Prostheses and Implants
Heart Valve Prosthesis
Metal-on-Metal Joint Prostheses
Coated Materials, Biocompatible
Hip Dislocation, Congenital
Dental Prosthesis, Implant-Supported
Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
Blood Vessel Prosthesis
Range of Motion, Articular
Dental Prosthesis Design
Dental Prosthesis Retention
Denture, Partial, Fixed
Maxillofacial Prosthesis Implantation
Hip Dysplasia, Canine
Femoral Neck Fractures
Femur Head Necrosis
Equipment Failure Analysis
Aortic Valve Stenosis
Reconstructive Surgical Procedures
Total Disc Replacement
Recovery of Function
Blood Vessel Prosthesis Implantation
Denture, Partial, Removable
Aortic Valve Insufficiency
Analysis of 118 second-generation metal-on-metal retrieved hip implants. (1/2055)Osteolysis is due to particulate wear debris and is responsible for the long-term failure of total hip replacements. It has stimulated the development of alternative joint surfaces such as metal-on-metal or ceramic-on-ceramic implants. Since 1988 the second-generation metal-on-metal implant Metasul has been used in over 60 000 hips. Analysis of 118 retrieved specimens of the head or cup showed rates of wear of approximately 25 microm for the whole articulation per year in the first year, decreasing to about 5 microm per year after the third. Metal surfaces have a 'self-polishing' capacity. Scratches are worn out by further joint movement. Volumetric wear was decreased some 60-fold compared with that of metal-on-polyethylene implants, suggesting that second-generation metal-on-metal prostheses may considerably reduce osteolysis. (+info)
Migration of the Duraloc cup at two years. (2/2055)We carried out 71 primary total hip arthroplasties using porous-coated, hemispherical press-fit Duraloc '100 Series' cups in 68 consecutive patients; 61 were combined with the cementless Spotorno stem and ten with the cemented Lubinus SP II stem. Under-reaming of 2 mm achieved a press-fit. Of the 71 hips, 69 (97.1%) were followed up after a mean of 2.4 years. Migration analysis was performed by the Ein Bild Rontgen Analyse method, with an accuracy of 1 mm. The mean total migration after 24 months was 1.13 mm. Using the definition of loosening as a total migration of 1 mm, it follows that 30 out of 63 cups (48%) were loose at 24 months. (+info)
Infections associated with dental procedures in total hip arthroplasty. (3/2055)Dental procedures may lead to a transient bacteraemia lasting for up to 30 minutes. Of the numerous cases of total hip arthroplasty (THA) reported which have been infected from haematogenous sources, dental procedures have been involved only infrequently. We reviewed the records of 2973 patients after THA. Of the late infections identified in 52 patients, three (6%) were strongly associated with a dental procedure. Infection was diagnosed by culture from the affected joint; Streptococcus viridans was identified in two cases and Peptostreptococcus in one. One patient had diabetes mellitus and another rheumatoid arthritis, both conditions predisposing to infection. The dental operations all lasted for more than 45 minutes and no patient received perioperative antibiotics. Infection of a THA after dental procedures is more common than has been previously suspected. Patients with systemic disease, or who are undergoing extensive procedures, should be considered for prophylactic antibiotic treatment. (+info)
Subsidence of a non-polished stem in revisions of the hip using impaction allograft. Evaluation with radiostereometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. (4/2055)We revised 24 consecutive hips with loosening of the femoral stem using impaction allograft and a cemented stem with an unpolished proximal surface. Repeated radiostereometric examinations for up to two years showed a slow rate of subsidence with a mean of 0.32 mm (-2.0 to +0.31). Fifteen cases followed for a further year showed the same mean subsidence after three years, indicating stabilisation. A tendency to retroversion of the stems was noted between the operation and the last follow-up. Retroversion was also recorded when displacement of the stem was studied in ten of the patients after two years. Repeated determination of bone mineral density showed an initial loss after six months, followed by recovery to the postoperative level at two years. Defects in the cement mantle and malalignment of the stem were often noted on postoperative radiographs, but did not correlate with the degrees of migration or displacement. After one year, increasing frequency of trabecular remodelling or resorption of the graft was observed in the greater trochanter and distal to the tip of the stem. Cortical repair was noted distally and medially (Gruen regions 3, 5 and 6). Migration of the stems was the lowest reported to date, which we attribute to the improved grafting technique and to the hardness of the graft. (+info)
Determination of Hounsfield value for CT-based design of custom femoral stems. (5/2055)Ct and advanced computer-aided design techniques offer the means for designing customised femoral stems. Our aim was to determine the Hounsfield (HU) value of the bone at the corticocancellous interface, as part of the criteria for the design algorithm. We obtained transverse CT images from eight human cadaver femora. The proximal femoral canal was rasped until contact with dense cortical bone was achieved. The femora were cut into several sections corresponding to the slice positions of the CT images. After obtaining a computerised image of the anatomical sections using a scanner, the inner cortical contour was outlined and transferred to the corresponding CT image. The pixels beneath this contour represent the CT density of the bone remaining after surgical rasping. Contours were generated automatically at nine HU levels from 300 to 1100 and the mean distance between the transferred contour and each of the HU-generated contours was computed. The contour generated along the 600-HU pixels was closest to the inner cortical contour of the rasped femur and therefore 600 HU seem to be the CT density of the corticocancellous interface in the proximal part of cadaver femora. Generally, femoral bone with a CT density beyond 600 HU is not removable by conventional reamers. Thus, we recommend the 600 HU threshold as one of several criteria for the design of custom femoral implants from CT data. (+info)
Hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stems. Histology and histomorphometry around five components retrieved at post mortem. (6/2055)We performed a histological and histomorphometric examination in five cadaver specimens of the femoral and acetabular components and the associated tissue which had been recovered between 3.3 and 6.2 years after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a proximal hydroxyapatite (HA)-coated titanium alloy implant. All had functioned well during the patients' life. All the stems were fixed in the femur and showed osseointegration of both the proximal and distal parts. The amount of residual HA was greatest in the distal metaphyseal sections, indicating that the rate of bone remodelling may be the main factor causing loss of HA. The level of activity of the patient was the only clinical factor which correlated with loss of coating. The percentage of bone-implant osseointegration was almost constant, regardless of the amount of HA residue, periprosthetic bone density or the time of implantation. HA debris was seldom observed and if present did not cause any adverse or inflammatory reaction. Partial debonding did occur in one case as a result of a polyethylene-induced inflammatory reaction. (+info)
