Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Radiation, Ionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or particle radiation (high energy ELEMENTARY PARTICLES) capable of directly or indirectly producing IONS in its passage through matter. The wavelengths of ionizing electromagnetic radiation are equal to or smaller than those of short (far) ultraviolet radiation and include gamma and X-rays.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Radiation: Emission or propagation of acoustic waves (SOUND), ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY waves (such as LIGHT; RADIO WAVES; GAMMA RAYS; or X-RAYS), or a stream of subatomic particles (such as ELECTRONS; NEUTRONS; PROTONS; or ALPHA PARTICLES).Radiation ProtectionRadiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Limit of Detection: Concentration or quantity that is derived from the smallest measure that can be detected with reasonable certainty for a given analytical procedure.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Radiation Injuries, Experimental: Experimentally produced harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing RADIATION in CHORDATA animals.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Radiation Pneumonitis: Inflammation of the lung due to harmful effects of ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Radiation-Sensitizing Agents: Drugs used to potentiate the effectiveness of radiation therapy in destroying unwanted cells.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Radiation-Protective Agents: Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques: Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Calibration: Determination, by measurement or comparison with a standard, of the correct value of each scale reading on a meter or other measuring instrument; or determination of the settings of a control device that correspond to particular values of voltage, current, frequency or other output.Acute Radiation Syndrome: A condition caused by a brief whole body exposure to more than one sievert dose equivalent of radiation. Acute radiation syndrome is initially characterized by ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; VOMITING; but can progress to hematological, gastrointestinal, neurological, pulmonary, and other major organ dysfunction.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Conductometry: Determination of the quantity of a material present in a mixture by measurement of its effect on the electrical conductivity of the mixture. (Webster, 3d ed)Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Radioactive Hazard Release: Uncontrolled release of radioactive material from its containment. This either threatens to, or does, cause exposure to a radioactive hazard. Such an incident may occur accidentally or deliberately.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Electrophoresis, Capillary: A highly-sensitive (in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis) and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Parasitology: The study of parasites and PARASITIC DISEASES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Automation: Controlled operation of an apparatus, process, or system by mechanical or electronic devices that take the place of human organs of observation, effort, and decision. (From Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 1993)Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Diagnostic Imaging: Any visual display of structural or functional patterns of organs or tissues for diagnostic evaluation. It includes measuring physiologic and metabolic responses to physical and chemical stimuli, as well as ultramicroscopy.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Radiodermatitis: A cutaneous inflammatory reaction occurring as a result of exposure to ionizing radiation.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Radioisotopes: Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Gold: A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Leukemia, Radiation-Induced: Leukemia produced by exposure to IONIZING RADIATION or NON-IONIZING RADIATION.Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Nuclear Warfare: Warfare involving the use of NUCLEAR WEAPONS.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Signal-To-Noise Ratio: The comparison of the quantity of meaningful data to the irrelevant or incorrect data.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Radiation, Nonionizing: ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION or sonic radiation (SOUND WAVES) which does not produce IONS in matter through which it passes. The wavelengths of non-ionizing electromagentic radiation are generally longer than those of far ultraviolet radiation and range through the longest RADIO WAVES.Metal Nanoparticles: Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.Electromagnetic Radiation: Waves of oscillating electric and MAGNETIC FIELDS which move at right angles to each other and outward from the source.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Artifacts: Any visible result of a procedure which is caused by the procedure itself and not by the entity being analyzed. Common examples include histological structures introduced by tissue processing, radiographic images of structures that are not naturally present in living tissue, and products of chemical reactions that occur during analysis.Mice, Inbred C57BLPregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Colorimetry: Any technique by which an unknown color is evaluated in terms of standard colors. The technique may be visual, photoelectric, or indirect by means of spectrophotometry. It is used in chemistry and physics. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Fluoroscopy: Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.

*Radiation Portal Monitor

Gamma radiation is detected, and in some cases complemented by neutron detection when sensitivity for nuclear material is ... RDDs are comparatively easy to detect with RPMs due to their high level of radioactivity. RDDs emit gamma radiation as well as ... radiation portal monitoring Crane based radiation portal monitoring Air luggage radiation portal monitoring Railway radiation ... Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) are passive radiation detection devices used for the screening of individuals, vehicles, cargo ...

*Airborne particulate radioactivity monitoring

... which is needed for calculating the detection sensitivity. This sensitivity is often called the minimum detectable ... In monitoring, the region of deposition of this material onto the filter medium is continuously viewed by a radiation detector ... the CPAM monitors this air and is intended to detect high concentrations of radioactivity and shut down the HVAC flow when ... Radiation monitors in general have a number of process-control applications in nuclear power plants; a major CPAM application ...

*Chromatography detector

Allows for the detection of organic molecules containing halogen, nitro groups etc. Conductivity monitor. Continuously measures ... The lowest sensitivity of all detectors. Often used in size exclusion chromatography for polymer analysis. Radio flow detector ... W. John Lough; Irving W. Wainer (1995). High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Fundamental Principles and Practice. Blackie ... Measures the increase in conductivity achieved by ionizing the effluent gas with UV radiation. Refractive index detector (RI or ...

*Fluorescent tag

Fluorescent labeling is known for its non-destructive nature and high sensitivity. This has made it one of the most widely used ... Moreover, radiation and appropriate handling is no longer a concern. With the development of fluorescent tagging, fluorescent ... Fluorescent tags can be used in conjunction with electrochemical sensors for ease of detection in a biological system. Of the ... In live cell imaging, fluorescent tags enable movements of proteins and their interactions to be monitored. Latest advances in ...

*Neutron detection

The long decay time of Europium doped LiCaAlF6 makes it less suitable for measurements in high radiation environments, the ... Semiconductors have been used for neutron detection. These detectors have the advantage of a very low gamma sensitivity. ... 2001). "Portal, freight and vehicle monitor performance using scintillating glass fiber detectors for the detection of ... The major challenges faced by modern-day neutron detection include background noise, high detection rates, neutron neutrality, ...

*Infrared

Thermal radiation can be emitted from objects at any wavelength, and at very high temperatures such radiations are associated ... There is uncertainty regarding the exact thermal sensitivity of this biological infrared detection system.[36][37] ... In the field of climatology, atmospheric infrared radiation is monitored to detect trends in the energy exchange between the ... Strong infrared radiation in certain industry high-heat settings may be hazardous to the eyes, resulting in damage or blindness ...

*Whole-body counting

This must not be confused with a "whole body monitor" used for personnel exit monitoring, which is the term used in radiation ... the better the detection limit. The detection limit, often referred to as the Minimum Detectable Activity (MDA), is given by ... The sensitivity of a counter does depend on counting time so the longer the count, for the same system, ... Such systems are designed to measure radionuclides that emit high-energy photons and that are assumed to be homogeneously ...

*Cosmic microwave background

2000). "A flat Universe from high-resolution maps of the cosmic microwave background radiation". Nature. 404 (6781): 955-959. ... detection of the background radiation might have been technically possible, and also because of Dicke's later role in the ... the first peak was measured with increasing sensitivity and by 2000 the BOOMERanG experiment reported that the highest power ... "Christian Science Monitor. October 21, 2014.. *^ Clavin, Whitney; Harrington, J.D. (21 March 2013). "Planck Mission Brings ...

*Adenomyosis

This is possible with MRI's higher spatial and contrast resolution. Overall, it is estimated that MRI has a sensitivity of 74% ... Overall, it is estimated that transvaginal ultrasonography has a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 85% for the detection of ... Ultrasound imaging, like MRI, does not use radiation and is safe for examination of the pelvis and female reproductive organs. ... and monitor response to treatment. Indeed, TVUS and MRI are the only two practical means available to establish a pre-surgical ...

*Medical imaging

The primary advantage is the high sensitivity and specificity, along with the lack of signal decrease with tissue depth. MPI ... is used to monitor pregnancies because it is the least invasive of imaging techniques and uses no electromagnetic radiation.[4] ... Positron emission tomography (PET) uses coincidence detection to image functional processes. Short-lived positron emitting ... The former requires a higher level of originality; the latter protects all types of photographs, also the ones taken by ...

*Carbon dioxide sensor

Measuring carbon dioxide is important in monitoring indoor air quality, the function of the lungs in the form of a capnograph ... The best of these have sensitivities of 20-50 PPM. Typical NDIR sensors cost in the (US) $100 to $1000 range. New developments ... Exhaust gas analyzer Oxygen sensor Carbonate Based CO2 Sensors with High Performance, Th. Lang, H.-D. Wiemhöfer and W. Göpel, ... Examples: Modified atmospheres Indoor air quality Stowaway detection Cellar and gas stores Marine vessels Greenhouses Landfill ...

*Scintillator

... efficient detection of the radiation being studied, a high stopping power, good linearity over a wide range of energy, a short ... The coupled PMTs also exhibit temperature sensitivity, and can be damaged if submitted to mechanical shock. Hence, high ... Therefore, where needed, inorganic crystals, e.g. CsI(Tl), ZnS(Ag) (typically used in thin sheets as α-particle monitors), CaF ... Gd 2O 2S or gadolinium oxysulfide has a high stopping power due to its relatively high density (7.32 g/cm3) and the high atomic ...

*Single event upset

Thesis). T. Z. Fullem (2006). Radiation detection using single event upsets in memory chips. Binghamton University (M. S. ... Van Allen radiation belts) exacerbate this problem. The high energies associated with the phenomenon in the space particle ... The sensitivity of a device to SEU can be empirically estimated by placing a test device in a particle stream at a cyclotron or ... when many anomalies were observed in electronic monitoring equipment. Further problems were observed in space electronics ...

*Millimeter cloud radar

The application of LDR-mode for the shape classification in scanning cloud radars is limited by its high sensitivity to the ... a radar transmits a horizontally polarized radiation and receives horizontal and vertical components of the scattered radiation ... Galloway, J.; Pazmany, A.; Mead, J.; McIntosh, R. E.; Leon, D.; French, J.; Kelly, R.; Vali, G. (February 1997). "Detection of ... Nowadays, there are eleven systems monitoring the cloud properties continuously in different sites, most of them in Europe. ...

*Infrared open-path detector

For open-path detection of flammable concentrations the absorption for non-methane hydrocarbons is so strong that the ... In principle any source of infrared radiation could be used, together with an optical system of lenses or mirrors to form the ... A semiconductor laser provides a relatively weak source, but one that can be modulated at high frequency in wavelength as well ... for instance monitoring along a pipeline, or around the perimeter of a plant. Not only will one detector replace several, but ...

*Israel Space Agency

The goal of the center is to monitor and forecast dangerous meteorological and space phenomena. This includes solar radiation ... Many of the high-tech companies are involved in the various space programs in Israel, and in manufacturing sub-systems and ... It is set to have a sensitivity 10 times lower than GALEX but a field of view more than 1000 times larger. It is also planned ... to have a detection rate for transient in the UV of more than 30 times greater than that of GALEX. The ULTRASAT is planned to ...

*Thermography

Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects with a temperature above absolute zero according to the black body radiation ... ASTM E1186, Standard Practices for Air Leakage Site Detection in Building Envelopes and Air Barrier Systems ... ISO 18436-7, Condition monitoring and diagnostics of machines - Requirements for qualification and assessment of personnel - ... Quality cameras often have a high price range (often US$3,000 or more) due to the expense of the larger pixel array (state of ...

*Weighting filter

In the measurement of gamma rays or other ionising radiation, a radiation monitor or dosimeter will commonly use a filter to ... Human sensitivity to noise in the region of 6 kHz became particularly apparent in the late 1960s with the introduction of ... ITU-R 468 noise weighting with quasi-peak detection is widely used in Europe,[citation needed] especially in telecommunications ... while attenuating very high and very low frequencies to which the ear is insensitive. The aim is to ensure that measured ...

