Degree of saltiness, which is largely the OSMOLAR CONCENTRATION of SODIUM CHLORIDE plus any other SALTS present. It is an ecological factor of considerable importance, influencing the types of organisms that live in an ENVIRONMENT.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Plants that can grow well in soils that have a high SALINITY.
The ability of organisms to sense and adapt to high concentrations of salt in their growth environment.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The goosefoot plant family of the order Caryophyllales, subclass Caryophyllidae, class Magnoliopsida. It includes beets and chard (BETA VULGARIS), as well as SPINACH, and salt tolerant plants.
A plant genus of the family AIZOACEAE. It is a native of Africa and widely planted for erosion control to stabilize soil along roadsides and beaches.
Substances produced from the reaction between acids and bases; compounds consisting of a metal (positive) and nonmetal (negative) radical. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.
A genus of gram-negative, moderately halophilic bacteria in the family HALOMONADACEAE. They are chemoorganotrophic and grow optimally in media containing 8-10% salt.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The routing of water to open or closed areas where it is used for agricultural purposes.
Substances which pollute the soil. Use for soil pollutants in general or for which there is no specific heading.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is a source of prosopis gum.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
A plant genus of the family SIMAROUBACEAE. Members contain ailantinols and other quassinoids.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).
Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of snakeroot is also used for POLYGALA; SANICULA; ARISTOLOCHIA and others.
A group of degraded TRITERPENES which have lost ten carbons (8 from the side chain, C17, and one from C4) so have C20 skeletons which could be misinterpreted as DITERPENES. They especially occur in plants of the SIMAROUBACEAE family.
... the sabkha has very high levels of radioactivity, ranging from a mean of 16 to 75 cps. Salinity levels are high in the sabkha. ... was an extension of the bay prior to the drop in sea levels c. 3,000 years ago. Various species of algae are found on the ... has a width of 2 to 4 km and a depth of between 6 and 7 meters below sea level. Consequently, the sabkha holds the distinction ... As a result of high uranium content, ...
The overall level of salinity is modest. TEGA analysis of its first soil sample indicated the presence of bound water and CO2 ... Wind speeds ranged from 11 to 58 km/h (6.8 to 36.0 mph). The usual average speed was 36 km/h (22 mph). These speeds seem high, ... The pH and salinity level were viewed as benign from the standpoint of biology. Perchlorate On August 1, 2008, Aviation Week ... The highest temperature measured during the mission was −19.6 °C (−3.3 °F), while the coldest was −97.7 °C (−143.9 °F). ...
High levels of soil salinity can be tolerated if salt-tolerant plants are grown. Sensitive crops lose their vigor already in ... which led to high concentration of salts in the water table. After the construction, the continuous high level of the water ... Salinity in Australia. References[edit]. *^ from "Soil salinity" in WaterWiki, the on-line Knowledge and Collaboration Tool of ... An example of this occurred in Egypt in 1970 when the Aswan High Dam was built. The change in the level of ground water before ...
This stresses species not adapted to high salinity. High levels of salinity reduces water uptake in plants, by causing stomatal ... Forests undergo decline in areas of high salinity and shallow groundwater depths because these conditions make them more ... Forests undergo decline in areas of high salinity and shallow groundwater depths making them more susceptible to droughts. ... temperature levels, oxygen concentration and water levels. This links with interactions that structure the communities of ...
Its vegetation is a byproduct of its salinity levels. High salinity serves as an evolutionary barrier for most plants, creating ... The salinity levels also changes with the tides, decreasing at low tide and increasing at high tide as ocean water feeds ... The salinity levels in brackish marshes can range from 0.5 ppt to 35 ppt, and is also characterised by low-growing vegetation, ... The trophic levels within a brackish marsh has been shown to depend on the amount of macro organic matter in the upper level of ...
Lower water levels increase salinity threatening fish and wildlife. Salinity levels in the lake have been one prominent aspect ... Devils Lake is well known for its wide variations in lake levels, with large swings between low and high water levels. This ... with decreased salinity due to dilution. Because Devils Lake is endorheic, the lake tends to be much higher in salinity than ... They argue the outlet would create the potential for the transfer of unknown foreign aquatic species and high levels of ...
Probes measured the water salinity, temperature, and oxygen levels. Special instruments could measure plankton-, particle-, and ... The technical equipment included an ultra-high-resolution scanning sonar that was used for locating schools of juvenile herring ... Imaging equipment included low-light still and high speed video cameras using shuttered Laser-sheet or infrared LED ... larval survival is high, and large year-classes result. Research work at the ATOLL investigated the effects of small-scale ...