Induction of macrophage C-C chemokine expression by titanium alloy and bone cement particles. (7/2055)Particulate wear debris is associated with periprosthetic inflammation and loosening in total joint arthroplasty. We tested the effects of titanium alloy (Ti-alloy) and PMMA particles on monocyte/macrophage expression of the C-C chemokines, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1alpha), and regulated upon activation normal T expressed and secreted protein (RANTES). Periprosthetic granulomatous tissue was analysed for expression of macrophage chemokines by immunohistochemistry. Chemokine expression in human monocytes/macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles in vitro was determined by RT-PCR, ELISA and monocyte migration. We observed MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha expression in all tissue samples from failed arthroplasties. Ti-alloy and PMMA particles increased expression of MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha in macrophages in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner whereas RANTES was not detected. mRNA signal levels for MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha were also observed in cells after exposure to particles. Monocyte migration was stimulated by culture medium collected from macrophages exposed to Ti-alloy and PMMA particles. Antibodies to MCP-1 and MIP-1alpha inhibited chemotactic activity of the culture medium samples. Release of C-C chemokines by macrophages in response to wear particles may contribute to chronic inflammation at the bone-implant interface in total joint arthroplasty. (+info)
Cytokine levels in synovial fluid from hips with well-functioning or loose prostheses. (8/2055)We analysed synovial fluid from 88 hips, 38 with osteoarthritis and 12 with well-functioning and 38 with loose hip prostheses. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta (71 hips) and IL-6 (45 hips) were measured using the ELISA technique. Joints with well-functioning or loose prostheses had significantly increased levels of TNF-alpha compared with those with osteoarthritis. Hips with aseptic loosening also had higher levels of IL-1beta but not of IL-6 compared with those without an implant. The levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta did not differ between hips with stable and loose prostheses. Higher levels of TNF-alpha were found in hips with bone resorption of type II and type III (Gustilo-Pasternak) compared with those with type-I loosening. The level of cytokines in joint fluid was not influenced by the time in situ of the implants or the age, gender or area of the osteolysis as measured on conventional radiographs. Our findings support the theory that macrophages in the joint capsule increase the production of TNF-alpha at an early phase probably because of particle load and in the absence of clinical loosening. Since TNF-alpha has an important role in the osteolytic process, the interfaces should be protected from penetration of joint fluid. (+info)
Prosthesis failure refers to the malfunction or breakdown of a medical device or implant, such as a prosthetic limb, heart valve, or joint replacement, that is intended to replace or support a missing or damaged body part. Prosthesis failure can occur due to a variety of factors, including design flaws, manufacturing defects, inappropriate use or care, or the natural wear and tear of the device over time. Symptoms of prosthesis failure may include pain, swelling, infection, movement restrictions, or the device becoming loose or dislodged. Treatment for prosthesis failure may involve repairing or replacing the device, adjusting the device's fit or function, or administering medications or other therapies to manage symptoms or complications.
Osteoarthritis, Hip is a degenerative joint disease that affects the hip joint. It is the most common form of arthritis in adults and is caused by the breakdown of the cartilage that cushions the bones in the joint. As the cartilage wears away, the bones in the joint rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and reduced mobility. Osteoarthritis of the hip can affect one or both hips and can progress slowly over time. It is often associated with aging, but can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or other factors. Treatment options for osteoarthritis of the hip may include pain management, physical therapy, and in severe cases, surgery.
Prosthesis-related infections (PRIs) are infections that occur in or around medical devices, such as artificial joints, heart valves, or pacemakers. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or viruses, and can be difficult to treat because the bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics. PRIs can lead to serious complications, including the need for surgery to remove the infected device, and can be life-threatening in some cases. It is important for patients who have medical devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions for preventing infections and to seek medical attention immediately if they experience any signs or symptoms of infection.
Chromium alloys are a type of metal that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties. These alloys are typically composed of chromium, which is combined with other metals such as molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt to create a strong, durable, and corrosion-resistant material. In the medical field, chromium alloys are often used to make orthopedic implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants. These implants are designed to be strong and long-lasting, and to withstand the wear and tear of daily use. They are also biocompatible, meaning that they are less likely to cause an adverse reaction in the body. Chromium alloys are also used in other medical applications, such as in the production of surgical instruments and medical devices. They are known for their high strength, corrosion resistance, and ability to withstand high temperatures, which makes them ideal for use in these applications. Overall, chromium alloys are an important material in the medical field due to their unique properties and versatility. They are used in a wide range of medical applications, and are known for their durability, strength, and biocompatibility.
Bone cements are medical materials that are used to fill bone defects or to attach artificial joints to the bone. They are typically made of a powder and a liquid that are mixed together and then injected into the bone. The powder and liquid react chemically to form a hard, durable material that bonds to the bone and provides support for the artificial joint or implant. Bone cements are commonly used in orthopedic surgery to treat conditions such as fractures, osteoarthritis, and bone tumors. They are also used in dental surgery to anchor dental implants in the jawbone.