*Geiger-Müller tube

... the G-M is unable to measure high radiation rates efficiently, has a finite life in high radiation areas and cannot measure ... but which is designed for use for beta and gamma contamination monitoring. It has roughly the same sensitivity to particles as ... The efficiency of detection of a G-M tube varies with the type of incident radiation. Tubes with thin end windows have very ... Used for gamma radiation detection above energies of about 25 KeV, this type generally has an overall wall thickness of about 1 ...

*Pituitary apoplexy

... as evidenced by detection of increased levels of the protein PCNA) may also be at a higher risk of apoplexy. After an apoplexy ... If after surgery some tumor tissue remains, this may respond to medication, further surgery, or radiation therapy with a "gamma ... After recovery, people who have had pituitary apoplexy require follow-up by an endocrinologist to monitor for long-term ... this has a sensitivity of over 90% for detecting pituitary apoplexy; it may demonstrate infarction (tissue damage due to a ...

*Ionization chamber

Monitor chambers are typically parallel plate ion chambers which are placed in radiation beams to continuously measure the ... The ionization chamber is the simplest of all gas-filled radiation detectors, and is widely used for the detection and ... Because of the increased wall thickness required to withstand this high pressure, only gamma radiation can be detected.These ... The wall thickness is a trade-off between maintaining the air effect with a thicker wall, and increasing sensitivity by using a ...

*Electrical impedance tomography

The high frame rate of the v5r (over 650 frames per second) means that it can be used to monitor rapidly evolving processes or ... EIT has been suggested as a basis for brain imaging to enable detection and monitoring of cerebral ischemia, haemorrhage, and ... In contrast to most other tomographic imaging techniques, EIT does not apply any kind of ionizing radiation. Currents typically ... grades 2 and 3 according to Pap smear with a sensitivity and specificity of 92% each.[53] Whether cervical MF-EIT is going to ...

*Radio occultation

First commercial operational RO Constellation PlanetIQ Website ROM SAF monitoring ROM SAF website ECMWF monitoring. ... or on high mountaintops. Current missions include: REX on New Horizons [1] For past missions, see Special:WhatLinksHere/Radio ... When electromagnetic radiation (light) passes through the atmosphere, it is refracted (or bent). The magnitude of the ... Atmospheric radio occultation relies on the detection of a change in a radio signal as it passes through a planet's atmosphere ...

*Medical ultrasound

Compression ultrasonography has both high sensitivity and specificity for detecting proximal deep vein thrombosis only in ... The Doppler fetal monitor is commonly referred to simply as a Doppler or fetal Doppler. Doppler fetal monitors provide ... At the stage of scientific preclinical research, the technique of acoustic radiation force was implemented as a prototype in ... A typical clinical use of contrast ultrasonography is detection of a hypervascular metastatic tumor, which exhibits a contrast ...

*Iodine-131

... as well as the dose of radiation given. Some also advise not to hug or hold children when the radiation is still high, and a ... Radiation Exposure from Iodine 131 Sensitivity of Personal Homeland Security Radiation Detectors to Medical Radionuclides and ... US patent 5635712, Scott, George L., "Method for monitoring the hydraulic fracturing of a subterranean formation", published ... Araguás, Luis Araguás; Plata Bedmar, Antonio (2002). "Artificial radioactive tracers". Detection and prevention of leaks from ...