... tolerating high levels of soil salinity. The Elaeagnaceae often harbor nitrogen-fixing actinomycetes of the genus Frankia in ... causing formation of complex topography and climate with high rainfall seasonality. Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009). "An ...
High levels of salinity have been observed in the estero. The Estero Americano is protected by the Estero Americano State ... Water testing of Americano Creek and Estero has generally found pH (acidity) levels in the range of 7.5 to 8.0, which satisfies ... Pollutants found at hazardous level in the creek have included fecal bacteria, copper, ammonia, and zinc. The creek's ...
It is grown from about 500 to about 2400 m above sea level (e.g. in Himalaya region). Hence, it can be cultivated on higher ... Furthermore, it can tolerate soil salinity up to a certain extent. Its ability to bear waterlogging is limited, so good ... Leveling and watering of beds is required during transplanting. Seedlings with 4 weeks age should be transplanted in the field ... This has disadvantages, such as reduced storage time of the flour due to the high oil content. Furthermore, the industrial use ...
It can withstand very low phosphorus levels and high salinity levels. The drought-tolerance of the tree is strong due to its ... Furthermore, high concentrations of mercury have been found built up in tissues of the plant. Ailanthus has been used to re- ... In its native range it is found at high altitudes in Taiwan as well as lower ones in mainland China. These are virtually found ... The problem of odor was previously avoided by only selling pistillate plants since only males produce the smell, but a higher ...
... and high blood pressure. High salinity levels in drinking water also has been found to be highly associated with cardiovascular ... Higher levels of salinity present in freshwater environments can lead to declining species richness in general observations, ... The extinction rate for freshwater organisms are among the highest worldwide, and as salinity levels in these aquatic ... Changes within salinity levels affect organisms within freshwater ecosystems both directly and indirectly. The toxic levels of ...
The water is brackish, varying in salinity from 0 to 35‰. It is also turbid and polluted, especially near Abidjan, with high ... Organic and bacterial pollution occurs mainly in urban areas, with high levels of Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens ... levels of nitrogen and phosphate. There are extensive areas around the lagoon dominated by mangroves such as Rhizophora ...
In order for a marsh to be considered a freshwater marsh, the salinity level cannot exceed 2 ppt. With an increase in salinity ... Salt grass also tolerates the higher salinity of the brackish marsh. A shift from intermediate to brackish marshland is ... distinguished based on the level of salinity. Brackish marshland typically averages in salinity at 8 ppt (parts per thousand of ... Because salt marsh hay tolerates a wide variety of salinity levels, it is also the dominating grass found in brackish marshland ...
High salinity levels have been recorded at the mouth of the river. Land use in the upper catchment is mostly beef cattle ... The highest recorded flood was in 1970 when the river reached 7.25 metres (23.8 ft) at the Bowen Pumping Station. The river ...
It can also withstand high salinity levels in the water. Closeup Iris pseudacorus Flower Iris pseudacorus Fruit Whole plants ... and is featured in many AS Level Biology practicals as its ability to grow in low pH levels makes it a useful indicator.[ ... to Salinity". International Journal of Phytoremediation. 17 (9): 814-821. doi:10.1080/15226514.2014.981240. Flora Europaea: ...
... salinity levels became too high for the 20 native fish species to survive. The only fish that could survive the high-salinity ... Work on this dam was completed in August 2005; since then, the water level of the North Aral has risen, and its salinity has ... By 2008, the water level had risen 12 m (39 ft) above that of 2003. Salinity has dropped, and fish are again present in ... In the first half of the 20th century prior to the irrigation, the sea's water level above sea level held steady at 53 m. By ...
The water level in the estuary and its salinity are regularly changed. Long-standing observations have shown that between 1878 ... and 1968 salinity in the estuary ranged from 29 to 269 ‰. During the years with high salinity, salt precipitated at the bottom ... The lowest point of Ukraine is located near the Kuyalnytsia estuary: 5 meters below sea level. On the southeast coast of the ... depending on the water level, ranges from 52-60 km². Length - 28 km, width more than 3 km. The average depth is about 1 m. The ...
However, introducing salinity into the fluid raises the critical point to higher temperatures and pressures. The critical point ... Black smokers typically emit particles with high levels of sulfur-bearing minerals, or sulfides. Black smokers are formed in ... The critical point for lower salinity fluids is at lower temperature and pressure conditions than that for seawater, but higher ... up to as high as 464 °C (867 °F). Due to the high hydrostatic pressure at these depths, water may exist in either its liquid ...
