichi. AU - Urano, Shiro. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - To elucidate whether oxidative stress induces cognitive deficit, and whether nerve cells in the hippocampus, which modulates learning and memory functions in the brain, are damaged by oxidative stress and during aging, the influence of hyperoxia as oxidative stress on either the cognitive function of rats or the oxidative damage of nerve cells was investigated. Young rats showed better learning ability than both old rats and vitamin E-deficient young rats. Vitamin E- supplemented young rats showed similar ability to young control rats. After they learned the location of the platform in the Morris water maze test, the young rats and vitamin E-supplemented young rats were subjected to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Analysis of current fluctuations during after-hyperpolarization current in dentate granule neurones of the rat hippocampus. AU - Valiante, Taufik A.. AU - Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A.. AU - Carlen, Peter L.. AU - Pennefather, Peter. PY - 1997/2/15. Y1 - 1997/2/15. N2 - We have studied macroscopic current fluctuations associated with the after-hyperpolarization current (I(AHP)) that follows a 200 ms voltage-clamp step to 0 mV in dentate granule (DG) neurones of the rat hippocampus. This maximally effective stimulus produced a peak I(AHP) of 205 ± 20 pA. Background noise was minimized by using the whole-cell single-electrode voltage-clamp configuration. 2. Conventional current-variance analysis was performed on I(AHP) to obtain estimates of the unitary AHP channel current (i) and the maximal attainable AHP current (I(max)). A second approach, utilizing changes in the power spectrum of I(AHP) noise during the decay of I(AHP), was employed to yield an independent estimate of I(max) as ...
The effect of quinine on pyramidal cell intrinsic properties, extracellular potassium transients, and epileptiform activity was studied in vitro using the rat hippocampal slice preparation. Quinine enhanced excitatory post-synaptic potentials and decreased fast- and slow-inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. Quinine reduced the peak potassium rise following tetanic stimulation but did not affect the potassium clearance rate. Epileptiform activity induced by either low-Ca(2+) or high-K(+) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) was suppressed by quinine. The frequency of spontaneous inter-ictal bursting induced by picrotoxin, high-K(+), or 4-aminopyridine was significantly increased. In normal ACSF, quinine did not affect CA1 pyramidal cell resting membrane potential, input resistance, threshold for action potentials triggered by intracellular or extracellular stimulation, or the orthodromic and antidromic evoked population spike amplitude. The main effects of quinine on intrinsic cell properties were to
In this study, the impact of membrane-associated factors on axonal outgrowth during development and following lesion was examined. We studied the maturation-dependent features of membrane-associated molecules in the hippocampus with the stripe assay for guidance activity and with the outgrowth assay for outgrowth-supporting activity. We could show that entorhinal axons discriminate between their proper target area, the hippocampus, and control regions which do not receive synaptic connections from the entorhinal cortex, and preferred to grow on hippocampal membranes. Further, we examined guidance preferences of entorhinal neurites on hippocampal membranes in different developmental stages. The choice behavior of entorhinal neurites for hippocampal membranes temporally correlates with the ingrowth of the perforant path into the hippocampus and with the stabilization of this brain area in vivo, and further indicate the transient presence of membrane-associated guidance cues in the hippocampus. One ...
Theta activity is one of the most prominent rhythms in the brain and appears to be conserved among mammals. These 4-12 Hz oscillations have been predominantly studied in the dorsal hippocampus where they are correlated with a broad range of voluntary and exploratory behaviors. Theta activity has been also implicated in a number of mnemonic processes, long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and even acting as a global synchronizing mechanism. Moving along the dorso-ventral axis theta activity is reduced in power and desynchronized from the dorsal part. However, theta activity can also be generated in the ventral hippocampus itself during anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Until now it was unknown which hippocampal cell population was capable to generate theta activity and it was controversial if its origin was local, in the hippocampus, or driven by other brain regions. In this thesis I present compelling in vitro and in vivo evidence that a subpopulation of OLM interneurons (defined by the ...
Hippocampus Anatomy Mri - See more about Hippocampus Anatomy Mri, hippocampus anatomy mri, hippocampus anatomy mri axial, hippocampus anatomy mri radiographics, hippocampus anatomy mri radiology
Hippocampus Anatomy Mri - See more about Hippocampus Anatomy Mri, hippocampus anatomy mri, hippocampus anatomy mri axial, hippocampus anatomy mri radiographics, hippocampus anatomy mri radiology
Vasopressin (VP) is axonally distributed in many brain structures, including the ventral hippocampus. Picogram quantities of VP injected into the hippocampus improve the passive avoidance response of rats, presumably by enhancing memory processes. Vasopressin is metabolized by the brain tissue into shorter peptides, such as [pGlu4r,Cyt6]VP(4 9[ and [pGIu4,Cyt6,]VP(4 8), which preserve ... read more the behavioral activity but lose the peripheral activities of the parent hormone. Using brain slices, we investigated whether VP or VP(4 8) affects excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) and/or membrane responses to depolarization in neurons of the CA 1 /subiculum of the ventral hippocampus. The EPSPs were evoked by stimulating the stratum radiatum of the CAI field; the membrane responses were elicited by current injections. Exposure of slices for 15 min to 0.1 nM solution of these peptides resulted in an increase in the amplitude and slope of the EPSPs in 21 neurons (67%) tested. No consistent ...
The mRNAs encoding kainic acid (KA) preferring glutamate receptor subunits (GluR5-7, KA1 and KA2) are differentially expressed in rat brain. We have used regional and cellular in situ hybridization histochemistry with subunit-specific 35S-labelled oligodeoxyribonucleotides to examine these mRNAs in adult human hippocampus, neocortex and cerebellum. GluR5 mRNA was detected only in Purkinje cells and a few scattered hippocampal neurons. GluR6 mRNA was relatively abundant in all areas, notably in dentate gyrus, pyramidal neurons of CA3, and cerebellar granule cells, as well as being present in superficial and deep laminae of the neocortex. Moderate signal for GluR7 mRNA was seen in deep laminae of the neocortex with a weak signal in the dentate gyrus; in dipped sections GluR7 mRNA was also apparent over some pyramidal and non-pyramidal cells in hippocampus and over putative cerebellar stellate/basket cells. KA1 mRNA was detected in the dentate gyrus but not reliably elsewhere. The expression profile and
Theta activity is one of the most prominent rhythms in the brain and appears to be conserved among mammals. These 4-12 Hz oscillations have been predominantly studied in the dorsal hippocampus where they are correlated with a broad range of voluntary and exploratory behaviors. Theta activity has been also implicated in a number of mnemonic processes, long-term potentiation (LTP) induction and even acting as a global synchronizing mechanism. Moving along the dorso-ventral axis theta activity is reduced in power and desynchronized from the dorsal part. However, theta activity can also be generated in the ventral hippocampus itself during anxiety- and fear-related behaviors. Until now it was unknown which hippocampal cell population was capable to generate theta activity and it was controversial if its origin was local, in the hippocampus, or driven by other brain regions. In this thesis I present compelling in vitro and in vivo evidence that a subpopulation of OLM interneurons (defined by the ...
Gliosis is one of the main morphological correlates of epilepsy. It is presented predominantly by proliferation and hypertrophy of astrocytes and activated microglia (macrophages) and is most characteristic to those areas of the epileptogenic zones, where the loss of neurons is significant. One of such structures is the hippocampus, the sclerosis of which develops already at the early stages of epileptogenesis. Using the slides stained with cresylviolet, the quantitative analysis of gliocytes and of macrogliocyte-neuronal ratio was performed in all the areas of the hippocampus 14 and 30 days after electrical kindling. After both time intervals, the decrease of the number of neurons and the increase of the number of gliocytes were found in all the regions of the hippocampus. After 14 days the changes of gliocytes were particularly significant in the radial and oriental layers of the Ammons horn, after 30 days they were also pronounced in CA3 pyramidal cell layer of and in hilus. Thus, ...
The effects of adenosine on inhibitory synaptic transmission in area CA1 were examined using the rat hippocampal slice preparation and intracellular recording. Adenosine did not change fast inhibitory synaptic potentials (IPSPs) but depressed late IPSPs evoked by direct activation of interneurons in the presence of 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV). Directly activated IPSPs were unchanged by the selective adenosine A1 receptor antagonist 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), but CPT reversed hyperpolarization and depression of late IPSPs produced by adenosine. These results indicate that adenosine depresses disynaptic IPSPs in area CA1 by decreasing synaptic activation of inhibitory neurons ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Arcadlin is a neural activity-regulated cadherin involved in long term potentiation. AU - Yamagata, Kanato. AU - Andreasson, Katrin I.. AU - Sugiura, Hiroko. AU - Maru, Eiichi. AU - Dominique, Muller. AU - Irie, Yasuyuki. AU - Miki, Naomasa. AU - Hayashi, Yokichi. AU - Yoshioka, Masatomo. AU - Kaneko, Kenya. AU - Kato, Hiroshi. AU - Worley, Paul F.. PY - 1999/7/2. Y1 - 1999/7/2. N2 - Neural activity results in long term changes that underlie synaptic plasticity. To examine the molecular basis of activity-dependent plasticity, we have used differential cloning techniques to identify genes that are rapidly induced in brain neurons by synaptic activity. Here, we identify a novel cadherin molecule Arcadlin (activity-regulated cadherin-like protein), arcadlin mRNA is rapidly and transiently induced in hippocampal granule cells by seizures and by N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent synaptic activity in long term potentiation. The extracellular domain of Arcadlin is most homologous to ...