*Positron emission tomography

For PET-CT scanning, the radiation exposure may be substantial-around 23-26 mSv (for a 70 kg person-dose is likely to be higher ... after the detection of a photon, the detector must "cool down" again) and detector-sensitivity correction (for both inherent ... The uptake of the drug, the tissues in which it concentrates, and its eventual elimination, can be monitored far more quickly ... "Chapter 9 Occupational Exposure to Radiation]" (PDF). Radiation, People and the Environment. IAEA. pp. 39-42. Archived from the ...
To compare routine dose liver CT reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) versus low dose images reconstructed with FBP and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). In this retro
Comparison of the Breast Dose based on the Existence of the Bismuth Breast Protection Shield for Automatic Exposure Control and Manual Exposure Control with the Coronary Artery CT Angiography - coronary artery CT angiography;bismuth breast shield;MEC;AEC;breast dose;
Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Salmonella spp. by Using a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay in Duck Carcass Sample - loop-mediated isothermal amplification;Salmonella spp.;screening;duck;
A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay and Sample Preparation Procedure for Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in Strawberry. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Read "Detection of hepatitis C virus by an improved loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay, Archives of Virology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
... PISCATAWAY N.J. Nov. 19 2013 /PRNewswire/... We are proud to offer ultra-sensitive cytokine detection services to ...The addition of ultra-sensitive cytokine detection services signifies ...Ultra-sensitive assay services offered by PBL include detection for cy...,PBL,Assay,Science,announces,ultra-sensitive,assay,services,to,measure,biomolecules,in,human,serum,or,plasma,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Objective: To investigate the influence of different settings, epidemiological and clinical, and different diagnostic thresholds on caries detection in a group of 7 10-year-old children in Brazil. Materials and Methods: In total, 983 children aged 7 10 years old and enrolled in four public schools were randomly selected. Three examiners performed epidemiological examinations followed by an examination of the same children in a clinical setting. The examinations of cleaned and dried teeth in both settings were carried out using a dental mirror and ball-ended probe, under natural light in the epidemiological setting examinations and under artificial light during the clinical setting examinations. For the analysis of results, comparisons were focused on WHO (World Health Organization) diagnostic thresholds versus WHO+IL (initial lesions) diagnostic thresholds, both under epidemiological conditions, in order to demonstrate the influence of the inclusion of IL in the study; and WHO+IL in the ...
Looking for online definition of arborization diagnosis method in the Medical Dictionary? arborization diagnosis method explanation free. What is arborization diagnosis method? Meaning of arborization diagnosis method medical term. What does arborization diagnosis method mean?
We recently heard from Fred who asked, "What is the detection limit for your Arsenic in Water Test by National Testing Laboratories product? Is there any discount for ordering multiple tests? I want to test my incoming city water and water after RO treatment.". Good afternoon, Fred, and thank you for the inquiry... The minimum detection limit for the Arsenic Test by National Testing Laboratories is 5ppb (also written as .005ppm and .005 mg/L). The USEPA has set the acceptable limit for arsenic in public water systems at 10ppb.. Regarding discounts for additional test kits, we offer a discount of 5% for quantities of 3 to 10 of the kits. You can find a link to bulk pricing on the product page ( http://www.watertestkitstore.com/arsenic-in-water-test-by-national-testing-laboratories/) under the add to cart button.. What is arsenic and where does it come from?. Arsenic occurs naturally in the environment and may show up in both public and private water supplies. Levels of ...
This study was designed to optimize and apply the use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) as an alternative to conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) (FC 126 strain) in vaccinated and non-vaccinated poultry in Nigeria
Quantitative lateral flow immunoassay for total prostate specific antigen in serum / I. P. Andreeva, V. G. Grigorenko, A. M. Egorov, A. P. Osipov // Analytical Letters. - 2016. - Vol. 49, no. 4. - P. 579-588. A simple method for the rapid determination of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in serum is reported using a lateral flow immunoassay with gold nanoparticles as the label. The method uses the intensity of colored test lines to determine PSA from 0.3 to 30 ng/ml. The limit of detection was 0.3 ng/ml and the coefficient of variation was less than 10%. The analysis time was approximately twenty minutes. The novel method showed good correlation with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) measurements of prostate-specific antigen concentration in human serum with a linear regression coefficient of 0.985. The developed system was stable for at least twelve months when stored from +4 to 30oC and has potential application for clinical practice. [ DOI ...
Because of the serological cross-reactivity among the flaviviruses, molecular detection methods, such as reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), play an important role in the recent Zika outbreak. However, due to the limited sensitivity, the detection window of RT-PCR for Zika viremia is only about one week after symptom onset. By combining loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and AC susceptometry, we demonstrate a rapid and homogeneous detection system for the Zika virus oligonucleotide. Streptavidin-magnetic nanoparticles (streptavidin-MNPs) are premixed with LAMP reagents including the analyte and biotinylated primers, and their hydrodynamic volumes are dramatically increased after a successful LAMP reaction. Analyzed by a portable AC susceptometer, the changes of the hydrodynamic volume are probed as Brownian relaxation frequency shifts, which can be used to quantify the Zika virus oligonucleotide. The proposed ...
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The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of ...
The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of ...
The Global Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification Technology (INAAT) Market is expected to reach USD 4.3 billion by 2025, growing at a CAGR of 11.8%, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. This can be attributed to significant rise in awareness regarding need for rapid and on-time testing for chronic and infectious diseases. Global increase in adoption of INAAT for detection of HIV, hepatitis A & B, and sexually transmitted diseases is considered to be a high impact rendering driver for growth.. Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification is one of the most preferred nucleic acid amplification methods because of its ability to provide point of care testing, thus leading to increased adoption. The recently-introduced Nicking Enzyme Amplification Reaction (NEAR) and Helicase-dependent amplification (HDA) technologies are expected to experience exponential growth during the forecast period owing to their patent protection.. In addition, owing to recent epidemics of ...
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We carried out a study to compare the performance, in terms of sensitivity and specificity, of the new SD BIOLINE® HAT rapid diagnostic test (RDT) with the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis (CATT) for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Participants were enrolled actively by four mobile teams, and passively at four health facilities in three provinces. Consenting participants were tested concurrently with the RDT and CATT on whole blood. Those found positive by either test were tested with CATT on serial dilutions of plasma, and with a parasitological composite reference standard (CRS). Cases were only the individuals found positive by the CRS, while controls were negative by both CATT and RDT, as well as those that were positive by CATT or RDT, but were negative by the CRS, and had no history of HAT. Over five months, 131 cases and 13,527 controls were enrolled. The sensitivity of the RDT was 92.0% (95% ...
Laboratory diagnosis has relied on the identification of malaria parasites and parasite antigens in peripheral blood using Giemsa-stained microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) which lack analytical and clinical sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the diagnosis of malaria among malaria suspected pregnant women in Northwest Ethiopia. The authors conclude that this study showed higher sensitivity of LAMP compared to microscopy and RDT for the detection of malaria in pregnancy. Increased sensitivity and ease of use with LAMP in point-of-care testing for malaria in pregnancy was noted. LAMP warrants further evaluation in intermittent screening and treatment programmes in pregnancy.. ...
Developing multiplex Real-Time PCR assays can be difficult and time-consuming. As the reaction complexity increases, significant optimization may be required to generate reliable data. It can be a challenge to develop multiplex assays that amplify all targets with equal efficiency.. When developing multiplex Real-Time PCR assays, you need to consider primer design, the relative expression levels of target sequences, and master mix / reagent conditions.. Use the same design criteria for each primer/probe set and screen all sequences against each other to determine any potential primer-dimer formation. In addition, perform a BLAST analysis (http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi) to determine primer specificity.. If the expression levels of the target sequences are significantly different, the most abundant target will be preferentially amplified and deplete all the reaction components, compromising amplification of the less abundant targets. One way to address this issue is to limit the primer ...
Head CT is a very sensitive diagnostic test in patients with a clinical suspicion of nontraumatic SAH and a normal level of consciousness on admission. In patients who had CT imaging within 6 hours after onset of acute headache, a negative CT ruled out SAH. However, CT within 6 hours after symptom onset failed 1 patient with only neck pain who had an inconclusive CT; finally, bleeding from a cervical arteriovenous malformation was diagnosed.. Previous studies on test characteristics of head CT for SAH found sensitivities ranging between 90% and 100%.4,8-12 The discrepancy of most studies with our findings can be explained by longer cut-off points for time delay between onset of headache and imaging ranging from 12 to 24 hours after ictus, the use of first- or second-generation CT scanners, and the use of tests other than absorption spectrophotometry as a gold standard. The majority of these studies only calculated sensitivity but not specificity, negative predictive value, or positive ...
Abstract. Monitoring post-control transmission of schistosomes by examining humans becomes less effective as infection rates among humans decrease. Molecular monitoring of prepatent schistosome infection in snails by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been used for studying human-to-snail transmission, and snail prepatent infection rates were found to correspond to infection prevalence and average intensity in human populations contacting the sites studied. We have now developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for identifying Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium to facilitate large-scale evaluation of post-intervention transmission potential. LAMP primers were designed based on the Sm1-7 and DraI repeated sequences of the corresponding schistosomes, and amplification by LAMP of these 121-basepair highly abundant sequences provided a detection sensitivity of 0.1 fg of genomic DNA. When these LAMP ...
The diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a challenge. However, recent studies showed that synovial fluid biomarkers have demonstrated greater diagnostic accuracy than the currently used PJI diagnostic tests. In many diagnostic tests, combining several biomarkers into panels is critical for improving diagnostic efficiency, enhancing the diagnostic precision for specific diseases, and reducing cost. In this study, we prove that combining alpha-defensin and C-reactive protein (CRP) as biomarkers possesses the potential to provide accurate PJI diagnosis. To further verify the result, we developed a multi-target lateral flow immunoassay strip (msLFIA) with staking pad design to obtain on-site rapid response for clinical diagnosis of PJI. A total of 10 synovial fluid samples were tested using the msLFIA, and the results showed that the combined measurements of synovial fluid alpha-defensin and CRP levels were consistent with those obtained from a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent
High diagnostic sensitivity of glutamate decarboxylase autoantibodies in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with clinical onset between age 20 and 40 years ...
A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of the glutamine synthetase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was able to tolerate urea concentrations of ≤1.8 M, compared with a PCR assay that was functional at concentrations of ,100 mM. The LAMP assay was as sensitive as the PCR assay while being faster and simpler to perform.. ...
Introduction. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hooved animals such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. FMD outbreaks have occured worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses (Knowles & Samuel 2003). Early identification of FMD virus (FMDV) is, therefore, critical for the control of disease and to minimise losses that could occur in livestock. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMDV is required for effective disease control. FMD cannot be distinguished clinically from other vesicular diseases, such as swine vesicular disease (SVD), vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) and vesicular stomatitis (VS); similarities that can pose challenges for early confirmation of field outbreaks. Routine laboratory diagnosis of FMD can be performed by a combination of antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus isolation (OIE 2012). Antigen-capture ELISA only takes four hours to perform; however, this test is only suitable for epithelium ...
Introduction. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease that affects cloven-hooved animals such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs. FMD outbreaks have occured worldwide, resulting in significant economic losses (Knowles & Samuel 2003). Early identification of FMD virus (FMDV) is, therefore, critical for the control of disease and to minimise losses that could occur in livestock. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of FMDV is required for effective disease control. FMD cannot be distinguished clinically from other vesicular diseases, such as swine vesicular disease (SVD), vesicular exanthema of swine (VES) and vesicular stomatitis (VS); similarities that can pose challenges for early confirmation of field outbreaks. Routine laboratory diagnosis of FMD can be performed by a combination of antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus isolation (OIE 2012). Antigen-capture ELISA only takes four hours to perform; however, this test is only suitable for epithelium ...
Vet Parasitol. 2013 Feb 18;192(1-3):98-103. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.10.010. Epub 2012 Oct 23. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
As a first step in developing a quick, accurate and simple method for the diagnosis of red ring disease, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based identification procedure was applied to the causative agent, Bursaphelenchus cocophilus. Two LAMP primer sets were designed using two loci of ribosomal RNA genes, i.e., D2-D3 expansion segments of the large subunit (D2-D3 LSU), and internal transcribed spacers (ITS). Within those two sets of primers, the D2-D3 LSU primer set successfully yielded amplicons from B. cocophilus nematode lysate prepared from 3-year-old DESS-fixed specimens. The specificity of the primers was examined using 18 species of confamilial Aphelenchoididae nematodes and primer sensitivity was tested using a diluted series of B. cocophilus lysate. The primer set did not amplify the DNA from other aphelenchoidids, and sensitivity was achieved by 1:100 diluted B. cocophilus DNA (roughly 1/1500 of total DNA from a single third-stage juvenile).
In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was established to detect Toxoplasma gondii DNA in mice infected with T. gondii PRU strain. This LAMP assay was based on the sequence of highly repetitive B1 gene. The detect...
Multiplex RT-PCR assays have been widely used tools for detection and differentiation of a panel of respiratory viral pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the Qiagen ResPlex II V2.0 kit and...
A total of 113 fine needle aspirates of the breast masses were evaluated in which the subsequent biopsy or mastectomy specimen were also available for histological examination. The age ranged from 16 to 80 years with a mean of 42 years. In benign conditions the mean age was 34.7 years while in malignant cases it was 48 years. The cytological diagnoses were compared with the histological results which revealed that the specificity and sensitivity of fine needle aspiration cytology in the palpable breast lesions was 86.1% and 89.2% respectively with a positive predictive value of 93% and efficiency of 88.2%. Similar statistics from other series in which the cytological results of breast lesions were compared with histological results, revealed almost same results which suggest that fine needle aspiration cytology is an effective and accurate technique for the diagnosis and management of palpable breast lumps.
Refractive index sensitivity of guided resonances in photonic crystal slabs is analyzed. We show that modal properties of guided resonances strongly affect spectral sensitivity and quality factors, resulting in substantial enhancement of refractive index sensitivity. A three-fold spectral sensitivity enhancement is demonstrated for suspended slab designs, in contrast to designs with a slab resting over a substrate. Spectral sensitivity values are additionally shown to be unaffected by quality factor reductions, which are common to fabricated photonic crystal nano-structures. Finally, we determine that proper selection of photonic crystal slab design parameters permits biosensing of a wide range of analytes, including proteins, antigens, and cells. These photonic crystals are compatible with large-area biosensor designs, permitting direct access to externally incident optical beams in a microfluidic device.. ©2010 Optical ...
A newly developed latex agglutination assay for the detection of genus-specific Leptospira antibodies in human sera was evaluated. The assay is performed by mixing, on an agglutination card, serum with equal volumes of stabilized antigen-coated, dyed test and control latex beads and is read within 2 min. The latex agglutination test was evaluated with groups of serum samples from patients with leptospirosis and control patients from Hawaii, the Seychelles, Thailand, and The Netherlands. The mean overall sensitivity was 82.3%, and the mean overall specificity was 94.6%. The assay is easy to perform and does not require special skills or equipment. The reagents have a long shelf life, even at tropical temperatures. Together, these factors make the assay suitable for use even at the peripheral level of a health care system as a rapid screening test for leptospirosis. ...
Rodríguez, E.; Betancourt, A.; Relova, D.; Lee, C.; Yoo, D.; Barrera, M., 2012: Development of a nested polymerase chain reaction test for the diagnosis of transmissible gastroenteritis of pigs
Discussion The Xpert MTB/RIF® test is a useful tool for early diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Having the results regarding rifampin resistance in two hours allows choosing the therapy appropriately, and thus reducing the probability of resistance to other drugs during treatment, as well as decreasing the time of patient infectivity and the appearance of aftermath. Its relevance as a diagnostic tool is foremost when respiratory samples are ZN-negative because it reduces the time to start treatment and it is not necessary to wait for culture results (10-12). The Xpert MTB/RIF ® test has high specificity to detect only M. tuberculosis DNA. It has been evaluated in 89 non-tuberculosis bacteria, fungi and viruses with no false positives (13). The last steps of the assay (polymerase chain reaction) are highly susceptible to samples contamination, but as these are kept in a sealed container, there is no possibility of contamination and, therefore, of having false ...
Objectives. Improved discrimination between prostate cancer (PC) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is clearly needed. Our aim in this study was to evaluate whether the free to total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ratio would be useful in the gray zone of 1.8-10 ng/mL total PSA range. Methods. In a consecutive series of 435 clinic patients referred for prostate evaluation, 308 had a total PSA ,10 ng/mL (92 had PC and 216 BPH). Free and total PSA were measured, and the free to total PSA ratio calculated. Results. Total PSA values were significantly different between the two groups. For the 200 patients with a total PSA ,6 ng/mL, no significant difference in total PSA values were seen (P = 0.411), whereas free to total PSA ratios remained statistically different (P , 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis comparing the performances of total PSA over the ratio of free to total PSA showed a clear advantage for the ratio at all sensitivity levels. Conclusions. These ...
EN] A lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) was developed in the competitive reaction format and applied to test sulphathiazole (STZ) residues in honey samples. To prepare the assay test, a hapten conjugate and goat antirabbit antiserum as capture and control reagent, respectively, were dispensed on nitrocellulose membrane. Polyclonal antiserum against sulphathiazole was conjugated to colloidal gold nanoparticles and used as the detection reagent. The visual limit of detection (cut-off value) of the sulphathiazole LFIA was 15 ng/g, reaching qualitative results within 10 min. The assay was evaluated with STZ spiked honey samples from different geographical origins (n = 25). The results were in good agreement with those obtained from liquid chromatography separation and mass spectroscopy detection (LC-MS), indicating that the LFIA test might be used as a qualitative method for the determination of sulphathiazole residues without expensive equipment. The test was ...
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become a diagnostic and problem solving method for the breast examinations in addition to conventional breast examination methods. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) adds valuable information to conventional MRI.. Aims: Our aim was to show the impact of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values acquired with DWI to differentiate benign and malignant breast lesions.. Study Design: Diagnostic accuracy study.. Methods: Forty-six women with 58 breast masses (35 malignant, 23 benign) were examined on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. The morphologic characteristics of the lesions on conventional MRI sequences and contrast uptake pattern were assessed. ADC values of both lesions and normal breast parenchyma were measured. The ADC values obtained were statistically compared with the histopathologic results using Paired Samples t-Test.. Results: Multiple lesions were detected in 12 (26%) of the patients, while only one lesion was detected in 34 (74%). ...
In aquaculture, vibriosis is known as a major bacterial disease in fish culture systems and can cause considerable loss in terms of production and processing (Toranzo et al. 2005). Many Vibrio species have been recognized as fish pathogens that can cause infection with various symptoms. For example, Vibrio scophthalmi infection results in hemorrhage on fish body surface and inner surface of the abdomen, severe enteritis, and ascites (Qiao et al. 2012); Vibrio ichthyoenteri infection cause opaque intestines and necrotizing fasciitis with high mortality rates (Ishimaru et al. 1996; Lee et al. 2012); Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection causes diseases not only in fish, shrimp, oysters, and mussels, etc. (Montilla et al. 1994; Quintoil et al. 2007), but also is important in public health and causes gastrointestinal disorders in humans who ingest contaminated fish and shellfish (Kubota et al. 2008; Iwamoto et al. 2010); and Vibrio vulnificus has been associated with vibriosis outbreaks in fish and ...