Its resistance to salinity is remarkable. The rice is cultivated from June to early November when the salinity level of the ... From mid-November to mid-April, when the salinity is high, prawn farming takes over. The prawn seedlings, which swim in from ... The organically-grown Pokkali is famed for its peculiar taste and its high protein content. Farmers claim that the rice-its ...
... salinity control involves watertable control and flushing with higher levels of applied water in combination with tile ... Soils which contain high levels of particular clays with high swelling properties, such as smectites, are often very fertile. ... Levels of AEC are much lower than for CEC, because of the generally higher rate of positively (versus negatively) charged ... All irrigation water has some level of salinity. Irrigation, especially when it involves leakage from canals and overirrigation ...
Introduced tilapia (hybrid Mozambique × Wami) can tolerate the high salinity levels and pollution. As of 2014, other fresh and ... Past sea level rise may partially be responsible for the salinity of the lake, while potential future changes in sea levels ... and the relatively high salinity of the inflow feeding the sea are all causing increasing salinity. The concentration has been ... and evaporites are another contributor to salinity, as is the recent lowering of lake levels raising the salinity, though ...
They occur in saline and fresh water alike, due to their ability to tolerate high levels of salinity: they are euryhaline. The ... The toothcarp has retreated to high salinity areas where the mosquitofish cannot live. The Spanish toothcarp is characteristic ... The biology of the Spanish toothcarp is characterized by a high growth rate, early maturity, a high reproductive rate, multiple ... The level of genetic divergence shows that they were isolated early and that gene flow has not occurred. The divergence between ...
As the Andes Mountains became uplifted, plants adapted to dryer and higher microclimates resulting in a high level of ... Seasonally torrential waters and salinity levels affect regional vegetation patterns in this zone. Bolivian-Tucuman Formation: ... The high altitude Rio Grande and Pilcomayo river valleys transect this unit and are characterized by dry xeric vegetation zones ... Prepuna or High Interandean Valleys: From 2300m to 3200m, this zone is characterized by a mesotropical dry xeric bioclimatic ...
... es can be further categorized by salinity level, elevation, and sea level. Tidal marshes are commonly zoned into ... lower marshes (also called intertidal marshes) and upper or high marshes, based on their elevation above sea level. A middle ... Marsh with brackish level of salinity Mudflat, also known as Tidal flat - Coastal wetlands where sediments have been deposited ... Currently, rising sea levels is one of the leading threats to tidal marshes caused by global warming and climate change. ...
Relatively high cost is a disadvantage and treated water sometimes has a low pH value and high levels of chloride. Membrane ... Negatives include higher costs and it skilled labour. This process is not suitable for water with high salinity. Calcium ... Defluoridation is the downward adjustment of the level of fluoride in drinking water. Worldwide, fluoride is one of the most ... However, it has only moderate efficiency and a high chemical dose is required. Excessive use of aluminum salts produces sludge ...
It inhabits fast flowing streams and rivers, but can tolerate high levels of salinity. Spawning occurs in marginal areas of the ... and sell for higher prices. Reported annual aquafarming production numbers of mrigal carp since the early 1990s have varied ...
Evaporation is especially high in its eastern half, causing the water level to decrease and salinity to increase in this area. ... The high salinity raises the density of the brine, which creates a distinct surface and shoreline for the pool. The deep sea, ... Because of this, salinity in the Mediterranean is higher than in the Atlantic Ocean. ... it is kept from boiling by the high hydrostatic pressure) while within a few meters it may be back down to 2-4 °C. Salinity is ...
Higher levels of DIC result in a lower Revelle factor, and consequently a larger buffering effect. Higher levels of pCO2 ... Note temperature and salinity affect carbonate species present, and vary with location and season. DIC and alkalinity govern ... whereas higher Revelle factors are found in the colder high latitude waters of the North Atlantic. The North Pacific has higher ... When the pH is high (basic) the Revelle factor is greatest, causing much of the DIC to exist as HCO3 or CO3, and not CO2. So, ...
The higher organic content and water retention of the deeper and richer grassland soils, with long term burial of carbon in ... The subsequent uplift of mountains in the western Mediterranean region and a global fall in sea levels combined to cause a ... temporary drying up of the Mediterranean Sea (known as the Messinian salinity crisis) near the end of the Miocene. ... This, combined with higher surface albedo and lower evapotranspiration of grassland, contributed to a cooler, drier climate.[14 ...
