Insulin-Like Growth Factor II: A well-characterized neutral peptide believed to be secreted by the LIVER and to circulate in the BLOOD. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities. The growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on SOMATOTROPIN. It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I, which is a major growth factor in adults.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Somatomedins: Insulin-like polypeptides made by the liver and some fibroblasts and released into the blood when stimulated by SOMATOTROPIN. They cause sulfate incorporation into collagen, RNA, and DNA synthesis, which are prerequisites to cell division and growth of the organism.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Receptor, IGF Type 2: A receptor that is specific for IGF-II and mannose-6-phosphate. The receptor is a 250-kDa single chain polypeptide which is unrelated in structure to the type 1 IGF receptor (RECEPTOR, IGF TYPE 1) and does not have a tyrosine kinase domain.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Mannosephosphates: Phosphoric acid esters of mannose.Epidermal Growth Factor: A 6-kDa polypeptide growth factor initially discovered in mouse submaxillary glands. Human epidermal growth factor was originally isolated from urine based on its ability to inhibit gastric secretion and called urogastrone. Epidermal growth factor exerts a wide variety of biological effects including the promotion of proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal and EPITHELIAL CELLS. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form.Receptors, Somatomedin: Cell surface receptors that bind somatomedins and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Studies have disclosed two types of receptors for this family of peptide hormones. The type I receptor is homologous to the insulin receptor and has tyrosine kinase activity. The type II receptor is identical to the mannose-6-phosphate receptor which is important in trafficking of lysosomal enzymes.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins: A family of soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors and modulate their biological actions at the cellular level. (Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1992;39(1):3-9)Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.COUP Transcription Factor II: A COUP transcription factor that negatively regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and competes with other hormone receptors for the common response element AGGTCA. It can also stimulate transcription of genes involved in the metabolism of GLUCOSE and CHOLESTEROL.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor: A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Genomic Imprinting: The variable phenotypic expression of a GENE depending on whether it is of paternal or maternal origin, which is a function of the DNA METHYLATION pattern. Imprinted regions are observed to be more methylated and less transcriptionally active. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Growth Substances: Signal molecules that are involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Platelet-Derived Growth Factor: Mitogenic peptide growth hormone carried in the alpha-granules of platelets. It is released when platelets adhere to traumatized tissues. Connective tissue cells near the traumatized region respond by initiating the process of replication.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Hepatocyte Growth Factor: Multifunctional growth factor which regulates both cell growth and cell motility. It exerts a strong mitogenic effect on hepatocytes and primary epithelial cells. Its receptor is PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-MET.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Nerve Growth Factors: Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).HexosephosphatesGene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Wilms Tumor: A malignant kidney tumor, caused by the uncontrolled multiplication of renal stem (blastemal), stromal (STROMAL CELLS), and epithelial (EPITHELIAL CELLS) elements. However, not all three are present in every case. Several genes or chromosomal areas have been associated with Wilms tumor which is usually found in childhood as a firm lump in a child's side or ABDOMEN.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.RNA, Long Noncoding: A class of untranslated RNA molecules that are typically greater than 200 nucleotides in length and do not code for proteins. Members of this class have been found to play roles in transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional processing, CHROMATIN REMODELING, and in the epigenetic control of chromatin.Rhabdomyosarcoma: A malignant solid tumor arising from mesenchymal tissues which normally differentiate to form striated muscle. It can occur in a wide variety of sites. It is divided into four distinct types: pleomorphic, predominantly in male adults; alveolar (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, ALVEOLAR), mainly in adolescents and young adults; embryonal (RHABDOMYOSARCOMA, EMBRYONAL), predominantly in infants and children; and botryoidal, also in young children. It is one of the most frequently occurring soft tissue sarcomas and the most common in children under 15. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p2186; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1647-9)Nerve Growth Factor: NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Insulin, Long-Acting: Insulin formulations that contain substances that retard absorption thus extending the time period of action.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Receptors, Growth Factor: Cell surface receptors that bind growth or trophic factors with high affinity, triggering intracellular responses which influence the growth, differentiation, or survival of cells.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Transforming Growth Factor beta1: A subtype of transforming growth factor beta that is synthesized by a wide variety of cells. It is synthesized as a precursor molecule that is cleaved to form mature TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta1 latency-associated peptide. The association of the cleavage products results in the formation a latent protein which must be activated to bind its receptor. Defects in the gene that encodes TGF-beta1 are the cause of CAMURATI-ENGELMANN SYNDROME.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A syndrome of multiple defects characterized primarily by umbilical hernia (HERNIA, UMBILICAL); MACROGLOSSIA; and GIGANTISM; and secondarily by visceromegaly; HYPOGLYCEMIA; and ear abnormalities.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Insulin Antibodies: Antibodies specific to INSULIN.
... it binds IGF-1 at significantly higher affinity than the IGF-1 that is bound to the insulin receptor. Like the insulin receptor ... IGF-1 binds to at least two cell surface receptors: the IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R), and the insulin receptor. The IGF-1 receptor ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and other tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors signal through multiple ... Singh P, Alex JM, Bast F (Jan 2014). "Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) signaling ...