LAMP was confirmed to be very sensitive, with the lowest detection limit being 10 copies/tube of Acanthamoeba DNA. The LAMP primers only amplified Acanthamoeba DNA. During the development of AK in mice, almost all of the positive rates of LAMP at each time point post-infection were higher than those of culture or corneal smear examination. The total positive rate of LAMP was significantly higher than those of culture and corneal smear examination (P,0.05), while the sensitivity of LAMP and real-time PCR was comparable. However, the trends of positive change in these different test methods were generally similar. Of the three clinical corneal specimens, two suspected AK were tested positive for Acanthamoeba using LAMP along with culture or corneal smear examination, while the other suspected fungal keratitis was tested negative.. ...
Without any sample pretreatment,the mass spectral fingerprints of sulfur fumigated Chinese star anises and untreated samples were rapidly obtained in either a positive or negative ion detection mode with a home-made surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization(DAPCI) source.The DAPCI-MS raw data were further analyzed by principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA),and several unknown samples were successfully discriminated using the PCA model.The results showed that the DAPCI-MS was able to detect some characteristic chemicals from the Chinese star anises surface and identify the components by tandem mass spectrometry(MS/MS).The further principal component analysis(PCA) and cluster analysis(CA) of MS fingerprints allow a confident discrimination of sulfur fumigated star anise samples from the non-sulfur fumigated samples.The method developed here is attractive to provide a fast and effective way to screen sulfur fumigated products with sufficient ...
The impact of dark 1/f noise on fundamental signal sensitivity in direct low optical signal detection is an understudied issue. In this theoretical manuscript, we study the limitations of an idealized detector with a combination of white noise and 1/f noise, operating in detector dark noise limited mode. In contrast to white noise limited detection schemes, for which there is no fundamental minimum signal sensitivity limit, we find that the 1/f noise characteristics, including the noise exponent factor and the relative amplitudes of white and 1/f noise, set a fundamental limit on the minimum signal that such a detector can detect.. ©2008 Optical Society of America. Full Article , PDF Article ...
This study was conducted to develop a simple, rapid, and accurate lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) detection method for point-of-care diagnosis. The one-dot LFIA for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was based on the modified competitive binding format using competition between AFB1 and colloidal gold-AFB1-BSA conjugate for antibody binding sites in the test zone. A Smartphone-based reading system consisting of a Samsung Galaxy S2 Smartphone, a LFIA reader, and a Smartphone application for the image acquisition and data analysis. The detection limit of one-dot LFIA for AFB1 is 5 μg/kg. This method provided semi-quantitative analysis of AFB1 samples in the range of 5 to 1,000 μg/kg. Using combination of the one-dot LFIA and the Smartphone-based reading system, it is possible to conduct a more fast and accurate point-of-care diagnosis.
This study was conducted to develop a simple, rapid, and accurate lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) detection method for point-of-care diagnosis. The one-dot LFIA for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was based on the modified competitive binding format using competition between AFB1 and colloidal gold-AFB1-BSA conjugate for antibody binding sites in the test zone. A Smartphone-based reading system consisting of a Samsung Galaxy S2 Smartphone, a LFIA reader, and a Smartphone application for the image acquisition and data analysis. The detection limit of one-dot LFIA for AFB1 is 5 μg/kg. This method provided semi-quantitative analysis of AFB1 samples in the range of 5 to 1,000 μg/kg. Using combination of the one-dot LFIA and the Smartphone-based reading system, it is possible to conduct a more fast and accurate point-of-care diagnosis.
In this study we showed that the use of second harmonic imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography improved the accuracy of the detection of viable myocardium in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction compared with fundamental imaging, DISA-SPECT being used as a reference method. Compared with fundamental imaging, the agreement between dobutamine stress echocardiography and DISA-SPECT on viability assessment increased significantly from 78% (κ = 0.56) to 89% (κ = 0.77) when second harmonic imaging was used (p = 0.001).. Although the use of combined low/high dose dobutamine echocardiography has improved the accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography for detecting viability,21 22 there remains some discordance between dobutamine echocardiography and nuclear imaging.23-25 Previous studies have shown that 201thallium classified a significantly higher percentage of segments as viable compared with dobutamine stress echocardiography.7 24 A ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fast Quantitative Detection of Cocaine in Beverages Using Nanoextractive Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. AU - Hu, Bin. AU - Peng, Xuejiao. AU - Yang, Shuiping. AU - Gu, Haiwei. AU - Chen, Huanwen. AU - Huan, Yanfu. AU - Zhang, Tingting. AU - Qiao, Xiaolin. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - Without any sample pretreatment, effervescent beverage fluids were manually sprayed into the primary ion plume created by using a nanoelectrospray ionization source for direct ionization, and the analyte ions of interest were guided into an ion trap mass spectrometer for tandem mass analysis. Functional ingredients (e.g., vitamins, taurine, and caffeine, etc.) and spiked impurity (e.g., cocaine) in various beverages, such as Red Bull energy drink, Coco-cola, and Pepsi samples were rapidly identified within 1.5 s. The limit of detection was found to be 7 ∼ 15 fg (S/N = 3) for cocaine in different samples using the characteristic fragment (m/z 150) observed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Detection of equine arteritis virus by real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-PCR assay. AU - Balasuriya, Udeni B R. AU - Leutenegger, Christian M.. AU - Topol, J. B.. AU - McCollum, William H.. AU - Timoney, Peter J.. AU - Maclachlan, Nigel J. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - A one-tube real-time TaqMan® reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of equine arteritis virus (EAV). The test was validated using the seminal plasma and nasal secretions of infected horses that were proven to contain EAV by traditional virus isolation in rabbit kidney thirteen (RK-13) cells, as well as a variety of cell culture-propagated European and North American strains of EAV. The primers and a fluorogenic TaqMan® probe were designed to amplify and detect a highly conserved region of open reading frame 7 (ORF7) of EAV. The real-time TaqMan® PCR assay detected EAV RNA in all samples that were confirmed to contain ...
In order to overcome the sensitivity limitation of SPR, nanoparticle-coupled SPR biosensors have explored since nanoparticles may significantly enhance the sensitivity by 1-2 orders of magnitude. Although the nanoparticle conjugated method contributes to the enhancement of the sensitivity, it does not take an advantage of SPR from the viewpoint of label-free detection. Herein we demonstrate the sensitivity enhancement with Au nanoparticles coupled- SPR immuno-sensor chip on which the specific size and surface density of the particles controlled as a label-free detection system. Au nanopariticles were synthesized and selected with a specific size. Surface density of immobilized 30 nm Au nanoparticles on bare Au film was estimated as 1x109 ea/cm2 using atomic force microscopy. With systematic control of the size of the Au nanoparticle and thickness of the bare Au film, it was found that 30 nm Au particles on ...
Results: We identified 18 validation studies (n = 7180) conducted in various clinical settings. Eleven studies provided details about the diagnostic properties of the questionnaire at more than one cut-off score (including 10), four studies reported a cut-off score of 10, and three studies reported cut-off scores other than 10. The pooled specificity results ranged from 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.82) for a cut-off score of 7 to 0.96 (95% CI 0.94-0.97) for a cut-off score of 15. There was major variability in sensitivity for cut-off scores between 7 and 15. There were no substantial differences in the pooled sensitivity and specificity for a range of cut-off scores (8-11). ...
Commercial test kits for detection of Lyme borreliosis: a meta-analysis of test accuracy Michael J Cook,1 Basant K Puri2 1Independent researcher, Dorset, UK; 2Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: The clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis can be supported by various test methodologies; test kits are available from many manufacturers. Literature searches were carried out to identify studies that reported characteristics of the test kits. Of 50 searched studies, 18 were included where the tests were commercially available and samples were proven to be positive using serology testing, evidence of an erythema migrans rash, and/or culture. Additional requirements were a test specificity of ≥85% and publication in the last 20 years. The weighted mean sensitivity for all tests and for all samples was 59.5%. Individual study means varied from 30.6% to 86.2%. Sensitivity for each test technology varied from ...
Background. Tuberculosis (TB) is a serious public health problem in developing countries such as Pakistan. Rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of drug resistance are very important for timely and appropriate management of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Objective. The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of TB and detection of rifampicin (RIF) resistance in extrapulmonary and smear-negative pulmonary TB suspects. Methods. A total of 98 bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and 168 extrapulmonary specimens were processed by Xpert MTB/RIF. Culture results are considered as the gold standard for diagnosis of TB, and drug susceptibility testing for detection of RIF resistance. Diagnostic efficacy was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values. Results. The Xpert MTB/RIF assay detected 40 (40.8 %) of 98 BALF of presumptive ...
Objective. We aimed to determine whether contrast-enhanced ultrasonography can predict the effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on breast cancer.. Methods. The clinical responses of 63 consecutive patients with breast cancer (T1-4, N0-1, M0) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy between October 2012 and May 2015 were assessed using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Perfusion parameters for contrast-enhanced ultrasonography were created from time-intensity curves based on enhancement intensity and temporal changes to objectively evaluate contrast-enhanced ultrasonography findings. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography to predict a pathological complete response were compared after confirming the pathological findings of surgical specimens.. Results. Twenty-three (36.5%) of the 63 ...
The presence of harmful algal blooms (HABs) can result in the accumulation of phycotoxins in shellfish such as mussels, scallops and oysters. Depending on the toxins present, consumption of contaminated shellfish can lead to illness in humans including amnesic, diarrheic or paralytic shellfish poisoning (ASP, DSP or PSP respectively). There is currently a lack of suitable rapid screening tools to complement accepted reference methods for the detection of marine biotoxins. The aims of the thesis were to develop a range of simple and accurate lateral flow immunoassays (LFIA) for the rapid screening of phycotoxins from shellfish extracts, which could be performed either in a laboratory or in the field. As a result, three novel single-step LFIAs were developed and validated for the major regulated toxins responsible for ASP, DSP and PSP, respectively. One of the challenges was to ensure that the thresholds for test~ were based at concentrations relevant to regulations, whilst minimizing the ...
Rationale The clinical impact of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in high HIV-prevalence settings is unknown. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy and impact of Xpert MTB/RIF among high-risk TB suspects. Methods We prospectively enrolled consecutive, hospitalized, Ugandan TB suspects in two phases: baseline phase in which Xpert MTB/RIF results were not reported to clinicians and an implementation phase in which results were reported. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF in reference to culture (solid and liquid) and compared patient outcomes by study phase. Results 477 patients were included (baseline phase 287, implementation phase 190). Xpert MTB/RIF had high sensitivity (187/237, 79%, 95% CI: 73-84%) and specificity (190/199, 96%, 95% CI: 92-98%) for culture-positive TB overall, but sensitivity was lower (34/81, 42%, 95% CI: 31-54%) among smear-negative TB cases. Xpert ...
In the present study, a robust TaqMan real-time PCR amplifying the F57 and the ISMav2 sequences of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from bovine fecal samples was developed and validated. The validation was based on the recommendations of International Organization for Standardization protocols for PCR and real-time PCR methods. For specificity testing, 205 bacterial strains were selected, including 105 M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains of bovine, ovine, and human origin and 100 non-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis strains. Diagnostic quality assurance was obtained by use of an internal amplification control. By investigating six TaqMan reagents from different suppliers, the 100% detection probability was assessed to be 0.1 picogram M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis DNA per PCR. The amplification efficiency was 98.2% for the single-copy gene F57 and 97.8% for the three-copy insertion sequence ISMav2. The analytical method was not limited due to instrument specificity. The ...
Chances are youll experience a sensation of mild or boring cramps. Were industry professionals who love what we do. Youll be able to check out our twin stomach pictures gallery. Bleeding may also be as a result of vaginal an infection. Being pregnant also can set an enormous stress on each bodily operate - its no negatife that you could begative feel utterly exhausted prior to the day is thru. However, its pregnancy urine test negative blood positive that solely round 1 out of every 4 people contaminated with Zika virus expertise any symptoms. Comply with the manufacturers pregnancy urine test negative blood positive to the letter, and dont check too urin after your missed interval. Many drugs alter the hormonal functioning in the body that could make conception not possible. Washington, DC: OHRC; 2012. Stretch marks, dryness and itchiness could also be present. It will get nearer to the anticipated period. I received him on board to pregnancy urine test negative blood positive up wheat, ...
To compare the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of seven Cryptosporidium diagnostic assays used in the UK, results from 259 stool samples from patients with acute gastrointestinal symptoms were compared against a nominated gold standard (real-time PCR and oocyst detection). Of the 152 true positives, 80 were Cryptosporidium hominis, 68 Cryptosporidium parvum, two Cryptosporidium felis, one Cryptosporidium ubiquitum and one Cryptosporidium meleagridis. The Cryptosporidium spp. diagnostic sensitivities of three Cryptosporidium and Giardia combination enzyme immunoassays (EIA) coupled with confirmation of positive reactions were 91.4-93.4 %, whilst the sensitivity of auramine phenol microscopy was 92.1 % and that of immunofluorescence microscopy (IFM) was 97.4 %, all with overlapping 95 % confidence intervals. However, IFM was significantly more sensitive (P = 0.01, paired test of proportions). The sensitivity of modified Ziehl-Neelsen ...
Because cholera toxin (CT) is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by |i|Vibrio cholerae|/i| infection, detection of CT is critical for diagnosis of the disease. In this study, we constructed an immunochromatographic test strip for detection of CT (CT-IC) with polyclonal antibodies developed against purified recombinant whole CT protein. The detection limit of the CT-IC was 10 ng/mL of purified recombinant CT, and it could detect the CT in culture supernatant of all 15 toxigenic |i|V. cholerae|/i| isolates examined, whereas no false-positive signal was detected in all 5 nontoxigenic |i|V. cholerae|/i| isolates examined. The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT), which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. In addition, |i|lt|/i| gene-positive enterotoxigenic ...
By: Raul Reyes , Tuesday, January 17, 2017 2:37 PM. Researchers from The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, in conjunction with the New York State Department of Healths Wadsworth Center, have developed a new detection test for Zika that is faster and more accurate than currently available tests. The new test can detect Zika in a very small sample of blood in less than four hours. The new test is detailed in EBioMedicine.. One of the obstacles to stemming the tide of the recent Zika outbreak has been the lack of a rapid, accurate test that can quickly determine whether someone has been infected with the Zika virus or not. While there is a laboratory test called PCR that can determine the presence of Zika in blood samples, it is only reliable within the first week after someone has begun showing symptoms of the disease.. There is another test that measures antibodies that the body produces in response to infection that can be used after the contracting virus has disappeared in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The clinical usefulness of the SD bioline influenza antigen test® for detecting the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) virus. AU - Choi, Wonseok. AU - Noh, Ji Yun. AU - Huh, Joong Yeon. AU - Kee, Sae Yoon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jacob. AU - Song, Joon-Young. AU - Cheong, Hee-Jin. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. PY - 2011/7/1. Y1 - 2011/7/1. N2 - Though the 2009 worldwide influenza A (H1N1) pandemic has been declared to have ended, the influenza virus is expected to continue to circulate from some years as a seasonal influenza. A rapid antigen test (RAT) can aid in rapid diagnosis and allow for early antiviral treatment. We evaluated the clinical usefulness of RAT using SD Bioline Influenza Antigen Test® kit to detect the influenza virus, considering various factors. From August 1, 2009 to October 10, 2009, a total of 938 patients who visited the outpatient clinic at Korea University Guro Hospital with influenza-like illnesses were enrolled in the study. Throat or nasopharyngeal swab specimens ...
Our study demonstrates that in dyspneic patients without HF, permanent/paroxysmal AF is associated with increased circulating BNP levels. This pattern was not evident in patients with a final diagnosis of HF. Although the overall diagnostic performance of BNP for HF tended to be lower in patients with AF than in those without, BNP performed well in both groups. Our data also demonstrate that the conventional cutoff value of 100 pg/ml was associated with a markedly lower specificity and positive likelihood ratio in patients with AF than in those without, suggesting that a higher diagnostic threshold should be used to diagnose HF in patients with AF.. The most widely accepted indication for BNP measurement in clinical practice is for the emergency diagnosis of HF in patients presenting with acute dyspnea. The first study suggesting that BNP measurement could prove useful in this setting was published 10 years ago (20). However, clinical use of this test was limited until the publication of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Real-Time Three-Dimensional Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography. T2 - A Valuable Adjunct or a Superior Alternative to Two-Dimensional Stress Echocardiography?. AU - Ahmad, Masood. PY - 2009/5. Y1 - 2009/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=65549091149&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=65549091149&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.echo.2009.03.024. DO - 10.1016/j.echo.2009.03.024. M3 - Article. C2 - 19450740. AN - SCOPUS:65549091149. VL - 22. SP - 443. EP - 444. JO - Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. JF - Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography. SN - 0894-7317. IS - 5. ER - ...
When a test has more than two possible outcomes, its accuracy can be reported as pairs of sensitivity and specificity corresponding to each degree of abnormality. This approach, the basis for receiver-operating characteristic analysis, maximizes the use of diagnostic information (2). When the diagnostic threshold is set at a lower degree of abnormality, the sensitivity of the test tends to increase but its specificity tends to decrease. The opposite occurs when a higher diagnostic threshold is selected. In the case of HIV viral load assays, if more viral units must be detected to report the test result as abnormal, the specificity will increase. As noted by Rich and colleagues, "the lowest reported plasma viral load during seroconversion is more than 17 times higher than the highest viral load detected in our three patients." Thus, for the diagnosis of acute infection, the threshold should probably be set much ...
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of neurologic infection in Asia, but surveillance has been limited. Three JE immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits have recently been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate their sensitivity, specificity, and usability using 360 acute-phase serum samples containing JE, dengue, or neither IgM antibody. The kits, manufactured by Panbio Limited, Inbios International, Inc., and XCyton Diagnostics Ltd, had high sensitivities of 89.3%, 99.2%, and 96.7%, respectively. The specificities were 99.2%, 56.1%, and 65.3%, respectively. When dengue IgM-positive samples were excluded, the kits had specificities of 98.4%, 96.1%, and 96.1%, respectively. The Panbio kit includes both JE and dengue antigens and appears to have an advantage in settings where dengue virus co-circulates, although further assessments in clinical settings are needed. This information is helpful in considering options ...
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T-cell interferon-gamma release assays (IGRAs) may have a role in the diagnosis of active tuberculosis when evaluating patients for whom standard microbiology has limited sensitivity. Our objective was to examine the accuracy of a commercial IGRA for diagnosis of active tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons. We enrolled HIV-infected patients admitted to Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda with cough ≥ 2 weeks. All patients underwent standard medical evaluation. We collected peripheral blood specimens at enrollment and performed a commercial, ELISPOT-based IGRA according to the manufacturers recommendations. IGRA sensitivity and specificity were determined using mycobacterial culture results as the reference standard. Overall, 236 patients were enrolled. The median CD4+ T-lymphocyte count was 49 cells/μl and 126 (53%) patients were diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis. IGRAs were not performed in 24 (10%) patients due to insufficient mononuclear cell counts. In the ...
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Two different real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection approaches based on SYBR Green I dye and Taqman probe based assays were developed for the detection and differentiation of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) subtypes. Both approaches were able to detect and differentiate IBDV subtypes based on the use of subtype-specific primers or subtype-specific probes where the primers were designed based on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) concept. After optimization of the primer combinations and PCR parameters, very virulent-specific primer, IF & IVIR, and classical-specific primer, IF & RCLA were used in the SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR assay. Plasmid DNA carrying the VP4 gene of the references IBDV strains: very virulent strain UPM94/273 and classical strain D78 were established and used as positive controls in the real time RT-PCR. The developed assay had a dynamic detection limit which spans over 5 log10 concentration range for very ...
