Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)
Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.
The development of new BLOOD VESSELS during the restoration of BLOOD CIRCULATION during the healing process.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Penetrating and non-penetrating injuries to the spinal cord resulting from traumatic external forces (e.g., WOUNDS, GUNSHOT; WHIPLASH INJURIES; etc.).
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Distinct regions of mesenchymal outgrowth at both flanks of an embryo during the SOMITE period. Limb buds, covered by ECTODERM, give rise to forelimb, hindlimb, and eventual functional limb structures. Limb bud cultures are used to study CELL DIFFERENTIATION; ORGANOGENESIS; and MORPHOGENESIS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Region of the back including the LUMBAR VERTEBRAE, SACRUM, and nearby structures.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.
Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Manner or style of walking.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.
Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).
The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A departure from the normal gait in animals.
Fibers that arise from cell groups within the spinal cord and pass directly to the cerebellum. They include the anterior, posterior, and rostral spinocerebellar tracts, and the cuneocerebellar tract. (From Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p607)
The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.

Rescue of diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis by intramuscular gene therapy with adeno-VEGF. (1/4207)

Diabetes is a major risk factor for coronary and peripheral artery diseases. Although diabetic patients often present with advanced forms of these diseases, it is not known whether the compensatory mechanisms to vascular ischemia are affected in this condition. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether diabetes could: 1) impair the development of new collateral vessel formation in response to tissue ischemia and 2) inhibit cytokine-induced therapeutic neovascularization. Hindlimb ischemia was created by femoral artery ligation in nonobese diabetic mice (NOD mice, n = 20) and in control C57 mice (n = 20). Hindlimb perfusion was evaluated by serial laser Doppler studies after the surgery. In NOD mice, measurement of the Doppler flow ratio between the ischemic and the normal limb indicated that restoration of perfusion in the ischemic hindlimb was significantly impaired. At day 14 after surgery, Doppler flow ratio in the NOD mice was 0.49+/-0.04 versus 0.73+/-0.06 for the C57 mice (P< or =0.005). This impairment in blood flow recovery persisted throughout the duration of the study with Doppler flow ratio values at day 35 of 0.50+/-0.05 versus 0.90+/-0.07 in the NOD and C57 mice, respectively (P< or =0.001). CD31 immunostaining confirmed the laser Doppler data by showing a significant reduction in capillary density in the NOD mice at 35 days after surgery (302+/-4 capillaries/mm2 versus 782+/-78 in C57 mice (P< or =0.005). The reduction in neovascularization in the NOD mice was the result of a lower level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ischemic tissues, as assessed by Northern blot, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The central role of VEGF was confirmed by showing that normal levels of neovascularization (compared with C57) could be achieved in NOD mice that had been supplemented for this growth factor via intramuscular injection of an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF. We conclude that 1) diabetes impairs endogenous neovascularization of ischemic tissues; 2) the impairment in new blood vessel formation results from reduced expression of VEGF; and 3) cytokine supplementation achieved by intramuscular adeno-VEGF gene transfer restores neovascularization in a mouse model of diabetes.  (+info)

Granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor and interleukin-3 correct osteopetrosis in mice with osteopetrosis mutation. (2/4207)

Although young mice homozygous for the osteopetrosis (op) mutation usually developed prominent osteopetrosis, its severity was markedly reduced in aged op/op mice. This age-associated reversal of osteopetrosis was accompanied by the expansion of bone marrow cavities and increased numbers of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and of macrophages in the bone marrow. The TRAP-positive cells were mononuclear and developed ruffled borders and numerous vesicles, vacuoles, and granules. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a significant elevation of serum granulocyte/ macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin (IL)-3 levels in the aged op/op mice. To examine whether GM-CSF and/or IL-3 could correct osteopetrosis in young op/op mice, 5 ng of recombinant murine (rm)GM-CSF and/or 100 ng of rmIL-3 were injected daily into young op/op mice. In these treated young op/op mice, the bone marrow cavities were expanded significantly at 2 weeks after administration, associated with significantly increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells and bone marrow macrophages. TRAP-positive cells increased in number with days after injection. These results suggest that GM-CSF and IL-3 induce the development of osteoclasts to correct osteopetrosis in the op/op mice with aging.  (+info)

Specific and innervation-regulated expression of the intermediate filament protein nestin at neuromuscular and myotendinous junctions in skeletal muscle. (3/4207)

The intermediate filament proteins nestin, vimentin, and desmin show a specific temporal expression pattern during the development of myofibers from myogenic precursor cells. Nestin and vimentin are actively expressed during early developmental stages to be later down-regulated, vimentin completely and nestin to minimal levels, whereas desmin expression begins later and is maintained in mature myofibers, in which desmin participates in maintaining structural integrity. In this study we have analyzed the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin in intact and denervated muscle in rat and in human. Nestin immunoreactivity was specifically and focally localized in the sarcoplasm underneath neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and in the vicinity of the myotendinous junctions (MTJs), ie, in regions associated with acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). This association prompted us to analyze nestin in neurogenically and myogenically denervated muscle. Immunoblot analysis disclosed a marked overall increase of accumulated nestin protein. Similar to the extrajunctional redistribution of AChRs in denervated myofibers, nestin immunoreactivity extended widely beyond the NMJ region. Re-innervation caused complete reversion of these changes. Our study demonstrates that the expression levels and distribution pattern of nestin are regulated by innervation, ie, signal transduction into myofibers.  (+info)

The mechanism of the increasing action of TA-993, a new 1,5- benzothiazepine derivative, on limb blood flow in anesthetized dogs: selective suppression of sympathetic nerve activity. (4/4207)

TA-993, (-)-cis-3-acetoxy-5-(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl)-2, 3-di-hydro-8-methyl-2-(4-methylphenyl)-1,5-benzothiazepin-4(5H)one maleate, a new 1,5-benzothiazepine derivative with l-cis configuration, has a unique and selective increasing action on limb blood flow with little influence on arterial pressure besides an antiplatelet action. We studied the mechanism of increasing action of TA-993 on limb blood flow in anesthetized dogs. In a canine blood-perfused hindlimb preparation with a donor dog, TA-993 (100 microg/kg i.v.) did not increase femoral blood flow when administered to the donor dog, but did when administered to a recipient dog. TA-993 did not show the increasing action on femoral blood flow in the presence of hexamethonium or phentolamine, whereas it did in the presence of propranolol or atropine. TA-993 also showed a weak increasing effect on heart rate, which was inhibited by any one of these blockers. TA-993 (300 microg/kg i.v.) did not alter the phenylephrine (1-100 ng/kg i.a.)- or the talipexole (3-100 ng/kg i.a.)-induced increase in perfusion pressure in an autoperfused hindlimb. These results suggest that the increasing action of TA-993 on limb blood flow is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system but that the adrenergic receptors are not likely to be the central point of action of this new agent. There is a possibility that the mechanism of the increasing action on heart rate is different from that of its increasing action on limb blood flow.  (+info)

The contribution of extraneuronal uptake to the trachea-blood vessel selectivity of beta-adrenoceptor stimulants in vitro in guinea-pigs. (5/4207)

1 The potencies relative to isoprenaline of isoetharine, tertiary butyl noradrenaline, salbutamol, orciprenaline, Me 506, rimiterol, fenoterol, carbuterol and terbutaline on isolated preparations of guinea-pig trachea and blood vessels (perfused hind limb) were determined. All the compounds were selective for trachea and selectivity values, i.e. relative potency on trachea divided by relative potency on hind limb, ranged from 2.3 to 21.4. 2 Responses to isoprenaline (the reference compound), tertiary butyl noradrenaline and isoetharine were potentiated on trachea by 50 muM phenoxybenzamine (PHB) and by other inhibitors of extraneuronal uptake (ENU). Under these conditions the selectivity values of all the compounds was close to unity. 3 Selectivity values were also close to unity if they were calculated from data obtained without ENU inhibition, provided that only those compounds not potentiated by PHB on trachea were used. 4 It is proposed that the trachea-blood vessel selectivity shown by beta-adrenoceptor stimulants can be caused by the influence of ENU upon them, rather than by their ability to distinguish between two beta2-adrenoceptors. 5 The suggestion that differences exist between beta2-adrenoceptors in respiratory and vascular smooth muscle is not supported by the in vitro experiments described.  (+info)

Source of inappropriate receptive fields in cortical somatotopic maps from rats that sustained neonatal forelimb removal. (6/4207)

Previously this laboratory demonstrated that forelimb removal at birth in rats results in the invasion of the cuneate nucleus by sciatic nerve axons and the development of cuneothalamic cells with receptive fields that include both the forelimb-stump and the hindlimb. However, unit-cluster recordings from primary somatosensory cortex (SI) of these animals revealed few sites in the forelimb-stump representation where responses to hindlimb stimulation also could be recorded. Recently we reported that hindlimb inputs to the SI forelimb-stump representation are suppressed functionally in neonatally amputated rats and that GABAergic inhibition is involved in this process. The present study was undertaken to assess the role that intracortical projections from the SI hindlimb representation may play in the functional reorganization of the SI forelimb-stump field in these animals. The SI forelimb-stump representation was mapped during gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-receptor blockade, both before and after electrolytic destruction of the SI hindlimb representation. Analysis of eight amputated rats showed that 75.8% of 264 stump recording sites possessed hindlimb receptive fields before destruction of the SI hindlimb. After the lesions, significantly fewer sites (13.2% of 197) were responsive to hindlimb stimulation (P < 0.0001). Electrolytic destruction of the SI lower-jaw representation in four additional control rats with neonatal forelimb amputation did not significantly reduce the percentage of hindlimb-responsive sites in the SI stump field during GABA-receptor blockade (P = 0.98). Similar results were obtained from three manipulated rats in which the SI hindlimb representation was silenced temporarily with a local cobalt chloride injection. Analysis of response latencies to sciatic nerve stimulation in the hindlimb and forelimb-stump representations suggested that the intracortical pathway(s) mediating the hindlimb responses in the forelimb-stump field may be polysynaptic. The mean latency to sciatic nerve stimulation at responsive sites in the GABA-receptor blocked SI stump representation of neonatally amputated rats was significantly longer than that for recording sites in the hindlimb representation [26.3 +/- 8.1 (SD) ms vs. 10.8 +/- 2.4 ms, respectively, P < 0.0001]. These results suggest that hindlimb input to the SI forelimb-stump representation detected in GABA-blocked cortices of neonatally forelimb amputated rats originates primarily from the SI hindlimb representation.  (+info)

Role of the Bicoid-related homeodomain factor Pitx1 in specifying hindlimb morphogenesis and pituitary development. (7/4207)

Pitx1 is a Bicoid-related homeodomain factor that exhibits preferential expression in the hindlimb, as well as expression in the developing anterior pituitary gland and first branchial arch. Here, we report that Pitx1 gene-deleted mice exhibit striking abnormalities in morphogenesis and growth of the hindlimb, resulting in a limb that exhibits structural changes in tibia and fibula as well as patterning alterations in patella and proximal tarsus, to more closely resemble the corresponding forelimb structures. Deletion of the Pitx1 locus results in decreased distal expression of the hindlimb-specific marker, the T-box factor, Tbx4. On the basis of similar expression patterns in chick, targeted misexpression of chick Pitx1 in the developing wing bud causes the resulting limb to assume altered digit number and morphogenesis, with Tbx4 induction. We hypothesize that Pitx1 serves to critically modulate morphogenesis, growth, and potential patterning of a specific hindlimb region, serving as a component of the morphological and growth distinctions in forelimb and hindlimb identity. Pitx1 gene-deleted mice also exhibit reciprocal abnormalities of two ventral and one dorsal anterior pituitary cell types, presumably on the basis of its synergistic functions with other transcription factors, and defects in the derivatives of the first branchial arch, including cleft palate, suggesting a proliferative defect in these organs analogous to that observed in the hindlimb.  (+info)