Polyethylenes are a group of synthetic polymers that are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. They are made by polymerizing ethylene monomers, which are small molecules containing carbon and hydrogen atoms. There are several different types of polyethylenes, including low-density polyethylene (LDPE), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Each type of polyethylene has its own unique properties and is used for different medical applications. For example, LDPE is often used in medical packaging, such as for syringes and intravenous bags, because it is lightweight, flexible, and has good barrier properties. HDPE is commonly used in medical devices, such as catheters and tubing, because it is strong, durable, and has good chemical resistance. UHMWPE is used in orthopedic implants, such as knee and hip replacements, because it is highly wear-resistant and has good biocompatibility. Overall, polyethylenes are a versatile and widely used material in the medical field due to their many desirable properties.
Hip dislocation is a medical condition in which the head of the femur (thigh bone) is displaced from its socket in the pelvis. This can occur due to trauma, such as a fall or a car accident, or it can be a congenital condition present at birth. There are two types of hip dislocations: anterior (forward) and posterior (backward). Anterior dislocations are more common and occur when the femoral head is pushed forward out of the socket. Posterior dislocations are less common and occur when the femoral head is pushed backward out of the socket. Symptoms of hip dislocation may include severe pain, difficulty moving the affected leg, and the inability to bear weight on the affected side. Treatment for hip dislocation typically involves reduction, which is the process of returning the femoral head to its proper position in the socket. This may be done manually or with the use of surgery. After reduction, the hip may be immobilized in a cast or brace for several weeks to allow it to heal properly. Physical therapy may also be recommended to help restore strength and range of motion to the affected hip.
A hip fracture is a type of bone fracture that occurs in the hip joint, which is the ball-and-socket joint where the femur (thigh bone) meets the pelvis. Hip fractures are typically caused by a fall or other type of trauma, and they are most common in older adults, particularly those who are osteoporotic or have other conditions that weaken the bones. There are two main types of hip fractures: intracapsular fractures and extracapsular fractures. Intracapsular fractures occur within the joint capsule, while extracapsular fractures occur outside of the joint capsule. Both types of fractures can be very serious and can lead to complications such as infection, blood clots, and difficulty walking. Treatment for hip fractures typically involves surgery to repair the fracture and stabilize the joint. In some cases, nonsurgical treatment may be appropriate, particularly for older adults who are not good candidates for surgery. After treatment, physical therapy is often recommended to help patients regain strength and mobility in the affected leg.
Durapatite is a synthetic bone substitute material that is used in orthopedic and dental surgeries. It is a type of calcium phosphate ceramic that is similar in composition to natural bone and is designed to promote bone growth and regeneration. Durapatite is typically used in procedures such as bone grafting, where it is placed in the body to help fill in gaps or defects in bone tissue. It can also be used as an alternative to autografts (bone taken from the patient's own body) or allografts (bone taken from a donor) in certain cases. Durapatite has several advantages over other bone substitute materials, including its ability to promote bone growth and its biocompatibility with the body. It is also relatively easy to shape and can be customized to fit the specific needs of each patient. Overall, Durapatite is a useful tool for surgeons and dentists who are looking for a safe and effective way to promote bone growth and regeneration in the body.
Polyethylene is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of applications. It is a lightweight, flexible, and durable material that is resistant to moisture, chemicals, and bacteria. In the medical field, polyethylene is often used to make medical devices such as catheters, tubing, and containers for storing and transporting medical supplies. It is also used to make prosthetic devices such as artificial joints and dental implants. Polyethylene is a versatile material that can be processed into a variety of shapes and sizes, making it a popular choice for medical device manufacturers. It is also biocompatible, meaning that it is generally well-tolerated by the body and does not cause adverse reactions. However, it is important to note that not all types of polyethylene are suitable for medical use. Some types of polyethylene may contain impurities or additives that can be harmful to the body, so it is important to use only medical-grade polyethylene in medical devices.
Titanium is a metal that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties, such as its high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is often used in medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, dental implants, and spinal implants, due to its ability to integrate well with the body and its durability. Titanium is also used in surgical instruments and medical equipment, such as pacemakers and defibrillators, due to its resistance to corrosion and its ability to withstand high temperatures. Additionally, titanium is sometimes used in the fabrication of prosthetic limbs and other medical devices.
Technetium compounds are radioactive compounds that contain the element technetium. Technetium is a synthetic element that is used in medicine as a radioactive tracer, particularly in nuclear medicine imaging techniques such as bone scans and heart scans. Technetium compounds are typically administered to patients intravenously and are taken up by specific organs or tissues in the body. The radioactive properties of technetium allow doctors to track the movement of the compound and visualize the function of the targeted organ or tissue. Technetium compounds are also used in some cancer treatments, such as radiation therapy.
Osteolysis is a medical condition characterized by the breakdown and destruction of bone tissue. It can occur in various parts of the body, including the bones of the spine, pelvis, and extremities. Osteolysis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, inflammation, trauma, and certain medical conditions such as osteoporosis, cancer, and metabolic disorders. It can also be a complication of certain medical treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The symptoms of osteolysis may include pain, swelling, and tenderness in the affected area, as well as weakness or instability in the affected joint. In severe cases, osteolysis can lead to the formation of bone cysts or tumors, which can cause further complications. Treatment for osteolysis depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. In some cases, medications may be used to manage pain and inflammation, while in other cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged bone tissue or stabilize the affected joint. In some cases, physical therapy or other forms of rehabilitation may also be recommended to help improve strength and mobility.