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a process involving the continuous generation of newborn neurons in the hippocampus of adult animals. Mounting evidence has suggested that hippocampal neurogenesis contributes to some forms of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory; however, the detailed mechanism concerning how this small number of newborn neurons could affect learning and memory remains unclear. In this review, we discuss the relationship between adult-born neurons and learning and memory, with a highlight on recently discovered potential roles of neurogenesis in pattern separation and forgetting ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability. However, the molecular events contributing to the pathogenesis are not well understood. Mitochondria serve as the powerhouse of cells, respond to cellular demands and stressors, and play an essential role in cell signaling, differentiation, and survival. There is clear evidence of compromised mitochondrial function following TBI; however, the underlying mechanisms and consequences are not clear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally, and function as important mediators of neuronal development, synaptic plasticity, and neurodegeneration. Several miRNAs show altered expression following TBI; however, the relevance of mitochondria in these pathways is unknown. Here, we present evidence supporting the association of miRNA with hippocampal mitochondria, as well as changes in mitochondria-associated miRNA expression following a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in
for Doublecortin and Neuronal Nuclei (DCX/ NeuN),Glial fibrillary acid protein and Neuronal Nuclei (GFAP/ NeuN). Our data indicate that the yaks hippcampus mainly contains dentate gyrus and hippocampus proper,and both of them stratify clearly. Granular cells,mossy cells and pyramidal cells are the three major cell types of the hippocampus formation. The soma of pyramidal cells in the CA3 region is much bigger than in the CA1 region,while the latter has an average length of apical dendrites longer than the former. The pyramidal cells contain distinctive sublayers in the CA1 regions,but form a close uniform layer in the CA3 region. The somas of most DCX-positive cells,which distribute individually or in clusters,mainly locate in the deepest part of the granule cell layer closing to the hilus. A layer of GFAP-expressing radial glia-like cells is observed in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus,and its cytoplasms and single polarity processes,but not nucleus,are GFAP-positive. A large number ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Distinct epigenetic and gene expression changes in rat hippocampal neurons after Morris water maze training. AU - Carter, Sylvia D. AU - Mifsud, Karen R. AU - Reul, Johannes M H M. PY - 2015/6/16. Y1 - 2015/6/16. N2 - Gene transcription and translation in the hippocampus is of critical importance in hippocampus-dependent memory formation, including during Morris water maze (MWM) learning. Previous work using gene deletion models has shown that the immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-Fos, Egr-1, and Arc are crucial for such learning. Recently, we reported that induction of IEGs in sparse dentate gyrus neurons requires ERK MAPK signaling and downstream formation of a distinct epigenetic histone mark (i.e., phospho-acetylated histone H3). Until now, this signaling, epigenetic and gene transcriptional pathway has not been comprehensively studied in the MWM model. Therefore, we conducted a detailed study of the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and serine10 in histone H3 (H3S10p) and induction of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous serotonin inhibits epileptiform activity in rat hippocampal CA1 neurons via 5-hydroxytryptamine(1A) receptor activation. AU - Lu, Kwok-Tung. AU - Gean, P. W.. PY - 1998/6/8. Y1 - 1998/6/8. N2 - The modulatory effects of endogenous serotonin on the synaptic transmission and epileptiform activity were studied in the rat hippocampus with the use of extracellular and intracellular recording techniques. Field excitatory postsynaptic potential was reversibly depressed by serotonin in a concentration-dependent manner. Intracellular recordings revealed that serotonin-mediated synaptic depression was unaffected by extracellular Ba2+ or intracellular application of Cs+ while the postsynaptic hyperpolarizing effect was completely blocked. Epileptiform activity induced by picrotoxin (50 μM), a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, was also dose-dependently suppressed by serotonin. The antiepileptic effect was mimicked by 5- hydroxytryptamine(1A) agonist and was blocked by ...
The formation and deposition of tau protein aggregates is proposed to contribute to cognitive impairments in dementia by disrupting neuronal function in brain regions, including the hippocampus. We used a battery of in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological recordings in the rTg4510 transgenic mouse model, which overexpresses a mutant form of human tau protein, to investigate the effects of tau pathology on hippocampal neuronal function in area CA1 of 7- to 8-month-old mice, an age point at which rTg4510 animals exhibit advanced tau pathology and progressive neurodegeneration. In vitro recordings revealed shifted theta-frequency resonance properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons, deficits in synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral synapses, and blunted plasticity and imbalanced inhibition at temporoammonic synapses. These changes were associated with aberrant CA1 network oscillations, pyramidal neuron bursting, and spatial information coding in vivo. Our findings relate tauopathy-associated ...
The use of computational models has been invaluable for exploring the link between neurons and behavior, enabling hypothetical mechanisms to be defined precisely and examined quantitatively. This chapter reviews many of these models, including models of spatial functions, models of more general associative mnemonic functions, models that stress feedforward processing through the hippocampal system, and those stressing recurrent processing within it. Spatial models are reviewed first, as they are most firmly rooted in the known electrophysiology of the region. These models cover both the representation of the animals spatial location and orientation and the use of this information in spatial navigation. The models of mnemonic function, specifically associative or episodic memory, follow from Marrs seminal 1971 model. This model is used as a generic framework in which to consider the various subsequent developments to it. Finally, the chapter reviews those models attempting to bring together the ...
OKeefe and Recce [1993] Hippocampus 3:317-330 described an interaction between the hippocampal theta rhythm and the spatial firing of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus: they found that a cells spike activity advances to earlier phases of the theta cycle as the rat passes through the cells place field. The present study makes use of large-scale parallel recordings to clarify and extend this finding in several ways: 1) Most CA1 pyramidal cells show maximal activity at the same phase of the theta cycle. Although individual units exhibit deeper modulation, the depth of modulation of CA1 population activity is about 50%. The peak firing of inhibitory interneurons in CA1 occurs about 60 degrees in advance of the peak firing of pyramidal cells, but different interneurons vary widely in their peak phases. 2) The first spikes, as the rat enters a pyramidal cells place field, come 90 degrees-120 degrees after the phase of maximal pyramidal cell population activity, near the phase where
The Hippocampus Book. Andersen, Per. 1stPublisher: Oxford University Press, USAFormat: Hardcover. The hippocampus is one of a group of remarkable structures embedded within the medial temporal lobe of the brain. Long known to be important for memory, it has been a prime focus of neuroscience research for many years. The Hippocampus Book promises to facilitate developments in the field in a major way by bringing together, for the first time, contributions by leading international scientists working on hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and function. This authoritative volume offers the most comprehensive, up-to-date account of what the hippocampus does, how it does it and what happens when things go wrong. At the same time, it illustrates how research focusing on this single brain structure has revealed principles of wider generality for the whole brain in relation to anatomical connectivity, synaptic plasticity, cognition and behaviour, and computational algorithms. Well-organised in its ...
The hippocampal dentate gyrus in the adult mammalian brain contains neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) capable of generating new neurons, i.e., neurogenesis. Most drugs of abuse examined to date decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the effects of cannabis (marijuana or cannabinoids) on hippocampal neurogenesis remain unknown. This study aimed at investigating the potential regulatory capacity of the potent synthetic cannabinoid HU210 on hippocampal neurogenesis and its possible correlation with behavioral change. We show that both embryonic and adult rat hippocampal NS/PCs are immunoreactive for CB1 cannabinoid receptors, indicating that cannabinoids could act on CB1 receptors to regulate neurogenesis. This hypothesis is supported by further findings that HU210 promotes proliferation, but not differentiation, of cultured embryonic hippocampal NS/PCs likely via a sequential activation of CB1 receptors, Gi/o proteins, and ERK signaling. Chronic, but not acute, HU210 treatment promoted ...
Damage to this area of the brain can limit the formation of new memories while leaving distant memories intact. The hippocampus is sensitive to oxygen deprivation and may become damaged in situations like near drowning, heart attack, respiratory failure, sleep apnea and carbon monoxide poisoning. Frequent seizures could also impact the function of the hippocampus and generally is the first part of the brain impacted by Alzheimers disease. Marijuana abuse can also damage the hippocampus and alcohol use shuts down the hippocampus. ...
Rationale - Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. Objectives - The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. Methods - A total of 35 healthy controls (HC), 22 non-dependent (CB-nondep), and 39 dependent (CB-dep) cannabis users were recruited. We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. Results - The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but
The effects of the co-agonist of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAr) d-serine on glutamatergic neurotransmission and synaptic potentiation were studied in the CA1 hippocampal field of young (3-5 months old) and aged (25-27 months old) Sprague-Dawley rats using ex vivo extracellular electrophysiological recording techniques. Exogenous d-serine depressed fast neurotransmission mediated by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid/kainate subtype of glutamate receptors in young but not in aged rats by acting on inhibitory glycinergic interneurons. In contrast, d-serine dose-dependently enhanced NMDAr-mediated synaptic responses in both groups of animals, but with a larger magnitude in aged rats, thus preventing the age-related decrease in NMDAr activation. d-serine also increased the magnitude of long-term potentiation in aged but not in young rats. Finally, d-serine levels were dramatically reduced in hippocampal tissues of aged rats. Taken together, these results indicate a ...
Prenatal stress (PS) has been shown to influence the development of the fetal brain and to increase the risk for the development of psychiatric disorders in later life. Furthermore, the variation of human serotonin transporter (5-HTT, SLC6A4) gene was suggested to exert a modulating effect on the association between early life stress and the risk for depression. In the present study, we used a 5-Htt6PS paradigm to investigate whether the effects of PS are dependent on the 5-Htt genotype. For this purpose, the effects of PS on cognition, anxiety- and depression-related behavior were examined using a maternal restraint stress paradigm of PS in C57BL6 wild-type (WT) and heterozygous 5-Htt deficient (5-Htt +/2) mice. Additionally, in female offspring, a genome-wide hippocampal gene expression profiling was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChipH Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array. 5-Htt +/2 offspring showed enhanced memory performance and signs of reduced anxiety as compared to WT offspring. In contrast, ...
Abstract:Adult stem cells are present in many tissues including, skin, muscle, adipose, bone marrow, and in the brain. Neuroinflammation has been shown to be a potent negative regulator of stem cell and progenitor cell proliferation in the neurogenic regions of the brain. Recently we demonstrated that decreasing a key neuroinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in the hippocampus of aged rats reversed the age-related cognitive decline and increased neurogenesis in the age rats. We also have found that nutraceuticals have the potential to reduce neuroinflammation, and decrease oxidative stress. The objectives of this study were to determine if spirulina could protect the proliferative potential of hippocampal neural progenitor cells from an acute systemic inflammatory insult of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To this end, young rats were fed for 30 days a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.1% spirulina. On day 28 the rats were given a single i.p. injection of LPS (1 mg/kg). The following day the rats ...
The hippocampus has been the focus of more imaging research than any other subcortical structure in the human brain. However a feature that has been almost universally overlooked are the bumpy ridges on the inferior aspect of the hippocampus, which we refer to as hippocampal dentation. These bumps arise from folds in the CA1 layer of Ammons horn. Similar to the folding of the cerebral cortex, hippocampal dentation allows for greater surface area in a confined space. However, while quantitative studies of radiologic brain images have been advancing for decades, examining numerous approaches to hippocampal segmentation and morphology analysis, virtually all published 3D renderings of the hippocampus show the under surface to be quite smooth or mildly irregular; we have rarely seen the characteristic bumpy structure in the reconstructed 3D scene, one exception being the 9.4T postmortem study. This is presumably due to the fact that, based on our experience with high resolution images, there is a ...