... receptor-IGF-1 binds to it at significantly higher affinity than it binds the insulin receptor. Like the insulin receptor, the ... consists of two cell-surface receptors (IGF1R and IGF2R), two ligands (Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and Insulin-like ... Cohen P, Peehl DM, Lamson G, Rosenfeld RG (1991). "Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF receptors, and IGF-binding proteins ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin. IGFs are part of a complex system ...
... receptor - it binds IGF-1 at significantly higher affinity than it binds insulin. Like the insulin receptor, the IGF-1 receptor ... IGF-1 binds to at least two cell surface receptors: the IGF1 Receptor (IGFR), and the insulin receptor. The IGF-1 receptor ... "Signalling by the type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor: interplay with the epidermal growth factor receptor". Growth ... "Grb10 interacts differentially with the insulin receptor, insulin-like growth factor I receptor, and epidermal growth factor ...
IGFs) in tissue as well as in modulating IGF binding to its receptors. IGFBP7 binds to IGF with high affinity. It also ... The pre-mRNA of this protein is edited at two positions.These editing sites occur within the insulin growth factor domain. ... "Expression of growth hormone-releasing factor, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and its binding proteins in human ... "Inhibition of insulin receptor activation by insulin-like growth factor binding proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (49): 30729-34. ...
The mice suffer from abnormal growth because they are unable to regulate the levels of free IGF-II (insulin-like growth factor ... Domains 3 and 9 can bind to mannose 6-phosphate with high affinity. Domain 5 only binds Man-6-phosphate with a weak affinity. ... Hawkes C, Kar S (2004). "The insulin-like growth factor-II/mannose-6-phosphate receptor: structure, distribution and function ... "Frequent loss of heterozygosity on 6q at the mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor locus in human ...
"Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) binds to fibronectin (FN): demonstration of IGF-I/IGFBP-3/FN ... of three critical amino acids of the N-terminal domain of IGF-binding protein-3 essential for high affinity IGF binding". J. ... Functional interactions with the EGF receptor and the type I/type II TGFβ receptor system have also been reported, and other ... "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and affects binding properties of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3". ...
... of three critical amino acids of the N-terminal domain of IGF-binding protein-3 essential for high affinity IGF binding". The ... "Insulin receptor isoform A, a newly recognized, high-affinity insulin-like growth factor II receptor in fetal and cancer cells ... "Transferrin binds insulin-like growth factors and affects binding properties of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3". ... It is believed to be a major fetal growth factor in contrast to Insulin-like growth factor 1, which is a major growth factor in ...
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) act as co-receptors for numerous heparin-binding growth factors and cytokines and are ... or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) signaling, indicating cell specific effects. In further contrast to ovarian cancer and ... This low affinity complex then binds and activates the Frizzled receptor. Additional studies emphasized the role of Sulfs in ... In the first step, one of the two oxygens of the aldehyde hydrate attacks the sulfur of the sulfate ester. This leads to a ...
O'Dell SD, Day IN (July 1998). "Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)". The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell ... "Proinsulin binds with high affinity the insulin receptor isoform A and predominantly activates the mitogenic pathway". ... The insulin receptor's endogenous ligands include insulin, IGF-I and IGF-II. The binding of ligand to the α-chains of the IR ... "Insulin receptor isoforms and insulin receptor/insulin-like growth factor receptor hybrids in physiology and disease". ...
Similar to many other AAS, trenbolone acetate has the capability to produce insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This ... as trenbolone acetate and its compounds bind with high affinity to the progesterone receptor. It has been assumed that ... Prostaglandins are signalled through two varying pathways cyclooxygenase (COX) (Also known as: prostaglandin-endoperoxide ... The position of these carbons slows its metabolism, which greatly increases its binding affinity to the AR, and inhibits it ...
Nerve growth factor (NGF) uses the high-affinity receptor TrkA to promote myelination and the differentiation of neurons. ... insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), ... Later studies determined GDNF uses a receptor tyrosine kinase and a high-affinity ligand-binding co-receptor GFRα. GDNF has an ... transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), and transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). They signal through receptor tyrosine ...
... has been found to decrease insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels by 17 to 38% in women and men.[74] Suppression ... Two books, Estrogen Action, Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators and Women's Health (Imperial College Press 2013) and ... The long half-lives of tamoxifen and afimoxifene are attributed to their high plasma protein binding as well as to ... of the affinity of estradiol for the ERα and ERβ, respectively, whereas afimoxifene has 178% and 338% of the affinity of ...
This domain binds to phosphoinositides with high affinity. In the case of the PH domain of Akt, it binds either PIP3 ( ... PI 3-kinases may be activated by a G protein coupled receptor or receptor tyrosine kinase such as the insulin receptor. Once ... Akt could promote growth factor-mediated cell survival both directly and indirectly. BAD is a pro-apoptotic protein of the Bcl- ... and either activation of Akt or compound deletion of FoxO1/3/4 reduced leukemic cell growth in a mouse model. Two recent ...