Abiotic stresses like frost, drought and increased salinity are a limiting factor to the growth of tomatoes.[15] While no ... Another group has tried to increase the levels of isoflavone, known for its potential cancer preventive properties, by ... Tobacco osmotic genes overexpressed in tomatoes produced plants that held a higher water content than wildtype plants ... which reduced the levels of S-adenosylmethionine, a precursor to ACC.[11] Endless Summer was briefly tested in the marketplace ...
... and salinity; edaphic factors are abiotic factors regarding soil, such as the coarseness of soil, local geology, soil pH, and ... variation of sea levels, river capture and available resources. This branch of study not only gives a description of the ... which is the movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high on density. A similar concept is ...
... high levels of blood CO2). This is not uncommon in fish that inhabit waters high in CO2.[102] According to one hypothesis, the ... as well as environments of highly variable salinity. These traits were shared with many early lobed-finned fishes. As early ... The publication in 2018 of Tutusius umlambo and Umzantsia amazana from high latitude Gondwana setting indicate that the ... So it appears they could only hear high intensity, low frequency sounds-and the stapes more probably just supported the brain ...
The global average temperature in the mid-Pliocene (3.3 Ma-3 Ma) was 2-3 °C higher than today,[1] global sea level 25m higher [ ... The closure of the Panama seaway (13 Ma-2.5 Ma) increased the salinity contrast between Pacific and Atlantic ocean and the ... Model simulations of mid-Pliocene climate produce warmer conditions at middle and high latitudes, as much as 10-20 °C warmer ... During the Pliocene the earth climate system response shifted from a period of high frequency-low amplitude oscillation ...
... low nutrient levels, a high magnesium/calcium ratio, and possible heavy metal toxicity. Plant populations on these soils tend ... salinity shock' to kill freshwater organisms left in ballast tanks.[58] ... High demand for the valuable Chinese mitten crab is one explanation for the possible intentional release of the species in ... In 1958, Charles S. Elton[38] claimed that ecosystems with higher species diversity were less subject to invasive species ...
... show high levels of horizontal gene transfer between lineages. Some researchers suggest that individuals can be grouped ... live in extremely saline environments such as salt lakes and outnumber their bacterial counterparts at salinities greater than ... On average, archaeal DNA sequences (whole genome) show higher levels of complexity than those of Bacteria.[33] ... This process releases hydrogen as a waste product, but high levels of hydrogen reduce energy production. When methanogens ...
... but then decrease after reaching a peak as higher levels of salinity decrease dissolved oxygen levels.[4] ... Liquid cooling offers higher thermal conductivity than air cooling. Water has unusually high specific heat capacity among ... and potable water are sometimes used in industrial plants requiring high-purity cooling water. Production of these high purity ... Water's high enthalpy of vaporization allows the option of efficient evaporative cooling to remove waste heat in cooling towers ...
Other sources give higher upper salinity limits for fresh water, e.g. 1000 ppm[2] or 3000 ppm.[3] ... Saltier coastal freshwaters due to sea level rise. *Calcium concentrations falling below the needs of some freshwater organisms ... Some organisms can thrive on salt water, but the great majority of higher plants and most mammals need fresh water to live. ... Some can use salt water but many organisms including the great majority of higher plants and most mammals must have access to ...
To reduce emissions 50% by 2050 below 2000 levels.[19] Monaco[edit]. To cut greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels ... Charles Digges (20 November 2009), Russian announces higher emissions cuts in 11th hour before Copenhagen, Bellona, archived ... Potential focus areas for TAPs include early warning systems, expansion of salinity-tolerant crops, electric vehicles, wind and ... To cut carbon emissions by 25% below 2000 levels by 2020 if the world agrees to an ambitious global deal to stabilise levels of ...
The park's elevation above sea level varies from a low of 5,340 feet (1,630 m) along the Puerco River to a high of 6,230 feet ( ... and increasing soil salinity by exuding salt through its leaves.[32] ... below the daily highs.[18] July is the warmest month, with an average high of 92 °F (33 °C) and an average low of 60 °F (16 °C ... 19] January is the coldest month, when highs average 48 °F (9 °C) and lows average 21 °F (−6 °C).[19] The highest recorded ...
In 2013, groundwater monitoring detected elevated levels of salinity and heavy metals near Santos' Tintsfield ponds in the ... On 22 August 2014 the company said its oil production was at its highest level in six years. For the first half of 2014, Santos ... "Higher interim dividend by Santos as oil and gas revenue rises". Australian News.Net. 21 August 2014. Retrieved 22 August 2014. ... Also it was reported that at the Bibblewindi ponds, uranium 20 times above the safe drinking levels was detected.[22] A NSW ...