Supplementary MaterialsSupplementary Desk 1: Hypo- and hypermethylated promoter DMRs from adult hippocampus subsequent prenatal ethanol publicity compared to neglected handles filtered by significance ( 0. maternal parting to demonstrate the fact that combination of both remedies results in a lot more than additive deficits. Furthermore, the behavioral deficits are connected with adjustments in hippocampal gene appearance that persist into adulthood. What initiates and keeps these adjustments continues Cidofovir biological activity to be to become set up and forms the concentrate of the record. Specifically, Cidofovir biological activity MeDIP-Seq was used to assess if changes in promoter DNA methylation are affected by exposure to prenatal ethanol and maternal separation including its relationship to gene expression. The novel results show that different sets of genes implicated by promoter DNA methylation are influenced by both remedies independently, and a comparatively unique group of genes ...
Synopsis: Except in trauma, where neural stem cells migrate to replace damaged tissue, neurogenesis in adult humans only occurs in the hippocampus, and possibly the SVN. In rodent models of anxiety/depression (e.g. anxious strains exposed to prolonged periods of stress, including social subordination) hippocampal neurogenesis is inhibited and hippocampal size is reduced, probably through direct action of glucocorticoids on hippocampal neurons and reduced transcription of BDNF and related genes. This may leave the hippocampus less able to excert its normally inhibitory effect on the HPA axis, glucocorticoid levels rise further, and depression ensues. Inhibitors of the serotonin transporter (SSRIs) help the brain break out of this cycle by stimulating hippocampal neurogenesis and BDNF transcription, probably via the 5HT1A receptor (5HT1A knockouts have normal baseline neurogenesis but do not respond to SSRIs). Noradrenaline has comparable effects to serotonin on neurogenesis ...
The activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus. Aging can alter glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the hippocampus, and cognitive impairments in aged animals are accompanied by reduced NMDARmediated plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. However, the specific contribution of NMDAR subunits to NMDAR-mediated synaptic responses in aged tissue has not yet been fully understood. The main purpose of present study was to examine whether there is an impact of aging on NMDAR subunit expression and whether synaptic plasticity may depend on NMDAR subunit composition in the aged hippocampus ...
The evidence that adult brains could grow new neurons was a game-changer, and has spawned all manner of products to try and stimulate such neurogenesis, to help fight back against age-related cognitive decline and even dementia. An important study in the evidence for the role of experience and training in growing new neurons was Maguires celebrated study of London taxi drivers, back in 2000.. The small study, involving 16 male, right-handed taxi drivers with an average experience of 14.3 years (range 1.5 to 42 years), found that the taxi drivers had significantly more grey matter (neurons) in the posterior hippocampus than matched controls, while the controls showed relatively more grey matter in the anterior hippocampus. Overall, these balanced out, so that the volume of the hippocampus as a whole wasnt different for the two groups. The volume in the right posterior hippocampus correlated with the amount of experience the driver had (the correlation remained after age was accounted ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of age on the treadmill exercise-induced c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rats. AU - Kim, Sang Ho. AU - Kim, Hong. AU - Kim, Sung Soo. AU - Shin, Mal Soon. AU - Chang, Hyun Kyung. AU - Lee, Taeck Hyun. AU - Jang, Mi Hyeon. AU - Shin, Min Chul. AU - Lee, Hee Hyuk. AU - Kim, Young Pyo. AU - Kim, Chang Ju. PY - 2004/7/1. Y1 - 2004/7/1. N2 - c-Fos has been used as a neuronal activity marker. Here, we examined the influence of age on the treadmill running-induced c-Fos expression in rat hippocampus. Rats of exercise groups were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day for 5 consecutive days. Without exercise, c-Fos expression was highest in 8-week old rats. Treadmill exercise significantly enhanced the c-Fos expression in the hippocampus of rats in all ages. In the CA region, the increase of the c-Fos expression by treadmill exercise was highest in 4-week old rats. In the dentate gyrus, the increase of the c-Fos expression by treadmill exercise was highest ...
The hippocampus is one of a group of remarkable structures embedded within the brains medial temporal lobe. Long known to be important for memory, it has been a prime focus of neuroscience research for many years. The Hippocampus Book promises to facilitate developments in the field in a major way by bringing together, for the first time, contributions by leading international scientists knowledgeable about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and function. This authoritative volume offers the most comprehensive, up-to-date account of what the hippocampus does, how it does it, and what happens when things go wrong. At the same time, it illustrates how research focusing on this single brain structure has revealed principles of wider generality for the whole brain in relation to anatomical connectivity, synaptic plasticity, cognition and behavior, and computational algorithms. Well-organized in its presentation of both theory and experimental data, this peerless work vividly illustrates the ...
Images: Effect of α2δ ligands on neuronal differentiation and proliferation of hippocampus-derived neural progenitor cells. (A) Representative fluorescence microscopy image of a hippocampal neurosphere immunolabelled for nestin (green) and SRY-related HMG-box gene 2 (Sox-2) (red), markers of undifferentiated NPC. Magnification = X600. Scale bar = 56 μm. (B) After 24 h in absence of growth factors, hippocampal Neural Progenitor Cells (NPC) differentiated giving rise to four different cell populations identified by double Microtubule Associated Protein-2 (MAP-2) and nestin immunolabelling: MAP-2+/nestin- mature neurons, MAP-2+/nestin+, MAP-2-/nestin+ and MAP-2-/nestin- cells. Data are expressed as mean ± S.D. of n=9 experiments, run in triplicates. Gabapentin (GBP) and pregabalin (PGB) promote neuronal differentiation of adult hippocampal NPC. GBP (C-F) and PGB (G-J) significantly increased, in a concentrationdependent manner, the percentage of MAP-2+/nestin- (C, G) and MAP-2+/nestin+ (D, H) ...
Poster (2017, November 24). Introduction. Decreased hippocampal volume in older adults is associated with episodic memory decline and subsequent neurodegenerative diseases. According to the dynamic polygon hypothesis, strategies ... [more ▼]. Introduction. Decreased hippocampal volume in older adults is associated with episodic memory decline and subsequent neurodegenerative diseases. According to the dynamic polygon hypothesis, strategies that increase neurogenesis of the hippocampus are likely to be successsful in delaying the onset of cognitive impairment in ageing. Several modifiable factors can have a positive effect on the size of the hippocampus, one of them being cognitive reserve. However, to date, very few studies reported an impact of cognitive reserve on hippocampal volume in healthy older adults. Therefore, the main objective of our study was to explore whether cognitive reserve is linked to hippocampal volume in healthy aging. We focussed particularly on intellectual and social ...
The oscillatory activity of hippocampal neuronal networks is believed to play a role in memory acquisition and consolidation. Particular focus has been given to characterising theta (4-12 Hz), gamma (40-100 Hz) and ripple (150-250 Hz) oscillations. Beyond these well-described network states, few studies have investigated hippocampal beta2 (23-30 Hz) activity in vivo and its link to behaviour. A previous sudy showed that the exploration of novel environments may lead to the appearance of beta2 oscillations in the mouse hippocampus. In the present study we characterised hippocampal beta2 oscillations in mice during an object recognition task. We found prominent bursts of beta2 oscillations in the beginning of novel exploration sessions (four new objects), which could be readily observed by spectral analysis and visual inspection of local field potentials. Beta2 modulated hippocampal but not neocortical neurons and its power decreased along the session. We also found increased beta2 power in the ...
The dorsal hippocampus (DH), ventral hippocampus (VH) and intermediate hippocampus serve different functions, project with ... Hippocampus. The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the ... The renaming of the hippocampus as hippocampus major, and the calcar avis as hippocampus minor, has been attributed to Félix ... The hippocampus was then described as pes hippocampi major, with an adjacent bulge in the occipital horn, described as the pes ...
Bar, M.; Aminoff, E.; Mason, M.; Fenske, M. (2007). "The units of thought". Hippocampus. 17 (6): 420-428. doi:10.1002/hipo. ...
... this leads to an eventual atrophy of the hippocampus. Atrophy of the hippocampus and other limbic structures has been shown to ... This has been shown to be important for processes such as spatial memory in the hippocampus, demonstrating the therapeutic and ... it is active in the hippocampus, cortex, and basal forebrain-areas vital to learning, memory, and higher thinking.[12] BDNF is ... Similar studies have suggested Fyn is also capable of activating NR2A although this was not found in the hippocampus.[50][51] ...
Hippocampus. 22 (5): 1040-50. doi:10.1002/hipo.20883. PMID 21069780.. *^ a b Govindarajan N, Agis-Balboa RC, Walter J, ... Global hypomethylation of CpG dinucleotides has also been observed in hippocampus[63] and in entorhinal cortex layer II[64] of ... and restore dendritic spine density in the hippocampus of AD transgenic mice.[14] Histone acetylation resulting from diffuse ... sodium butyrate application is especially prevalent in the hippocampus, and genes involved in learning and memory showed ...
For example, in a 2000 study they showed that taxi drivers in London showed larger gray matter in the posterior hippocampi than ... although no activation differences were observed in context-processing regions such as the hippocampus. However, there has been ...
"Modeling place fields in terms of the cortical inputs to the hippocampus". Hippocampus. 10 (4): 369-379. doi:10.1002/1098-1063( ... O'Keefe, J.; Nadel, L. (1978). The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.. ... He discovered place cells in the hippocampus, and that they show a specific kind of temporal coding in the form of theta phase ... O'Keefe, J (1976). "Place units in the hippocampus of the freely moving rat". Experimental Neurology. 51 (1): 78-109. doi: ...
In the hippocampus there are neural pathways involved in its circuitry including the perforant pathway, that provides a ... Hippocampus. 10 (4): 398-410. doi:10.1002/1098-1063(2000)10:4,398::AID-HIPO6,3.0.CO;2-K. PMID 10985279.. ... "Disruption of the direct perforant path input to the CA1 subregion of the dorsal hippocampus interferes with spatial working ... Hippocampus/Hippocampal formation (CA3 → CA1 → Subiculum) → Fornix → ...
Hippocampus angustus Günther, 1870 (narrow-bellied seahorse). *Hippocampus barbouri D. S. Jordan & R. E. Richardson, 1908 ( ... Hippocampus debelius M. F. Gomon & Kuiter, 2009 (softcoral seahorse). *Hippocampus denise Lourie & J. E. Randall, 2003 ( ... Hippocampus fisheri D. S. Jordan & Evermann, 1903 (Fisher's seahorse). *Hippocampus guttulatus G. Cuvier, 1829 (long-snouted ... Hippocampus sindonis D. S. Jordan & Snyder, 1901 (Dhiho's seahorse). *Hippocampus spinosissimus M. C. W. Weber, 1913 (hedgehog ...