"Binding of mutants of human insulin-like growth factor II to insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 1-6". J. Biol. Chem. ... of three critical amino acids of the N-terminal domain of IGF-binding protein-3 essential for high affinity IGF binding". J. ... o receptor de IGF-1 (IGF1R), e o receptor da insulina. O receptor de IGF-1 parece ser o receptor "fisiolóxico", e o IGF-1 ... Twigg SM, Baxter RC (1998). "Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein 5 forms an alternative ternary complex with IGFs ...
Berlin, I.; Schwartz, H.; Nash, P. D. (2010). "Regulation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ubiquitination and Trafficking by ... "A High-Affinity Arg-X-X-Lys SH3 Binding Motif Confers Specificity for the Interaction between Gads and SLP-76 in T Cell ... IGF-1 and FGF receptor mediated signaling networks reveal an extensive potential interactome". Cell Communication and Signaling ... In recognition of this he was selected to represent Canada as one of two youth delegates to the 1985 Nobel Prize lectures and ...
FOXO transcription factors have been shown to be the down downstream effector molecules of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) ... Depending on this modified state, FOXO4 binding affinity for DNA is altered, allowing for FOXO4 to regulate many cellular ... "Ligand-dependent interaction of estrogen receptor-alpha with members of the forkhead transcription factor family". J. Biol. ... Two of the main upstream regulators of FOXO4 activity are phosphoinositide 3- kinase (PI3K) and serine/threonine kinase AKT/PKB ...
The effects of 8β-VE2 and ERβ may be mediated, in part, by local stimulation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1)-induced ... preference in binding affinity for the ERβ over the ERα. In rodents, 8β-VE2 stimulates follicular growth and to a comparable ... "Selective estrogen receptor-β activation stimulates skeletal muscle growth and regeneration". FASEB J. 26 (5): 1909-20. doi: ... It has 190-fold higher potency in transactivation assays of the ERβ relative to the ERα and 93- (rat) and 180-fold (human) ...
It decreases with high levels of insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), androgens, prolactin and ... SHBG has two two laminin G-like domains which form pockets that bind hydrophobic molecules. The steroids are bound by the LG ... The relative binding affinity of various sex steroids for SHBG is dihydrotestosterone (DHT) > testosterone > androstenediol > ... and thus biologically active and able to enter a cell and activate its receptor. SHBG inhibits the function of these hormones. ...
"Expression of a Trk high affinity nerve growth factor receptor in the human prostate". Endocrinology. 136 (1): 262-8. doi: ... Other example of tyrosine kinase receptors include the insulin receptor, the IGF-1 receptor, the MuSK protein receptor, the ... Each type of Trk receptor tends to bind specific neurotrophins: TrkA is the receptor for NGF, TrkB the receptor for BDNF and NT ... Tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC), also known as NT-3 growth factor receptor, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 3, ...
It decreases with high levels of insulin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), androgens, prolactin and ... "Relative binding affinity of anabolic-androgenic steroids: comparison of the binding to the androgen receptors in skeletal ... Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or sex steroid-binding globulin (SSBG) is a glycoprotein that binds to the two sex hormones ... Affinity and bindingEdit. Affinities of endogenous steroids for SHBG and plasma protein binding[40] Steroid. SHBG affinity. ...
The high affinity of rapamycin binding to FKBP12 is explained by number of hydrogen bonds through two different hydrophobic ... insulin-like growth factor receptor), mutations in PI3K and mutations/amplifications of AKT. Tumor suppressor phosphatase and ... IGF, PDGF, and colony-stimulating factors (CSFs). Rapamycin inhibitors and rapalogs can target tumor growth both directly and ... basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), ephrin-B2, vascular enothelial growth factor (VEGF), and members of the tumor growth ...
Certain growth-inducing proteins such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and vascular ... LPA binds the high-affinity G-protein coupled receptors LPA1, LPA2, and LPA3 (also known as EDG2, EDG4, and EDG7, respectively ... The G-protein coupled receptors for the PIP2 messenger system produces two effectors, phospholipase C (PLC) and ... by activation of ceramidase by growth-inducing proteins such as platelet-derived growth factor and insulin-like growth factor, ...
One of the known target genes of androgen receptor activation is the insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-1R). Thus, ... "Anti-androgens and the mutated androgen receptor of LNCaP cells: differential effects on binding affinity, heat-shock protein ... The androgen receptor is most closely related to the progesterone receptor, and progestins in higher dosages can block the ... "Convergence of two repressors through heterodimer formation of androgen receptor and testicular orphan receptor-4: a unique ...
1991). "Two insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding proteins are responsible for the selective affinity for IGF-II of ... insulin-like growth factor I binding. • insulin-like growth factor II binding. • ربط بروتيني. • receptor binding. ... IGF)-II binding to purified IGF binding proteins 1-6: comparison of charcoal adsorption and high performance size exclusion ... insulin-like growth factor binding. • growth factor binding. • ...