Methylmethacrylates are a group of organic compounds that are commonly used in the medical field as adhesives, coatings, and as a component in medical devices. They are derived from the monomer methylmethacrylate, which is a colorless, odorless liquid that polymerizes (forms long chains) when exposed to heat or light. Methylmethacrylates are used in a variety of medical applications, including dental fillings, orthopedic implants, and as a component in medical coatings and adhesives. They are also used in the production of medical devices such as catheters, syringes, and surgical instruments. One of the key benefits of methylmethacrylates is their biocompatibility, which means that they are generally well-tolerated by the body and do not cause adverse reactions. They are also relatively easy to process and can be molded into a wide range of shapes and sizes. However, methylmethacrylates can also have some potential drawbacks, including toxicity and the potential for allergic reactions in some individuals. As with any medical material, it is important to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of using methylmethacrylates in a particular medical application.
Hip dislocation, congenital refers to a condition where the hip joint is not properly developed or positioned at birth, resulting in the ball of the femur (thigh bone) not fitting properly into the socket of the pelvis. This can cause the hip to be unstable and prone to dislocation, which is when the ball of the femur moves out of the socket. There are several types of congenital hip dislocation, including developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), which is the most common type, and slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), which is a less common type that occurs in older children and adolescents. Treatment for congenital hip dislocation typically involves a combination of physical therapy, bracing, and, in some cases, surgery. Early diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent long-term complications such as arthritis and reduced mobility.
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Hip injuries refer to any type of damage or trauma that affects the hip joint or the surrounding muscles, ligaments, and tendons. The hip joint is a complex structure that allows for movement in multiple directions, and any disruption to its normal function can result in pain, swelling, and limited mobility. Some common types of hip injuries include: 1. Fractures: A fracture is a break in the bone that can occur as a result of trauma, such as a fall or a car accident. 2. Dislocations: A dislocation occurs when the ball-and-socket joint of the hip is forced out of its normal position. 3. Tendinitis: Tendinitis is inflammation of the tendons that attach muscles to bones, which can occur as a result of overuse or injury. 4. Bursitis: Bursitis is inflammation of the bursae, which are small fluid-filled sacs that cushion the joint and reduce friction. 5. Labral tears: The labrum is a ring of cartilage that surrounds the hip socket. A tear in the labrum can occur as a result of trauma or overuse. Hip injuries can be treated with a variety of methods, including rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE), physical therapy, medication, and surgery in severe cases. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any pain or discomfort in your hip joint.
Postoperative complications are adverse events that occur after a surgical procedure. They can range from minor issues, such as bruising or discomfort, to more serious problems, such as infection, bleeding, or organ damage. Postoperative complications can occur for a variety of reasons, including surgical errors, anesthesia errors, infections, allergic reactions to medications, and underlying medical conditions. They can also be caused by factors such as poor nutrition, dehydration, and smoking. Postoperative complications can have serious consequences for patients, including prolonged hospital stays, additional surgeries, and even death. Therefore, it is important for healthcare providers to take steps to prevent postoperative complications and to promptly recognize and treat them if they do occur.
Chromium is a chemical element that is essential for human health. It is a trace mineral that is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Chromium is also important for maintaining healthy blood sugar levels and for regulating insulin sensitivity. In the medical field, chromium is used to treat type 2 diabetes and to improve insulin sensitivity. It is often used in combination with other medications to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Chromium supplements are also sometimes used to help with weight loss and to improve athletic performance. It is important to note that while chromium is an essential nutrient, excessive intake of chromium supplements can be harmful. The recommended daily intake of chromium for adults is 55 micrograms per day. It is always best to consult with a healthcare professional before taking any supplements.
Femoral fractures are breaks or fractures that occur in the femur, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. The femur is located in the thigh and is responsible for supporting the weight of the body and facilitating movement of the lower limbs. Femoral fractures can occur as a result of a direct blow to the thigh, a fall from a height, or a severe impact during a motor vehicle accident. They can also occur as a complication of osteoporosis, a condition that weakens bones and makes them more susceptible to fractures. Femoral fractures can be classified based on their location, severity, and the presence of any associated injuries. Some common types of femoral fractures include: 1. Intertrochanteric fractures: These occur in the region between the greater and lesser trochanters, which are bony projections on the femur. 2. Subtrochanteric fractures: These occur below the greater trochanter and are often associated with a high risk of complications. 3. Femoral neck fractures: These occur at the junction between the shaft and the neck of the femur and are often associated with a high risk of complications, including nonunion and avascular necrosis. 4. Shaft fractures: These occur in the middle of the femur and can be caused by a direct blow or a fall from a height. Femoral fractures can be treated with a variety of methods, including surgery, casting, and physical therapy. The choice of treatment depends on the severity of the fracture, the patient's overall health, and the presence of any associated injuries. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to realign the bones and stabilize the fracture, while in other cases, casting or physical therapy may be sufficient for proper healing.
In the medical field, metals are materials that are commonly used in medical devices, implants, and other medical applications. These metals can include stainless steel, titanium, cobalt-chromium alloys, and other materials that are known for their strength, durability, and biocompatibility. Metals are often used in medical devices because they can withstand the rigors of the human body and provide long-lasting support and stability. For example, metal implants are commonly used in orthopedic surgery to replace damaged or diseased joints, while metal stents are used to keep blood vessels open and prevent blockages. However, metals can also have potential risks and complications. For example, some people may be allergic to certain metals, which can cause skin irritation, inflammation, or other adverse reactions. Additionally, metal implants can sometimes cause tissue damage or infection, which may require additional medical treatment. Overall, the use of metals in the medical field is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires careful consideration of the benefits and risks involved.