Fenton, André A. (1 June 2015). "Coordinating with the "Inner GPS"". Hippocampus. 25 (6): 763-769. doi:10.1002/hipo.22451. ISSN ... Hafting, T., Fyhn, M., Bonnevie, T., Moser, M.-B. and Moser, E.I. (2008). Hippocampus-independent phase precession in ... Independent codes for spatial and episodic memory in the hippocampus. Science, 309, 619-623. ... Pattern separation in dentate gyrus and CA3 of the hippocampus. Science, 315, 961-966. ...
Along with the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the SVZ is one of two places where neurogenesis has been found to occur in the ... "Prolonged seizures recruit caudal subventricular zone glial progenitors into the injured hippocampus" (PDF). Hippocampus. 16 ... the third type is typically found in the lateral ventricles just above the hippocampus and is similar in size to the second ... system that has previously been shown to stimulate proliferation of neuronal cells in the olfactory epithelium and hippocampus ...
Hippocampus. 17 (9): 898-908. doi:10.1002/hipo.20320. PMID 17636546.. ...
The hippocampus in people with schizophrenia was found to be smaller in size when compared with controls of the same age group, ... It receives also direct afferents from the subiculum of the hippocampus. Posterior cingulate cortex hypometabolism (with 18F- ...
Hippocampus[edit]. The hippocampus aids in olfactory memory and learning as well. Several olfaction-memory processes occur in ... disrupted cell growth in the hippocampus, and decreased neuroplasticity in the hippocampus. These hippocampal changes due to ... The amygdala passes olfactory information on to the hippocampus. The orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, thalamus, and ... Rolls ET (December 2010). "A computational theory of episodic memory formation in the hippocampus". Behav. Brain Res. 215 (2): ...
Neurons from the VTA innervate the ventral striatum (nucleus accumbens), olfactory bulb, amygdala, hippocampus, orbital and ... Areas that receive especially dense projections include the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, neostriatum, nucleus accumbens, ... amygdala and hippocampus), and encodes new motor programs that will facilitate obtaining this reward in the future (nucleus ... cortex and hippocampus. Cortical arousal also takes advantage of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra (SN), ventral ...
The hippocampus may well be a part of using social cues to understand numerous appearances of the same person over short delay ... Ross, LoPresti and Schon offer that the orbitofrontal cortex and hippocampus are a part of both working memory and long-term ... Ross, R.S.; LoPresti, M.L.; Schon, K. (2013). "Role of the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex during the disambiguation of ... In order to monitor changing facial expressions of individuals, the hippocampus and orbitofrontal cortex may be a crucial part ...
Much evidence implicates the hippocampus in playing a crucial role: people with severe damage to the hippocampus sometimes show ... Tulving, E; Markowitsch, HJ (1998). "Episodic and declarative memory: role of the hippocampus". Hippocampus. 8 (3): 198-204. ... The hippocampus, strictly speaking, is found only in mammals. However, the area it derives from, the medial pallium, has ... Several areas at the edge of the neocortex, including the hippocampus and amygdala, are also much more extensively developed in ...
Javits Visiting Professor 2019 Lombardy Region Rosa Camuna Award Cristina is editor-in-chief of the journal Hippocampus. Among ...
Hippocampus. 16 (6): 551-559. doi:10.1002/hipo.20184. Wang, Haitao; Xu, Haiyun; Dyck, Lillian E.; Li, Xin-Min (15 August 2005 ... in preventing the chronic restraint stress-induced decrease in cell proliferation and BDNF expression in rat hippocampus". ...
Theta wave phase precession in the hippocampus also plays a role in some brain functions that are unrelated to spatial location ... There have been conflicting theories of how neurons in and around the hippocampus give rise to theta waves and consequently ... Pyramidal cells in the hippocampus called place cells play a significant role in self-location during movement over short ... Bohbot VD, Copara MS, Gotman J, Ekstrom AD (February 2017). "Low-frequency theta oscillations in the human hippocampus during ...
Hippocampus. 23 (10): 942-51. doi:10.1002/hipo.22150. PMID 23733502. Moriguchi S, Tanaka T, Tagashira H, Narahashi T, Fukunaga ...
Etienne AS, Jeffery KJ (2004). "Path integration in mammals" (PDF). Hippocampus. 14 (2): 180-192. doi:10.1002/hipo.10173. PMID ... which feeds information to the place cells in the hippocampus, fire in a metrically regular way across the whole surface of a ... Mice use place cells and grid cells in the brain's hippocampus region to perform path integration. Cognitive map Motion ...
There was no difference in CREB-dependent gene expression in the hippocampus of animals trained with a tone protocol. When a ... This is done mainly through its expression in the hippocampus and the amygdala. Studies supporting the role of CREB in ... A more recent paper (2009), using a similar viral approach in the hippocampus, found that additional CREB expression could also ... Peters, M; Bletsch, M; Catapano, R; Zhang, X; Tully, T; Bourtchouladze, R (April 2009). "RNA interference in hippocampus ...
In eyeblink conditioning in rabbits, nonsynaptic changes occurred throughout the dorsal hippocampus. This indicates that ... Hippocampus. 13 (3): 399-412. doi:10.1002/hipo.10089. PMC 2927853. PMID 12722980. Bush PC, Prince DA, Miller KD (October 1999 ... "Gating of action potential propagation by an axonal A-like potassium conductance in the hippocampus: a new type of non-synaptic ... "Synaptic and non-synaptic plasticity between individual pyramidal cells in the rat hippocampus in vitro". Journal of Physiology ...
... s are found within the granular layer of the cerebellum, the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the superficial ... Dentate granule cells are situated to regulate the flow of information into the hippocampus, a structure required for normal ... Dentate granule cells Loss of dentate gyrus neurons from the hippocampus results in spatial memory deficits. Therefore, dentate ... Kovács KA (September 2020). "Episodic Memories: How do the Hippocampus and the Entorhinal Ring Attractors Cooperate to Create ...
"Modeling place fields in terms of the cortical inputs to the hippocampus". Hippocampus. 10 (4): 369-379. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.19. ... He discovered place cells in the hippocampus, and that they show a specific kind of temporal coding in the form of theta phase ... In addition, he published an influential book with Lynn Nadel, proposing the functional role of the hippocampus as a cognitive ... O'Keefe, J.; Dostrovsky, J. (1971). "The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely- ...
Hippocampus, Animals, Cerebellum, & Prefrontal Cortex. Mnemonic phrases or poems can be used to encode numeric sequences by ... In humans, the process of aging particularly affects the medial temporal lobe and hippocampus, in which the episodic memory is ... its effect may vary according to a subject's age and how well the subject's medial temporal lobe and hippocampus function. This ... Hippocampus. 24 (3): 303-314. doi:10.1002/hipo.22224. PMC 3968903. PMID 24167060. Ly, Maria; Murray, Elizabeth; Yassa, Michael ...
For example, in a 2000 study they showed that taxi drivers in London showed larger gray matter in the posterior hippocampi than ... Hippocampus. 16 (12): 1091-1101. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.296.5873. doi:10.1002/hipo.20233. ISSN 1050-9631. PMID 17024677. Driemeyer, ... although no activation differences were observed in context-processing regions such as the hippocampus. However, there has been ...
Hippocampus. 20 (4): 492-8. doi:10.1002/hipo.20646. PMC 2847008. PMID 19557767. Cheng HY, Papp JW, Varlamova O, Dziema H, ...
Takahashi H, Takada Y, Urano T, Takada A (2002). "5-HT4 receptors in the hippocampus modulate rat locomotor activity". ... Hippocampus. 12 (3): 304-10. doi:10.1002/hipo.10012. PMID 12099482. S2CID 19746691. Sakurai-Yamashita Y, Yamashita K, Niwa M, ... "Involvement of 5-hydroxytryptamine4 receptor in the exacerbation of neuronal loss by psychological stress in the hippocampus of ...
The dorsal hippocampus (DH), ventral hippocampus (VH) and intermediate hippocampus serve different functions, project with ... Hippocampus. The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the ... The renaming of the hippocampus as hippocampus major, and the calcar avis as hippocampus minor, has been attributed to Félix ... The hippocampus was then described as pes hippocampi major, with an adjacent bulge in the occipital horn, described as the pes ...
Neurons in the Hippocampus Pyramidal neuron located in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These neurons receive information ... Neurons in the hippocampus. Images used with permission of the Slice of Life project.. ... from CA3 pyramidal neurons and send their axons out of the hippocampus.. Image used with permission of Synapse Web.. ...
Hippocampus-dependent emergence of spatial sequence coding in retrosplenial cortex Dun Mao, Adam R. Neumann, Jianjun Sun, ... Action potential counting at giant mossy fiber terminals gates information transfer in the hippocampus Simon Chamberland, Yulia ... Time-resolved neural reinstatement and pattern separation during memory decisions in human hippocampus Lynn J. Lohnas, ...
Hippocampus Cross references: Dictionary Figure Labels Amygdala Amygdaloid Hippocampal Convergence Basal Ganglia Fornix ... Hippocampus (Wiki) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hippocampus "The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from ... Many neurons in the rat and mouse hippocampus respond as place cells: that is, they fire bursts of action potentials when the ... Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation (hypoxia), encephalitis, or medial temporal lobe epilepsy. ...
The hippocampus is the part of the brain… ... The hippocampus is the part of the brain…. A memory game - ... The hippocampus is the part of the brain responsible for memory. If your Hippocampus is working well, youll be able to match ...
... (data for P. hippocampus and P. minuta combined) was mainly recorded from the upper 200 m (eleven tows ... Pterotrachea hippocampus Phillipi 1836 Roger R. Seapy Click on an image to view larger version & data in a new window ... Page: Tree of Life Pterotrachea hippocampus Phillipi 1836. Authored by Roger R. Seapy. The TEXT of this page is licensed under ... In Hawaiian P. hippocampus this ratio decreases from 1.6 in juveniles to 1.0 in adults (Seapy, 1985). Click on an image to view ...
Synaptic Plasticity in the Hippocampus. B. R. Sastry, S. S. Chirwa, P. B. Y. May, H. Maretić, G. Pillai, E. Y. H. Kao, S. D. ... Hebbian synapses in hippocampus. S R Kelso, A H Ganong, and T H Brown ... Free recall and recognition in a network model of the hippocampus: simulating effects of scopolamine on human memory function ... Understanding the Brain Through the Hippocampus the Hippocampal Region as a Model for Studying Brain Structure and Function ...
World Register of Marine Species link: Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 *IUCN: Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 (old web ... Nomi comuni [modifica wikidata Hippocampus guttulatus] *. English. : Maned seahorse, Long-snouted seahorse, Long-snouted ... FishBase link : species Hippocampus guttulatus Cuvier, 1829 (Mirror site1, 2, 3, 4); common names (mirror) ... File nella categoria "Hippocampus guttulatus". Questa categoria contiene 15 file, indicati di seguito, su un totale di 15. ...