... I and II were identified as prolactin-like molecules that can bind to prolactin receptor with high affinity ... Insulin. *Agonists: Chaetochromin (4548-G05). *Insulin-like growth factor 1. *Insulin-like growth factor 2 ... Its structure and function is similar to that of growth hormone. It modifies the metabolic state of the mother during pregnancy ... Antibodies: Xentuzumab (against IGF-1 and IGF-2). Kisspeptin. *Agonists: Kisspeptin. *Kisspeptin-10 ...
"Progesterone Receptors Upregulate Wnt-1 To Induce Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Transactivation and c-Src-Dependent ... "Characterization of high affinity progesterone-binding membrane proteins by anti-peptide antiserum". Steroids. 63 (2): 111-6. ... Growth Hormone & IGF Research. 14 Suppl A: S18-33. doi:10.1016/j.ghir.2004.03.007. PMID 15135772. Roof RL, Hall ED (May 2000 ... "Occurrence of progesterone and related animal steroids in two higher plants". Journal of Natural Products. 73 (3): 338-45. doi: ...
Anterior head development also requires the function of IGFs (insulin-like growth factors) expressed in the dorsal midline and ... Otd has a low affinity for bicoid, hb has a higher affinity and so will be activated at a lower bicoid concentration. Two other ... While Cerberus and Frzb bind directly to Xwnt-8 to prevent it from binding to its receptor, Cerberus is also capable of binding ... Two more cell fates are determined by conditional specification. The endoderm sends a fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signal to ...
IGF-IR binds IGF-I with highest affinity, IGF-II with somewhat lower affinity, and insulin with rather weak affinity. IGF-IR is ... IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR) is homologous to the insulin receptor (IR) and is comprised of two 130-kDa ligand-binding a-subunits ... Insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) are mitogenic and anabolic peptides structurally homologous to insulin. IGF-I ... Morrione, A., et al., Insulin-like growth factor-II stimulates cell prolifertion through the insulin receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad ...
... and affect its activity by preventing or delaying its binding to the receptors. Because high levels of IGF-I and -II receptors ... IGFBP-4 is synthesized mainly in the liver and exhibits a high affinity for IGF-I and -II that is nearly equal to that of IGFBP ... 1992) Expression of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) and IGF-II, IGF-I and insulin receptors mRNAs in isolated non- ... 1996) Characterization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I-receptor binding sites during in vitro transformation of rat ...
... cells for IGF-I, and 16.2% for IGF-II, and 0.3% for insulin. High affinity Kd for both IGF receptors were nanomolar. IGF-II was ... PRESENCE OF INSULINLIKE GROWTH-FACTOR RECEPTORS AND LACK OF INSULIN-RECEPTORS ON FETAL BOVINE SMOOTH-MUSCLE CELLS IN VITRO ... fivefold less potent than IGF-I in displacing IGF-I binding. IGF-I showed no affinity for the IGF-II receptor. Insulin, at ... have demonstrated specific receptors and associated mitogenic actions for insulin and insulinlike growth factors I and II (IGF- ...
They bound with high (subnanomolar) affinity to IGF-II, did not cross-react with IGF-I and insulin, and potently inhibited ... Novel human monoclonal antibodies to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II that potently inhibit the IGF receptor type I signal ... Novel human monoclonal antibodies to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II that potently inhibit the IGF receptor type I signal ... Novel human monoclonal antibodies to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II that potently inhibit the IGF receptor type I signal ...
... the rat homologue of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) II] and IGF-I, are identified on IM-9 cells by 125I-MSA binding. They ... These binding sites, which have moderately high affinity for multiplication-stimulating activity [MSA, ... Insulin-like growth factor binding to the atypical insulin receptors of a human lymphoid-derived cell line (IM-9). H A Jonas, A ... to the insulin receptor, and receptors purified by insulin affinity chromatography. Because the atypical insulin/MSA-binding ...
... it binds IGF-1 at significantly higher affinity than the IGF-1 that is bound to the insulin receptor. Like the insulin receptor ... IGF-1 binds to at least two cell surface receptors: the IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R), and the insulin receptor. The IGF-1 receptor ... Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) and other tyrosine kinase growth factor receptors signal through multiple ... Singh P, Alex JM, Bast F (Jan 2014). "Insulin receptor (IR) and insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) signaling ...
Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a ... A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. ... tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit ... IGF I Receptor; IGF-1 Receptors; Insulin Like Growth Factor I Receptor; Receptor, IGF I; Receptor, IGF-1; Receptors, IGF 1; IGF ...
The IGFBP is a family of secreted proteins that bind to insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and -II with high affinity and ... "Insulin, Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) and Glucagon: The Evolution of their Receptors," Comparative Biochemistry and ... "Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins and Their Role in Controlling IGF Actions,"Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews, 8 (1) ... Finally, within the group of genes related to immune factors, insulin growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) 7 was detected in ...