Trigeminal and carotid body inputs controlling vascular resistance in muscle during post-contraction hyperaemia in cats. (8/4207)

1. In anaesthetized cats, the effects of stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa and carotid body chemoreceptors on vascular resistance in hindlimb skeletal muscle were studied to see whether the responses were the same in active as in resting muscle. The measurements of vascular resistance were taken, first, in resting muscle, and second, in the immediate post-contraction hyperaemic phase that followed a 30 s period of isometric contractions. 2. Stimulation of the receptors in the nasal mucosa caused reflex apnoea and vasoconstriction in muscle. The latter response was attenuated when the test was repeated during post-contraction hyperaemia. 3. Stimulations of the carotid bodies were made during a period of apnoea evoked reflexly by electrical stimulation of both superior laryngeal nerves. This apnoea prevented any effects of changes in respiration on the carotid body reflex vascular responses. Stimulation of the carotid bodies evoked hindlimb muscle vasoconstriction. In the post-contraction hyperaemic period, the response was reduced or abolished. A similar attenuation of the reflex vasoconstrictor responses occurred in decentralized muscles stimulated through their motor roots in the cauda equina. 4. Evidence is presented that the attenuation of the vasoconstrictor responses evoked by the two reflexes is a phenomenon localized to the contracting muscles themselves resulting from an interaction between sympathetic neuronal activity and the local production of metabolites. 5. The results are discussed in relation to the metabolic needs of tissues in relation to asphyxial defence mechanisms such as occur in the diving response.  (+info)