Implantable memory prosthetics could be the first in a wave of cyborg devices available for the enhancement of the human brain.. ...
Title: Hippocampus: Dark Fantasy Adventure. Genre: Action, Adventure, Indie. Developer: Bad Vices Games ... Hippocampus is a third person hack and slash with fast paced combat system and platform phases, focused on mutilations and ... Includes 5 items: Colortone, StellarHub, Hippocampus: Dark Fantasy Adventure, Demoniaca: Everlasting Night, Orange Cast: Sci-Fi ... Mechanoid, Bit-Boom, Kinaman vs Gray Elephant, Deep Space Shooter, Hippocampus: Dark Fantasy Adventure, Demoniaca: Everlasting ...
Hippocampus sindonis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10083A54906192. . Downloaded on 23 April 2018.. ...
Hippocampus minotaur. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T10077A54906067. . Downloaded on 18 January 2018.. ... Hippocampus minotaur is a small seahorse that is endemic to southeastern Australia and lives at depths of 64-110 m. It may ... Hippocampus minotaur has been trawled from depths of 64 to 110 m on fine sandy or hard bottoms, possibly in association with ... Hippocampus minotaur occurs on the southeastern Australian coast from Cape Paterson, Victoria to Wollongong, New South Wales. ...
... Laura Cristina Berumen,1 Angelina Rodríguez,1 Ricardo Miledi,2,3 and Guadalupe García- ... Almost all serotonin receptor subtypes are expressed in hippocampus, which implicates an intricate modulating system, ... is an ancient molecular signal and a recognized neurotransmitter brainwide distributed with particular presence in hippocampus ...
... is known to involve the hippocampus. Now a study of amnesic patients shows that hippocampus-dependent learning can occur in the ... Conscious awareness, memory and the hippocampus. *Howard Eichenbaum1. Nature Neuroscience volume 2, pages775-776(1999)Cite this ... Exposure to 835 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field induces autophagy in hippocampus but not in brain stem of mice *Ju ... Transgenerational modification of hippocampus TNF-α and S100B levels in the offspring of rats chronically exposed to morphine ...
The renaming of the hippocampus as hippocampus major, and the calcar avis as hippocampus minor, has been attributed to Félix ... The dorsal hippocampus (DH), ventral hippocampus (VH) and intermediate hippocampus serve different functions, project with ... The hippocampus was then described as pes hippocampi major, with an adjacent bulge in the occipital horn, described as the pes ... Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain. The hippocampus is part of the limbic system, and ...
Hippocampus definition is - a curved elongated ridge that extends over the floor of the descending horn of each lateral ... Share hippocampus Post the Definition of hippocampus to Facebook Share the Definition of hippocampus on Twitter ... Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about hippocampus. Comments on hippocampus What made you want to look up hippocampus? ... Examples of hippocampus in a Sentence. Recent Examples on the Web The hippocampus is responsible for many memory functions, and ...
In the summer of 2013, they became Hippo Campus.. From "Suicide Saturday" to "Souls" and "Little Grace," the quartets songs ... ABOVE: NATHAN STOCKER, ZACH SUTTON, JAKE LUPPEN, AND WHISTLER ALLEN OF HIPPO CAMPUS. PHOTO COURTESY OF PETER JAMUS ...
The hippocampus is a structure in vertebrate brain that plays important roles in the formation of new memories, and, when ... Anatomy and synaptic connections of the hippocampus. (a) Position of the human hippocampus in relationship to the cerebral ... The hippocampus is a structure in vertebrate brain that plays important roles in the formation of new memories, and, when ... Hippocampus. Edward C Cooper, University of California, San Francisco, USA Daniel H Lowenstein, Harvard University, Boston, USA ...
Hippocampus pontohi, also known as Pontohs pygmy seahorse or the weedy pygmy seahorse, is a seahorse of the family ... Pollom, R. (2017). "Hippocampus pontohi". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2017: e.T107261198A54909454. doi:10.2305/ ... Lourie, S.A.; Kuiter, R.H. (2008). "Three new pygmy seahorse species from Indonesia (Teleostei: Syngnathidae: Hippocampus)" ( ... Photos of Hippocampus pontohi on Sealife Collection v t e. ... A global revision of the seahorses Hippocampus Rafinesque 1810 ...
The first is that the attainment and expression of knowledge depend on the hippocampus by virtue of its involvement in ... Kimble, D. P. Hippocampus and internal inhibition. Psychological Bulletin, 1968, 70, 285-295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Hirsh, R. The hippocampus and contextual retrieval of information from memory: A theory. Behavioral Biology, 1974, 12, 421-444. ... Douglas, R. J. The hippocampus and behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 1967, 67, 416-442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ...
The hippocampus, Latin for seahorse, is named for its shape. It is part of a system that directs many bodily functions: the ... The hippocampus, Latin for seahorse, is named for its shape. It is part of a system that directs many bodily functions: the ... In particular, the hippocampus seems to play a major role in declarative memory, the type of memory involving things that can ... The hippocampus is not involved with short-term memory and procedural memory types (memory of how to do motor actions, like ...
Hippocampus. 1991 Oct;1(4):415-35. PubMed. * Hoge J, Kesner RP. Role of CA3 and CA1 subregions of the dorsal hippocampus on ... Hippocampus. 2014 Aug 1;. PubMed. * Small SA. Isolating pathogenic mechanisms embedded within the hippocampal circuit through ... The hippocampus contains some of the best-studied neural circuits in the brain. It also plays a crucial role in learning and ... Interlamellar CA1 network in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 2;111(35):12919-24. Epub 2014 Aug 19. PubMed. ...
The renaming of the hippocampus as hippocampus major, and the calcar avis as hippocampus minor, has been attributed to Félix ... The dorsal hippocampus (DH), ventral hippocampus (VH) and intermediate hippocampus serve different functions, project with ... Hippocampus (Wiley). BooksEdit. *. Anderson P, Morris R, Amaral, Bliss T, OKeefe J, eds. (2007). The Hippocampus Book. Oxford ... Hippocampus. The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the ...
... Temminck & Schlegel, 1850 Add your observation in Fish Watcher. Native range , All suitable habitat , ... Etymology: Hippocampus: Greek, ippos = horse + Greek,kampe = curvature (Ref. 45335). More on author: Temminck, Schlegel. ... This name has been misapplied to Hippocampus sindonis (Ref. 30915). International trade is monitored through a licensing system ...
a href=http://www.arkive.org/jayakars-seahorse/hippocampus-jayakari/image-G39995.html#src=portletV3web title=Arkive photo - ...
Pattern separation in the hippocampus.. Yassa MA1, Stark CE.. Author information. 1. Department of Psychological and Brain ... This ability has long been hypothesized to require the hippocampus, and computational models suggest that it is dependent on ... However, empirical data for the role of the hippocampus in pattern separation have not been available until recently. This ... Granule cells in the DG project to the CA3 field of the hippocampus via the mossy fiber (mf) pathway. The CA3s pyramidal cells ...
Theoretical studies have pointed to the recurrent CA3 system of the hippocampus as a possible attractor network3,4. Consistent ... pointing to the theta cycle as a temporal unit for expression of attractor states in the hippocampus. Repetition of pattern- ... Jezek, K., Henriksen, E., Treves, A. et al. Theta-paced flickering between place-cell maps in the hippocampus. Nature 478, 246- ... Harris, K. D., Csicsvari, J., Hirase, H., Dragoi, G. & Buzsáki, G. Organization of cell assemblies in the hippocampus. Nature ...
Hippocampus. See also. › www.arkive.org. › www.fishbase.org. › www.marinespecies.org. › en.wikipedia.org. › en.wikipedia.org. ...
Hippocampus - An area buried deep in the forebrain that helps regulate emotion and memory, is clearly explained in Medindia s ... Hippocampus - Glossary. Written & Compiled by Medindia Content Team. Medically Reviewed by The Medindia Medical Review Team on ... Medical Word - Hippocampus. Ans : An area buried deep in the forebrain that helps regulate emotion and memory. ...
So, almost every place is going to send information to the hippocampus. Information flowing out of the hippocampus or efferent ... just that general hippocampus area, then it goes from the hippocampus to the subiculum, again these are all three-layered ... Hippocampus Pt. 2. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 ... There is the hippocampus proper, the dentate gyrus, and the dentate gyrus is pictured here, its this toothy part and hence the ...