... and rat IGF1 receptor (also known as IGF1R). IGF1 receptor antibody is validated for use in ELISA, IHC-paraffin, ... IGF1 receptor antibody LS-C117381 is an immunoaffinity-purified rabbit polyclonal that binds pTyr1161 of human, mouse, ... Receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates actions of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). Binds IGF1 with high affinity and IGF2 ... IGF1R Antibody, CD221 antigen Antibody, CD221 Antibody, IGF1 Receptor Antibody, IGFR Antibody, IGF-I receptor Antibody, Soluble ...
Insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (IGFBPs) bind IGFs with high affinity. This interaction affects the half-lives of ... by IGFBP-4 via mechanisms independent of the functionality of the IGF/IGF receptor pathway and independent of IGF-II binding. ... Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-binding Protein-4 Inhibits Colony Formation of Colorectal Cancer Cells by IGF-independent ... Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-binding Protein-4 Inhibits Colony Formation of Colorectal Cancer Cells by IGF-independent ...
IGF-I), which is mostly carried in blood by IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), was associated to the glomerular filtration rate ... IGF-I and IGF-II), three IGF receptors (IGF-I receptor; IGF-II receptor; insulin receptor) and six high-affinity IGF-binding ... IGF-I = insulin-like growth factor I; IGFBP-3 = insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3; eGFR = estimated glomerular ... insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Int ...
This growth pattern is a major factor in therapeutic failure. Diffuse infiltrative glioma cells sh ... Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF) binds with high affinity with IGF-Binding Protein 2 (IGFBP2), a soluble protein that is ... the two latter integrins being receptors for vitronectin. In addition, αvβ3 can also bind to laminin, fibronectin, and tenascin ... Wang H, Wang H, Shen W, Huang H, Hu L, Ramdas L, Zhou YH, Liao WS, Fuller GN, Zhang W (2003) Insulin-like growth factor binding ...
... receptor-IGF-1 binds to it at significantly higher affinity than it binds the insulin receptor. Like the insulin receptor, the ... consists of two cell-surface receptors (IGF1R and IGF2R), two ligands (Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and Insulin-like ... Cohen P, Peehl DM, Lamson G, Rosenfeld RG (1991). "Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), IGF receptors, and IGF-binding proteins ... The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are proteins with high sequence similarity to insulin. IGFs are part of a complex system ...
... it binds IGF-1 at significantly higher affinity than it binds the insulin receptor. Like the insulin receptor, the IGF-1 ... IGF-1 binds to at least two cell surface receptors: the IGF1 Receptor (IGFR), and the insulin receptor. The IGF-1 receptor ... epidermal growth factor receptor activity. • insulin-like growth factor receptor activity. • insulin-like growth factor binding ... insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. The first three domains of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor. PDB rendering based on ...
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor plays a critical role in transformation events. Cleavage of the precursor generates ... This receptor binds insulin-like growth factor with a high affinity. It has tyrosine kinase activity. ... This receptor binds insulin-like growth factor with a high affinity. It has tyrosine kinase activity. The insulin-like growth ... IGF1R; insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; IGFR; CD221; IGFIR; JTK13; IGF-I receptor; soluble IGF1R variant 1; soluble IGF1R ...
... epidermal growth factor receptor explanation free. What is epidermal growth factor receptor? Meaning of epidermal growth factor ... receptor medical term. What does epidermal growth factor receptor mean? ... Looking for online definition of epidermal growth factor receptor in the Medical Dictionary? ... insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRa), FMS-like tyrosine ...
... has a structure distinct from IGF1R or the insulin receptor. While IGF2R binds IGF-II with high affinity, it also serves as a ... The insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II), and their receptor (the IGR-IR) have been well documented in cell ... One of these receptors, the insulin-like growth factor II/mannose 6-phosphate receptor (IGF2R, also called the Type II IGF ... Abstract: The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and the IGF type I receptor (IGF-IR) have demonstrated functions in normal ...
Goat Polyclonal Anti-IGFBP-2 Antibody [Unconjugated]. Validated: WB, Simple Western, B/N. Tested Reactivity: Human. 100% ... The superfamily of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding proteins include the six high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBP ... Huynh H, Iizuka S, Kaba M, Kirak O, Zheng J, Lodish HF, Zhang CC Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 secreted by a ... have been shown to modify the affinities of the binding proteins to IGF. ...
... proteins like insulin, transferrin, insulin-like growth factors, and vasopressin cross the BBB by receptor-mediated ... after binding to albumin and a plasma transport protein to which these vitamins bind with specific high-affinity. Moreover, ... RME occurs at the brain for substances, such as transferrin [158], insulin [159], leptin [160], and IGF-I and IGF-II [161], and ... K. R. Duffy, W. M. Pardridge, and R. G. Rosenfeld, "Human blood-brain barrier insulin-like growth factor receptor," Metabolism ...
The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R) binds M6P-capped ligands and IGF-II at different ... We have designed a panel of M6P-based ligands that bind to the M6P/IGF2R with high affinity in a bivalent manner and cause ... Inhibition of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II)-dependent cell growth by multidentate pentamannosyl 6-phosphate-based ... permitting IGF-II binding as a passenger ligand and subsequent trafficking to the lysosome, where the IGF-II is degraded. This ...