Supplementary Material from The impact of pelvic lateral rotation on hindlimb kinematics and stride length in the red-legged running frog, Kassina ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective effects of exercise preconditioning on hindlimb unloading-induced atrophy of rat soleus muscle. AU - Fujino, H.. AU - Ishihara, A.. AU - Murakami, S.. AU - Yasuhara, T.. AU - Kondo, H.. AU - Mohri, S.. AU - Takeda, I.. AU - Roy, R. R.. PY - 2009/9. Y1 - 2009/9. N2 - Aim: A chronic decrease in the activation and loading levels of skeletal muscles as occurs with hindlimb unloading (HU) results in a number of detrimental changes. Several proteolytic pathways are involved with an increase in myofibrillar protein degradation associated with HU. Exercise can be used to counter this increase in proteolytic activity and, thus, may be able to protect against some of the detrimental changes associated with chronic decreased use. The purpose of the present study was to determine the potential of a single bout of preconditioning endurance exercise in attenuating the effects of 2 weeks of HU on the mass, phenotype and force-related properties of the soleus muscle in adult rats. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Estrogen deficiency attenuates neovascularization in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia. AU - Matsubara, Kentaro. AU - Harada, Hirohisa. AU - Ando, Nobutoshi. AU - Watada, Susumu. AU - Obara, Hideaki. AU - Matsumoto, Kenji. AU - Kitagawa, Yuukou. PY - 2012/12. Y1 - 2012/12. N2 - Background: The possible relation between menopause and the development of peripheral arterial disease, especially lower extremity disease, has not been fully studied. To explore this issue, we investigated whether estrogen deficiency affected neovascularization in a murine model of hindlimb ischemia. Methods: Ischemia was surgically induced in one hindlimb of oophorectomized and control female BALB/c mice. Neovascularization in the ischemic hindlimbs was evaluated using laser Doppler blood flow analysis and capillary density analysis of the adductor muscle. The expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein in the adductor muscle of the ischemic hindlimbs was assessed. Results: The plasma 17-β ...
The present study first demonstrates that ex vivo cell therapy, consisting of culture-expanded EPC transplantation, may be a novel therapy for diabetic neuropathy. The transplantation of cord blood-derived EPCs into unilateral hindlimb skeletal muscles reversed the impairment of sciatic MNCV and SNBF in the EPC-injected side of diabetic animal. The immunohistological study revealed that the number of the vessels was increased in the EPC-injected side of hindlimb skeletal muscle.. After the discovery of EPCs in adult peripheral blood in 1997, many experimental studies revealed that EPCs have a potent ability for neovascularization and that the transplantation of EPCs improves ischemic tissue (11,17). Because EPCs exist in bone marrow and cord blood and small percentages are found in peripheral blood, clinical trials of the transplantation of MNCs from bone marrow or peripheral blood were performed for the treatment of ischemic diseases. The Therapeutic Angiogenesis Using Cell Transplantation ...
Objective- Recent clinical studies of therapeutic neovascularization using angiogenic growth factors demonstrated smaller therapeutic effects than those reported in animal experiments. We hypothesized that nanoparticle (NP)-mediated cell-selective delivery of statins to vascular endothelium would more effectively and integratively induce therapeutic neovascularization.. Methods and Results- In a murine hindlimb ischemia model, intramuscular injection of biodegradable polymeric NP resulted in cell-selective delivery of NP into the capillary and arteriolar endothelium of ischemic muscles for up to 2 weeks postinjection. NP-mediated statin delivery significantly enhanced recovery of blood perfusion to the ischemic limb, increased angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, and promoted expression of the protein kinase Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and angiogenic growth factors. These effects were blocked in mice administered a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, or in eNOS-deficient ...
The present study used a gene-targeting strategy to establish a novel role for EC-derived MMP-2 in neovascularization. We provided both in vitro and in vivo evidence that MMP-2 promotes the migratory and angiogenic capacity of cultured aortic EC and BM-derived EPC-like c-Kit+ cells and further neovessel growth. In line with recent studies indicating that certain MMPs are involved in EPC mobilization, our data underscore the critical role of MMP-2 in EPC mobilization into the circulation to support ischemia-induced neovascularization. The mechanisms underlying the impairment of ischemia-induced neovascularization in MMP-2-deficient mice are schematically represented in supplemental Figure X.. The capillary density, collateral artery, and blood flow in the ischemic tissues were much lower in MMP-2−/− mice than in MMP-2+/+ mice, despite the compensatory increase of MMP-9 expression and its activity and TIMP-1 expression. This suggested that endogenous MMP-2 contributes to ischemia-induced ...
In the present study, we demonstrated in vivo that AM infusion or MNC transplantation alone induced angiogenesis in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia, the combination of AM infusion and MNC transplantation enhanced MNC-induced angiogenesis, and AM increased the number of MNC-derived vWF-positive cells and generated α-SMA-positive vascular structures. We also demonstrated in vitro that AM inhibited serum starvation-induced MNC apoptosis, promoted MNC adhesiveness to an HUVEC monolayer, increased the number of MNC-derived EPCs, and stimulated SMC migration.. MNC transplantation causes therapeutic angiogenesis by supplying EPCs and multiple angiogenic cytokines such as VEGF.3,4 The present study showed that local infusion of AM significantly increased blood perfusion and capillary density in ischemic hindlimb muscle. Furthermore, a combination of AM infusion and MNC transplantation significantly increased blood perfusion and capillary density of the ischemic hindlimb compared with MNC ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NADPH oxidase 2 regulates bone marrow microenvironment following hindlimb ischemia. T2 - Role in reparative mobilization of progenitor cells. AU - Urao, Norifumi. AU - McKinney, Ronald D.. AU - Fukai, Tohru. AU - Ushio-Fukai, Masuko. PY - 2012/5/1. Y1 - 2012/5/1. N2 - Bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, which is regulated by hypoxia and proteolytic enzymes, is crucial for stem/progenitor cell function and mobilization involved in postnatal neovascularization. We demonstrated that NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2)-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in postischemic mobilization of BM cells and revascularization. However, role of Nox2 in regulating BM microenvironment in response to ischemic injury remains unknown. Here, we show that hindlimb ischemia of mice increases ROS production in both the endosteal and central region of BM tissue in situ, which is almost completely abolished in Nox2 knockout (KO) mice. This Nox2-dependent ROS production is mainly derived from Gr-1+myeloid ...
Objective Oxygen delivery, underpinned by vascular tone, is the principle limiting factor in the study of skeletal muscle physiology, particularly during muscle contraction. The aim of this study was to develop an autologous perfused rat hind limb preparation for the study of skeletal muscle contractile function. Methods Adult Wistar rats were surgically prepared using a by-pass system for pump-controlled arterial blood flow to, and venous return from the hind limb during periods of quiescence and twitch contraction of the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus muscle bundle. Results During rest, hind limb perfusion pressure (102 ± 5 mmHg) was not different to systemic arterial pressure (99 ± 4 mmHg). Hind limb pressure was responsive to vasoconstrictors and vasodilators (±50 mmHg). The arterial PO2 (100 ± 3 mmHg), O2 saturation, and acid-base balance (pH: 7.42 ± 0.01) contributed to resting hind limb (a-v)O2 difference (4.8 ± 0.5 mL/100 mL) and VO2 (0.31 ± 0.03 μmol/g/min wet weight). Repetitive
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been increasingly tested in cell-based therapy to treat numerous diseases. Genetic modification to improve MSC behavior may enhance posttransplantation outcome. This study aims to test the potential therapeutic benefits of rat bone marrow MSCs overexpressing hypoxia-inducible factor 2α (rMSCsHIF-2α ) in a rat hindlimb ischemia model. PBS, rMSCs, or rMSCsHIF-2α were injected into rat ischemic hindlimb. Compared with the injection of PBS or rMSCs, transplantation of rMSCsHIF-2α significantly improved blood perfusion, increased the number of vessel branches in the muscle of the ischemic hindlimb, and improved the foot mobility of the ischemic hindlimb (all P , 0 ...
Canine Hindlimb Muscles Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by Kirkypls42
Bone marrow mononuclear cells (BM MNC), specifically monocytic cells, can augment new blood vessel formation in a hind limb ischemia model of angiogenesis. Approaches to track the activity of such cells in vivo with MRI have employed labeling with ferrous compounds to provide MR contrast effects. We propose a new labeling method utilizing perfluorocarbon nanoparticles (PFC NP) that avoids the ubiquitous background water signal and the susceptibility artifact that accompanies iron oxide particles, and also allows quantification of the signal to determine nanoparticle concentration,. The advantage of PFC NP is their inherent fluorine signal that can be analyzed using 19F MR imaging and spectroscopy. BM MNCs isolated from the femur and tibia of donor mice were labeled in 6 hours without the use of transfection agents and without detriment to viability (,95% via dye exclusion). Analysis by flow cytometry showed that the PFC NP labeling efficiency for the Gr-1+ cells and CD11b+ cells (both monocytic ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Advances in Pulsed Doppler Methods for Peripheral Perfusion Imaging. AU - Insana, Michael F.. AU - Zhu, Yang. AU - Kim, Min Woo. AU - Dobrucki, L. Wawrzyniec. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - We report on methods for imaging blood perfusion in peripheral skeletal muscle tissues without exogenous contrast enhancement. The ultimate goal is to provide new tools for monitoring the development and treatment of peripheral artery disease (PAD) in diabetic patients. Sparse ultrasonic pulse-echo acquisitions are arranged into 3-D echo data arrays. Each array is decomposed using higher-order singular value decomposition (HOSVD) methods to uncouple echo sources for clutter filtering before signal power is mapped into power Doppler (PD) images. This method enables further segmentation of the blood-echo power into flow maps covering non-overlapping velocity ranges. Our method is compared with other imaging modalities that together assess the recovery in a murine hindlimb ischemia model of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of nox2-based NADPH 0xidase in bone marrow and progenitor cell function involved in neovascularization induced by hindlimb ischemia. AU - Urao, Norifumi. AU - Inomata, Hyoe. AU - Razvi, Masooma. AU - Kim, Ha Won. AU - Wary, Kishore. AU - McKinney, Ronald. AU - Fukai, Tohru. AU - Ushio-Fukai, Masuko. PY - 2008/7/18. Y1 - 2008/7/18. N2 - Bone marrow (BM) is the major reservoir for endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Postnatal neovascularization depends on not only angiogenesis but also vasculogenesis, which is mediated through mobilization of EPCs from BM and their recruitment to the ischemic sites. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from Nox2-based NADPH oxidase play an important role in postnatal neovascularization; however, their role in BM and EPC function is unknown. Here we show that hindlimb ischemia of mice significantly increases Nox2 expression and ROS production in BM-mononuclear cells (BMCs), which is associated with an increase in circulating EPC-like cells. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of extracellular genomic DNA scaffold in human thrombus. T2 - Implications for the use of deoxyribonuclease enzymes in thrombolysis. AU - Oklu, Rahmi. AU - Albadawi, Hassan. AU - Watkins, Michael T.. AU - Monestier, Marc. AU - Sillesen, Martin. AU - Wicky, Stephan. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Purpose: Mechanisms underlying transition of a thrombus susceptible to tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) fibrinolysis to one that is resistant is unclear. Demonstration of a new possible thrombus scaffold may open new avenues of research in thrombolysis and may provide mechanistic insight into thrombus remodeling. Materials and Methods: Ten human thrombus samples were collected during cases of thrombectomy and open surgical repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (five samples , 3 d old and five samples , 1 y old). Additionally, an acute murine hindlimb ischemia model was created to evaluate thrombus samples in mice. Human sections were immunostained for the H2A/H2B/DNA complex, ...
Lee CW, Stabile E, Kinnaird T, Shou M, Devaney JM, Epstein SE, Burnett MS. Temporal patterns of gene expression after acute hindlimb ischemia in mice: insights into the genomic program for collateral vessel development. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Feb 04; 43(3):474-82 ...
The domestic dog is believed to be a direct descendant from modern wolves. Dogs have been bred as pets for thousands of years with the earliest known domestication taking place as long as 12,000 years ago. Today, dogs serve man in many ways: as guides, search and rescue, for hunting purposes, to sniff out drugs or othe
Three-Dimensional Cell Aggregates Composed of HUVECs and cbMSCs for Therapeutic Neovascularization in a Mouse Model of Hindlimb Ischemia
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1-(3,5-dimethyl-4-propionylamino)benzoyl-4-(N-methyl-2-phenylethyl)aminopiperidine: a canine hindlimb vasodilator; structure in first source
Hind-limb function indicated a progressive decline in function of ischemia-reperfusion IR controls. The scores of Sham group at the same time point were higher
Study. U251 cells (56106) were injected into the right hind flank subcutaneously. When the tumors reached a volume of ,150 mm3 they were randomized into one of