  • a) Position of the human hippocampus in relationship to the cerebral cortex and major subcortical structures. (els.net)
  • Human hippocampus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shape of human hippocampus and associated structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Young neurons (green) decrease in the human hippocampus across the lifespan, vs more mature neurons (red). (eurekalert.org)
  • Now UC San Francisco scientists have shown that in the human hippocampus -- a region essential for learning and memory and one of the key places where researchers have been seeking evidence that new neurons continue to be born throughout the lifespan -- neurogenesis declines throughout childhood and is undetectable in adults. (eurekalert.org)
  • The lab's new research, based on careful analysis of 59 samples of human hippocampus from UCSF and collaborators around the world, suggests new neurons may not be born in the adult human brain at all. (eurekalert.org)
  • It isn't clear why the human hippocampus would become larger with aerobic exercise. (dana.org)
  • Verbal novelty detection within the human hippocampus proper. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because sclerosis of the hippocampus proper selectively reduced event-related potentials to new but not old verbal stimuli, it can be concluded that the human hippocampus proper contributes to verbal novelty detection. (biomedsearch.com)
  • For the fish genus Hippocampus , see Seahorse . (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse , from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos , "horse" and κάμπος kampos , "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • Hippocampus minotaur is a small seahorse that is endemic to southeastern Australia and lives at depths of 64-110 m. (iucnredlist.org)
  • The hippocampus , Latin for seahorse, is named for its shape. (healthline.com)
  • The hippocampus (via Latin from Greek ἱππόκαμπος, 'seahorse') is a major component of the brain of humans and other vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampus (from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, " seahorse " from ἵππος hippos , "horse" and κάμπος kampos , "sea-monster") is a major component of the brain of humans and other vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
  • de Oliveira Armesto, L. & Freret-Meurer, N. V. , 2012: Testing for camouflage of the Brazilian seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Syngnathidae) using the territorial damselfish Stegastes fuscus (Cuvier) (Pomacentridae). (wikimedia.org)
  • The hippocampus, so named because its shape vaguely resembles that of a seahorse , is responsible for encoding long-term memories and helping with spatial navigation. (wisegeek.com)
  • The hippocampus, which is Greek for "seahorse," is a paired structure tucked inside each temporal lobe and shaped, in fact, like a pair of seahorses. (psmag.com)
  • A Common Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda) takes shelter in a mass of discarded rope and rubbish on the ocean floor. (pond5.com)
  • Together, the findings imply that CA1 neurons in the hippocampus talk amongst themselves, the authors wrote. (alzforum.org)
  • According to the study's results, people with higher densities of neurons in the hippocampus chose more positive outcomes than those who had fewer neurons in this region of the brain. (reference.com)
  • Studies in rats have shown that neurons in the hippocampus have spatial firing fields. (bionity.com)
  • Improved neuroanatomical knowledge, technical and methodological innovations (such as PET), and more refined conceptualizations of memory have inspired a reappraisal of theoretical beliefs regarding the role of the hippocampus in memory. (nih.gov)
  • However, empirical data for the role of the hippocampus in pattern separation have not been available until recently. (nih.gov)
  • Psychologists and neuroscientists are not entirely sure of the precise role of the hippocampus, but, in general, agree that it has an essential role in the formation of new memories about experienced events ( episodic or autobiographical memory ). (bionity.com)
  • In a pair of papers published in the November 2 issue of The Journal of Neuroscience , researchers at the University of California, San Diego report a new methodology that more deeply parses how and where certain types of memories are processed in the brain, and challenges earlier assumptions about the role of the hippocampus. (ucsd.edu)
  • It contains two main interlocking parts: the hippocampus proper (also called Ammon's horn) [4] and the dentate gyrus . (wikipedia.org)
  • There is the hippocampus proper, the dentate gyrus, and the dentate gyrus is pictured here, it's this toothy part and hence the name dentate. (coursera.org)
  • So, it's the tooth part, and then the subiculum which can't really be seen in this cartoon, but these three parts the hippocampus, the dentate gyrus and the subiculum, altogether form the hippocampal formation. (coursera.org)
  • Starting at the dentate gyrus and working inward along the S-curve of the hippocampus means traversing a series of narrow zones. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first of these, the dentate gyrus (DG), is actually a separate structure, a tightly packed layer of small granule cells wrapped around the end of the hippocampus proper , forming a pointed wedge in some cross-sections, a semicircle in others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most anatomists use the term "hippocampus proper" to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and subiculum. (wikipedia.org)
  • The perforant path-to-dentate gyrus-to-CA3-to-CA1 was called the trisynaptic circuit by Per Andersen, who noted that thin slices could be cut out of the hippocampus perpendicular to its long axis, in a way that preserves all of these connections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much work has focused on a region of the hippocampus called the dentate gyrus (DG), where rodents produce newborn neurons throughout life that are thought to help them form distinct new memories, among other cognitive functions. (eurekalert.org)
  • Can you spot the dwarf seahorses ( Hippocampus zosterae ) that has concealed itself in this clump of macroalgae in the photo on the left? (wetwebmedia.com)
  • Before the experiment a specialized four‐channel electrode, termed a ′tetrode′ is placed stereotactically into the CA1 region of the hippocampus of an anesthetized rat. (els.net)
  • The NMDA receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus therefore seem to perform a conflict detection or decision-making role in the event of conflicts. (medindia.net)
  • It runs contrary to a textbook tenet that has prevailed for more than 15 years, namely that NMDA receptors in the CA1 region of the hippocampus are needed to develop spatial memory. (medindia.net)
  • Although many automatic segmentation approaches have been proposed, their performance is often limited by the small size of hippocampus and complex confounding information around the hippocampus. (springer.com)
  • The hippocampus belongs to the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory , and in spatial memory that enables navigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those that have lost function or had removed major portions of the limbic system but still have the hippocampus, have only long-term memory and cannot record any new memories or functions. (healthline.com)
  • The term limbic system was introduced in 1952 by Paul MacLean to describe the set of structures that line the edge of the cortex (Latin limbus meaning border): These include the hippocampus, cingulate cortex, olfactory cortex, and amygdala. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampus is anatomically connected to parts of the brain that are involved with emotional behavior-the septum, the hypothalamic mammillary body, and the anterior nuclear complex in the thalamus, and is generally accepted to be part of the limbic system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structures that line the edge of the hole collectively make up the so-called limbic system (Latin limbus = border ), with the hippocampus lining the posterior edge of this hole. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampus is part of the brain's limbic system, which includes several structures in between the neocortex and diencephalon, according to the University of Texas Medical School. (reference.com)
  • Scientists believe that a small hippocampus may result in poor communication between nerves in the brain. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, people who had a first episode of major depression (34 per cent of study subjects with major depression) did not have a small hippocampus than healthy individuals, indicating that the changes are due to the adverse effects of depressive illness on the brain. (eurekalert.org)
  • Small Hippocampus Associated with Depression in the Elderly: Risk Factor or Shrinkage? (alphagalileo.org)
  • That pointed to a small hippocampus as a biological vulnerability. (psmag.com)
  • The hippocampus has the ability to create more cells in a process called neurogenesis, which may bring hope to those who have a genetic predisposition for smaller hippocampi. (yaledailynews.com)
  • One much-cited 2002 study of twins showed that some people who wind up with PTSD have smaller hippocampi to start with. (psmag.com)
  • In biology , hippocampus is a genus of fish, the sea-horses, that swim upright with a gripping tail and a horse-like head. (fact-index.com)
  • It is because it attacks the hippocampus first that Alzheimer's disease is first discovered by the patient's memory loss. (fact-index.com)
  • It's a major link for Alzheimer's where both severe memory issues and changes in the hippocampus occur. (wisegeek.com)
  • Cell loss in the hippocampus is one of the first signs of Alzheimer's, demonstrating the vital function cholinergic and GABA neurons play. (wired.co.uk)
  • The Hippocampal atrophy is associated with Alzheimer's disease, where the hippocampus cells died. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Feature representations extracted from hippocampus in magnetic resonance (MR) images are widely used in computer-aided Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis, and thus accurate segmentation for the hippocampus has been remaining an active research topic. (springer.com)
  • Ahmed O B, Mizotin M, Benois-Pineau J, Allard M, Catheline G, Amar C B, Initiative A D N et al (2015) Alzheimer's disease diagnosis on structural MR images using circular harmonic functions descriptors on hippocampus and posterior cingulate cortex. (springer.com)
  • Carmichael O T, Aizenstein H A, Davis S W, Becker J T, Thompson P M, Meltzer C C, Liu Y (2005) Atlas-based hippocampus segmentation in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. (springer.com)
  • There are still studies that need to be done on this but it's very possible that depression causes people to think irrationally because of this reduction in the size of the hippocampus. (wisegeek.com)
  • The size of the hippocampus is also influenced by environmental factors. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Glahn, Videbech and Joormann all said that stress exposure can influence the size of the hippocampus, as has been found in studies of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. (yaledailynews.com)
  • All of those would together increase the size of the hippocampus," Mattson says. (dana.org)
  • Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation ( hypoxia ), encephalitis , or medial temporal lobe epilepsy . (wikipedia.org)
  • Damage to the hippocampus can also result from oxygen starvation (anoxia) and encephalitis . (bionity.com)
  • Damage to the hippocampus usually results in profound difficulties in forming new memories ( anterograde amnesia ), and normally also affects access to memories prior to the damage ( retrograde amnesia ). (bionity.com)
  • and, in some cases of retrograde amnesia, the sparing appears to affect memories formed decades before the damage to the hippocampus occurred, so its role in maintaining these older memories remains uncertain. (bionity.com)
  • Damage to the hippocampus does not affect some aspects of memory, such as the ability to learn new skills (playing a musical instrument, for example), suggesting that such abilities depend on a different type of memory ( procedural memory ) and different brain regions. (bionity.com)
  • Damage to the hippocampus results in an inability to form new long-term episodic memories, though new procedural memories, such as motor sequences for everyday tasks, may still be learned. (wisegeek.com)
  • It's especially unlikely that hippocampal stimulation would evoke 60 year old memories, because damage to the hippocampus is known to impair recall of recent events, and memory formation, while old memories (older than about 20 years pre-lesion) are spared, suggesting that they're stored somewhere else in the brain. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The discovery of place cells led to the idea that the hippocampus might act as a cognitive map - a neural representation of the layout of the environment. (bionity.com)
  • In this review, we will discuss the idea that the hippocampus may be involved in both memory and perception, contrary to theories that posit functional and neuroanatomical segregation of these processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Anatomy and synaptic connections of the hippocampus. (els.net)
  • The afferent connections of the hippocampus, so it's receiving information from the amygdala, so that's going in, all parts of the sensory cortex, are coming in, the cingulate gyrus that's on the medial surface of the brain, it's sending information into the hippocampus as is the frontal cortex. (coursera.org)
  • Information flowing out of the hippocampus or efferent information, is going to go back to the amygdala, back to the sensory cortex, back to the frontal cortex, it's also going to go to the hypothalamus, which is pictured here. (coursera.org)
  • When we talked about the afferent connections into the hippocampus, we talked about all of this stuff coming from all of these multimodal sensory areas, they're all going to feed into an area called the entorhinal cortex. (coursera.org)
  • These limbic structures include the hippocampus, cingulate cortex , olfactory cortex , and amygdala . (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampus is a section of the brain located below the cerebral cortex . (fact-index.com)