Hydroxyapatite is a mineral that is commonly found in bone and tooth enamel. In the medical field, hydroxyapatite is often used as a biomaterial for various medical applications, such as bone grafting, dental implants, and drug delivery systems. It is also used in the production of medical devices, such as orthopedic implants and prosthetic devices. Hydroxyapatite has excellent biocompatibility and can be easily modified to enhance its properties for specific medical applications.
Cobalt is a chemical element with the symbol Co and atomic number 27. It is a hard, silvery-gray metal that is often used in the production of magnets, batteries, and pigments. In the medical field, cobalt is used in the production of radioactive isotopes, such as cobalt-60, which are used in radiation therapy to treat cancer. Cobalt-60 is a strong gamma emitter that can be used to destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue. It is also used in the production of medical devices, such as stents and implants, and as a component in some dental fillings.
Silicone elastomers are a type of silicone-based material that exhibit both rubber-like elasticity and the ability to maintain their shape over time. They are commonly used in the medical field due to their biocompatibility, chemical stability, and mechanical properties. In medical applications, silicone elastomers are used in a variety of ways, including as implant materials, prosthetic devices, and medical devices. For example, silicone elastomers are often used to make breast implants, as they are biocompatible and can maintain their shape over time. They are also used in prosthetic devices, such as artificial limbs, as they can be molded to fit the contours of the body and provide a comfortable, durable fit. In addition to their use in medical devices, silicone elastomers are also used in a variety of other applications, including in the production of consumer goods, such as cookware and baby bottles, and in the automotive industry, where they are used in the production of seals and gaskets.
Polyethylene terephthalates (PET) are a type of plastic commonly used in medical devices and packaging. PET is a thermoplastic polymer that is formed by the condensation of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. It is known for its transparency, durability, and resistance to moisture and chemicals. In the medical field, PET is used to make a variety of products, including medical tubing, catheters, and containers for medical supplies. It is also used to make packaging for medical devices and pharmaceuticals, as it is lightweight, strong, and impermeable to gases and moisture. PET is also used in the production of medical implants, such as orthopedic implants and dental implants. It is a biocompatible material that is well-tolerated by the body and can be easily shaped and molded to fit the specific needs of a patient. Overall, PET is a versatile and widely used material in the medical field due to its many desirable properties, including its strength, durability, and biocompatibility.
Hip dysplasia is a common orthopedic condition that affects dogs, particularly large and giant breed dogs. It is a developmental disorder that occurs when the hip joint does not form properly, leading to a malformation of the hip socket and the head of the femur (thigh bone). In dogs with hip dysplasia, the hip joint is unstable and can cause pain, lameness, and difficulty in movement. The severity of the condition can vary, ranging from mild to severe, and can be influenced by factors such as genetics, nutrition, and exercise. Diagnosis of hip dysplasia in dogs typically involves a physical examination, radiographs (X-rays) of the hip joint, and sometimes blood tests to rule out other conditions that may cause similar symptoms. Treatment options for hip dysplasia in dogs include medication to manage pain and inflammation, physical therapy, and in severe cases, surgery to correct the malformation of the hip joint.
Femoral neck fractures are a type of bone fracture that occurs in the upper part of the femur, or thigh bone, near the hip joint. The femoral neck is a curved, narrow section of bone that connects the shaft of the femur to the ball-shaped head of the femur, which fits into the hip socket. Femoral neck fractures are typically caused by a fall or a direct blow to the hip, and they are more common in older adults, especially women, due to the thinning and weakening of bone that occurs with age. Femoral neck fractures can be classified into several types based on their location and severity, including simple fractures, comminuted fractures, and displaced fractures. Treatment options for femoral neck fractures may include non-surgical management, such as bed rest and pain medication, or surgical intervention, such as internal fixation with screws or pins, or replacement of the femoral neck with a prosthetic device. The choice of treatment depends on the age and overall health of the patient, as well as the type and severity of the fracture.
Femur head necrosis, also known as avascular necrosis of the femoral head, is a medical condition in which the bone tissue in the upper part of the thigh bone (femur) dies due to a lack of blood supply. This can occur as a result of a variety of factors, including injury, illness, or certain medications. The condition can cause pain, swelling, and limited mobility in the affected joint, and may eventually lead to the need for joint replacement surgery.
Femoral neoplasms refer to tumors or abnormal growths that develop in the femur, which is the largest and strongest bone in the human body. The femur is located in the thigh and is responsible for supporting the weight of the body and facilitating movement. Femoral neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, meaning they can either be non-cancerous or cancerous. Benign femoral neoplasms are usually slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant femoral neoplasms can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body, leading to serious health complications. Symptoms of femoral neoplasms may include pain, swelling, tenderness, and difficulty moving the affected leg. Diagnosis typically involves imaging tests such as X-rays, MRI scans, or CT scans, followed by biopsy to confirm the type and extent of the neoplasm. Treatment for femoral neoplasms depends on the type and severity of the condition. Benign neoplasms may be treated with surgery to remove the growth, while malignant neoplasms may require more aggressive treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of both. In some cases, amputation of the affected leg may be necessary.
Joint diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the joints, which are the connective tissues that connect bones to each other. These diseases can cause pain, inflammation, stiffness, and reduced mobility in the affected joints. Joint diseases can be classified into several categories, including: 1. Osteoarthritis: A degenerative joint disease that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones wears down over time. 2. Rheumatoid arthritis: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and damage to the lining of the joints, leading to pain, swelling, and stiffness. 3. Psoriatic arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs in people with psoriasis, a chronic skin condition. 4. Gout: A type of arthritis that occurs when uric acid crystals build up in the joints, causing inflammation and pain. 5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs in people with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. 6. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA): A type of arthritis that affects children and adolescents, causing joint pain, swelling, and stiffness. 7. Septic arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs when bacteria or other microorganisms enter the joint and cause an infection. 8. Reactive arthritis: A type of arthritis that occurs in response to an infection, such as a sexually transmitted infection or a urinary tract infection. Joint diseases can be treated with a variety of methods, including medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, and surgery. The specific treatment approach depends on the type and severity of the joint disease, as well as the individual's overall health and preferences.