TY - JOUR. T1 - The impact of pelvic lateral rotation on hindlimb kinematics and stride-length in the red-legged running frog, Kassina maculata. AU - Collings, Amber. AU - Porro, Laura. AU - Hill, Cameron. AU - Richards, Christopher T.. PY - 2019/5/8. Y1 - 2019/5/8. N2 - Some frog species, such as Kassina maculata (red-legged running frog), use an asynchronous walking/running gait as their primary locomotor mode. Prior comparative anatomy work has suggested that lateral rotation of the pelvis improves walking performance by increasing hindlimb stride length; however, this hypothesis has never been tested. Using non-invasive methods, experimental high-speed video data collected from eight animals were used to create two three-dimensional kinematic models. These models, each fixed to alternative local anatomical reference frames, were used to investigate the hypothesis that lateral rotation of the mobile ilio-sacral joint in the anuran pelvis plays a propulsive role in walking locomotion by ...
The main result of this study is that CXCR3 expression positively modulates ischemia-induced neovascularization, likely through modulation of inflammatory cell infiltration within the ischemic area. This study also extends previous results on the role of MCP-1 in this process and shows a significant impairment in postischemic neovascularization in MCP-1-deficient mice.. Classically, inflammatory cells have been shown to promote neovascularization through various mechanisms, including production of angiogenic factors, secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, and increased matrix degradation.7-9 LPS-induced monocyte accumulation promotes vessel growth, whereas absence of macrophages is associated with a deficient neovascularization response.10,11 A specific role of T cells in this setting was also suggested in Nude mice and in CD4-deficient mice, which exhibit a marked reduction in the angiogenic/arteriogenic process.4,5 In this study, we showed that CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL-10 and CXCL-9 were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A transgenic rat expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in peripheral nerves provides a new hindlimb model for the study of nerve injury and regeneration. AU - Moore, Amy M.. AU - Borschel, Gregory H.. AU - Santosa, Katherine B.. AU - Flagg, Eric R.. AU - Tong, Alice Y.. AU - Kasukurthi, Rahul. AU - Newton, Piyaraj. AU - Yan, Ying. AU - Hunter, Daniel A.. AU - Johnson, Philip J.. AU - Mackinnon, Susan E.. PY - 2012/2/1. Y1 - 2012/2/1. N2 - Background: In order to evaluate nerve regeneration in clinically relevant hindlimb surgical paradigms not feasible in fluorescent mice models, we developed a rat that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) in neural tissue. Methods: Transgenic Sprague-Dawley rat lines were created using pronuclear injection of a transgene expressing GFP under the control of the thy1 gene. Nerves were imaged under fluorescence microscopy and muscles were imaged with confocal microscopy to determine GFP expression following sciatic nerve crush, ...
Gene therapy stimulating the growth of blood vessels is considered for the treatment of peripheral and myocardial ischemia. Here we aimed to achieve angiogenic synergism between vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A, VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) in murine normoperfused and ischemic limb muscles. Adeno-associated viral vectors (AAVs) carrying β-galactosidase gene (AAV-LacZ), VEGF-A (AAV-VEGF-A) or two angiogenic genes (AAV-FGF4-IRES-VEGF-A) were injected into the normo-perfused adductor muscles of C57Bl/6 mice. Moreover, in a different experiment, mice were subjected to unilateral hindlimb ischemia by femoral artery ligation followed by intramuscular injections of AAV-LacZ, AAV-VEGF-A or AAV-FGF4-IRES-VEGF-A below the site of ligation. Post-ischemic blood flow recovery was assessed sequentially by color laser Doppler. Mice were monitored for 28 days. VEGF-A delivered alone (AAV-VEGF-A) or in combination with FGF4 (AAV-FGF4-IRES-VEGF-A) increased the number of capillaries in normo
OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a multifunctional proinflammatory cytokine that plays a critical role in mediating inflammatory and immunological responses. TNF-α has been shown to elicit both beneficial and detrimental biological effects by acting through its two receptors, TNFR1/p55 and TNFR2/p75. Previous studies from this laboratory have shown that TNF-TNFR2/p75 signaling plays a critical role in ischemia-induced neovascularization in muscle and heart tissues. However, the role of TNF-TNFR2/p75 signaling in ischemia induced inflammation and muscle regeneration remains to be characterized. METHODS: To evaluate ischemia induced inflammation responses, young wild type (WT) and young TNFR2/p75 knockout (p75KO) mice were subjected to unilateral hind limb ischemia (HLI) surgery. Operated hind limb tissue samples were collected at 1, 3, 7, and 10 days post-HLI surgery and studied for neutrophil (myeloperoxidase-1 positive cells) and macrophage (F4/80 positive cells) infiltration ...
Subcutaneous infusion of ANG II at 450, but not 150, ng·kg−1·min−1 for 14 days elevated baseline MAP compared with sham rats. We found that RSNA and pressor responses to continuous contraction and the RSNA response to intermittent contraction were significantly larger in ANGII450 rats than those in sham rats. We also found that, in ANGII450 rats, intra-arterial injection into the hindlimb circulation of tempol, a membrane-permeable SOD mimetic, reduced RSNA, arterial pressure, and HR responses to continuous contraction as well as the RSNA response to intermittent contraction. Tiron, another SOD mimetic, mirrored the effect of tempol; intra-arterial injection of Tiron into the hindlimb circulation reduced RSNA and pressor responses to continuous contraction of the hindlimb muscles of hypertensive rats. In sham and ANGII150 rats, on the other hand, tempol injected intra-arterially did not modulate RSNA and cardiovascular responses to either continuous or intermittent static contraction. ...
The kinematics of basilisk water running varied considerably. Basilisks weighing up to 20 g sometimes exhibited an aerial phase in a run. Yet it was unclear which variables other than mass were responsible for this variability. In general, the forearms `windmill during a run but to different extents. When basilisks ran with a large trunk angle to the water, they extended their arms forwards with minimal rotation around the shoulder. By contrast, when the trunk was held at ∼45° to the water - the much more common body posture - basilisks arm movements matched directions with the leg on the contralateral side. In other runs, the arms moved with a slight delay to the contralateral hindlimb and were sometimes so delayed that it nearly matched the movements with the hindlimb on the same side. Windmilling the forearms may serve to counteract torques placed on the body during a stride, as have been reported in human studies to explain the pendulum-like motion of the arms during walking (Li et al., ...
The Effects of a glucocorticoid-antagonist on IGF1-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of hindlimb suspended rats. Barnes B.R., T.C. Selix, D.C. Wright, and B.W. Craig. Ball State University, Muncie, IN.The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a glucocorticoid-antagonist (RU486) on insulin-like-growth-factor-1 (IGF1)stimulated glucose transport following two weeks of hindlimb suspension (HS) on 100 gm male rats. After two weeks of HS and/or oral RU486 administration the animals were anesthetized, and the soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles isolated and clamped at their resting length. Following an incubation series to prepare the muscle, the muscle was incubated in radioactive 3-O-methylglucose for 10 min. in the presence/absence of 75 ng/ml of IGF1, digested with 0.5 NaOH, and the amount of glucose transported measured. Two weeks of RU486 treatment significantly (P:5 0.05) elevated IGF1-stimulated glucose transport of SOL (0.576 ± 0.071 vs ...
Advanced age is a major risk factor of peripheral artery disease. We examined the effects of the aging-suppressor gene klotho on angiogenesis in response to ischemia by introducing ischemic hindlimb model in mice heterozygously deficient for the klotho gene and in wild type mice. Blood flow recovery …
Authors: Shengye Zhang, Jane Shaw-Boden, Yara Banz, Anjan K Bongoni, Adriano Taddeo, Rolf Spirig, Marc W Nolte, Peter J Cowan, Robert Rieben
The following radiographs are the mediolateral and caudocranial views of the left stifle of a nine-month-old Yorkshire Terrier.. ...
nerves of the lower limb, nerves of the lower leg, lower limb nerves, sural nerve, nerves of lower limb, saphenous nerve, nerves of lower leg, lower limb anatomy, nerves lower limb, nerve supply of lower limb, lower leg anatomy, lower leg nerves, nerves in lower leg, lower leg nerve anatomy, nerves lower leg, lower limb nerve supply, cutaneous nerves, lower limb nerve, lower limb nerve anatomy, anatomy of lower leg, ...
We have characterized the early stages of murine hindlimb morphogenesis in the legless (lgl)mutant and non-mutant littermates. Initially the entire ventral ectoderm expresses many genetic markers characteristic of the AER (en-1, fgf-8, msx-2, dlx-2, cd44, and cx-43). Subsequently, the expression dom …
This is the first study showing the physiological role of the interaction between the non-NMDA receptor (AMPA) activation and NO produced endogenously in the NTS of conscious rats. The present data show that inhibition of NO production within the NTS changes the hemodynamic responses elicited by AMPA receptor stimulation.. Activation of the AMPA receptor in the NTS of conscious rats induces an initial reduction in hindquarter blood flow that is followed by a large increase (9). Increased blood flow is due to hindquarter vasodilation. The origin and pathway of this vasodilation was not clear, but studies of Davisson et al. (6, 7) suggested a neurogenic hindquarter vasodilation mediated by release of preformed stores of nitrosyl factors after sympathetic stimulation. Colombari et al. (4) showed a hindquarter vasodilation elicited by activation of glutamatergic receptors in the NTS that was abolished after systemic l-NAME administration. The systemic administration of l-NAME probably blocked NOS in ...
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My 8 yo beagle started limping suddenly on his right hind leg. He didnt appear to be in any pain and it got better after a couple of weeks! Now, he is suddenly limping on his left hind leg and can b...
Structural and functional anatomy and biomechanics of the hindlimb in general, and in specific for the art. coxae, the art. genus, the art. tarsales, the art metatarso-phalangealis, the art. interphalangealea proximalis et distales, the ossae sesamoideae, and the patellae. The heamodynamic relations and the osteopathic relevance, of the art. coxae. The biomechanics and osteopathic relevance of the menisci. Introduction to the examination and normalizing technics for the hindlimb. Find out more » ...
Ability, B-cells, Blood, Cells, Enzyme Immunoassay, Flow Cytometry, Hindlimb, Hindlimb Unloading, Immunity, Immunoassay, Infection, Infections, Leukocyte, Lymphocyte, Mice, Nervous System, Plasma, Population, Rodent, Spaceflight
Supplementary Material for: VEGF and IGF Delivered from Alginate Hydrogels Promote Stable Perfusion Recovery in Ischemic Hind Limbs of Aged Mice and Young Rabbits
(13)N-ammonia PET as a measurement of hindlimb perfusion in a mouse model of peripheral artery occlusive disease. (13)N-ammonia PET as a measurement of hindlimb perfusion in a mouse model of peripheral artery occlusive disease
TY - JOUR. T1 - Moderate intake of red wine improves ischemia-induced neovascularization in diabetic mice-Roles of endothelial progenitor cells and nitric oxide. AU - Huang, Po Hsun. AU - Tsai, Hsiao Ya. AU - Wang, Chao Hung. AU - Chen, Yung Hsiang. AU - Chen, Jia Shiong. AU - Lin, Feng Yen. AU - Lin, Chih Pei. AU - Wu, Tao Cheng. AU - Sata, Masataka. AU - Chen, Jaw Wen. AU - Lin, Shing Jong. PY - 2010/10. Y1 - 2010/10. N2 - Objective: Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a significant role in postnatal neovascularization. Patients with diabetes have attenuated EPC functions and impaired angiogenic response after tissue ischemia. We investigated whether moderate red wine consumption can enhance blood flow recovery in response to tissue ischemia by enhancement of EPC functions in diabetic mice. Methods and results: Starting at 4 weeks after diabetes onset, red wine (4ml/kg/day) or ethanol were administered to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced (type 1) diabetic mice and KKAy-Ta (type 2) ...
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The compensatory mechanisms of horses with weightbearing hindlimb lameness are still not fully understood. HYPOTHESIS: That weightbearing, unilateral hindlimb lameness would not only alter stride characteristics to diminish structural stress in the affected limb but also induce compensatory load adjustments in the other supporting limbs. OBJECTIVE: To document the load and time shifting mechanisms of horses with unilateral weightbearing hindlimb lameness. METHODS: Reversible lameness was induced in 8 clinically sound horses by applying a solar pressure model. Three degrees of lameness (subtle, mild and moderate) were induced and compared with the nonlame (sound) control measurement. Vertical ground reaction forces were recorded for all 4 limbs simultaneously on an instrumented treadmill. RESULTS: Compared to the sound situation, moderate hindlimb hoof lameness induced a decrease in stride duration (-3.3%) and stride impulse (-3.1%). Diagonal impulse decreased ...
This study combines two well-known vascular research models, hyperoxia and hind limb ischemia, aiming to better characterize capacities of the hyperoxia challenge. We studied two groups of C57/BL6 male mice, a control (C) and a hind limb ischemia (HLI) group. Perfusion from both limbs was recorded in all animals by laser Doppler techniques under an oxygen (O 2) saturated atmosphere, once for control and, during 35 days for the HLI group. We used a third set of normoxic animals for HLI morphometric control. The expected variability of responses was higher for the younger animals. In the HLI group, capillary density normalized at Day 21 as expected, but not microcirculatory physiology. In the operated limb, perfusion decreased dramatically following surgery (Day 4), as a slight reduction in the non-operated limb was also noted. Consistently, the response to hyperoxia was an increased perfusion in the ischemic limb and decreased perfusion in the contralateral limb. Only at Day 35, both limbs exhibited
TY - JOUR. T1 - Exercise Altered the Skeletal Muscle MicroRNAs and Gene Expression Profiles in Burn Rats with Hindlimb Unloading. AU - Song, Juquan. AU - Saeman, Melody R.. AU - Baer, Lisa A.. AU - Cai, Anthony R.. AU - Wade, Charles E.. AU - Wolf, Steven E.. N1 - Publisher Copyright: Copyright © 2016 by the American Burn Association. Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - This study investigated microRNA and target gene profiles under different conditions of burn, bed rest, and exercise training. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were assigned to sham ambulatory, sham hindlimb unloading, burn ambulatory, or burn plus hindlimb unloading groups. Rats received a 40% TBSA scald burn or sham treatments and were ambulatory or hindlimb unloaded. Rats were further assigned to exercise or no exercise. Plantaris tissues were harvested on day 14 and pooled to analyze for microRNA and gene expression profiles. Compared with the sham ambulatory-no ...