... δ18O of coralline red algae provides a useful proxy of the combined sea surface temperature and sea surface salinity at high ... On a longer time scale, the rock record may show signs of sea level rise and fall, and features such as "fossilised" sand dunes ... The ratio of O-18 to O-16 will be higher as temperature increases. It also depends on other factors such as the water's ... From there, certain equipment can be used to derive the sea surface temperature and water salinity from the past few centuries ...
Due to the high salinity of HLF moromi, only anaerobic halophile can survive in the medium. Beside the 15-30 °C temperature ... Because continuous lifetime exposure to high levels of 3-MCPD could pose a health risk, Health Canada has established 1.0 part ... High-salt liquid-state fermented soy sauce[edit]. High-salt liquid-state fermentation (HLF) of soybeans depends heavily on ... at levels considerably higher than those deemed safe by the EU. About two-thirds of these samples also contained a second ...
Highest seasonal average annual snowfall - The world record for the highest average annual snowfall is 1,764 cm (57.87 ft),[48] ... Key aspects of the practice include: understanding anti-icing in light of the level of service to be achieved on a given ... "Salazar Awards $20.1 Million to Four Western Colorado Irrigation Districts to Improve Irrigation Systems, Reduce Salinity in ... Highest seasonal total snowfall - The world record for the highest seasonal total snowfall was measured in the United States at ...
"Towards the rational use of high salinity tolerant plants: Vol 2: Agriculture and forestry under marginal soil water conditions ... The fertile soils of Yemen have encouraged settlement of almost all of the land from sea level up to the mountains at 10,000 ... The highest, Jabal An-Nabi Shu'ayb of the Haraz subrange of the Sarawat range, is about 3,666 m (2.278 mi) high.[29][30] By ... The highest confirmed mountains in each country are indicated with 'HP', and those with the highest peak are indicated with 'HP ...
Changes in precipitation and evaporation over the oceans are suggested by the decreased salinity of mid- and high-latitude ... Forecast models show significant sensitivity to humidity levels within the planetary boundary layer, or in the lowest levels of ... In Hawaii, Mount Waiʻaleʻale, on the island of Kauai, is notable for its extreme rainfall, as it has the second-highest average ... Waialeale Rain Gage nr Lihue, Kauai, HI". USGS Real-time rainfall data at Waiʻaleʻale Raingauge. Retrieved 2008-12-11.. ...
The literacy rate has increased greatly over the last 40 years (see the table below). Punjab has the highest Human Development ... Those living in Southern and Western Punjab are also a lot more dependent on agriculture due to lower levels of ... electrification for tube-wells and control of water logging and salinity. ... "This shows that Taxila was a seat not of elementary, but higher, education, of colleges or a university as distinguished from ...
Since all structural levels of the protein determine its function, the protein can no longer perform its function once it has ... For example, denaturation of DNA due to high temperatures results in the disruption of Watson and Crick base pairs and the ... salinity, pressure, and the solvents that happen to be involved.[8] Consequently, any exposure to extreme stresses (e.g. heat ... Functional proteins have four levels of structural organization: 1) Primary Structure : the linear structure of amino acids in ...
... salinity gradient) or pycnocline (variations in density of water induced by temperature or salinity). ... ecocline transitions are less distinct (less clear-cut), have more stable conditions within, hence a higher plant species ... When sea levels dropped during the Pleistocene ice age, the islands of Bali, Java and Sumatra were all connected to one another ... The ecotone and ecocline concepts are sometimes confused: an ecocline can signal an ecotone chemically (ex: pH or salinity ...
A high protein diet results in high urea levels in urine. Urine typically contains 70% of the nitrogen and more than half the ... The degree to which these factors impact the effectiveness depends on the term of use, salinity tolerance of the plant, soil ... High application rates combined with the high water-solubility of nitrate leads to increased runoff into surface water as well ... or at a semi-centralized level for example by composting; or at a fully centralized level at sewage treatment plants and sewage ...
Care must be taken to control carbon dioxide levels in ripening rooms when gassing, as high temperature ripening (20 °C; 68 °F) ... The effects of salinity have been studied on Arabidopsis plants that have mutated ERS1 and EIN4 proteins.[36] These proteins ... ACC synthesis increases with high levels of auxins, especially indole acetic acid (IAA) and cytokinins. ... Ethylene serves as a hormone in plants.[24] It acts at trace levels throughout the life of the plant by stimulating or ...