  • The hippocampus was originally associated, incorrectly, with the sense of smell, which is actually processed by the olfactory cortex . (wisegeek.com)
  • The fact that phase precession can be seen in hippocampal output stuctures such as the prefrontal cortex suggests either that efferent structures inherit the precession from the hippocampus or that it is generated locally in those structures. (nih.gov)
  • Here we show that phase precession is expressed independently of the hippocampus in spatially modulated grid cells in layer II of medial entorhinal cortex, one synapse upstream of the hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • Prevailing research posits that recollection and familiarity memories involve different regions in the brain's medial temporal lobe: the hippocampus for recollection, the adjacent perirhinal cortex for familiarity. (ucsd.edu)
  • In the middle of the brain, connected to the cortex , is the hippocampus. (braingle.com)
  • These situations foster learned helplessness, negatively impacting the hippocampus , which handles memory functions, and the amygdala, which processes emotions. (merriam-webster.com)
  • When they knocked out CB1 only in glutamatergic cortical neurons (including hippocampus, neocortex, and amygdala), mice still experienced stronger seizures compared to their wild-type littermates. (alzforum.org)
  • Humans and other mammals have two hippocampi, one in each side of the brain . (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists trained subjects to exercise control over a single neuron, linked the hippocampus to regret, and concluded that humans smell in stereo. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The hippocampus is located in the allocortex, with neural projections into the neocortex in humans, as well as primates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In primate brains, including humans, the portion of the hippocampus near the base of the temporal lobe is much broader than the part at the top. (wikipedia.org)
  • We find that if neurogenesis occurs in the adult hippocampus in humans, it is an extremely rare phenomenon, raising questions about its contribution to brain repair or normal brain function," said Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, PhD, the Heather and Melanie Muss Professor of Neurological Surgery at UCSF, whose lab published the new study March 7, 2018 in Nature . (eurekalert.org)
  • Studies in rodents have found that the hippocampus, which in humans seems particularly sensitive to age-related shrinkage, can be enlarged by exercise. (dana.org)
  • Perhaps most important, this tissue also shows increased production of new neurons from stem cells, a process called neurogenesis that is known to occur in the hippocampus in adult humans. (dana.org)
  • The form of neural plasticity known as long-term potentiation (LTP) was first discovered to occur in the hippocampus and has often been studied in this structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampus contains some of the best-studied neural circuits in the brain. (alzforum.org)
  • Hippocampus anatomy describes the physical aspects and properties of the hippocampus , a neural structure in the medial temporal lobe of the brain that has a distinctive, curved shape that has been likened to the sea-horse monster of Greek mythology and the ram's horns of Amun in Egyptian mythology . (wikipedia.org)
  • When neuroinflammation accompanies injury, activation of resident microglial cells promotes the release of inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species like nitric oxide (NO). In these conditions, NO promotes proliferation of neural stem cells (NSC) in the hippocampus. (hindawi.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cells that had been manipulated to become neural progenitor cells -- precursor cells with the potential to become all different types of brain cells -- were then transplanted directly into the hippocampus. (wired.co.uk)
  • In it, human neural stem cells were successfully transplanted into the hippocampus of two animal models to restore memory and synaptic function . (wired.co.uk)
  • Using image patches as input data, we develop a multi-task convolutional neural network (CNN) for joint hippocampus segmentation and clinical score regression. (springer.com)
  • The proposed CNN network contains two subnetworks, including 1) a U-Net with a Dice-like loss function for hippocampus segmentation, and 2) a convolutional neural network with a mean squared loss function for clinical regression. (springer.com)
  • The alveus arises from cell bodies in the subiculum and hippocampus , and eventually merges with the fimbria of the hippocampus. (bionity.com)
  • The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at left, the occipital lobe at right, and the temporal and parietal lobes have largely been removed to reveal the hippocampus underneath. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rodents as model organisms , the hippocampus has been studied extensively as part of a brain system responsible for spatial memory and navigation. (wikipedia.org)
  • [6] [8] The renaming of the hippocampus as hippocampus major, and the calcar avis as hippocampus minor, has been attributed to Félix Vicq-d'Azyr systematising nomenclature of parts of the brain in 1786. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caroline Delbert, Popular Mechanics , "Ayahuasca Could Do Something Amazing to Your Brain, Study Shows," 10 Nov. 2020 When someone is experiencing emotional stress, the body releases the hormone cortisol, which inhibits normal activity in the hippocampus , the area of the brain where new memories are created. (merriam-webster.com)
  • This study tracked cells in the hippocampus , a curved structure near the center of the brain in both species that's vital for learning and memory. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Quanta Magazine , "Brain Cell DNA Refolds Itself to Aid Memory Recall," 2 Nov. 2020 In sea lions, scientists have used brain imaging to document how the toxins also lead to degradation to a part of the brain called the hippocampus that is involved in memory, navigation and other functions. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Matt Richtel, New York Times , "Brain Surgery for a 'Sweet Boy': Saving Cronutt the Sea Lion," 8 Oct. 2020 Coin depicting a Phoenician ship and a hippocampus . (merriam-webster.com)
  • Quietude, though, has been shown to promote the regeneration of brain cells in the hippocampus , which is key for learning, memory and emotion. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The hippocampus is a structure in vertebrate brain that plays important roles in the formation of new memories, and, when damaged, in the cause of memory disorders and epileptic seizures. (els.net)
  • The hippocampus is the part of the brain that allows us to make new declarative memories. (coursera.org)
  • Nissl-stained coronal section of the brain of a macaque monkey, showing hippocampus (circled). (wikipedia.org)
  • The hippocampus functions as the long-term data storage portion of the human brain, according to Healthline. (reference.com)
  • Although the retrograde effect normally extends some years prior to the brain damage, in some cases older memories remain - this sparing of older memories leads to the idea that consolidation over time involves the transfer of memories out of the hippocampus to other parts of the brain. (bionity.com)
  • There is substantial evidence (from animal studies and from patients with brain injury) that the hippocampus is crucial in the conversion of short term memory into long memory, though it is not yet clear how this occurs. (fact-index.com)
  • The hippocampus seems to grow when storing more information, as many regions of the brain do. (fact-index.com)
  • The hippocampus is also known as one of the most highly structured and studied parts of the brain , which is why it was chosen for prosthetic emulation. (wisegeek.com)
  • Thanks to advances in medical technology, researchers have begun to study the effect of PTSD on the brain, with researchers focusing specific attention on the hippocampus. (militaryconnection.com)
  • The hippocampus is the region of the brain key to distinguishing between safety and threat, and also the ability to store and retrieve memories. (militaryconnection.com)
  • Until now it was unknown which hippocampal cell population was capable to generate theta activity and it was controversial if its origin was local, in the hippocampus, or driven by other brain regions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Animal model studies have shown that the hippocampus is a particularly sensitive and vulnerable brain region that responds to stress and stress hormones. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Studies on models of stress and glucocorticoid actions reveal that the hippocampus shows a considerable degree of structural plasticity in the adult brain. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • In the normal brain, there is a connection between the septum and hippocampus,' lead author Su-Chun Zhang told Wired.co.uk. (wired.co.uk)
  • The current work presented an effective algorithm to classify a set of hippocampus rat brain images into normal and abnormal. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • This classification is performed based on the cell status (healthy or unhealthy) in a pool of 176 rat hippocampus brain images. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The brains of people with recurrent depression have a significantly smaller hippocampus - the part of the brain most associated with forming new memories - than healthy individuals, a new global study of nearly 9,000 people reveals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Actually there are two hippocampi, one on each side of the brain. (braingle.com)
  • The hippocampus is located deep in the brain and plays an important role in processes of learning and memory. (innovations-report.com)
  • The Berlin team's high-resolution brain imaging data show that the regions of the hippocampus responsible for pattern completion and pattern separation mature at different rates. (innovations-report.com)
  • The hippocampus, a structure inside the brain, shrinks after psychological trauma, which hints that a pharmaceutical cure may address post-traumatic stress disorder. (psmag.com)
  • A soldier in combat needs quick memory feedback to know when he's in trouble, and some recent work suggests that a hobbled hippocampus can blur this danger response, leading the brain to notice more cues than necessary and causing the soldier, in effect, to freak out. (psmag.com)
  • According to a recent study , a memory-related brain region known as the hippocampus is larger in elderly people who have greater aerobic fitness. (dana.org)
  • In particular, human-engineered features extracted from segmented hippocampus regions (e.g., the volume of the hippocampus) are essential for brain disease diagnosis, while these features are independent of diagnosis models, leading to sub-optimal performance. (springer.com)
  • The hippocampus is part of the forebrain and processes a large amount of information from various parts of the brain. (medindia.net)
  • Thanks to Rolf Sprengel's new complex genetic technique of switching off the NMDA receptors only in specific parts of the hippocampus in adult mice and to David Bannerman's intelligently linked behavioural experiments, we now know that NMDA receptors in other parts of the brain are probably responsible for learning spatial relations," explained Peter H. Seeburg. (medindia.net)
  • Pyramidal neuron located in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. (washington.edu)
  • The longitudinal connections might explain how the hippocampus encodes temporal sequences, Tang said. (alzforum.org)
  • In the past few years, it has become apparent that the influence of the medial temporal lobe regions extends beyond memory and that memory processes (such as encoding, consolidation and retrieval) involve not only the hippocampus and the medial temporal and diencephalic regions, but also widely distributed neocortical and perhaps even cerebellar regions. (nih.gov)
  • The hippocampus can be seen as a ridge of gray matter tissue, elevating from the floor of each lateral ventricle in the region of the inferior or temporal horn. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within individual cycles, segregation is stronger towards the end, when firing starts to decline, pointing to the theta cycle as a temporal unit for expression of attractor states in the hippocampus. (nature.com)
  • Well, besides being a sign of intracranial pressure, what is in this part of the temporal lobe is in fact the hippocampus. (coursera.org)
  • The hippocampus serves as the focal point of temporal lobe epilepsy in patients with the disorder. (reference.com)
  • Special cells called basket cells within the hippocampus are partially responsible for temporal lobe epilepsy, according to the University of Texas. (reference.com)
  • One possible treatment for temporal lope epilepsy is to somehow control the basket cells in the hippocampus that get overexcited during an epileptic seizure. (reference.com)
  • The hippocampus is a part of the forebrain, located in the medial temporal lobe . (bionity.com)
  • Some researchers prefer to consider the hippocampus as part of a larger medial temporal lobe memory system responsible for general declarative memory (memories that can be explicitly verbalized - these would include, for example, memory for facts in addition to episodic memory). (bionity.com)
  • The hippocampus is one of a group of remarkable structures embedded within the brain's medial temporal lobe. (valorebooks.com)
  • Since the ground-breaking work of Scoville and Milner (1957) , the hippocampus has been considered to be an integral component of a medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system. (frontiersin.org)
  • A pair of juvenile Hippocampus erectus well endowed with extravagant cirri. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • Hippocampus erectus Hippocampus generoko animalia da. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recent study from researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI) has found that PTSD patients with a larger hippocampus are more likely to respond to exposure-based therapy for PTSD. (militaryconnection.com)