We selected the rat model of a brain lesion induced by photochemically initiated thrombosis(PIT) through platelet aggregation. The technique involved in this model is simple enough to design the brain lesion as focal and uniform, and the hemiparesis of the hindlimb, induced by injury to the unilateral motor cortex, recovers completely by the 10th day with few individual differences after operation. The purpose of this study was to examine whether using the stem cell transplantation or the mesenchymal stem cell transplantation promotes motor recovery after brain damage in this PIT model. After recovery of left hindlimb function caused by a right sensorimotor cortex lesion, a lesion was induced photochemically in the left sensorimotor cortex as a second PIT and the beam-walking score was recorded for right hindlimb function. As a result, these two methods were not able to promote motor recovery after brain damage in this PIT model. ...
After complete spinal transection in adult rats, careful combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies create a novel cortical sensorimotor circuit that may bypass the lesion through biomechanical coupling, allowing animals to recover unassisted hindlimb locomotion.
Background. Preclinical perfusion studies are useful for the improvement of diagnosis and therapy in dermatologic, cardiovascular and rheumatic human diseases. The Laser Doppler Perfusion Imaging (LDPI) technique has been used to evaluate superficial alterations of the skin microcirculation in surgically induced murine hindlimb ischemia. We assessed the reproducibility and the accuracy of LDPI acquisitions and identified several critical factors that could affect LDPI measurements in mice. Methods. Twenty mice were analysed. Statistical standardisation and a repeatability and reproducibility analysis were performed on mouse perfusion signals with respect to differences in body temperature, the presence or absence of hair, the type of anaesthesia used for LDPI measurements and the position of the mouse body. Results. We found excellent correlations among measurements made by the same operator (i.e., repeatability) under the same experimental conditions and by two different operators (i.e.,
Lactoferrin (LF) exerts a variety of biological effects, including the promotion of angiogenesis by increasing the expression of angiogenesis-related genes and reducing blood pressure via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the effects of LF on angiogenesis using C57BL/6J mice that received daily unilateral treatment with or without bovine milk-derived LF (bLF) following unilateral hindlimb surgery. The analysis of laser speckle blood flow showed that bLF treatment promoted blood flow recovery in response to ischemic hindlimb. The capillary density of ischemic adductor muscles, as well as the phosphorylation of Src, Akt, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) was also significantly higher in bLF-treated mice than in vehicle-treated mice. Furthermore, bLF increased the phosphorylation levels of Src, Akt, and eNOS in in vitro experiments using human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). The action of bLF on eNOS phosphorylation was abolished by both ...
Effects of repeated H-Wave device stimulation (HWDS) on blood flow and angiogenesis in the rat hind limb were studied. The hypothesis tested was that HWDS acutely increases hind limb blood flow, and that repeated HWDS would elicit angiogenesis. Animals were HWDS-conditioned (Conditioned) or shamstimulated (Sham) (n D 5/group) daily for 3 weeks. The contralateral limb in both groups served as the control. Each animal was injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrDU). After 3 weeks, rats were anesthetized and iliac artery blood flow was measured bilaterally before, during, and after acute HWDS. HWDS of the Conditioned limbs elicited a 247% increase in blood flow above resting conditions compared to a 200% increase in control legs. Sham animals did not demonstrate between-leg differences in flow. Hindlimb musculature staining for BrDU revealed angiogenesis in Conditioned versus Sham groups. Flow changes accompanying HWDS corroborated earlier microvascular findings demonstrating a significant ...
Substance P (SP) is a therapeutic peptide that has been widely used to induce angiogenesis and tissue regeneration. However, its therapeutic efficacy is often limited due to rapid degradation in vivo and a short half-life (1 min) after systemic administration. In the present study, we chemically modified SP with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to generate long-lasting formulations with increased stability and extended retention time in vivo and evaluated their ability to enhance therapeutic angiogenesis. Compared to the unmodified SP, PEGylated SP (PEG-SP) exhibited significantly increased half-life in vivo ('360-fold increase in normal mouse and (similar to)120-fold increase in diabetic mouse). Systemic injection of PEG SP led to a marked increase in therapeutic efficacy and angiogenesis in diabetic hindlimb ischemia, as evident from the remarkable improvement in salvage of ischemic limb and recovery of blood perfusion in diabetic mice with limb ischemia. These formulations increased endogenous ...
Our ability to link amplified arteriogenesis to a unique hemodynamic stimulus (ie, reversed flow with increase shear stress magnitude) was facilitated by the development of a LSF approach for mouse hindlimb collaterals.18 We developed that approach because, despite the known importance of hemodynamic stimuli in driving collateral development, there was a surprising lack of quantitative data on the hemodynamic changes within these arteries. This is likely because both the small size of the arteries (,100 μm) and the fact that different surgical models elicit arteriogenesis along different collateral pathways.2 Using LSF,18 we determined the occurrence of at least 3 distinct hemodynamic conditions in these collateral vessels: a nonreversed increase in shear stress near the feeding entrance to the collateral loop, an increase in shear stress from low/oscillating flow to sustained high shear stress at the central anastomotic region, and an increase in shear stress but in a reversed direction at the ...
Effects of 24-72 h of hindlimb suspension on body and muscle weights (a), muscle-to-body weight ratio (b), and parameters (c) of rat soleus twitch tensions.
Hindlimb metabolism in a chronic fetal sheep preparation: fetal autoregulation of alanine uptake. Presented at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Soc. for Pediatr. Research. 1981 ...
Video articles in JoVE about bone density include Scanning Skeletal Remains for Bone Mineral Density in Forensic Contexts, Semiautomated Longitudinal Microcomputed Tomography-based Quantitative Structural Analysis of a Nude Rat Osteoporosis-related Vertebral Fracture Model, Subject-specific Musculoskeletal Model for Studying Bone Strain During Dynamic Motion, Establishment of a Segmental Femoral Critical-size Defect Model in Mice Stabilized by Plate Osteosynthesis, A Method to Estimate Cadaveric Femur Cortical Strains During Fracture Testing Using Digital Image Correlation, Longitudinal Evaluation of Mouse Hind Limb Bone Loss After Spinal Cord Injury using Novel, in vivo, Methodology, Peptides from Phage Display Library Modulate Gene Expression in Mesenchymal Cells and Potentiate Osteogenesis in Unicortical Bone Defects, Preparation of Herbal Medicine: Er-Xian Decoction and Er-Xian-containing Serum for In Vivo and In Vitro Experiments, Tissue Characterization after a New
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Video articles in JoVE about long term care include Using a Real-Time Locating System to Measure Walking Activity Associated with Wandering Behaviors Among Institutionalized Older Adults, Using Retinal Imaging to Study Dementia, Oral Health Assessment by Lay Personnel for Older Adults, Semi-quantitative Assessment Using [18F]FDG Tracer in Patients with Severe Brain Injury.
Pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized animals were injected with 0.4 ml of 0.1% bovine serum albumin with 0 or 0.1 U bovine insulin/rat via the dorsal vein of the penis. A preliminary study indicated that the insulin-stimulated activity of Akt1 kinase peaked in both soleus and plantaris muscles at 5 min and remained above control level for at least 15 min (data not shown). This time course is in agreement with studies by Cross et al. (10). Therefore, soleus and plantaris muscles were quickly excised at 5 min after the intravenous injection. In each rat, the muscles were excised only from one hindlimb, either the denervated hindlimb or the contralateral sham hindlimb, to ensure that the muscles were removed exactly at the 5-min interval. Each excised muscle was immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and subsequently kept at −85°C until further use. Each muscle was powdered under liquid nitrogen within 24 h. The powder was transferred into a 6-ml polypropylene tube containing 0.5 ml of ...
To the rider, back pain can become evident with a change in the horses behaviour when first tacked up or mounted (cold-backed behaviour), a sudden onset of bucking or rearing, reluctance to go forward, resistance, shortness of stride, stiffness, unwillingness to jump or reduced performance.. But it is important to recognise that the majority of these signs are not specific to back pain. They could be shown, for example, by a horse with early arthritis in both hocks and bilateral hindlimb stiffness, a difficult horse or even one with a schooling problem.. A comprehensive evaluation of the whole horse should be made to detect any underlying problem which may cause back pain.. ...
Almost simultaneously with the occurrence of the specific complaints we see the disappearing pulse curves (see Figure 2). A simple test that may be performed by medical personnel accompanying cyclists is the measurement of the ankle / arm systolic blood pressure ratio after maximum effort. An appropriate cycle ergometer is after all usually available. This allowed the rider to undergo a rising load protocol, with the typical cycling position. The cyclist is instructed to continue up to the occurrence of the known symptoms. Prior to the test, one measures the systolic blood pressures of brachial artery (arm) and the two posterior arteries tibiales (leg) at rest. Immediately after the breakdown of the exercise test the rider lies on the examination couch and the aforementioned systolic blood pressures are recorded every minute until the rest values are reached again. A significantly reduced ankle/arm systolic blood pressure ratio in the symptomatic leg in comparison with the free leg during ...
Diabetes in the United States today is an explosive major public health issue that directly impacts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. One major reason for...
accelerated account acquisition actively acts address adenine adhesion allows anatomically angiography animal artery assessed blood branching cascade clearly collateral collaterals compensated confirmed considered controls corkscrew course covered datasets days demonstrating derived detected determined developed development direct displayed distal dual early energetics enhanced equipped established extent extracellularly faster femoral flow formation formed frequencies geometry gradient green growing growth histology important improved in vivo induced inflammatory initial involving issue lack lacking length ligation like matrix metabolic mice micro mouse muscle mutant newly normalized nucleotide occlusion operating part phenotype plays post potent previously processes processing product projection promotes protocol proximal quadriceps quantification quantified quantitative reaching receptors reconstruction recorded recovery reflected regulation reported resolution resonator restoration reveals ...
Much as I might like to think otherwise, the specific details of the hindlimb function of Tyrannosaurus rex or the pneumatic features of brachiosaurid vertebrae really are not the most important elements of the field. Understanding and appreciating the nitty gritty details of the phylogeny and anatomy of any particular branch of the Tree of Life are not really necessary for everyone to know, any more than we would regard detailed knowledge of bacterial biochemistry or the partitioning of minerals in a magma chamber to be significant general knowledge. (Indeed, these latter two items are actually far more critical for human society than any specific aspect of paleontology, and so from a certain point of view really more important for people to know than the History of Life ...
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One more crucial issue On this review was the route of mobile supply. The authors used proximal femoral artery ligation to accomplish essential limb ischemia, elevating the query of how injected cells observed their method to the ischemic zone. Data from Aicher et al12 indicated that ≈1% of intravenously injected EPCs can be found in usual tissues, with nearly 2-fold enrichment in ischemic tissues, and while in the latter scenario, these were being observed only from the infarction border zone, suggesting that although cytokines such as VEGF and stromal cell-derived aspect-one created from the ischemic tissue can recruit EPCs toward on the ischemia, microenvironmental components throughout the harmed muscle could protect against migration into your ischemic zone ...
The development of tammar fetal limbs at selected stages before birth. (A) day 19, (B) day 20, (C) day 22, (D) day 24 and (E) day 25 (one day before birth). High magnification of the fore- and hindlimb are from samples stored in methanol whilst wholemo ...
A real quick question for anybody out there: Is there any phorusrhacoid that is well enough preserved, with a published skeletal reconstruction, from which the length of the body trunk relative to the hindlimb could be estimated? The reconstruction that one usually sees is from Andrews (1901: fig. 3), but the body trunk is almost missing therein, alas. Thanks if anybody can help ...
forelimbs Definition, forelimbs Best Plays of forelimbs in Scrabble® and Words With Friends, Length tables of words in forelimbs, Word growth of forelimbs, Sequences of forelimbs
You hindquarters look at with hormonal instability by managing your every day accentuate level, feeding a ... lasting, that feels eff it or non is.
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Gatesy, Stephen M. (1999-05-01). "Guineafowl hind limb function. I: Cineradiographic analysis and speed effects". Journal of ...
Enaliornis barrette - "Braincases, vertebrae, pelvis [and] limb elements.." E sedgwicki - "Hindlimb elements." E. seeleyi - " ...
Pasquiaornis hardiei - "Hindlimb elements." Pasquiaornis tankei - "Hindlimb elements and quadrate." Earth sciences portal ...