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A competitive lateral flow assay for detecting the major peanut allergen, Ara h1, has been developed. The detector reagents are Ara h1-tagged liposomes, and the capture reagents are anti-Ara h1 polyclonal antibodies. Two types of rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised either against the entire Ara h1 molecules (anti-Ara h1 Ab) or against an immunodominant epitope on Ara h1 (anti-peptide Ab). All of them reacted specifically with Ara h1 in Western Blot against crude peanut proteins. Moreover, the anti-Ara h1 Ab was chosen for this assay development because of its highest immunoactivity to Ara h1-tagged liposomes in the lateral flow assay. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) of this assay is 0.45 μg mLâˆ1 of Ara h1 with a dynamic range between 0.1 and 10 μg mLâˆ1 of Ara h1 in buffer. Additionally, the visually determined detection range is from 1 to 10 μg mLâˆ1 of Ara h1 in buffer. Results using this assay can be obtained within 30 min without the ...
Fine needle aspiration cytology and flow cytometry immunophenotyping of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: can we do better?. Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of fine needle aspiration cytology/flow cytometry (FNAC/FC) in the diagnosis and classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a series of 446 cases and to compare the results with those of previous experiences to evaluate whether there had been an improvement in FNAC/FC diagnostic accuracy.. Methods: FNAC/FC was used to analyse 446 cases of benign reactive hyperplasia (BRH), NHL and NHL relapse (rNHL) in 362 lymph nodes and 84 extranodal lesions. When a diagnosis of NHL was reached, a classification was attempted combining FC data and cytological features. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) of FNAC/FC in the diagnosis and classification of NHL were calculated and compared with those available in the literature.. Results: FNAC/FC provided a diagnosis of NHL and rNHL in 245 cases and ...
Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry is one of the most specific techniques available in clinical laboratories. In the past, immunoassays were the primary methodology for analysis of steroids in biological samples because they are rapid and easy to perform. However, these methods were shown to suffer from the lack of specificity for measuring many of the diagnostically important steroids. LC-MS/MS overcomes many of the limitations of immunoassays, enhances diagnostic utility of the testing, and expands diagnostic capabilities in endocrinology. In addition to the superior quality of the measurements, LC-MS/MS allows high throughput testing using small sample volume with minimal sample preparation, and frees the laboratory from dependence on suppliers of assay specific reagents. LC-MS/MS is being widely employed for routine measurement of steroids, and the methodology plays an important role in the standardization and harmonization of measurements among clinical laboratories.. ...
Pathologic lymph node staging is becoming a deficient method in the demanding molecular era. Nevertheless, the use of more sensitive molecular analysis for nodal staging is hampered by its high costs and extensive time requirements. Our aim is to take a step forward in colon cancer (CC) lymph node (LN) pathology diagnosis by proposing a feasible and efficient molecular method in routine practice using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Molecular detection of tumor cytokeratin 19 (CK19) mRNA with RT-LAMP was performed in 3206 LNs from 188 CC patients using two methods: individual analysis of 1449 LNs from 102 patients (individual cohort), and pooled LN analysis of 1757 LNs from 86 patients (pooling cohort). A median of 13 LNs (IQR 10-18) per patient were harvested in the individual cohort, and 18 LNs (IQR 13-25) per patient in the pooling cohort (p ≤ 0.001). The median of molecular assays performed in the pooling cohort was 2 per patient ...
OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, in different patient groups, of the use of 64-slice or higher computed tomography (CT) angiography, instead of invasive coronary angiography (CA), for diagnosing people with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) and assessing people with known CAD. DATA SOURCES: Electronic databases were searched from 2002 to December 2006. REVIEW METHODS: Included studies were tabulated and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values calculated. Meta-analysis models were fitted using hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curves. Summary sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios and diagnostic odds ratios for each model were reported as a median and 95% credible interval (CrI). Searches were also carried out for studies on the cost-effectiveness of 64-slice CT in the assessment of CAD. RESULTS: The diagnostic accuracy and prognostic ...
India is considering the scale-up of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay for detection of tuberculosis (TB) and rifampicin resistance. We conducted an economic analysis to estimate the costs of different strategies of Xpert implementation in India. Using a decision analytical model, we compared four diagnostic strategies for TB patients: (i) sputum smear microscopy (SSM) only; (ii) Xpert as a replacement for the rapid diagnostic test currently used for SSM-positive patients at risk of drug resistance (i.e. line probe assay (LPA)); (iii) Upfront Xpert testing for patients at risk of drug resistance; and (iv) Xpert as a replacement for SSM for all patients. The total costs associated with diagnosis for 100,000 presumptive TB cases were: (i) US$ 619,042 for SSM-only; (ii) US$ 575,377 in the LPA replacement scenario; (iii) US$ 720,523 in the SSM replacement scenario; and (iv) US$ 1,639,643 in the Xpert-for-all scenario. Total cohort costs, including treatment costs, increased by 46% from the SSM-only to the ...
Parasite-based diagnosis of malaria by microscopy requires laboratory skills that are generally unavailable at peripheral health facilities. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) require less expertise, but accuracy under operational conditions has not been fully evaluated in Uganda. There are also concerns about RDTs that use the antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) to detect Plasmodium falciparum, because this antigen can persist after effective treatment, giving false positive test results in the absence of infection. An assessment of the accuracy of Malaria Pf™ immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and description of persistent antigenicity of HRP2 RDTs was undertaken in a hyperendemic area of Uganda. Using a cross-sectional design, a total of 357 febrile patients of all ages were tested using ICT, and compared to microscopy as the gold standard reference. Two independent RDT readings were used to assess accuracy and inter-observer reliability. With a longitudinal design to describe persistent antigenicity
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a key role in progression and destabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18FDG-PET) is a promising tool for visualizing inflammation of atherosclerotic plaque. Anti-inflammatory action is one of the pleiotropic effects of statins.. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether simvastatin attenuates plaque inflammation by using 18FDG-PET co-registered with computed tomography.. METHODS and RESULTS: Forty-three consecutive subjects, who underwent 18FDG-PET for cancer screening and had 18FDG uptakes in the thoracic aorta and/or the carotid arteries, were randomized to either statin group receiving simvastatin (n=21) or diet group receiving dietary managements (n=22). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were measured in individual plaques, and were averaged for analysis of the subject-wise results. The responses were assessed after 3-month treatments. PET revealed 117 and 123 18FDG-positive plaques in the statin ...
Mammography is currently the only documented effective imaging tool for breast cancer screening. However, the sensitivity of mammography may be reduced in dense breasts, and sometimes it is difficult to even perceive a very subtle cancer which presents as a small stellate lesion, or very faint microcalcifications, missed diagnosed thus occurs. Herein, some researchers in Western countries developed computer-aided detection (CAD) system to help radiologists detect subtle, easily overlooked findings to facilitate early breast cancer detection, and most of the research regarding CAD was used in screen-film mammography (SFM) system. Ikeda, et al, worked on the retrospective CAD usage of those negative mammograms which later developed breast cancers. CAD could correctly mark 40% of the areas on these mammograms reported negative previously that later developed evident cancers. However, 80% of these are only nonspecific findings, and do not warrant recall for ...
ONeill, D., Turner, P. D., OMeara, D. B., Chadwick, E. A., Coffey, L. and OReilly, C. (2013), Development of novel real-time TaqMan® PCR assays for the species and sex identification of otter (Lutra lutra) and their application to noninvasive genetic monitoring. Molecular Ecology Resources, 13: 877-883. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12141 ...
Johnes disease, a serious chronic form of enteritis in ruminants, is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). As the organism is very slow-growing and fastidious, several PCR-based methods for detection have been developed, based mainly on the MAP-specific gene IS900. However, because this gene is similar to genes in other mycobacteria, there is a need for sensitive and reliable methods to confirm the presence of MAP. As described here, two new real-time PCR systems on the IS900 gene and one on the F57 gene were developed and carefully validated on 267 strains and 56 positive clinical faecal samples. Our confirmatory PCR systems on IS900 were found sensitive and specific, only yielding weak false positive reactions in one strain for each system. The PCR system on F57 did not elicit any false positives and was only slightly less sensitive than our primary IS900-system. DNA from both naturally infected and spiked faeces that tested positive with our primary system could be ...
Novel rapid Salmonella detection assays without the need for sophisticated equipment or labor remain in high demand. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) assays, though rapid and sensitive, require expensive thermocyclers, while a novel RT loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method requires only a simple water bath. Our objective was to compare the detection sensitivity of Salmonella Typhimurium from the pork processing environment by RT-LAMP, RT-PCR, and culture-based assays. Carcass and surface swabs and carcass rinses were obtained from a local processing plant. Autoclaved carcass rinses (500 ml) were spiked with Salmonella Typhimurium and filtered. Filters were placed in stomacher bags containing tetrathionate broth (TTB) and analyzed with or without 10-h enrichment at 37 °C. Natural swabs were stomached with buffered peptone water, and natural carcass rinses were filtered, preenriched, and further enriched in TTB. ...
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of elastography alone and combined with Thyroid Imaging Reporting And Data System (TIRADS) for the assessment of non-autonomous thyroid nodules. We included 244 thyroid nodules and analyzed the visual elasticity scores, strain value (SV) and TIRADS classification. Histologic examination revealed 38 malignant (16%) and 206 benign nodules. The SV was lower in malignant nodules than in benign with an optimal cutoff ≤0.225. The visual elasticity scores showed a better diagnostic performance than the SV measurement. The risk for malignancy increased with higher TIRADS category. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of TIRADS were superior to sonoelastography. The combination of TIRADS ≥4C and SV ≤0.225 showed the highest odds ratio to predict malignancy. Kwak-TIRADS classification is superior to elastography for the differentiation of benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Our ...
In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of a combined, dynamic and static, contrast-enhanced MRV in CVT was compared with established MR and MRV sequences. Combo-4D MRV demonstrated the highest overall sensitivity (binary test) among the 4 assessed techniques for all thrombosed venous segments, with its overall accuracy (ROC analysis) being superior to T2W and GRE imaging, and equivalent to TOF MRV. Its overall specificity (binary test) was again superior to TOF MRV. Its incomplete overall sensitivity of 76% is most likely related to the inclusion of thrombosed cortical veins that are notoriously difficult to assess on MRV due to their high variability in number, size, and location.6,22 In dural venous sinus thrombosis alone, it showed the highest sensitivity (97%) and specificity (99%) among the 4 assessed techniques. Although only a trend toward superior accuracy was found on ROC analysis between combo-4D ...
CIN2/3 have been increased for many years and mainly concern women aged 25-29 years. They are subsequent to a persistent HPV infection and are classically treated by conization. Recurrences occur in 7 to 18 % of cases, mainly after CIN3 management during the first 2 years of follow-up. Follow-up is crucial to detect and treat recurrence and to select high risk women who might develop cervical cancer. Colposcopy and cytology have been recommended since 1989 by French ANAES, but these methods have poor sensitivity and specificity. However, DNA HPV testing is more sensitive and has demonstrated a very high negative predictive value, while specificity and positive predictive value remain average. Other HPV markers like genotyping, viral load and integration begin to be used in screening but have not been investigated in CIN2/3 follow-up to assess the values of various HPV markers which predict CIN2/3 recurrence after conization. The primary objective is to ...
San Diego, CA. FDA-cleared TMA tests are available for the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (APTIMA CT, APTIMA GC, and, AMPLIFIED Mycobacterium tuberculosis Direct Test [MTD] assays, respectively) An FDA-approved TMA qualitative assay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is also available (VERSANT HCV RNA [distributed by Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Deerfield, IL]) - Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) ◆ NASBA is an isothermal amplification technique and can be used for the amplification of a DNA or RNA target. Following the first PCR cycle, there is (theoretically) a per-cycle doubling in the number of copies of the PCR product. (Modified from Leonard DGB [ed]: Diagnostic Molecular Pathology. ) - Basic PCR method ◆ During the denaturation stage, sample specimen DNA is rendered single-stranded by heating to 94° to 98°C ◆ In the annealing step, oligonucleotide primers hybridize with the target sequences they have been ...
This thesis investigates the clinical impact of a point-of-care diagnostic strategy for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a setting at the heart of the TB and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemics in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Although the identification and prompt treatment of active pulmonary TB disease remains the cornerstone of global TB control strategies, weak diagnostic systems contribute to substantial delays and default during the diagnostic process. As new diagnostic technologies are developed, evidence is needed around how best to deliver them within health systems in order to maximize their impact. The impact of positioning of a molecular diagnostic system (Xpert MTB/RIF) was investigated in a cluster randomised trial. Clusters (two-week time periods) were randomised to one of two strategies: centralised laboratory Xpert MTB/RIF testing or point-of-care Xpert MTB/RIF at the clinic. The trial enrolled 1297 adults with symptoms of pulmonary TB who were HIV infected and/or ...
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry technique can detect T3 and T4 levels in 4 and 13 day old F1 rats. Princeton, NJ, USA - Envigo is pleased to announce that it has developed and validated a robust analytical method to evaluate the potential effects on thyroid hormone levels in rat F1 offspring. It is now possible for Envigo to successfully determine levels of T3 (triiodothyronine) and T4 (thyroxine) hormones in serum from rats at days 4 and 13 of age using ultra high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a high-end tandem mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS) for detection. As a consequence, OECD reproductive toxicology guidelines OECD 421, 422 and 443 which include an evaluation of thyroid function can now be performed at Envigo. This highly sensitive method was successfully validated for the determination of T3 (5 to 1,500 pg/mL) and T4 (70 to 70,000 pg/mL) in rat serum for F1 animals at days 4 and 13 of age using a sample volume of 50 ...
1 Table of Contents. 1 Table of Contents 2. 1.1 List of Tables 3. 1.2 List of Figures 3. 2 Introduction 4. 2.1 What Is This Report About? 4. 2.2 Biopsy Procedures, Segmentation 4. 2.3 Definitions of Procedures Covered in the Report 5. 3 Biopsy Procedures, Canada 7. 3.1 Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 7. 3.2 Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2016-2023 9. 3.2.1 Breast Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 11. 3.2.2 Colorectal Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 13. 3.2.3 Leukemia Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 15. 3.2.4 Liver Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 16. 3.2.5 Lung Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 18. 3.2.6 Other Indications Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 19. 3.2.7 Prostate Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 21. 3.2.8 Thyroid Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2009-2016 23. 3.2.9 Breast Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2016-2023 24. 3.2.10 Colorectal Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2016-2023 26. 3.2.11 Leukemia Biopsy Procedures, Canada, 2016-2023 28. 3.2.12 Liver Biopsy Procedures, ...
Symptomatic forms of toxoplasmosis are a serious public health problem and occur in around 10-20% of the infected people. Aiming to improve the molecular diagnosis of symptomatic toxoplasmosis in Brazilian patients, this study evaluated the performance of real time PCR testing two primer sets (B1 and REP-529) in detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA. The methodology was assayed in 807 clinical samples with known clinical diagnosis, ELISA, and conventional PCR results in a 9-year period. All samples were from patients with clinical suspicion of several features of toxoplasmosis. According to the minimum detection limit curve (in CT), REP-529 had greater sensitivity to detect T. gondii DNA than B1. Both primer sets were retrospectively evaluated using 515 DNA from different clinical samples. The 122 patients without toxoplasmosis provided high specificity (REP-529, 99.2% and B1, 100%). From the 393 samples with positive ELISA, 146 had clinical diagnosis of ...
Objectives To improve the detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae by designing a multiplex PCR assay using two N gonorrhoeae-specific genes as targets, thereby providing detection and confirmation of a positive result simultaneously.. Methods PCR primers were designed to detect two N gonorrhoeae genes, namely porA and pgi1. Primers for an internal control targeting the ompW gene of Vibrio cholerae were also designed and incorporated in the assay. The DNA of 45 clinical isolates including 33 N gonorrhoeae isolates, seven non-gonococcal Neisseria species, and five non-Neisseria species was tested using the multiplex PCR assay.. Results All 33 N gonorrhoeae isolates were successfully detected by the assay and none of the non-gonococcal isolates was detected. The assay showed a sensitivity and specificity of 100%, and a limit of detection of 1.25 ng of DNA.. Conclusion This multiplex PCR assay offers a sensitive and specific assay suitable for the ...
The card agglutination test for Trypanosoma evansi (CATT/T. evansi) for the detection of antibodies, and Suratex for the detection of circulating antigens were compared in a cross-sectional study involving camels in eastern and central parts of Kenya. Of the 2227 camels screened, 2038 were owned by nomadic pastoralists in T. evansi endemic areas in eastern Kenya. A herd of 86 camels were from a ranch in Mugwoni. In Athi River area, 35 camels belonged to Kenya Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, and 68 were slaughter animals. Diagnostic sensitivity estimates were obtained by testing sera from 51 camels that had been found to be parasitologically positive by the haematocrit centrifugation technique, buffy-coat technique and mouse inoculation. Diagnostic specificity was estimated by testing sera from 35 camels known to be trypanosome-free. Positive and negative predictive values (NPVs) were calculated using a range of prevalence values. The ...
Malaria is one of the major public health problems in Ethiopia where ¾ of the landmass is malarious and an estimated 68% of the population lives in these areas [2, 3]. The CareStart™ Malaria HRP-2/ pLDH (Pf/PAN) combo test has been widely used by health extension workers at health posts in Ethiopia since 2005 [10]. In the present study, CareStart™ RDT showed high sensitivity and specificity (Table 3). The high sensitivity and specificity of CareStart™ RDT was in line with a report from Kola Diba Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia [14, 17]. This study revealed a lower sensitivity and higher specificity compared to reports from Northeast Ethiopia and Sierra Leone [2, 5]. Generally, CareStartTM RDT showed good sensitivity and specificity as compared to that of light microscopy.. The diagnostic performance of the CareStart™ RDT for the diagnosis of different Plasmodium species was evaluated. When ...
Results The ALFED model demonstrated excellent discrimination with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.91 in the derivation cohort and of 0.92 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated in both cohorts and showed a similar increase in mortality with increasing risk scores from 0 to 6. The performance of the ALFED model was superior to the Kings College Hospital criteria and the Model for End stage Liver Disease score, even when their 3-day serial values were taken into consideration. An ALFED score of ≥4 had a high positive predictive value (85%) and negative predictive value (87%) in the validation cohort. ...
For our study, Weil-Felix test (WFT) was performed using the commercially available kit (Plasmatech, UK) as per the manufacturers instructions which gives a positive result to agglutination titres of ≥160 [2]. We are completely aware that WFT is not a gold standard test to diagnose rickettsial diseases and hence, we used a term "presumed rickettsial retinitis" in the report.. Multifocal retinitis post febrile illness in Indian scenario is commonly due to chikungunya, dengue, West Nile virus (WNV) and rickettsial infections. Ruling out other causes (chikungunya, dengue, WNV), taking appropriate history of tick bite rather than mosquito bite and skin rashes will increase suspicion for rickettsial retinitis. Of late, we processed stored serum sample of our patients of "presumed rickettsial retinitis" for WNV serology and PCR which showed negative results. Although WFT is not a gold standard test, it helps to subclassify rickettsial diseases (Indian tick typhus, epidemic typhus and scrub typhus) ...
Pre-operative assessment of coronary artery disease with conventional coronary angiography has been recommended in the guidelines of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association for selected patients scheduled for cardiac valve surgery (15). Recently introduced multislice CT allows noninvasive coronary artery imaging and has been shown to reliably exclude significant coronary artery stenosis (8,9). The major advantage of multislice CT over conventional coronary angiography in patients with acute IE is its noninvasiveness and thus avoidance of the high embolization risk of valvular vegetations during catheter manipulation. Once spread into the systemic arterial circulation, those vegetations can cause severe complications such as cerebral or peripheral embolization (17).. In this study, multislice CT showed an excellent diagnostic performance in assessing morphologic abnormalities commonly seen in patients with IE. Accuracy of vegetation, abscess, and pseudoaneurysm ...
A rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS) method is described for the determination and quantification of 12 dietary flavonoid glycosides and aglycons in human urine samples. Chromatographic separation of the analytes of interest was achieved by column-switching, using the first column (a Zorbax 300SB C-3 column) for sample cleanup and eluting the heart-cut flavonoid fraction onto the second column (a Zorbax SE C-18 column) for separation and detection by ultraviolet and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization MS using single ion monitoring in negative mode. The fragmentor voltage was optimized with regard to maximum abundance of the molecular ion and qualifier ions of the analytes. Calibration graphs were prepared for urine, and good linearity was achieved over a dynamic range of 2.5-1000 ng/mL, The inter- and intraassay coefficients of variation for the analysis of the 12 different flavonoids in quality ...
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Radiation Safety Monitoring (Health and Safety) Equipment  available in Yukon | Environmental XPRTRadiation Safety Monitoring (Health and Safety) Equipment available in Yukon | Environmental XPRT