The ground level in drained marshes subsides over time. All polders will eventually be below the surrounding water level some ... These were constructed in the 1960s to protect the coast from tidal flooding and reduce salinity incursion.[7] They reduce long ... Opening the sluices at high tide and closing them at low tide turned the polders into an inaccessible swamp, which allowed the ... Caldicot and Wentloog Levels along the Severn Estuary in South Wales. *Parts of The Fens *Branston Island, by the River Witham ...
The main objective of the Veslemøy cruise was the investigation of salinity in the North Polar Basin.[119] One of Nansen's ... The expedition left Jason "in good spirits and with the highest hopes of a fortunate result."[26] Days of extreme frustration ... They continued climbing until 11 September and reached a height of 2,719 metres (8,921 ft) above sea level. Temperatures on the ... On 1 September 1921, prompted by the British delegate Philip Noel-Baker, he accepted the post of the League's High Commissioner ...
Scientists study aquatic annelids to monitor the oxygen content, salinity and pollution levels in fresh and marine water.[41] ... For many years there was no clear arrangement of the approximately 80 polychaete families into higher-level groups.[9] In 1997 ... In the 19th century medical demand for leeches was so high that some areas' stocks were exhausted and other regions imposed ... "first heuristic step in terms of bringing polychaete systematics to an acceptable level of rigour", based on anatomical ...
The use of water upstream can greatly increase salinity levels as less fresh water flows to meet the salty ocean water. While ... With a high wave energy near shore and a steeper slope offshore, waves will make river deltas smoother. Waves can also be ... Blum, M.D.; Tornqvist, T.E. (2000). "Fluvial responses to climate and sea-level change: a review and look forward". ... In both of these cases, depositional processes force redistribution of deposition from areas of high deposition to areas of low ...
Very high surface temperatures and high salinities make this one of the warmest and saltiest bodies of seawater in the world. ... Winter mean sea level is 0.5 m (1.6 ft) higher than in summer. Tidal velocities passing through constrictions caused by reefs, ... SalinityEdit. The Red Sea is one of the saltiest bodies of water in the world, owing to high evaporation and low precipitation ... These physical factors reduce the effect of high salinity caused by evaporation in the north and relatively hot water in the ...
High frequencies of infertility and high levels of organochlorines have been found in bonnethead sharks along the Gulf Coast of ... However, some fish show a tremendous ability to effectively osmoregulate across a broad range of salinities; fish with this ... The same feminization effect can also be seen in male African clawed frogs when exposed to high levels of atrazine, a widely ... The fish have been exposed to higher levels of estrogen, and leading to feminized fish. Males display female reproductive ...
Human infants' melatonin levels become regular in about the third month after birth, with the highest levels measured between ... increased soil salinity, drought, etc.[53][91][92] ... Higher doses do not appear to result in a stronger effect, but ... the concentration of melatonin has been estimated or measured to be sufficiently high to raise the blood level of melatonin ... Extremely high doses of melatonin increased REM sleep time and dream activity in people both with and without narcolepsy.[126] ...
High-level radioactive waste management. *History of waste management. *Landfill fire. *Sewage regulation and administration ... At a global level, around 80% of wastewater produced is discharged into the environment untreated, causing widespread water ... During high precipitation periods a combined sewer system may experience a combined sewer overflow event, which forces ... Some water demanding activities do not require high grade water. In this case, wastewater can be reused with little or no ...
They have a high proportion of disturbed edge vegetation (Saunders et al.1991), which typically has high levels of weed ... Sodicity and salinity are usually high in the heavier subsoils. Soil texture varies depending on the proportion of clay and ... The Victorian Mallee contains a very high number of species which are threatened at both a national and a state level. A total ... 1991). While the patchy landscape of the Mallee may offer a high level of connectivity for some species, for many species the ...
limited natural freshwater resources; high levels of soil and water salinity in the coastal plains; beach pollution from oil ... areas of high air pollution from motor vehicles and industry; water pollution from agricultural runoff and disposal of ... sea level rise; extreme weather events (cyclones, storms, and tsunamis producing floods, landslides, erosion, and reef damage ... Acid rain - characterized as containing harmful levels of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxide; acid rain is damaging and ...
High levels of soil salinity can be tolerated if salt-tolerant plants are grown. Sensitive crops lose their vigor already in ... which led to high concentration of salts in the water table. After the construction, the continuous high level of the water ... Salinity in Australia. References[edit]. *^ from "Soil salinity" in WaterWiki, the on-line Knowledge and Collaboration Tool of ... An example of this occurred in Egypt in 1970 when the Aswan High Dam was built. The change in the level of ground water before ...