Morey-Holton, ER; Globus, RK (2002). "Hindlimb unloading rodent model: technical aspects". J Appl Physiol. 92 (4): 1367-1377. ...
ISBN 978-0-253-34373-4. Foster, J.R.; Chure, D.J. (2006). "Hindlimb allometry in the Late Jurassic theropod dinosaur Allosaurus ... most of the left hind limb; and most of the feet. The specimen was found encased in hard sandstone; the skull and spine had ...
The pelvic girdle and the hindlimb]". Zoologia [Zoology] (in Polish) (4th ed.). Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Szkolne i Pedagogiczne. pp ...
Hindlimb withdrawal time is another method. Sorin Barac et al. in a recent paper published in the Journal of Reconstructive ... external heat stimulus and measuring hindlimb withdrawal times (HLWT). Reflex Sensory stimulation therapy Stimulation Stimulus ...
Williston, S. W. (1902). "On the hind limb of Protostega". American Journal of Science. 4. 13 (76): 276-278. Bibcode:1902AmJS ...
This includes previously unknown hindlimb elements. Cedarpelta was a large ankylosaurian. In 2010, Gregory S. Paul indicated a ...
Membrane behind hind limb is small. Vibrissae is black. Dorsal fur is very soft, long and sheen. There are 2 subspecies, as; ...
Scott, Harry W.; McLaughlin, Ronald (2007). "Fractures and disorders of the hindlimb. Total hip replacement". Feline ...
The hindlimb elements were generally very robust. The femur (thigh-bone) was very robust, with a curved shaft, and ranged from ...
Robertson, G. A., & Stein, P. S. G. (October 1988). "Synaptic control of hindlimb motoneurones during three forms of the ... Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology(37), 383-403 Stein P (2005). "Neuronal control of turtle hindlimb motor ...
The only information that has been deduced is from the bones of its hindlimb anatomy, which are heavily built. This suggests ... Blikanasaurus was first discovered by a partial hindlimb (epipodium and pes) found in the lower Elliot Formation (LEF) at the ... Blikanasaurus is only known from partial hindlimb bones that were recovered from the lower Elliot Formation (LEF) in the ... Galton, Peter M.; Van Heerden, Jacques (1985). "Partial hindlimb of Blikanasaurus cromptoni n. gen. And n. Sp.,representing a ...
"Hindlimb Muscle Fiber Populations Of Five Mammals". Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry. 21 (1): 51-55. doi:10.1177/21.1. ...
The snout-to-vent length is 103 millimeters (4.1 in); hindlimb length is 87 millimeters (3.4 in). T. temporalis is mainly found ...
The holotype consists of a right hindlimb. It contains the thighbone, the shinbone, the second and fourth metatarsal and the ...
McDonald, KS; Delp, MD; Fitts, RH (June 1992). "Effect of hindlimb unweighting on tissue blood flow in the rat". Journal of ... Itai, Y; Kariya, Y; Hoshino, Y (June 2004). "Morphological changes in rat hindlimb muscle fibres during recovery from disuse ... Steffen, JM; Fell, RD; Geoghegan, TE; Ringel, LC; Musacchia, XJ (March 1990). "Age effects on rat hindlimb muscle atrophy ... Fitts, RH; Metzger, JM; Riley, DA; Unsworth, BR (June 1986). "Models of disuse: a comparison of hindlimb suspension and ...
O'Connor, J.K.; Chang, H. (2015). "Hindlimb feathers in paravians: primarily "wings" or ornaments?". Biology Bulletin. 42 (7): ...
The left hindlimb is well preserved, and shows a femur, tibia with fibula, and vague foot skeleton; the right hindlimb ... The left hindlimb is preserved complete with four clawed toes; only the upper and lower portions of the right leg remain. The ... The right hindlimb shows only a disarticulated femur and tibia. The first toe is very short and includes a robust and strongly ... The left hindlimb is completely preserved on the main slab, and shows a slightly curved femur, a proximal muscle scar likely to ...
Sullivan, Corwin (2015). "Evolution of hind limb posture in Triassic archosauriforms". In Dial, Kenneth P.; Shubin, Neil; ...
Both the forelimb and hindlimb have five digits. The skink is predominantly pale brown to grey in colour with a series of nine ...
The hind limb was shorter than the forelimb. The forelimbs had a humerus and a radius which were straighter and shorter than ...
The fore limb stretched forwards extends considerably beyond the tip of the snout; the adpressed hind limb nearly reaches the ...
... most of the left hindlimb, and part of the hindlimb, which is 20% larger than the holotype; and PVL 4612, a nearly complete ... A right hindlimb and a left femur and tibia have been assigned to Tropidosuchus, and another one has been assigned to ... The right hindlimb's foot was originally assigned to Gracilisuchus. Three other specimens, stored at the MCZ, were found by ... Lecuona, A.; Desojo, J.B. (2012). "Hind limb osteology of Gracilisuchus stipanicicorum (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia)". Earth and ...
... is known mostly for its role in the development of the hindlimb, but it also plays a critical role in the formation of the ... Tbx4 has been shown to be expressed in the allantois, hindlimb, lung and proctodeum. Expression of Tbx4 is activated by a ... Tbx4 is expressed in the hindlimb, whereas Tbx5 is expressed in the forelimb, heart, and dorsal side of the retina. Studies ... For instance, in chickens Tbx4 specifies hindlimb status. The activation of Tbx4 and other T-box proteins by Hox genes ...
... hindlimb". Journal of Anatomy. 218 (4): 363-374. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2010.01310.x. PMC 3077520. PMID 21062282. Sears, E. S ...
Sullivan, Corwin (2015). "Evolution of hind limb posture in Triassic archosauriforms". In Dial, Kenneth P.; Shubin, Neil; ... as well as inconsistencies in the patterns of the fusion of their vertebrae and the proportions of the hind limb during growth ...
... the left hindlimb and the right shinbone. The left hindlimb and the tail were articulated. The other bones were associated on a ...
ISBN 1-888799-35-8. Overview Hind Limb Paresis and Paralysis in Rabbits. ...
A hindlimb or back limb is one of the paired articulated appendages (limbs) attached on the caudal (posterior) end of a ... Frogs have 4 digits in fore limb while hindlimb have 5 digits. All digits are without nails. All birds walk using hindlimbs. ... Forelimb http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/hind%20limb%7C Merriam Webster Dictionary-Hindlimb. ...
Canine Hindlimb Muscles Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by ... Name the Function, Nerve Supply, Origin and Insertion of the Hindlimb Muscles (of the dog) Enter in the right order, top to ...
Although the exact structure of the hindlimb can vary from animal to... ... A hindlimb is one of the back legs on a four-legged animal. ... A hindlimb, also commonly written as two words, hind limb, is ... A powerful hindlimb structure is a necessity for many animals. Hunters such as the cheetah have very muscular rear legs that ... Snakes have developed to the point that an adult snake does not show any visible evidence of having a hindlimb, but in many ...
Can you name the Osteology of limbs and hindlimb? Test your knowledge on this science quiz and compare your score to others. ... Science Quiz / Osteology of limbs and hindlimb. Random Science Quiz Can you name the Osteology of limbs and hindlimb?. by ... These muscles function to adduct the hindlimb and prevent unwanted abduction.. What nerve tends to supply the adductor muscles? ... What caudal muscle of the hindlimb inserts on the medial aspect of the proximal extremity of the tibia and on the calcaneus?. ...
Differentiation of fast and slow muscles in the cat hind limb.. BULLER AJ, ECCLES JC, ECCLES RM. ...
Hindlimb loading determines stepping quantity and quality following spinal cord transection.. Timoszyk WK1, Nessler JA, Acosta ... We compared the bipedal hindlimb stepping ability of untrained and trained (step-trained 6 min/day) spinal rats (mid-thoracic ... We conclude that the level of hindlimb loading provided to a spinally transected rat strongly influences the quantity and ... A robotic device provided precise levels of body weight support and recorded hindlimb movement. We assessed stepping ability ...
Rabbits with hind limb weakness will need special care. Some considerations you will need to make include:. *Long-term ... Any disease that causes a rabbit to feel weak can cause hind limb weakness and can be confused with a true neurological disease ... Any disease of a rabbit that causes pain on movement may be incorrectly interpreted as hind limb weakness. For instance, ... Primary bone cancer has also been seen in the rear legs of rabbits, which also leads to hind limb weakness. ...
Hindlimb unloading (HU) in rodents, a ground-based animal model, has been used to simulate some of the factors associated with ...
Surgical induction of hindlimb ischemia in the mouse is useful to examine angiogenesis, however this is compromised in certain ... around the ischemic hindlimb and a comparable ROI around the non-ischemic hindlimb. Perfusion is most commonly expressed as a ... Murine Model of Hindlimb Ischemia Published 1/21/2009. Modified Technique for Coronary Artery Ligation in Mice…. Published 3/29 ... The mouse hindlimb ischemia model has been widely used for this purpose, but the standard practice of inducing acute limb ...
Canine Hindlimb Stifle Example 4. The following radiographs are the mediolateral and caudocranial views of the left stifle of a ...
Nerve Dependence on Hind Limb Tissue Maintenance.. Tissue homeostasis is a process mediated by the self-renewal and ... Nerve Dependence on Hind Limb Digit Regeneration.. To analyze the contributions of nerves to murine digit regeneration, digit ... Within denervated hind limb, we found statistically similar proportions of hair follicles in each phase of hair cycle ... Nerve Dependence on Hind Limb Dermal Wound Healing.. Humans heal full-thickness wounds primarily via granulation tissue ...
ankle-joint, bird anatomy, bird bones, birds hind limb, birds, Clangula islandica, crus, digits, drumstick, duck bones, duck ... "Fig 34 - Bones of a birds hind limb: from a duck, Clangula islandica. A, hip: B, knee: C, heel or ankle-joint; D, bases of ...
From this paper: Ellis, R., Rankin, J.W., Hutchinson, J.R. 2018. Limb kinematics, kinetics and muscle dynamics during the sit-to-stand transition in greyhounds. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 6:162. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2018.00162 More dat
Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo. MT Lee and MJ ODonovan ... Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo ... Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo ... Organization of hindlimb muscle afferent projections to lumbosacral motoneurons in the chick embryo ...
1996) Spatiotemporal characteristics of 5-HT and dopamine-induced rhythmic hindlimb activity in the in vitro neonatal rat. J ... Firing Properties of Identified Interneuron Populations in the Mammalian Hindlimb Central Pattern Generator. Simon J. B. Butt, ... Our results reveal a high degree of organization in the mammalian hindlimb CPG. The ability to target specific interneuronal ... To determine whether the dCINs were potential components of the hindlimb CPG, we measured their firing patterns during ...
Results are expressed as a ratio of surgical hindlimb profusion over control hindlimb perfusion as mice initially vasodilate ... Ventral hindlimb scanning with the mouse in the supine position is shown here after adjusting the scan area. Note that the ... The initial scan of a mouse prior to induction of hindlimb ischemia is shown in real-time. The second and third repeat scans ... If the researcher wishes to study the ventral hindlimb, then a white mouse strain should be selected. LDPI is an effective, ...
A three-dimensional model of the cat hindlimb skeleton was created using CT images obtained from one male adult cat. The two- ... This project provides the musculoskeletal model of the cat hindlimb. ...
Horses have been used by man for thousands of years for transportation and as beasts of burden. They are browsers feeding on grasses as well as other vegetation. Horses are thought to have been domesticated between 4000 to 6000 years ago from wild equids native to Asia. Specifications: Damaged femur
Mode of Transcapillary Transport of Insulin and Insulin Analog NN304 in Dog Hindlimb. Evidence for Passive Diffusion. ... Mode of Transcapillary Transport of Insulin and Insulin Analog NN304 in Dog Hindlimb ... Mode of Transcapillary Transport of Insulin and Insulin Analog NN304 in Dog Hindlimb ... Mode of Transcapillary Transport of Insulin and Insulin Analog NN304 in Dog Hindlimb ...
In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on unilateral hindlimb (left hindlimb) at the hip joint for 3 h, and then released for ... In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on unilateral hindlimb (left hindlimb) at the hip joint for 3 hours, and then released ... on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. ... on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. ... In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on unilateral hindlimb (left hindlimb) at the hip joint for 3 h, and then released for ...
Methods: Unilateral hind limb ischemia was induced in WT and CSE-/- mice. Mice were then randomly assigned into 4 groups (8 ... Abstract 13185: Monocyte Specific Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Arteriogenesis in Murine Hind Limb Ischemia. Shyamal Bir, Gopi ... Hypothesis: Monocyte specific H2S production modulates arteriogenesis during hind limb ischemia via a CSE/H2S/IL-16/bFGF ... Abstract 13185: Monocyte Specific Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Arteriogenesis in Murine Hind Limb Ischemia ...
Treatment of Ischemic Hindlimb. The ischemic hindlimb models were randomly divided into the ischemic, bFGF, CM, and bFGF-CM ... Figure 2: The oxygen saturation parameter ratio of the right, operated hindlimb/the left, nonoperated hindlimb at 1, 2, and 4 ... There are some differences between human beings suffering from ischemic hindlimb disorders and ischemic hindlimb animal models ... Ischemic Hindlimb Model. All experiments that involved the use of animals were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and ...
This paper examines the morphogenesis of muscle and tendon in the developing avian hind limb. Based on a developmental series ... These experiments demonstrate that in the avian hind limb the initial morphogenetic events, formation of tendon primordia and ... Myoblasts migrating intothe limb bud at different developmental times adopt different fates in the embryonic chick hindlimb. ... sequence and spatial pattern of muscle and tendon morphogenesis and their relationship to cartilage throughout the chick hind limb ...
The domestic dog is believed to be a direct descendant from modern wolves. Dogs have been bred as pets for thousands of years with the earliest known domestication taking place as long as 12,000 years ago. Today, dogs serve man in many ways: as guides, search and rescue, for hunting purposes, to sniff out drugs or othe