Results for radiation safety monitoring equipment from TA, Atomtex, FPI and other leading brands for health and safety. Compare ... High sensitivity, lower detection limit down to ng/m3. Truly continuous and non-destructive measurement, no pretreatment needed ... Radiation Monitoring System. Gammatech and GAMMALERT Radiation Gates for Airports and Border Crossings. HAZMAT Monitoring and ... Next Generation Drinking Water Radiation Safety Monitor. Next Generation Drinking Water Radiation Safety Monitor. The worlds ...
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Watch: Concern Japan govt is manipulating radiation readings - Levels nearby much higher than some monitoring posts indicate ...Watch: Concern Japan gov't is manipulating radiation readings - Levels nearby much higher than some monitoring posts indicate ...

If anyone knows of a detection that is not on the list please post info at the site, so the list can be updated. ... I dont really get that report, though… Youd like to crack up some jokes about the sensitivity of their instruments, but those ... TV: Radiation monitoring stations useless - Actual levels 5 times higher than whats displayed - Official: But it was you who ... 36 comments to Watch: Concern Japan govt is manipulating radiation readings - Levels nearby much higher than some monitoring ...
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Environmental and Radiation Monitoring Systems - CANBERRA IndustriesEnvironmental and Radiation Monitoring Systems - CANBERRA Industries