At high salinity, expression is kept at minimal, baseline levels. In low salinity, repression is removed and gene expression is ... As predicted, lower salinity resulted in higher levels of ion transport in most species. However, the reverse pattern was ... Salinity-mediated gene expression is characterized by the repression of osmoregulatory genes at high salinity via a yet- ... rubra were expressed constitutively at high levels in order to anticipate the constant salinity fluctuations occurring within ...
Boron levels were 0.25, 0.8, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 mg·L-1 and salinity levels were 1.8 and 4.6 dS·m-1. Foliar injury caused by boron ... Response of Grafted and Non-grafted Melon Plants to High Boron and Salinity Levels. in HortScience ... Likewise, boron accumulation in leaf tissue from non-grafted plants was higher than in grafted plants. High salinity led to ... in order to compare the responses of grafted and non-grafted melon plants to combinations of high levels of boron and salinity ...
What is the relationship between salinity and dissolved oxygen levels. ?. The higher the salinity, the lower the dissolved ... As a side note, weather, temperature, and salinity all effect dissolved oxygen levels. Faster moving water contains more ... The salinity can also be a limiting factor in aquatic ecosystems. This is the amounts of various inorganic minerals or salts ... This would mean a cold, fast moving, fresh water stream or river would contain the highest amounts of dissolved oxygen, and the ...
High. Harmful Na levels will require intensive management. 1.25-2.50. Medium. Inject acid to lower water pH; add calcium to ... Soil salinity level is likewise reported as an EC value. Table 2 shows how soil EC values relate to plant salinity tolerance. ... salinity problems may become evident. Table 1 provides interpretation and options for management of high salinity irrigation ... Soil Salinity. Issue of Concern. Salinity refers to the concentration of salts present in irrigation water or in the soil ...
Chironomids are highly effective indicators of lake salinity. Some chironomid species tolerate higher salinity levels better ... especially during periods of changes in salinity ...
Salinity causes massive loss of economic crops due to the build-up of toxic salts in shoot. Rosmarinic acid (RA) has been known ... Salinity resulted in the biosynthesis of high levels of free proline, carbohydrates, and malondialdehyde (MDA). However, the ... Levy D, Veilleux RE (2007) Adaptation of potato to high temperatures and salinity-a review. Am J Potato Res 84:487-506CrossRef ... Root elongation was less affected by salinity in comparison to shoot elongation. Moderate levels of RA resulted in stimulatory ...
In just one or two days your alcohol levels can rise too high. What I look for is freshness, complexity and subtlety. ... Slopes and salinity. Georges Vernay was convinced that the slopes were crucial for quality. Not only do they offer good ... The soil] gives the effect of salinity in the mouth, he says. Its a good example of minerality. The best wines have a ... Despite the extra graft this promised, Georges daughter Christine was in high spirits. This will be her 19th vintage; at 89, ...
"Fatty acid composition of lipids in vegetative organs of the halophyte Suaeda altissima under different levels of salinity, ... At all NaCl concentrations in nutrient solution, S. altissima tissues contained a relatively high K+ amount. Under salinity, ... Fatty acid composition of lipids in vegetative organs of the halophyte Suaeda altissima under different levels of salinity. ... Fatty acid composition of lipids in vegetative organs of the halophyte Suaeda altissima under different levels of salinity. ...
"Modulation of fish growth hormone levels by salinity, temperature, pollutants and aquaculture related stress: a review, Reviews ... Variations in water temperature have been shown to modulate fish GH with the overall consensus of highest levels of GH during ... Modulation of fish growth hormone levels by salinity, temperature, pollutants and aquaculture related stress: a review. Deane, ... Variations in water temperature have been shown to modulate fish GH with the overall consensus of highest levels of GH during ...
Higher level processing of information will be done by scientists globally. Spaceflight portal ESAs Living Planet Programme ... Ocean salinity is crucial to the understanding of the role of the ocean in climate through the global water cycle. Salinity in ... "High-latitude salinity effects and interhemispheric thermohaline circulations" (PDF). Retrieved 6 December 2011. "Carbon Cycle ... Additionally, ocean salinity is one of the variables that regulate CO2 uptake and release and therefore has an effect on the ...