Discussions on the upper hindlimb as a cause of lameness (hip joint, pelvic and sacroiliac problems) and on systemic and intra- ... Equine Hindlimb Lameness Diagnostics (incl. Objective Lameness Evaluation) & Therapies - A 2-Day Practical Course ... this practical course provides a critical overview of possible causes of hindlimb lameness, diagnostic anaesthetic strategies ...
This essay aims to provide insight of the functional anatomy and biomechanical properties of the hind limb and pelvis with ... Biomechanics of the Equine Hind Limb and Pelvis with Regard to Development of Lameness ... Biomechanics of the Equine Hind Limb and Pelvis with Regard to Development of Lameness ...
Mitch Taylor reviews the structure of the upper hind limb during this on-stage leg dissection, concentrating on the functional ...
Click here to close Hello! We notice that you are using Internet Explorer, which is not supported by Xenbase and may cause the site to display incorrectly. We suggest using a current version of Chrome, FireFox, or Safari. ...
An orthotopic xenograft model with survival hindlimb amputation allows investigation of the effect of tumor microenvironment on ...
Myogenin expression levels do not change during the slow to fast myofiber phenotypic transition that occurs during hindlimb ... Hindlimb suspension (HS) will induce muscular atrophy, and a transition from a slow to fast myofiber phenotype in the rat ... Hypothesis: Hindlimb suspension will induce myofiber atrophy, and a slow to fast myofiber type transition with corresponding ... Myogenin, MyoD, and myosin heavy chain isoform expression following hindlimb suspension Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 May;70(5 ...
  • Here, we present a protocol that demonstrates the technique and necessary controls for Laser Doppler perfusion imaging to measure blood flow in the mouse hindlimb. (jove.com)
  • To find effective therapeutic interventions for tourniquet-induced acute IR injuries, our current study investigated effect of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory drug, on tourniquet-induced acute IR injury in mouse hindlimb. (frontiersin.org)
  • Mouse hindlimb showing blood and ICG. (visualsonics.com)
  • In this study, we used computer optimization procedures to create a simulation of trotting in a mouse, using a previously developed mouse hindlimb musculoskeletal model in conjunction with new experimental data, allowing muscle forces, activation patterns, and levels of mechanical work to be estimated. (frontiersin.org)
  • This analysis also tested previous functional inferences of the mouse hindlimb made from anatomical data alone, such as the existence of a proximo-distal gradient of muscle function, thought to reflect adaptations for energy-efficient locomotion. (frontiersin.org)
  • The efficacy of the optimal ECM hydrogel concentration was then further confirmed in an aged mouse hindlimb ischemia model. (ca.gov)
  • REM, Stimulation of the mouse hindlimb via the sciatic nerve was performed for a 4h period to investigate acute muscle gene activation in a model of muscle phenotype conversion. (ayevanity.com)
  • Curcumin could enhance neovascularization via promoting the function of EPCs in a diabetic mouse hindlimb ischemia model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Equine Hindlimb Lameness Diagnostics (incl. (ivis.org)
  • Developed for equine veterinarians who have experience with lameness investigations, this practical course provides a critical overview of possible causes of hindlimb lameness, diagnostic anaesthetic strategies and how to interpret nerve and joint block results, via a regio-anatomic approach. (ivis.org)
  • Discussions on the upper hindlimb as a cause of lameness (hip joint, pelvic and sacroiliac problems) and on systemic and intra-articular joint therapies will round the course off. (ivis.org)
  • REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: The compensatory mechanisms of horses with weightbearing hindlimb lameness are still not fully understood. (uzh.ch)
  • HYPOTHESIS: That weightbearing, unilateral hindlimb lameness would not only alter stride characteristics to diminish structural stress in the affected limb but also induce compensatory load adjustments in the other supporting limbs. (uzh.ch)
  • OBJECTIVE: To document the load and time shifting mechanisms of horses with unilateral weightbearing hindlimb lameness. (uzh.ch)
  • Here I focus on the most common differential diagnoses for hindlimb lameness. (webd.pl)
  • Hindlimb lameness of Different Animal was published caudal Part digits are absent functional weight-bearing. (webd.pl)
  • Mean maximal fetlock hyperextension of 11 horses with 2° of induced hindlimb lameness at the trot. (umccc.org.au)
  • Hindlimb and forelimb lameness in many horses will be accentuated when the horse is worked in a circle with the affected limb on the inside. (umccc.org.au)
  • both indicating right forelimb), while for hindlimb lameness, the head and withers will show movement asymmetries of opposite directions (e.g. (umccc.org.au)
  • We compared the bipedal hindlimb stepping ability of untrained and trained (step-trained 6 min/day) spinal rats (mid-thoracic spinal cord transection at post-natal day 5) at different levels of body weight support on a treadmill over a 40-day period, starting at 69 days of age. (nih.gov)
  • 0.05) myosin heavy chain Type IIX in the soleus muscles of hindlimb suspended rats compared with soleus muscles from weight-bearing (WB) rats. (nih.gov)
  • Although there was a shift to a faster myosin heavy chain phenotype in soleus muscles from hindlimb suspended rats, there was no change in myogenin expression, and MyoD expression was undetectable by Northern analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Methods and Results- Immediately after hindlimb ischemia was created, rats were randomized to receive AM infusion plus bone marrow-derived mononuclear cell (MNC) transplantation (AM+MNC group), AM infusion alone (AM group), MNC transplantation alone (MNC group), or vehicle infusion (control group). (ahajournals.org)
  • Transplantation of bone marrow-derived MNCs and infusion of AM were performed in 40 rats immediately after hindlimb ischemia was created. (ahajournals.org)
  • We challenge this assumption, showing that completely spinalized adult rats can recover unassisted hindlimb weight support and locomotion without explicit spinal transmission of motor commands through the lesion. (elifesciences.org)
  • Adult rats can thus develop a novel cortical sensorimotor circuit that bypasses the lesion, probably through biomechanical coupling, to partly recover unassisted hindlimb locomotion after complete spinal cord injury. (elifesciences.org)
  • In this procedure, animals are suspended by Request PDF on ResearchGate Models of disuse: A comparison of hindlimb suspension Hindlimb suspension reloading manual immobilization The effects of 1 and 2 wk of hindlimb suspension (HS) Reloading partly recovers bone mineral density and mechanical properties in hind limb unloaded rats. (ayevanity.com)
  • rat hindlimb unloading and reloading models were used in this experiment to study the adaption of bone system to normal loadbearing condition after a period of unloading transduction in muscle, and mechanical signal transduction in countermeasures to muscle atrophy in rats subjected to hindlimb suspension unloading. (ayevanity.com)
  • Upregulation of eIF-5A1 in the paralyzed muscle after spinal cord transection associates with spontaneous hindlimb locomotor recovery in rats by upregulation of the ErbB, MAPK and neurotrophin signal pathways. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Age-dependent bone loss and recovery during hindlimb unloading and subsequent reloading in rats. (escholarship.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of decreased mechanical loading and subsequent reloading on bone using a hindlimb unloading model in Adult (9 month old) and Aged (28 month old) male rats. (escholarship.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that hindlimb postural asymmetry in rats is induced by a unilateral injury of the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex, and characterize this phenomenon as a model of spinal neuroplasticity underlying asymmetric motor deficits. (lu.se)
  • Longitudinal forelimb (A-C) and hindlimb (D-F) electrophysiology assessment demonstrated rapid loss of motor unit connectivity in mutant SOD1 rats. (umccc.org.au)
  • Although the fraction of cells producing a significant postspike effect was similar for forelimb and hindlimb M1, the number of muscles with postspike effects (muscle field) per cell was markedly lower for hindlimb. (ku.edu)
  • We examine here the extent to which features of early limb development, especially chondrogenesis, might be associated with obvious differences in forelimb and hindlimb size or function in the adult. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The centroid coordinates for the forelimb and hindlimb axons are shown in the Table. (umccc.org.au)
  • Study FORELIMB AND HINDLIMB- MYOLOGY (origin and insertion and function) flashcards from Jacqueline Pacholec's James Cook University class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. (umccc.org.au)
  • so, specific traits in the forelimb and hindlimb could be selected as a unit to meet the requirements of some locomotor activity (Cheverud, 1996). (umccc.org.au)
  • In a second study [32], in vivo two-photon calcium imaging was used to examine how response properties of individual neurons and glial cells in reorganized forelimb and hindlimb functional somatosensory maps modified during the recovery period from ischemic damage in the sensory cortex. (umccc.org.au)
  • Affected limbs: Forelimb and hindlimb. (umccc.org.au)
  • To fully capture the anatomic organization of forelimb and hindlimb tracts within the IC, we reconstructed the axon fiber distributions in 3 dimensions within this area. (umccc.org.au)
  • The forelimb and hindlimb buds are derived from territories of the lateral plate mesoderm located at defined rostrocaudal levels along the main body axis (Capdevila and Izpisua Belmonte, 2001). (umccc.org.au)
  • Results: The mean forelimb and hindlimb SAP were 132 ± 20 and 118 ± 20 mmHg, respectively. (umccc.org.au)
  • Methods: To determine if the effects of ADMA on angiogenesis could be reversed by overexpression of DDAH, we used DDAH 1 transgenic (TG) mice and wildytpe (WT) littermates (each n=42) and employed the disk angiogenesis system (DAS) as well as a murine model of hindlimb ischemia. (egms.de)
  • In C57/BL6 mice, a tourniquet was placed on unilateral hindlimb (left hindlimb) at the hip joint for 3 h, and then released for 24 h to induce IR. (frontiersin.org)
  • pelvis indicating left hindlimb, head indicating left forelimb, and withers indicating right forelimb). (umccc.org.au)
  • We show that maximizing the reorganization of the hindlimb sensorimotor cortex creates a novel circuit that responds to input from the ventral forepaws and activates trunk muscles that span the lesion. (elifesciences.org)
  • We here examined whether ablation brain injury and controlled cortical impact (CCI), a rat model of clinical focal traumatic brain injury, both centered over the left or right sensorimotor cortex, induced hindlimb postural asymmetry (HL-PA) with contralesional or ipsilesional limb flexion. (lu.se)
  • A hindlimb, also commonly written as two words, hind limb, is one of the back legs on any four-legged animal. (wisegeek.com)
  • We assessed stepping ability using: (1) step quantity determined from the measured hindlimb movement, (2) ordinal scales of paw placement, weight-bearing, and limb flexion, and (3) the lowest level of body weight support at which stepping was maintained. (nih.gov)
  • The right hindlimb was kept intact and used as the nonischemic limb. (ahajournals.org)
  • In vivo animal experiments with hindlimb ischemia model showed that recovery of blood flow in ischemia-induced limb was slower in diabetic animals than nondiabetic animals [ 2 , 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Also, whereas the hindlimb kinematics of other lizards on land are typically symmetrical (i.e. limb excursions anterior to the hip are of similar magnitude to the limb excursions aft of the hip), basilisks running through water exhibit much greater excursions aft than they do anterior to the hip. (biologists.org)
  • A hindlimb or back limb is one of the paired articulated appendages (limbs) attached on the caudal (posterior) end of a terrestrial tetrapod vertebrate's torso. (wikipedia.org)
  • Frogs have 4 digits in fore limb while hindlimb have 5 digits. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results raised new questions concerning the functions of Grm in amphibian limb development as well as suggesting potential involvement of the gene in regenerative success of Xenopus hindlimb. (otago.ac.nz)
  • This project aims to investigate the involvement of the BMP antagonist in X. laevis hindlimb regeneration as well as the function of the gene during early amphibian limb development via a combination of expression and functional analyses. (otago.ac.nz)
  • A ratio of limb proportions is calculated by dividing the forelimb length (humerus length + radius length) by the length of the hindlimb (femur length + tibia length). (umccc.org.au)
  • 1 synonym for hindlimb: hind limb. (umccc.org.au)
  • List the muscles of the medial hindlimb? (sporcle.com)
  • These muscles function to adduct the hindlimb and prevent unwanted abduction. (sporcle.com)
  • What other actions can the caudal muscles of the hindlimb perform aside from hip extension/abduction/adduction? (sporcle.com)
  • The first two specific aims are designed to evaluate the organization and characteristics of output from primary motor cortex (M1) to hindlimb muscles using spike triggered averaging (SpTA) of electromyography (EMG) recordings. (ku.edu)
  • Aim one is to determine whether postspike effects can be detected in averages of EMG activity of distal and proximal hindlimb muscles. (ku.edu)
  • Aim four is to evaluate the organization and characteristics of output from the ipsilateral M1 to hindlimb muscles using StTA of EMG activity. (ku.edu)
  • In this aim, we will document the properties of poststimulus effects in hindlimb muscles from ipsilateral cortex compared to those from the contralateral cortex. (ku.edu)
  • Three-hundred-seventy-one neurons in the hindlimb representation of M1 were isolated and tested with spike triggered averaging of EMG activity from twenty-two hindlimb muscles including hip, knee, ankle, digit and intrinsic foot muscles. (ku.edu)
  • 2004), the effects in hindlimb muscles from M1 differed substantially from those of forelimb M1. (ku.edu)
  • The effects of different vasomodulators on lactate release by the constant-flow-perfused rat hindlimb were examined and compared with that by perfused mesenteric artery, incubated preparations of aortas, soleus and epitrochlearis muscles, and perifused soleus muscles. (garvan.org.au)
  • Two of the studies involve muscle cultures to explore growth factors and tensioninduced skeletal muscle growth and the effects of The purpose of this study was to clarify the expression changes of MyoD mRNA under reloading rat skeletal muscles after hindlimb suspension. (ayevanity.com)