In the medical field, alloys are typically used in the manufacturing of medical devices and implants. Alloys are mixtures of two or more metals, or metals and non-metals, that have been combined to create a new material with unique properties that are not found in the individual metals. For example, stainless steel is an alloy that is commonly used in medical implants such as hip and knee replacements, dental crowns, and surgical instruments. The combination of iron, chromium, and nickel in stainless steel provides strength, durability, and resistance to corrosion, making it an ideal material for medical applications. Other alloys used in the medical field include titanium alloys, cobalt-chromium alloys, and nickel-titanium alloys. These alloys are often used in orthopedic implants, cardiovascular devices, and dental restorations due to their unique properties such as biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, and high strength-to-weight ratio. Overall, the use of alloys in the medical field has revolutionized the way medical devices and implants are designed and manufactured, allowing for improved patient outcomes and quality of life.
Aortic valve stenosis is a medical condition in which the aortic valve, which is located between the left ventricle of the heart and the aorta, becomes narrowed or hardened, making it difficult for blood to flow from the heart to the rest of the body. This can lead to an increase in blood pressure in the left ventricle, which can cause the heart to work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve. Over time, this can cause the heart muscle to become thickened and weakened, which can lead to heart failure. Aortic valve stenosis is typically caused by the buildup of calcium deposits or other substances on the valve, and it is more common in older adults. Treatment options for aortic valve stenosis may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery to replace the damaged valve.
Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in a joint breaks down, leading to inflammation and pain. Over time, the bones may rub against each other, causing damage to the joint and reducing its range of motion. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis and can affect any joint in the body, but it most commonly affects the knees, hips, spine, and hands. Risk factors for osteoarthritis include age, obesity, injury, and certain medical conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Treatment options for osteoarthritis may include medication, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, and in severe cases, joint replacement surgery.
In the medical field, "Jaw, Edentulous, Partially" refers to a condition where a person has lost some, but not all, of their teeth in the upper or lower jaw. The term "edentulous" means toothless, so "Jaw, Edentulous, Partially" indicates that the person has some remaining teeth in the jaw. This condition is also known as partial edentulism. Partial edentulism can be caused by a variety of factors, including tooth decay, gum disease, injury, or aging. Treatment options for partial edentulism may include dental implants, bridges, dentures, or a combination of these. The specific treatment plan will depend on the individual's specific needs and the condition of their remaining teeth and gums.
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic polymer that is commonly used in the medical field due to its unique properties. It is a non-stick, non-toxic, and highly resistant material that is commonly used in medical implants, such as prosthetic joints, heart valves, and blood vessels. PTFE is also used in medical devices, such as catheters, guidewires, and endoscopes, due to its low friction and non-stick properties. It is also used in surgical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps, due to its durability and resistance to wear and tear. In addition to its use in medical devices, PTFE is also used in surgical implants, such as hernia patches and artificial ligaments, due to its biocompatibility and ability to withstand the rigors of the body. Overall, PTFE is a versatile material that has many applications in the medical field due to its unique properties, including its non-stick, non-toxic, and highly resistant nature.
Joint instability refers to a condition in which the bones of a joint are not able to maintain their normal position and alignment. This can occur due to injury, disease, or other factors that cause the ligaments, tendons, or muscles that support the joint to become weakened or damaged. Joint instability can result in pain, swelling, and difficulty moving the affected joint. In severe cases, it can lead to long-term disability and chronic pain. Treatment for joint instability may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.
Osteoarthritis, also known as degenerative joint disease, is a common condition that affects the knee joint. It is a type of arthritis that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the ends of bones in the joint breaks down, leading to inflammation, pain, and stiffness. Over time, the bones may rub against each other, causing damage to the joint and reducing its ability to move freely. Osteoarthritis of the knee is a common cause of knee pain and disability, particularly in older adults. It can affect one or both knees and can be caused by a variety of factors, including age, injury, and genetics. Treatment options for osteoarthritis of the knee may include medications, physical therapy, and in severe cases, surgery.
Aortic Valve Insufficiency (AVI) is a medical condition in which the aortic valve fails to close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the left ventricle of the heart. This can lead to a decrease in the amount of blood that is pumped out of the heart with each beat, which can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and chest pain. AVI can be caused by a variety of factors, including damage to the valve from infection, high blood pressure, or aging. It can also be caused by certain medical conditions, such as rheumatic fever or Marfan syndrome. Treatment for AVI may include medications, lifestyle changes, or surgery, depending on the severity of the condition.
In the medical field, "Jaw, Edentulous" refers to a condition where an individual has lost all of their natural teeth in the upper or lower jaw, or both. This can occur due to various reasons such as tooth decay, gum disease, injury, or aging. An edentulous jaw can affect an individual's ability to chew, speak, and maintain good oral hygiene. Treatment options for an edentulous jaw may include the use of dentures, dental implants, or other prosthetic devices to replace the missing teeth and restore function and aesthetics.