We are the worldwide leader in the manufacturing of radiation detectors and nuclear measurement systems, sevices and ... Turn-key Mobile Vehicle-based Emergency Radiation Monitoring Systems (MOVERS) offer high-sensitivity detection of likely ... CANBERRA SafePoint Radiation Monitoring Solutions Product Catalog. Download our full-color SafePoint Radiation Monitoring ... Environmental and Radiation Monitoring Systems. PRODUCT IN FOCUS. CANBERRAs new configurable area monitoring systems help you ...
more infohttp://www.canberra.com/products/env_rad_monitoring/default.asp

Dr Chris Mills | University of SurreyDr Chris Mills | University of Surrey

... high operational voltages and high cost. Here we present a disruptive,. flexible, low cost, broad-band, and high sensitivity ... X-radiation detectors are a completely new family of low-cost radiation detectors with potential application as beam monitors ... Mills CA, Al-Otaibi H, Intaniwet A, Shkunov M, Pani S, Keddie JL, Sellin PJ (2013) Enhanced x-ray detection sensitivity in ... The detection sensitivity of 5 µm thick semiconducting poly([9,9-dioctylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl]-co-bithiophene) diodes containing ...
more infohttps://www.surrey.ac.uk/people/chris-mills

Fast Neutron Imaging Scintillator with Low Sensitivity to Gamma Radiation | SBIR.govFast Neutron Imaging Scintillator with Low Sensitivity to Gamma Radiation | SBIR.gov

... high neutron efficiency, low gamma sensitivity, and large detection area at reasonable cost. This project will develop a ... This information is important for biological applications (for example, monitoring protein dynamics), and material research and ... Fast Neutron Imaging Scintillator with Low Sensitivity to Gamma Radiation. Printer-friendly version ... The ideal detector would provide fast response, high spatial resolution, ...
more infohttps://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/detail/84314

Radiation Safety Training Manual | Radioactive Decay | NeutronRadiation Safety Training Manual | Radioactive Decay | Neutron

Radiation Safety Training Manual - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free ... The gamma counter is used for detection of gammas. This instrument has a higher detection. efficiency (up to 75%) than a liquid ... monitoring or area and equipment monitoring.. Personnel monitoring devices integrate radiation exposure over a period of time, ... radiation from about 0.04-0.2 MeV. Below about 0.04 MeV the cover on the film affects the. sensitivity. Selective filtration of ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/375982933/Radiation-Safety-Training-Manual

US5323008A - Fluorometer detection system 
        - Google PatentsUS5323008A - Fluorometer detection system - Google Patents

... relatively high repetition rate light source with high speed detection electronics to increase system sensitivity and accuracy ... In another embodiment, the time to detection of a photon is used to compile the decay profile. In one aspect of this invention ... In another aspect of this invention, the time of detection after excitation of the photon is started from a random time, such ... An improved fluorescence detection system is provided which utilizes a relatively high powered, ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US5323008A/en

Penetrating Radiation Systems and Applications XII | (2011) | Publications | SpiePenetrating Radiation Systems and Applications XII | (2011) | Publications | Spie

To use either LaBr3:Ce or CeBr3 for high-sensitivity gamma detection, it may be necessary to have the self-activity as well as ... A fissionable scintillator for neutron flux monitoring Author(s): Sy Stange; Ernst I. Esch; Eric A. Burgett; Rico E. Del Sesto ... Self-occluding quad NaI directional gamma radiation detector for standoff radiation detection Author(s): David Portnoy; John ... to optimize radiation detection sensitivity. We are designing a custom SSPM that will be optimized for green emission of ...
more infohttp://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Volume/8144

Radiation Portal Monitor - WikipediaRadiation Portal Monitor - Wikipedia

Gamma radiation is detected, and in some cases complemented by neutron detection when sensitivity for nuclear material is ... RDDs are comparatively easy to detect with RPMs due to their high level of radioactivity. RDDs emit gamma radiation as well as ... radiation portal monitoring Crane based radiation portal monitoring Air luggage radiation portal monitoring Railway radiation ... Radiation Portal Monitors (RPMs) are passive radiation detection devices used for the screening of individuals, vehicles, cargo ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiation_Portal_Monitor

Radiation monitoring methods, equipment and instrumentation - PORTAL MyHEALTHRadiation monitoring methods, equipment and instrumentation - PORTAL MyHEALTH

... counter is a very useful detector tool in monitoring low-energy beta and gamma radiation due to its high sensitivity. It is the ... It is an important instrument in detection of spectroscopy of low energy X-ray and been widely used in the detection of ... Home , GENERAL , Radiation , Radiation monitoring methods, equipment and instrumentation. Radiation monitoring methods, ... justified the importance of radiation monitoring especially to those who work with radiation.A proper selection of monitoring ...
more infohttp://www.myhealth.gov.my/en/radiation-monitoring-methods-equipment-and-instrumentation-2/

Radiation Safety | Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management | Radford UniversityRadiation Safety | Environmental Health, Safety, and Risk Management | Radford University

... and Risk Management at Radford University provides detailed information regarding Radiation Safety including the laser safety ... There are two main categories of radiation monitoring devices: gas filled detectors and scintillation detectors.. Gas detection ... The highest risk occurred to those x-rayed during the first trimester. Because of the sensitivity of the developing fetus to ... High radiation area: any area accessible to personnel where there exists radiation at such levels that a major portion of the ...
more infohttps://www.radford.edu/content/ehs/home/programs/radiation-safety.html

Multivariate non-invasive measurements of skin disordersMultivariate non-invasive measurements of skin disorders

These ratios showed a good sensitivity to erythema, with a median detection limit of 18 Gy. DCP was used to extract average red ... Analysis of the digital photography shows that a proposed skin redness index (SRI), increases with a higher radiation dose. ... The increase in skin redness could be monitored with all techniques with a detection limit of 8 Gy for Digital Colour ... It is observed that the higher the dose the higher the score value. The results from the laser Doppler measurements show that ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:144792

Microfluidics-Based CTC Chip Moves Closer to the Clinic - Society for Laboratory Automation and ScreeningMicrofluidics-Based CTC Chip Moves Closer to the Clinic - Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening

Those kinds of studies will involve much larger clinical trials and, for the technology, a very high degree of sensitivity and ... Early Detection and Screening. In the longer term, the goal would be to use the technology for early detection. ... You could also monitor longitudinally to determine if a patient is in remission or if there is a recurrence. You cant do ... biopsies or expose patients to radiation in imaging tests on a monthly basis, he says. But with the CTC chip, you could ...
more infohttps://www.slas.org/eln/microfluidics-based-ctc-chip-moves-closer-to-the-clinic/

Airborne particulate radioactivity monitoring - WikipediaAirborne particulate radioactivity monitoring - Wikipedia

... which is needed for calculating the detection sensitivity. This sensitivity is often called the minimum detectable ... In monitoring, the region of deposition of this material onto the filter medium is continuously viewed by a radiation detector ... the CPAM monitors this air and is intended to detect high concentrations of radioactivity and shut down the HVAC flow when ... Radiation monitors in general have a number of process-control applications in nuclear power plants; a major CPAM application ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Airborne_particulate_radioactivity_monitoring