  • MEDIAL MUSCLES OF THE HINDLIMB (ca) M. sartorius In dogs it has a cranial and caudal part. (webd.pl)
  • Snakes have developed to the point that an adult snake does not show any visible evidence of having a hindlimb, but in many cases the developing snake has very pronounced signs of hindlimbs while it is still in the egg. (wisegeek.com)
  • Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. (garvan.org.au)
  • Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice and nondiabetic mice both received unilateral hindlimb ischemic surgery. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In early animal studies, a unilateral lesion to the cerebellum produced postural asymmetry with ipsilateral hindlimb flexion that was retained after complete spinal cord transection. (lu.se)
  • Our data suggest that changes in the hindlimb posture, resistance to stretch and nociceptive withdrawal reflexes are encoded by neuroplastic processes in lumbar spinal circuits induced by a unilateral brain injury. (lu.se)
  • This study was designed to determine the effects of 28 days of hindlimb unloading (HU) on the mature female rat skeleton. (galileo-training.com)
  • Animals from both age groups were subjected to 14 days of hindlimb unloading followed by up to 7 days of reloading. (escholarship.org)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Steadman, David W., Takano, Oona M. (2020): A new genus and species of pigeon (Aves, Columbidae) from the Kingdom of Tonga, with an evaluation of hindlimb osteology of columbids from Oceania. (gbif.org)
  • 13)N-Ammonia imaging allows semiquantitative evaluation of hindlimb perfusion in surgical mouse models of acute hindlimb ischemia. (cun.es)
  • Objective This study was designed to evaluate the contribution of apelin to the therapeutic efficacy of mesenchymal stem cells in hindlimb ischaemia mice. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Apelin has beneficial effects on the therapeutic efficacy and survival maintenance of mesenchymal stem cells in hindlimb ischaemia and might constitute an important therapy target in cardiovascular disease. (bmj.com)
  • What is the most proximal hindlimb bone which slots into the hip? (sporcle.com)
  • After cortical lesion, the asymmetry was developed due to the contralesional hindlimb flexion and persisted after decerebration and complete spinal cord transection. (lu.se)
  • The contralesional hindlimb was flexed after left or right side ablation injury. (lu.se)
  • This is achieved with combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies that maximize cortical reorganization, inducing an expansion of trunk motor cortex and forepaw sensory cortex into the deafferented hindlimb cortex, associated with sprouting of corticospinal axons. (elifesciences.org)
  • Laser Doppler perfusion imaging or LDPI is used in clinical situations to evaluate the skin microcirculation as well as in research situations to evaluate blood flow and blood flow recovery after experimental hindlimb ischemia, ischemia reperfusion and microsurgical flaps. (jove.com)
  • Hindlimb unloading (HU) in rodents, a ground-based animal model, has been used to simulate some of the factors associated with spaceflight. (nsbri.org)
  • Curriculum Vitae John Michael Lawler 276B Read Bldg. hindlimb suspension, sepsis) including redox and stress protein modulation of signaling in the rat soleus with reloading following prolonged hindlimb unloading. (ayevanity.com)
  • These include hindlimb suspension, spaceflight Schultz E (2000) Unloading of juvenile muscle results in a reduced muscle size 9 wk after reloading. (ayevanity.com)
  • To determine if Trim32 is induced upon muscle unloading and reloading, we used the hindlimb suspension model. (ayevanity.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two opposing environments on rat skeletal muscle: (1) hindlimb unloading and (2) CL and RT. (springer.com)
  • Effect of Leptin Deficiency on the Skeletal Response to Hindlimb Unloading in Adult Male Mice. (oregonstate.edu)
  • To evaluate this possibility, we compared the skeletal response of wild type (WT) and ob/ob mice to hindlimb unloading (HU). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Blood flow recovery after hindlimb ischemia as measured by LDPI correlates well with collateral artery development when assessed by other means such as microfill casting or micro CT.The goal of this protocol is to demonstrate the assessment of hindlimb perfusion using LDPI. (jove.com)
  • Dose optimization of decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix hydrogels for improving perfusion and subsequent validation in an aged hindlimb ischemia model. (ca.gov)
  • Home › About CIRM › Our Publications › Grantee publications › Dose optimization of decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix hydrogels for improving perfusion and subsequent validation in an aged hindlimb ischemia model. (ca.gov)
  • Nitroprusside (0.5 mM) markedly inhibited the vasoconstrictor-mediated increases in lactate release, perfusion pressure, and O2 consumption by the hindlimb but had no effect on isoproterenol-mediated lactate efflux. (garvan.org.au)
  • Hindlimb ischemia model was prepared by ligation of femoral artery in diabetic and nondiabetic mice. (hindawi.com)
  • Similarly, the angiogenic response (capillary density) to hindlimb ischemia was enhanced in TG mice. (egms.de)
  • Hindlimb ischemia was induced in nude mice by ligation and excision of the left femoral artery (n = 5) or the left iliac artery (n = 10). (cun.es)
  • Hindlimb grip strength measurements in MyHC-IIb and IId/x mice. (nih.gov)
  • Based on an empirically assessed observation of muscle weakness in both MyHC mice at 4-6 wk of age, a study of the comparative fore- and hindlimb grip strengths of MyHC-IIb and IId/x mice was conducted. (nih.gov)
  • 54 h) when exposed to reloading, but Skeletal muscle atrophy increases cell proliferation in mice gastrocnemius during the first week of hindlimb suspension. (ayevanity.com)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated success of an injectable decellularized skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogel in a young rat hindlimb ischemia model of PAD, but further pre-clinical studies are necessary prior to clinical translation. (ca.gov)
  • These data together confirm a critical role of STAC3 in EC coupling but also suggest that STAC3 may have additional functions in skeletal muscle, at least in the hindlimb muscle. (vt.edu)
  • The cheetah's back limbs appear proportional to its body, but for some animals the hindlimb has developed to the point that even a fleeting glance shows a distinct difference between the hindlimb and the forelimb . (wisegeek.com)
  • Can you name the Osteology of limbs and hindlimb? (sporcle.com)
  • The same study also revealed differential patterns of Grm expression in the developing hindlimb bud in Xenopus compared to those in the avian and murine limbs (Khokha, et al. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Hindlimb suspension (HS) will induce muscular atrophy, and a transition from a slow to fast myofiber phenotype in the rat soleus. (nih.gov)
  • Contractile and biochemical properties of rat soleus and plantaris after hindlimb suspension. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 1987) Time course of soleus muscle myosin expression during hindlimb suspension and recovery. (ayevanity.com)
  • By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. (garvan.org.au)
  • In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. (garvan.org.au)
  • In the primitive condition, as seen in Chondrichthyes and Osteichthyes, the forelimb/pectoral fin develops earlier than the hindlimb/pelvic fin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • bFGF-CM was intramuscularly implanted into the rabbit ischemic hindlimb model. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, the purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate whether local infusion of AM enhances the angiogenic potency of MNC transplantation in a rat model of hindlimb ischemia and (2) to investigate the effects of AM on the survival, adhesion, and differentiation of transplanted MNCs. (ahajournals.org)
  • We investigated the impact of RAGE suppression by soluble RAGE (sRAGE) on the angiogenic response in a diabetic hindlimb ischemia mouse model. (hindawi.com)
  • The three concentrations for the ECM hydrogel were then further examined in a young rat hindlimb ischemia model. (ca.gov)
  • A transgenic rat expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in peripheral nerves provides a new hindlimb model for the study of nerve injury and regeneration. (sickkids.ca)
  • Regeneration therapy with angiogenic cytokines has shown promising results for chronic ischemic hindlimb [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A method, using the hindlimb reflexes of chronic spinal dogs for determining the relative potency of morphine, codeine and I-K-1, which is reproducible and sensitive has been described. (aspetjournals.org)
  • It has been established that the chronic molecular adaptations to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension undergo rapid reversal (3. (ayevanity.com)
  • The overall goal of this project is to investigate hindlimb corticospinal organization and function using methods that have been successfully used to investigate the forelimb. (ku.edu)
  • Hindlimb loading determines stepping quantity and quality following spinal cord transection. (nih.gov)
  • This new cortical circuit bypasses the lesion, probably via biomechanical coupling, allowing animals to recover a surprising level of unassisted hindlimb weight support and locomotion after complete spinal cord injury. (elifesciences.org)
  • We first sought direct evidence that hindlimb motor recovery after spinal cord injury can indeed be achieved without explicit spinal transmission of motor commands through the lesion. (elifesciences.org)
  • However, because force generation differs in water versus on land, hindlimb kinematics and muscle function are likely modulated between these environments. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we examined the hindlimb kinematics and in vivo contractile function of the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), a major ankle extensor and knee flexor, during takeoffs from water versus land in mallard ducks. (biologists.org)
  • Because differences in the physical properties of aquatic and terrestrial media require differing hindlimb kinematics and muscle function, animals such as mallards may be challenged to tune their muscle properties for movement across differing environments. (biologists.org)
  • Any muscle organ that is part of a hindlimb [Automatically generated definition]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In reference to the hindlimb, this muscle functions to advance it, flexing the hip joint. (sporcle.com)
  • What lateral/caudal muscle of the hindlimb has vertebral and pelvic heads in large animals, only the pelvic head in dogs and cats? (sporcle.com)
  • What caudal muscle of the hindlimb inserts on the medial aspect of the proximal extremity of the tibia and on the calcaneus? (sporcle.com)
  • What medial/caudal muscle fo the hindlimb inserts on the medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial condyle? (sporcle.com)
  • Specifically, we hypothesize that hindlimb joint motion and muscle shortening are faster during aquatic takeoffs, but greater hindlimb muscle forces are generated during terrestrial takeoffs. (biologists.org)
  • In this study, we determined the contractility of Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle. (vt.edu)
  • In response to frequent electrostimulation, Stac3- deleted hindlimb muscle contracted but the maximal tension generated was only 20% of that in control (wild type or heterozygous) muscle (P (vt.edu)
  • Gene expression and histological analyses revealed that Stac3-deleted hindlimb muscle contained more slow type-like fibers than control muscle. (vt.edu)
  • Removal of the hindlimb by amputation at the mid-femoral level. (vetstream.com)
  • If the primary disease is treated successfully, most patients cope well with amputation of the hindlimb. (vetstream.com)
  • Hindlimb suspension will induce myofiber atrophy, and a slow to fast myofiber type transition with corresponding changes in myogenin and MyoD expression. (nih.gov)
  • Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed an up-regulation of MyoD expression following 14 d of hindlimb suspension. (nih.gov)
  • 5. with hindlimb suspension. (ayevanity.com)
  • This article describes an investigation into a hindlimb paralysis syndrome that has occurred in the summer and autumn since 2012 in 84 wild Carnaby's Cockatoos. (nih.gov)
  • Including counter-balancing the weight of the radial carpal bone is dog digits hindlimb most medial bone the. (webd.pl)
  • Endothelium-derived relaxing factor is likely to modulate the tone of resistance arteries in rabbit hindlimb in vivo. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study we investigated whether the EDRF mechanism is also present in resistance arteries of a peripheral vascular bed, namely the hindlimb of the rabbit. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Effect of histamine and bradykinin on lymph and tissue fluid composition in the rabbit hindlimb: evidence for two compartments in tissue fluid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Two mechanisms, one dependent on and one independent of afferent input may mediate asymmetric hindlimb motor responses. (lu.se)
  • Despite the presence of monosynaptic connections from corticospinal neurons to hindlimb motoneurons and the fact that the density of corticospinal neurons in hindlimb M1 is similar to that of forelimb M1 (Cheney et al. (ku.edu)
  • Hindlimb motor recovery was assessed both in controlled experimental conditions, as percentage of weight supported step cycles (%WSS) during treadmill locomotion with lateral but no vertical assist (at 4, 8 and 12 weeks post transection), and in more naturalistic conditions using open field testing without any support (at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks post transection, normalized to group-averages at week two post transection). (elifesciences.org)
  • Additionally, this study also covered the expression of Grm in stage 50 hindlimb buds, which was not tested in the previous study by (Pearl, et al. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Aim five is to evaluate the function of hindlimb M1 in voluntary movement by reversibly inactivating large portions of the M1 hindlimb representation using injections of the GABA-A agonist, muscimol. (ku.edu)
  • Although corticospinal control of the forelimb has been heavily studied for several decades, relatively little is known about corticospinal control of the hindlimb despite its importance. (ku.edu)
  • Thus, we hypothesize that curcumin could promote neovascularization at sites of hindlimb ischemia in diabetes and might take effect via modulating the function of EPCs. (biomedcentral.com)