Amputation, traumatic refers to the surgical removal of a limb or part of a limb due to a traumatic injury, such as a severe fracture, crush injury, or laceration. The injury may be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, falls, violence, or warfare. Traumatic amputation can result in significant physical and emotional trauma for the patient, and the surgical procedure to remove the affected limb is often complex and may require specialized surgical expertise. In some cases, the amputation may be necessary to save the patient's life or prevent further complications, such as infection or gangrene. After the amputation, the patient will typically undergo a period of rehabilitation to learn how to adapt to life with a prosthetic limb or other assistive devices. This may involve physical therapy, occupational therapy, and counseling to help the patient cope with the emotional and psychological impact of the amputation.
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- Although the classic presentation of a hip fracture is an elderly patient who is in extreme pain, a young, healthy athlete usually has the same presentation. (medscape.com)
- A study by Brännström et al that included 408,000 older adults reported an association between antidepressant medications and hip fracture before and after the initiation of therapy. (medscape.com)
- Increased pain on the extremes of hip rotation, an abduction lurch, and an inability to stand on the involved leg may indicate a femoral neck stress fracture. (medscape.com)
- In a prospective single-blind study performed with 30 patients, Turker et al concluded that, when compared to epidural analgesia, lumbar plexus catheters are better tolerated for providing intraoperative and postoperative analgesia to hip fracture patients and for partial hip replacement surgery patients. (medscape.com)
- Fracture of the femoral neck revealing osteosarcoma of the hip treated with massive prosthesis]. (bvsalud.org)
- Conclusions: Our study shows that an almost anatomic reconstruction of hip joint biomechanics is possible with a short-stemmed prosthesis compared to a conventional stem, regarding limb length, centre of rotation and offset. (uni-koeln.de)
- Grupp et al reported their experience regarding failed modular titanium neck adapters, in combination with a titanium alloy modular short hip stem, after hip arthroplasty, as a result of fretting or corrosion. (medscape.com)
- [ 8-10 ] Version, inclination, and offset differences between patients have made it difficult for monoblock stem prostheses to recreate normal anatomy. (medscape.com)
- From 2006 to 2008, approximately 12,000 people received Zimmer Durom Cup hip implants . (injurylawyer-news.com)
- At the time, reports suggested that 20% to 30% of all Durom Cup recipients would experience hip replacement problems , and 5.7% of all Durom Cup hip implants would fail. (injurylawyer-news.com)
- Though the majority of lawsuits involve the company's Durom Cup, the company is also involved in litigation concerning other Zimmer hip implants . (injurylawyer-news.com)
- Limb prostheses are exoskeletal or endoskeletal. (msdmanuals.com)
- Exoskeletal prostheses have a rigid external plastic structure in the shape of a limb. (msdmanuals.com)
- Overview of Limb Prosthetics A limb prosthesis is an artificial limb that replaces a missing body part. (msdmanuals.com)
- Sensors and other inputs detect muscle movement of the residual limb or upper body and control powered actuators that provide greater grasp force than body-powered prostheses. (msdmanuals.com)
- Hybrid prostheses are typically prescribed for higher level upper-limb amputations. (msdmanuals.com)
- [ 2 ] The obturator nerve provides innervation to the hip joint as well as the knee joint and, therefore, the degree of covering the nerve by the block results in better pain control and patient satisfaction. (medscape.com)
- For example, in one study, culture of samples obtained via sonication of prostheses was more sensitive than conventional periprosthetic-tissue culture for microbiologic diagnosis of prosthetic hip and knee infection, especially in patients who had received antimicrobial therapy within the 14 days preceding surgery. (medscape.com)
- When compared with revisions for aseptic loosening or primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs), revisions for sepsis are associated with significantly greater use of hospital and physician resources. (medscape.com)
- Dalury et al followed 96 patients for 5 years who had undergone total hip arthroplasty (THA) with single titanium stems. (medscape.com)
- The prosthetist helps patients choose the type of prosthesis and options they need to accomplish their goals. (msdmanuals.com)
- Patients who are active, in good physical shape and younger are often the best candidates for an anterior approach hip replacement. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- With a view to further extending this period of joint activity metal-on-metal hip resurfacings have been development which allow for implantation into younger and more active patients. (hud.ac.uk)
- As a result of unexpectedly high failure rates and complications, many patients chose to file a Zimmer hip replacement lawsuit . (injurylawyer-news.com)
- The MDL's original 11 plaintiffs soon grew exponentially, as more patients became aware that their health problems and hip complications were not random bad luck, but possibly due to a faulty hip implant. (injurylawyer-news.com)
- Patients with hip fractures may present in a variety of ways, ranging from an 80-year-old woman reporting hip pain after a trivial fall to a 30-year-old man in hemorrhagic shock after a high-speed motor vehicle accident. (medscape.com)
- In a meta-analysis, antigranulocyte scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies had a reasonably high discriminating ability with respect to identification of prosthesis infection in patients who underwent total joint arthroplasty. (medscape.com)
- Designed to elevate the proximal femur during total hip or hemi-arthroplasty surgery. (innomed.net)
- It's considered an extensile approach that permits broader access to the pelvis bone around the hip socket and the femur (thigh bone). (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- The extremity shortening occurs because the muscles acting on the hip joint depend on the continuity of the femur to act, and when this continuity is disrupted, the result is a shorter-appearing leg. (medscape.com)
- Unacceptably high early hip failure rates are at the heart of Zimmer hip replacement lawsuit complaints, but reported complications encompass many more issues. (injurylawyer-news.com)
- This artificial joint (prosthesis) helps reduce pain and improve function. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- In addition, the anterior approach is performed with the patient supine (lying on his or her back), which facilitates use of X-ray guidance and increases placement accuracy of prosthetic hip components. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- previously failed endoprostheses, and/or total hip components in the affected extremity and acute femoral neck fractures. (fda.gov)