  • Although nobody knows whether these cab drivers have trained their hippocampus to this extent, or just a person with large well-developed dorsal hippocampus have more chances to become a taxi driver. (fact-index.com)
  • These 4-12 Hz oscillations have been predominantly studied in the dorsal hippocampus where they are correlated with a broad range of voluntary and exploratory behaviors. (diva-portal.org)
  • Declarative memory, the conscious recollection of past experiences, is known to involve the hippocampus. (nature.com)
  • Eichenbaum, H. Conscious awareness, memory and the hippocampus. (nature.com)
  • Recent Examples on the Web The hippocampus is responsible for many memory functions, and the mice dosed with ayahuasca also performed better in a battery of memory tests. (merriam-webster.com)
  • Bliss TVP and Collingridge GL (1993) A synaptic model of memory: long‐term potentiation in the hippocampus. (els.net)
  • Hirsh, R. The hippocampus and contextual retrieval of information from memory: A theory. (springer.com)
  • The hippocampus is involved in the storage of long-term memory, which includes all past knowledge and experiences. (healthline.com)
  • In particular, the hippocampus seems to play a major role in declarative memory, the type of memory involving things that can be purposely recalled, such as facts or events. (healthline.com)
  • The hippocampus is not involved with short-term memory and procedural memory types (memory of how to do motor actions, like walking). (healthline.com)
  • Understanding how the hippocampus encodes and relays information is fundamental to understanding memory," said Cha-Min Tang, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, the senior author on the PNAS paper. (alzforum.org)
  • Healthline explains the hippocampus directs a human's declarative memory, or the collected experiences and gathered knowledge of the person. (reference.com)
  • Some evidence supports the idea that, although these forms of memory often last a lifetime, the hippocampus ceases to play a crucial role in the retention of the memory after a period of consolidation . (bionity.com)
  • fify-- The hippocampus is important both for learning and memory, so there is no doubt that changes in its function would have consequences for these activities. (wisegeek.com)
  • Experts in the field were interested in the possible role that the hippocampus seems to play in depression, despite its usual association with amnesia, spatial memory and navigation. (yaledailynews.com)
  • Yet according to Videbech, patients with depression have shown deficits in memory function, indicating an association between the hippocampus and depression. (yaledailynews.com)
  • It's there that cholinergic and GABA neurons -- associated with Alzhemier's and other neurological disorders, from epilepsy to addiction -- connect the medial septum to the hippocampus, which plays a vital role in memory. (wired.co.uk)
  • Post-transplant, the mice scored better in traditional memory tests, suggesting the function of the medial septum had been restored, along with improved hippocampus function. (wired.co.uk)
  • For a memory to get into long-term storage , it must be selected by the hippocampus. (braingle.com)
  • We studied the hippocampus, which is a critical area for learning and memory and, as it is rich in glucocorticoid receptors, is especially vulnerable to glucocorticoid overexposure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Cushing's syndrome patients with severe memory impairment are known to have a smaller hippocampus. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • So far, the assumption was that the hippocampus was more or less mature by the age of six years and further memory development was only dependent on the maturation of the neocortex, explains Nora Newcombe. (innovations-report.com)
  • and determined their proficiency in spatial memory-which is known to be hippocampus-dependent-on a standard test. (dana.org)
  • Picomolar amyloid-beta positively modulates synaptic plasticity and memory in hippocampus. (uniprot.org)
  • The hippocampus shrinks in late adulthood, leading to impaired memory and increased risk for dementia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here we show, in a randomized controlled trial with 120 older adults, that aerobic exercise training increases the size of the anterior hippocampus, leading to improvements in spatial memory. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research in Heidelberg and Oxford University have now observed that mice develop a spatial memory, even when the NMDA receptor-transmitted plasticity is switched off in parts of their hippocampus. (medindia.net)
  • In schizophrenia and certain types of severe depression, the hippocampus shrinks. (wisegeek.com)
  • Specimens tentatively identified either as P. hippocampus or P. minuta over a broad size range revealed a continuum of change in the shape of the eyes and the visceral nucleus (the two primary criteria used historically to distinguish the two species). (tolweb.org)
  • Opening-closing midwater trawl tows were made along a north-south transect (approximately at 30°W longitude) between 25°N and 49°N. Nine individuals were collected between 36°N and 49°N, while the rest were from 25°N to 35°N. Although extending somewhat into subtemperate waters, these records support the general observation that the P. hippocampus is a tropical to subtropical species. (tolweb.org)
  • There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Hippocampus minotaur . (iucnredlist.org)
  • Because the hippocampus is so old, it has been optimized extensively by evolution and is basically the same across all mammal species. (wisegeek.com)
  • This species has often been misidentified as Hippocampus histrix (Ref. 30915 ). (fishbase.org)
  • Only a select few of these species are on exhibit at any time, though all are representative of Hippocampus Haven habitats. (calvertmarinemuseum.com)
  • In the September 2 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, researchers report that axons run lengthwise along the hippocampus, forming a potentially important cadre of synapses-this in addition to the well-described transverse projections that researchers study in hippocampal slices. (alzforum.org)
  • These findings suggest that as synapses enlarge and release more neurotransmitter, they attract astroglial processes to a dis-crete portion of their perimeters, further enhancing synap-tic efficacy without limiting the potential for cross talk with neighboring synapses in the mature rat hippocampus. (psu.edu)
  • They were thus able to observe for the first time ever what happens when NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity is switched off almost exclusively at these synapses in the hippocampus. (medindia.net)
  • In Greek mythology , the hippocampus (horse-like sea monster") was a mythical monster, half-horse, half-sea-monster. (fact-index.com)
  • The first is that the attainment and expression of knowledge depend on the hippocampus by virtue of its involvement in retrieval processes. (springer.com)
  • The hippocampus also stores and processes spatial information. (braingle.com)
  • We suggest that the hippocampus processes complex conjunctions of spatial features, and that it may be more appropriate to consider the representations for which this structure is critical, rather than the cognitive processes that it mediates. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the exact contribution of the hippocampus proper to these processes is still unknown. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The fimbria/fornix (fim) is one of the principal output pathways of the hippocampus that also brings in commissural (comm) input from the contralateral hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • I want to draw your attention to a very important outflow from the hippocampus which is the fornix, and that's this big fiber track pictured here, and this fiber track the fornix connects the hippocampus, or the hippocampal formation as a whole, to the mammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus. (coursera.org)
  • So, when we talk about the hippocampus, we're really talking about the hippocampal formation, and the hippocampal formation has three subdivisions. (coursera.org)
  • Up until now, scientists believed that a particular form of synaptic plasticity in the brain's hippocampus was responsible for learning spatial relations. (medindia.net)
  • Individuals whose hippocampus becomes damaged (for instance, those with Korsakoff's syndrome ), whilst retaining the ability to access long-term memories from before their injury, become unable to form new ones. (fact-index.com)
  • The hippocampus is known to be associated with the consolidation of episodic memories, which are memories of personally experienced events and their associated emotions. (wisegeek.com)
  • A strong case can be made that these cells exist in the hippocampus because memories must be employed to determine current location from more fundamental variables like orientation and speed. (wisegeek.com)
  • People with certain conditions that lead to lower function of the hippocampus will have a harder time retaining and remembering memories. (wisegeek.com)
  • encodes memories into the hippocampus so that trauma-related experience is locked there [while] other memories just drift. (thedailybeast.com)
  • The hippocampus plays a huge role in creating long-term memories and later retrieving them. (thedailybeast.com)
  • The hippocampus helps to form new memories about experienced events. (braingle.com)
  • If the hippocampus is damaged, it becomes incredibly difficult to form new memories and recall old memories. (braingle.com)
  • The hippocampus plays a big role in storing memories, but it's also important in recalling them," says Ulrike Schmidt , a senior psychiatrist and research group leader at the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich, "and this recall is obviously disrupted in PTSD patients. (psmag.com)
  • Perisynap-tic astroglia was quantified through serial section electron microscopy in perfusion-fixed or sliced hippocampus from adult male Long-Evans rats that were 65-75 days old. (psu.edu)
  • Curious whether axons project within the CA1, scientists led by Tang studied intact hippocampi from C57BL/6 mice. (alzforum.org)
  • To determine if the mossy cells were the target of endocannabinoids, the researchers created a highly targeted deletion by injecting an adenovirus expressing the cre recombinase into the hippocampus of CB1 floxed mice. (alzforum.org)
  • We propose that the analysis of variability in hippocampal neuronal morphology and behavior can be combined with noninvasive environmental enrichment to test assumptions about how complexity of hippocampal neurons relates to hippocampus-dependent cognition in mice. (amherst.edu)
  • This name has been misapplied to Hippocampus sindonis (Ref. 30915 ). (fishbase.org)
  • Evidence suggests the hippocampus is used in storing and processing spatial information. (bionity.com)
  • Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary , Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/hippocampus. (merriam-webster.com)
  • https://www.mpib-berlin.mpg.de/en/media/2018/07/from-the-general-to-the-specific. (innovations-report.com)
  • Hippocampus minotaur occurs on the southeastern Australian coast from Cape Paterson, Victoria to Wollongong, New South Wales. (iucnredlist.org)
  • In this review we summarize the recent advances made in leptin biology, with particular focus on its potential role as a cognitive enhancer and antiepileptic agent in the hippocampus. (nih.gov)
  • The term hippocampus minor fell from use in anatomy textbooks, and was officially removed in the Nomina Anatomica of 1895. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Hippocampus Book promises to facilitate developments in the field in a major way by bringing together, for the first time, contributions by leading international scientists knowledgeable about hippocampal anatomy, physiology, and function. (valorebooks.com)
  • Hippocampus minotaur has been trawled from depths of 64 to 110 m on fine sandy or hard bottoms, possibly in association with gorgonian corals (Gomon 1997). (iucnredlist.org)
  • Now a study of amnesic patients shows that hippocampus-dependent learning can occur in the absence of conscious awareness. (nature.com)
  • They found that aerobic fitness levels in the subjects correlated strongly with hippocampal volume, for both the right and left hippocampus and even after controlling for the ordinary variations in hippocampal volume that are known to occur according to age, sex and years of education. (dana.org)
  • Granule cells in the DG project to the CA3 field of the hippocampus via the mossy fiber (mf) pathway. (nih.gov)
  • It was actually thought that depression shrunk the hippocampus by reducing the number of neurons. (wisegeek.com)
  • What does it mean for the hippocampus to shrink in severe depression? (wisegeek.com)
  • The latest study, which was published in October, focused on the hippocampus, as it is often associated with depression. (yaledailynews.com)
  • But it is also possible that some shrinkage of the hippocampus pre-exists before the depression, maybe because of genetic disposition. (yaledailynews.com)
  • People with depression were shown to have reduced hippocampus volume compared to non-depressed people. (eurekalert.org)
  • The key finding that people with major depression have a smaller hippocampus confirms earlier clinical work conducted at the BMRI. (eurekalert.org)
  • People with an early age of onset of major depression (before the age of 21 years) also had a smaller hippocampus than healthy individuals, consistent with the notion that many of these young people go on to have recurrent disorders. (eurekalert.org)
  • Eugenia Resmini and colleagues, working at the Centre for Biomedical Research on Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Sant Pau hospital in Barcelona, used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure a series of metabolites in the hippocampus of the brains of 18 patients who had been treated for Cushing's syndrome, and compared these results to 18 healthy control subjects. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To improve its camouflage all the more, Hippocampus is capable of growing or shedding dermal cirri, which are long filaments and branching extensions of its skin, in order to match its habitat (Vincent, 1990). (wetwebmedia.com)