The nerve growth factor receptor has high and low affinity components. It will function as a survival factor if it binds to the ... and growth factors such as insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II)support the survival of particular types of neurons.7- ... 1996) Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor is an axonal chemoattractant and a neurotrophic factor for spinal motor neurons. ... high affinity trkA receptor, but will induce apoptosis of retinal neurons12 or oligodendrocytes13 when it binds to the low ...
... multicom-ponent molecular system and the activity of IGF is modulated by the presence of six soluble high affinity IGF binding ... However such strategies, usually targeted to block the IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) have proved disappointing. The IGF axis is a ... The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis is a prime candidate for investiga-tion in this area and the use of anti-IGF ... Role of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis in the development of tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer epithelial cells ...
INSULIN RECEPTOR/INSR information: Molecular Weight: 156333 MW; Subcellular Localization: Cell membrane; Single-pass ... Polyclonal antibody for INSULIN RECEPTOR/INSR detection. Host: Rabbit.Size: 100μg/vial. Tested applications: WB. Reactive ... the insulin receptor can bind insulin-like growth factors (IGFI and IGFII). Isoform Short has a higher affinity for IGFII ... Phosphorylation of IRSs proteins lead to the activation of two main signaling pathways: the PI3K-AKT/PKB pathway, which is ...
Amino-and carboxyl-terminal fragments of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein-3 cooperate to bind IGFs with high ... IGF) binding protein-3 cooperate to bind IGFs with high affinity and inhibit IGF receptor interactions. Endocrinology, 144(7), ... Insulin-like Growth Factor-II/Mannose 6-Phosphate Receptor Overexpression Reduces Growth of Choriocarcinoma Cells in Vitro and ... And C-Terminal Residues Of Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-Binding Protein-3 In Regulating IGF Complex Formation And Receptor ...
... production of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) and expression of IGF-II mRNA of human cancer cell-lines by antagonistic ... Using ligand competition assays with 125I-labeled GH-RH antagonist JV-1-42, specific high-affinity binding sites for GH-RH were ... for IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-IR, and β-actin) or 4 μg of total RNA (for GH-RH receptors) or 2 μg of poly(A+)RNA (for GH-RH) were ... RIAs for GH-RH, IGF-I, and IGF-II.. The methods used for determination of IGF-I levels in serum as well as IGF-I and IGF-II ...
  • Its binding activity is not destroyed by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and heating. (elsevier.com)
  • In Ube3A deficient mice, the BDNF-induced recruitment of PSD-95, as well as PLCγ and Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) with TrkB receptors was attenuated, resulting in reduced activation of PLCγ-α-calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and PI3K-Akt, but leaving the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) pathway intact. (plos.org)
  • Our findings support the view that GAGs localized in the vessel wall and attached to the extracellular matrix control IGF-I tissue accessibility and bioactivity. (bioscientifica.com)
  • In mammals the extracellular region of the cation‐independent mannose‐6‐phosphate receptor has gained an IGFIIbinding function and is termed type II IGF receptor (IGF2R). (embopress.org)
  • Hemopoietic progenitors and mature blood cells have been shown to produce GH and IGF-I and to express receptors for these peptides. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Distinct IGF-1-peptides may arise via the utilization of different promoters, alternative splicing, proteolytic processing and glycosylation events . (docplayer.net)
  • The type II IGF receptor (IGF2R) is a multifunctional nontyrosine kinase receptor [ 9 , 10 , 11 ] that is also known as the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor, and its function in regulating the action of IGF-II has been controversial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report crystal structures of IGF2R domains 11-12, 11-12-13-14 and domains 11-12-13/IGFII complex. (embopress.org)
  • In mammals, the activity of IGFII (but not IGF‐I) is further moderated by IGF2R, which sequesters IGFII for internalization and degradation. (embopress.org)
  • The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R) is a multifunctional, type I transmembrane receptor that is a member of the P-type lectin family. (unmc.edu)
  • The M6P/IGF2R as well as the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) are mostly involved in lysosomal biogenesis, trafficking newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes from the TGN to the early endosomes, where the vesicles mature into lysosomes. (unmc.edu)
  • thus, the M6P/IGF2R is considered a clearance receptor and tumor suppressor. (unmc.edu)
  • Due to its growth suppressive function, the M6P/IGF2R is believed to play a role in cancer biology. (unmc.edu)
  • However, the social amoeba, D. discoideum , produces lysosomal enzymes that bind to the M6P/IGF2R, a discovery that predated identification of a receptor capable of transporting these acid hydrolases within this organism. (unmc.edu)
  • Several growth factors and hormones are involved in this overall process, and IGF-1R is believed to have roles in the differentiation of the cells and a key role in inhibiting apoptosis until weaning is complete. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Interaction Between IGF Binding Protein-3 and TGFb in in the Regulation of Adipocyte Differentiation. (edu.au)
  • In addition, free IGF-1 levels may be elevated in obese patients with hyperinsulinemia, leading to accelerated cell growth and differentiation. (medscape.com)
  • Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are molecules which act to promote the differentiation of neurons and to maintain their phenotype. (springer.com)
  • Stewart CE, Rotwein P. Growth, differentiation, and survival: multiple physiological functions for insulin-like growth factors. (springer.com)
  • The biological actions of the IGFs are mediated by IGF‐1R and IR, leading to cell growth, differentiation and survival. (embopress.org)
  • The present invention provides methods for inducing differentiation of an embryonic stem cell into a motor neuron using a motoneuronotrophic factor (MNTF) or its peptide analogues. (google.com)
  • It promotes growth and differentiation, is essential in embryogenesis, and is also important in wound healing. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 0.05-0.001) inhibited tumor growth as demonstrated by a 58% decrease in final tumor volume, 54% reduction in tumor weight, and the extension of tumor-doubling time from 8.5 ± 1.38 to 12 ± 1.07 days as compared with controls. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The growth of tumor cells in vitro was stimulated by IGF-I and inhibited by GH-RH antagonist JV-1-38 and a GH-RH antiserum. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The last two members of the insulin receptor family are the insulin receptor (IR) and, especially in tumor cells, the hybrid receptors IGF-IR/IR. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In malignant acanthosis nigricans, the stimulating factor is hypothesized to be a substance secreted either by the tumor or in response to the tumor. (medscape.com)
  • The mechanisms for this association are unknown, but hyperinsulinaemia (a hallmark of insulin resistance) and the increase in bioavailable insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) appear to have a role in tumor initiation and progression in insulin-resistant patients. (hindawi.com)
  • It is well recognized that the epithelial breast cancer cells commonly overexpress the IGF-I receptor while IGF-II is expressed by the tumor stroma. (springer.com)
  • Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, discussed his group's current work in three new areas: angiopoietins as a target for blocking tumor angiogenesis, integrins, and the insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) system. (cancernetwork.com)
  • When the M. D. Anderson researchers examined more than 20 human primary colon cancer samples and 5 human liver metastases, they found that tumor tissue did not express Ang-1 but did express high levels of Ang-2. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Overexpression of Ang-2 greatly increased tumor growth. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The insulin-like growth factor I receptor: a key to tumor growth? (patentgenius.com)
  • A quick and simple method for quantitation of lactate dehydrogenase release in measurements of cellular cytotoxicity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) activity. (patentgenius.com)
  • Results The tumor types of the enrolled subjects included esophageal (n∈=∈5), biliary tract (n∈=∈3), colon (n∈=∈3), gastric (n∈=∈2), pancreatic (n∈=∈1), anal (n∈=∈1) and small bowel (n∈=∈1). (elsevier.com)
  • The activated tumor stroma participates in many processes that control tumorigenesis, including tumor cell growth, invasion and metastasis. (nature.com)
  • Cancer cells escape normal growth control mechanisms as a consequence of activating (i.e., gain-of-function) mutations and/or increased expression of one or more cellular protooncogenes and/or inactivating (i.e., loss-of function) mutations and/or decreased expression of one or more tumor suppressor genes. (pnas.org)
  • Perhaps the best-characterized pathway includes D-type cyclin/cdk complexes, which can be oncogenes, and two tumor suppressor genes, the p16 cyclin/cdk inhibitor and the retinoblastoma gene product (reviewed in ref. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this review, we summarize evidence in support of a role for these factors in promoting tumor cell progression and the formation of ascites. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results extend the findings on the involvement of IGF-I in NSCLC and suggest that GH-RH may be an autocrine growth factor for H838 NSCLC. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The simplest types of IRESs are typified by the cricket paralysis virus intergenic region (CrPV IGR) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) IRESs, both of which independently form high-affinity complexes with the small (40S) ribosomal subunit and bypass the molecular processes of cap-binding and scanning. (stanford.edu)
  • Cells grown on Transwell inserts were probed with antibodies to the Na + /K + -ATPase α-1 subunit and either the alpha or beta subunits of the IGF-1 receptor and visualized in Z-section using confocal microscopy. (arvojournals.org)
  • Confocal analysis of Transwell-cultured D407 cells confirmed the apical localization of the Na + /K + -ATPase α-1 subunit, characteristic of polarized RPE, with IGF-1 receptor α and β subunits exhibiting a nonpolarized distribution. (arvojournals.org)
  • Here we report the observation of marked differences in mRNA secondary structure associated with SNPs in the coding regions of two human mRNAs: alanyl tRNA synthetase and replication protein A, 70-kDa subunit (RPA70). (portalbolsasdeestudo.com.br)
  • GH-RH antagonists block the secretion of GH from the pituitary by inhibiting the binding of hypothalamic GH-RH to pituitary GH-RH receptors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Whether age-associated changes in GH production or sex steroid secretion, or other unknown factors, cause diminished IGF production in the elderly remains to be determined. (elsevier.com)
  • Insulin-like Growth Factor II (IGF-II) analogues in which at least one of R37 and R38 is replaced with another amino add residue, the most preferred being IGF-II R37Q R38Q, can readily be produced in E. coli, unlike natural IGF-II, which is cleaved on secretion. (patentgenius.com)