- Barclay, L. New Guidelines Address Hip Fractures in Older Adults. (medscape.com)
- Management of Hip Fractures in the Elderly: Evidence- Based Clinical Practice Guideline. (medscape.com)
- In order to optimize the chosen prosthesis, the geometry of the three elements constituting the prosthesis was reconstructed through the reverse engineering technique: femoral head, acetabular cup and insert. (herts.ac.uk)
- The company currently manufactures hip replacement components (femoral heads and acetabular cups), as well as revision surgery components. (injurylawyer-news.com)
- Note, ceramic or metal femoral heads are used on composite hip stems because composites have relatively poor wear properties. (medscape.com)
- The purpose of the present study was to biomechanically compare joint reconstructions resulting from implantations of a short-stemmed and a conventional hip replacement. (uni-koeln.de)
- The hip centre of rotation was significantly medialised after both procedures (short: 6.0 mm and conventional: 4.2 mm). (uni-koeln.de)
- However, these bearings have recently been the subject of a MHRA device alert due to unexplained hip pain and reported soft tissue reactions and indeed are under investigation having been shown to exhibit high failure rates. (hud.ac.uk)
- what they didn't anticipate was device loosening and early hip failure . (injurylawyer-news.com)
- The patient is typically lying on his or her side, and the hip is approached on the side and then around the front (anterior) portion of the hip. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- Endoskeletal prostheses have a central inner skeletal structure that includes modular components and couplings that provide angular adjustably in all three planes and facilitate removal of damaged components. (msdmanuals.com)
- Jacoby L, Yi-Meng Y, Kocher MS. Hip problems and arthroscopy: adolescent hip as it relates to sports. (medscape.com)
Total Hip Replace3
- Designed for proximal femoral elevation in total hip replacement or in other surgery with a similar need for bone manipulation. (innomed.net)
- The anterior (front) approach to total hip replacement involves the surgeon entering through the front of the upper thigh. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- Total hip replacement. (who.int)
- [ 1 ] This involved using a platinum and rubber prosthesis to replace a shoulder that was debrided for tuberculosis. (medscape.com)
- Hip replacement is surgery for people with severe hip damage. (medlineplus.gov)
- If other treatments such as physical therapy, pain medicines, and exercise haven't helped, hip replacement surgery might be an option for you. (medlineplus.gov)
- The most common problem after surgery is hip dislocation. (medlineplus.gov)
- During hip replacement surgery, a surgeon removes the damaged sections of your hip joint and replaces them with parts usually constructed of metal and very hard plastic. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- Psoas compartment block was found to be a better technique for postoperative analgesia after hip and femoral surgery when compared to epidural block in children. (medscape.com)
- However, hip prosthesis cannot guarantee the same dynamic friction coefficients of natural joints. (herts.ac.uk)
- During a hip replacement operation, the surgeon removes damaged cartilage and bone from your hip joint and replaces them with new, man-made parts. (medlineplus.gov)
- In most cases, at least a small portion of the gluteus medius muscle needs to be released to facilitate adequate exposure of the hip joint for hip replacement. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- In hip replacement the use of hard bearing materials, which have been shown to have lower wear rates than traditional metal-UHMWPE couples, has been encouraged in an effort to extend component life-in-service. (hud.ac.uk)
- Testing reveals a painful hip with limited range of motion, especially in internal rotation. (medscape.com)
- The posterior (back), or traditional, approach involves the surgeon entering just behind the side of the hip bone. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- There are many different options for prostheses, but all options aim to achieve a stable, comfortable fit. (msdmanuals.com)
- Because a man-made hip is smaller than the original joint, the ball can come out of its socket. (medlineplus.gov)
- The human hand is complex, and often two different prostheses are necessary to provide optimal function for general daily activities and for specific activities. (msdmanuals.com)
- Externally powered myoelectric prostheses provide active hand and joint movement without the need of scapular, humeral, or trunk motion. (msdmanuals.com)
- A harness-cable system suspends the prosthesis and captures scapular and humeral motion to operate the hook, hand, or elbow joint. (msdmanuals.com)
- The results obtained with the finite element 3D model were used as a reference to study the effects of some geometrical parameters of the prosthesis with a simplified model which takes advantage of the geometric axisymmetrical properties of the prosthesis. (herts.ac.uk)
- With a hip replacement, you might need to avoid certain activities, such as jogging and high-impact sports. (medlineplus.gov)
- For example, prostheses can be designed for general daily mobility, for specific activities such as swimming, or for high-impact and competitive sports such as running. (msdmanuals.com)
- The hip is opened between the gluteus medius (muscle on the outside of the pelvis) and tensor fascia latae muscles (small muscle just in front of the hip joint). (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- The front portion of the hip abductor muscles (gluteus medius and gluteus minimus) are then removed from the greater trochanter to open up the hip joint. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- This approach classically has the lowest risk of dislocation (ball coming out of the socket) but does carry the risk of a persistent limp from weakness of the hip abductor muscles. (mayoclinichealthsystem.org)
- The present study analyses the main design solutions for hip prosthesis, in terms of geometries and materials and an in-depth bibliographic research was performed to identify the load spectra corresponding to the different operation conditions of the planted joint. (herts.ac.uk)
- The final aim of this study is to analyze the stress state induced in the prosthesis by the mounting effect as well as under the action of loads deriving from ambulation in order to perform a structural optimization which guarantees the needed life time. (herts.ac.uk)
- Exoskeletal prostheses are more durable and are preferred primarily when the prosthesis may be exposed to harsh environmental conditions, such as impact damage during physical labor or a caustic environment. (msdmanuals.com)
- [ 4 ] The average Harris Hip score was 96 points (range, 73-100) at final follow-up, and radiographically, all stems were ingrown. (medscape.com)