List | SBIR.govList | SBIR.gov

SBC: Radiation Monitoring Devices, Inc. Topic: DHP16C006 Airway compromise is the third leading cause of potentially ... are highly subjective and lack the sensitivity required of an accurate diagnostic and assessment tool.The problem of detection ... Window materials must possess a combination of properties such as high mechanical strength, high melting point, high ... Window materials are an essential component of some advanced propulsion concepts which require high pressures, high ...
more infohttps://www.sbir.gov/sbirsearch/award/all/?f%5B0%5D=im_field_state%3A105812&f%5B1%5D=im_field_state%3A105819&f%5B2%5D=im_field_agencies%3A105729&f%5B3%5D=itm_field_award_yr%3A2008&f%5B4%5D=itm_field_award_yr%3A2017&f%5B5%5D=im_field_state%3A105829&f%5B6%5D=im_field_program%3A105792&f%5B7%5D=im_field_state%3A105825&%3Bf%5B1%5D=im_field_state%3A105828&%3Bamp%3Bf%5B1%5D=itm_field_award_yr%3A1985&solrsort=sort_label%20asc

May 2010 - Volume 98 - Issue 5 : Health PhysicsMay 2010 - Volume 98 - Issue 5 : Health Physics

OF A HIGH SENSITIVITY MULTI-ELEMENT TISSUE EQUIVALENT PROPORTIONAL COUNTER FOR RADIATION PROTECTION NEUTRON MONITORING ... DETECTION OF PREMATURE SEGREGATION OF CENTROMERES IN PERSONS EXPOSED TO IONIZING RADIATION. Jovicic, Dubravka; Milacic, Snežana ... DERIVATION OF CONTINUOUS AIR MONITOR EQUATIONS FOR DAC AND DAC-H. Justus, Alan L. ... THE HEALTH PHYSICS SOCIETY: An Affiliate of the International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA). ...
more infohttp://journals.lww.com/health-physics/Abstract/2010/05000/href

Retrospective assessment of exposure to carcinogens in Norways offshore petroleum industryRetrospective assessment of exposure to carcinogens in Norway's offshore petroleum industry

... ionising radiation; and occupational exposure as a painter (Article II). Monitoring reports were obtained on seven agents: ... The sensitivity was 0.55-0.86 and specificity 0.91-0.97. For these parameters, there were no apparent differences between the ... less than the limit of detection - 2.6 ppm). Asbestos fibres were detected (0.03 fibres/cm3) when asbestos-containing brake ... Sampling done before 1984 showed high exposure to diesel vapour (arithmetic mean = 1217 mg/m3). Downward time trends were ...
more infohttp://bora.uib.no/handle/1956/2321?show=full

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Detection is achieved by utilizing the effect of self-mixing in the THz QCL, and, specifically, by monitoring perturbations to ... The terahertz (THz) frequency quantum cascade laser (QCL) is a compact source of high-power radiation with a narrow intrinsic ... Self-mixing imaging offers high sensitivity, a potentially fast response, and a simple, compact optical design, and we show ... As such, THz QCLs are extremely promising sources for applications including high-resolution spectroscopy, heterodyne detection ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize?author=Paul%20M%20Harrison%20

RadSeeker | Handheld Radiation Detector (RIID) | Smiths DetectionRadSeeker | Handheld Radiation Detector (RIID) | Smiths Detection

Radseeker can be used anywhere there is suspected radiation. ... High sensitivity detection alarms/alerts indicate gamma or ... In a situation that is deemed unsafe to send a responder, the RadSeeker can be placed mechanically while monitoring and ... Radiation detection technologies. 2 x 2in sodium iodide (gamma spectrometer) helium-3 neutron detector. Languages. English, ... Radiation detection technologies. 1.5 x 1.5in lanthanum bromide (gamma spectrometer) helium-3 neutron detector. Languages. ...
more infohttps://www.smithsdetection.com/products/radseeker/

Third Conference on Photonic Systems for Ecological Monitoring | (1997) | Publications | SpieThird Conference on Photonic Systems for Ecological Monitoring | (1997) | Publications | Spie

Role of space monitoring for detection of accidents at radiation-dangerous objects Author(s): Valeri G. Gnedenko Show Abstract ... The X-ray sensitivity of CCDs is higher than the same for X-ray films. We have designed the experimental miniaturized X-ray CCD ... The arrays feature high sensitivity, close to BLIP- mode, wide dynamic range and low heat dissipation. Their advantages include ... General task comes to constant monitoring of the radiation-dangerous objects using special equipment that is capable to ensure ...
more infohttp://spie.org/Publications/Proceedings/Volume/3200

US Patent # 7,546,167. Network operation center for a light management system having networked
     intelligent luminaire...US Patent # 7,546,167. Network operation center for a light management system having networked intelligent luminaire...

For high-priority communications, such as, for example, detection of a failed lamp, master controller 114 may make unscheduled ... to provide high crime area surveillance; to locate lost individuals, children and pets; to relay weather monitoring data, power ... A filter can be used to adjust the sensitivity/response of photo-detector 305 (e.g., a filter such as an infrared filter can be ... radiation alerts, bio alerts, chemical alerts, smog alerts, etc.); ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-7546167.html
  • Earlier this month The Association for Citizens and Scientists Concerned About Internal Radiation Exposures raised concerns that the Japanese government was manipulating radiation readings with these official monitoring stations. (enenews.com)
  • The primary purpose of the training program is to limit unnecessary internal and external radiation exposures, by ensuring that each individual knows how to work safely with radioactive material. (scribd.com)
  • No matter how large the space (from several meters to hundreds of kilometers) and time (from an hour to several months) scales of the above monitoring might be there is a common dominating factor which could favor creation of a general- purpose observation and control system based on passive optoelectronic instrumentation of different levels of sophistication. (spie.org)
  • Achieve peace of mind from higher reliability, lower maintenance costs, better accuracy, and the satisfaction of all pertinent regulatory guides with our rugged, field-proven neutron flux monitoring systems. (thermofisher.com)
  • Neutron flux from linear accelerators is conventionally monitored using ionization chambers containing one or more foils thinly coated with a fissionable or fissile material. (spie.org)
  • Due to the long pulse rise times resulting from the ionization mechanism, fission chambers are prone to pulse pile-up in high-neutron-flux environments. (spie.org)
  • To ameliorate these effects, a novel type of neutron flux monitor, consisting of fissionable material loaded in a liquid scintillator, has been developed, characterized, and tested in the beam line at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. (spie.org)
  • At the same time high locality was provided because each of EC probes is operated separately with the same sensitivity as before connection. (ndt.net)
  • Developed EC probes in combination with ELOTEST B300 flaw detector were successfully applied for detection of cracks in ferromagnetic and stainless steel tube forgings. (ndt.net)
  • The most commonly labelled molecules are antibodies, proteins, amino acids and peptides which are then used as specific probes for detection of a particular target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Little is known about the quantitative contributions of nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR) to DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair in different cell cycle phases after physiologically relevant doses of ionizing radiation. (asm.org)
  • The results of this study show that the single-molecule PCR technique provides a new and efficient experimental system for monitoring the genetic effects of anticancer drugs, capable of detecting increases in mutation rates at clinically relevant doses of exposure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • They were deployed at scrap metal facilities to detect radiation sources mixed among scrap that could contaminate a facility and result in a costly clean up. (wikipedia.org)
  • This project will develop a detector, based on a finely-structured plastic scintillator coupled to a state-of-the-art digital readout, that meets the above requirements The structure of the scintillator's body will enhance light channeling to the digital optical detector, promoting very high spatial resolution. (sbir.gov)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers several unique advantages compared to other clinical imaging modalities with its deep tissue penetration, high spatial resolution, and coverage of the entire liver. (nature.com)
  • HR, which appears to be less important than NHEJ for repairing IR-induced breaks in higher eukaryotes, utilizes extensive homology to faithfully restore the sequence at the break site by processes that involve proteins of the Rad52 epistasis group ( 20 , 61 , 62 , 63 ). (asm.org)
  • ProCA32.collagen1 possesses high relaxivities per particle (r 1 and r 2 ) at both 1.4 and 7.0 T, which enables the robust detection of early-stage (Ishak stage 3 of 6) liver fibrosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (Ishak stage 1 of 6 or 1 A Mild) in animal models via dual contrast modes. (nature.com)
  • The instrument incorporates a high integrity Lab-Impex Systems SIL Safeguard Monitor (SSM) sub-system. (environmental-expert.com)
  • CANBERRA's new configurable area monitoring systems help you meet your plant's safety, reliability and performance objectives. (canberra.com)
  • The existing domestic (based on the `Meteor', `Resurs-O', `Okean', etc. spacecraft) and foreign (NOAA, SPOT, LANDSAT, ERS, etc.) space systems are designed for solution of only a limited number of atmosphere monitoring issues, namely those related to meteorology and studies of natural resources. (spie.org)
  • Understanding and estimating the genetic hazards of exposure to chemical mutagens and anticancer drugs in humans requires the development of efficient systems for monitoring germ line mutation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This information is important for biological applications (for example, monitoring protein dynamics), and material research and security applications (for example, explosives detection, etc. (sbir.gov)
  • Protein crystals on chips enable high throughput. (cornell.edu)
  • High hydrostatic pressure small-angle X-ray scattering cell for protein solution studies featuring diamond windows and disposable sample cells, J. Appl. (cornell.edu)
  • Higher eukaryotic cells primarily repair DSBs by one of two genetically separable pathways, nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ repairs broken ends with little or no requirement for sequence homology and involves the XRCC4-LIG4 complex and the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) holoenzyme, consisting of the DNA end-binding heterodimer Ku70-Ku80 and the catalytic subunit DNA-PK cs ( 22 , 23 , 53 ). (asm.org)
  • In molecular biology and biotechnology, a fluorescent tag, also known as a label or probe, is a molecule that is attached chemically to aid in the labeling and detection of a biomolecule such as a protein, antibody, or amino acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Related research on nanocomposite scintillators for gamma-ray detection suggests the possibility of extending this approach by synthesizing fissionable material nanoparticles and loading them into an organic scintillator. (spie.org)
  • Compared with a conventional fission chamber, the fissionable scintillator displays a significantly higher event rate. (spie.org)
  • As the name suggests, an RDD aims at dispersing radioactive material over an area, causing high cleanup costs, psychological, and economic damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a person is exposed to radiation for a long period of time (years to decades), the chances to get cancer or leukaemia increases. (myhealth.gov.my)
  • As for the near-Earth space there are at present only ground facilities whose monitoring capabilities are also limited. (spie.org)
  • Protect personnel closest to the radiation source. (thermofisher.com)
  • Horticultural commodities (fruit and vegetables) are the major dietary source of several bioactive compounds of high nutraceutical value for humans, including polyphenols, carotenoids and vitamins. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ionization chamber detector is the most suitable detector to measure photons, beam and also can be used to monitor alpha, beta and neutron particle through some modification. (myhealth.gov.my)
  • Any workplaces of which contain radioactive sources or irradiating apparatus are required by the regulation to be monitored regularly to ensure the working environments are safe for worker. (myhealth.gov.my)
  • A prerequisite for early detection and efficient treatment of liver fibrosis and NASH is a reliable noninvasive diagnostic method to accurately stage NASH and fibrosis progression and response to therapy. (nature.com)
  • For 75% of them, the radiation readings close to the posts were lower than readings for their immediate surroundings. (enenews.com)
  • Atoms that have been promoted to higher energy states release this energy in the form of light by a process called stimulated emission. (radford.edu)
  • We also find a lack of evidence of widespread significant adverse health impacts from anthropogenic nutrient-generated HABs, although this may be partly due to a lack of human/animal health and HAB monitoring. (jove.com)
  • Most importantly, these tests lack the sensitivity to detect mutation induction in the germ line of mice exposed to low and often intermediate concentrations of chemical mutagens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The training program is designed to explain the fundamentals of radiation, the safe use of radioactive materials, and the Federal, State, and University rules and regulations that control their use. (scribd.com)
  • In a situation that is deemed unsafe to send a responder, the RadSeeker can be placed mechanically while monitoring and controlling the device from a safe distance. (smithsdetection.com)