  • IGF-1 shapes the development of the cochlea through controlling apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two distinct modes of cell death-necrosis and apoptosis-are involved in pathological neuronal loss, but apoptosis alone is the mechanism of programmed cell death during development. (bmj.com)
  • All cells will undergo apoptosis in the absence of survival signals, usually peptide growth factors secreted by other cells. (bmj.com)
  • However, the role of insulin receptor (IR) isoforms, IGF-IR or insulin-like growth factor-II receptor (IGF-IIR) in VSMCs apoptosis during advanced atherosclerosis remains unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro experiments showed that IGF-IR inhibition by picropodophyllin induced apoptosis in VSMCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Apoptosis induced by thapsigargin was lower in IR −/− VSMCs expressing higher IGF-IR levels as compared to IRLoxP +/+ VSMCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In advanced human atherosclerosis, a reduction of IRA/IRB ratio, decreased IGF-IR expression, or increased IGF-IIR may contribute to VSMCs apoptosis, promoting plaque instability and increasing the risk of plaque rupture and its clinical consequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In-vivo transfection of pcDNA3.1-IGFBP7 inhibits melanoma growth in mice through apoptosis induction and VEGF downexpression," J. Exp. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This metabolic effect of IGF-I is to provide a signal to cells that adequate nutrient is available to avoid apoptosis, enhance cellular protein synthesis, enable cells to undergo hypertrophy in response to an appropriate stimulus and stimulate cell division. (e-apem.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are essential for growth and survival that suppress apoptosis and promote cell cycle progression, angiogenesis, and metastatic activities in various cancers. (nih.gov)
  • IGF-system also regulates metabolic functions, including glucose uptake in glial cells, and demonstrates neuromodulatory activities, including enhanced serotonin biosynthesis, inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake by neurons, and maintenance of the Na + /K + pump in synaptosomes ( 14 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Isoform 2 up-regulates the production of GHBP and acts as a negative inhibitor of GH signaling. (proteopedia.org)
  • The GH molecule binds to its specific cell surface receptor (GHR), which dimerizes with another GHR molecule so that the single GH molecule is enveloped by 2 GHR molecules. (medscape.com)
  • IGF-1 gene expression is controlled by both transcriptional and post-translational modifications. (docplayer.net)
  • These results suggest that HBx may play a role in the process of hcc by activating IGF-I receptor gene expression. (kribb.re.kr)
  • The studies presented herein further our understanding of the origin of the M6P/IGFR as well as exploiting this receptor as a novel therapeutic target against IGF-II-dependent cancers. (unmc.edu)
  • The structure and biological activities of two disulphide isomers of a C-region deletion mutant of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) which has an Asn-Gly link engineered at the junction of the A- and B-regions were studied before and after chemical cleavage. (bbk.ac.uk)
  • Actually, they comprise the second-largest category of biological medicines in clinical development, after vaccines [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • 2. BIOLOGICAL DATA 2.1 Use of antibiotics The induction by rbST of an increased incidence of mastitis and somatic-cell count in the milk of treated cows was not reviewed by the Committee at its fortieth meeting, as these effects on animal health were considered outside its terms of reference. (inchem.org)
  • The IGF-1R is implicated in several cancers, [ 4 ] [ 5 ] including both breast and prostate cancer. (thefullwiki.org)
  • The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and the IGF type I receptor (IGF-IR) have demonstrated functions in normal mammary epithelial growth in mice and have been implicated in breast cancers in humans. (iospress.com)
  • Correction published on 30 August 2010, see Cancers 2010 , 2 (3), 1642-1643 . (mdpi.com)
  • Overexpression of the IGF-IR gene is a typical feature of most primary breast cancers, whereas low IGF-IR levels are seen at advanced stages. (mdpi.com)
  • A decreased IGf-2 level is seen in growth disorders and has also been proposed to play a role in the development of some cancers including breast cancer, colon cancer and lung cancer. (news-medical.net)
  • EGF dysregulation is linked to the growth and progression of certain cancers. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The IGF-1R is implicated in several cancers, [2] most notably breast cancer. (chemeurope.com)
  • To substantiate further that HBx could transactivate the expression of the endogenous IGF-I receptor gene, Hep G2 cells were transiently transfected with a HBx expression vector. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the sensitivity to insulin and endogenous IGF-I concentration in patients with varying degree of glucose intolerance was reported 13) . (e-apem.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • A synthetic analogue of IGF1 is used to treat growth failure in children who have abnormal IGF-1 synthesis, as IGF-1 is required for bone and muscle growth. (news-medical.net)
  • Additionally, exogenous IGF1 increases the growth and metastasis of colon cancer in mice ( 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, high levels of IGF1 are associated with increased incidence of cancer progression, while lower levels of IGF1 are associated with decreased incidence of cancer progression in mice and humans. (frontiersin.org)