It can withstand very low phosphorus levels and high salinity levels. The drought-tolerance of the tree is strong due to its ... "The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California. University of California Press. Retrieved 2010-02-07.. ... Nearly every part of A. altissima has had various uses in Chinese traditional medicine,[8] although there is no high-quality ... Furthermore, high concentrations of mercury have been found built up in tissues of the plant.[23] ...
Alter Salinity. Cattails grow in fresh water. They will not survive in water with a high salinity level. So, flooding the area ... Use a salinity test kit to check the level of salt in the water. In case of low salinity, use additional salt blocks. For best ... With a very high reproductive rate, cattails spread rapidly, and you may find it difficult to control their growth. As in case ... Alter Water Levels. Flood the area with enough water to submerge the plants, during spring and summer. For best results, mow ...
Soil Salinity. Roots are affected by high salt levels. Soil salinity is determined by measuring the electrical conductivity of ... Salinity tolerance. Low. Medium. Medium. Medium. High. High. Medium. Photosynthetic Pathways. *Cool-season (C3) grasses: The ... High. High. Heat tolerance. Medium. Low. Medium. High. High. High. High. Drought tolerance. Medium. Medium. High. High. Low. ... High. High. Low. Low. Low. Cold tolerance. High. Low. Medium. Medium. High. ...
They are tolerate higher salinity levels and low oxygen levels.. Diet: Silver carp filter-feed on phytoplankton and zooplankton ... Silver carp leap high out of the water when disturbed by boat motors. Boaters can be and have been injured by these leaping ...
"Although were seeing higher levels, its certainly not unprecedented. In drought conditions, it can get really high, so well ... A lack of rain and freshwater often lead to an increase in the bays salinity level. Two diseases that plague oysters, Dermo ... "Were certainly in the range weve had historically with salinity," Michael said. But the peak usually comes in August and ... Farmers are worried that record-high temperatures and dry conditions will ruin corn crops well before the harvest. Elderly ...
Intermediate plume environments (salinity 34 ppt)more » were characterized by high levels of Synechococcuus carbon fixation ... High levels of heterokont carbon fixation gene expression that correlated with CO2 drawdown were observed in the high plume, ... Nearer-shore plume stations ("high plume," salinity, 32 ppt) had tremendous CO2 drawdown that was correlated to heterokont ( ... most likely because of high levels of colored dissolved organic matter (cDOM) in the ORP. The presence of pelagic nitrogen ...
What causes dissolved solids to be high?. High concentrations of dissolved solids are more likely to be a problem in ... Salinization-the buildup of salts in soils to levels that are harmful to plants-is a worldwide problem and affects about one- ... High concentrations of dissolved solids sometimes are accompanied by other nuisance constituents. For example, water with high ... Although high dissolved solids is not in itself a health concern, it can sometimes signal the presence of elevated ...
... soil salinity caused by climate change is increasingly causing problems for crops. Farmers instead of cultivating hybrid rice ... High salinity levels had made growing rice difficult.. Like Rosairo, nine other men in the northwestern district of Puttalam ... You are here: Home › News › Sri Lankan farmers use traditional rice to beat salinity ... "Our objective is to find out what crop varieties can be cultivated under climate stress situations such as soil salinity," said ...
Effects of high pressure and salinity. Crustaceana 75(3-4): 567-578 [ Links ]. POULIN R (1994). Meta-analysis of parasite- ... Circulating levels of Serotonin and dopamine were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical ... higher metabolic rates and activity levels than non-parasitized crabs (Haye and Ojeda, 1998). In decapods, studies of ... a consequence of the significantly higher levels of circulating dopamine in parasitized crabs. Our results suggest a ...
Responses of Glutamine Synthetase-Glutamate Synthase Cycle Enzymes in Tomato Leaves under Salinity Stress.(Report) by ... activities of GS and Fd-GOGAT at 60 and 120 mM NaCl salinity levels were statistically insignificant but significantly higher ... test at the 0.05 level of confidence. RESULTS Effects of salinity on leaf growth: Effects of salinity on leaf growth of tomato ... were significantly decreased at 60 and 120 mM NaCl salinity levels and both were greater at 120 mM NaCl salinity. The ...
Anthropogenic activities were very high at the sites throughout the period of the study and may have resulted in the stress ... vary from 11,700 mg/l to 26,250 mg/l with the highest mean value obtained at the study station located downstream. The mean ... salinity and total dissolved solids (TDS). Heavy metals namely Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), nitrate (NO3), sulphate (SO4 ... The variation in the level of salinity is quite high. The highest level of salinity was recorded in August 2013 (wet season), ...
From record-low Arctic sea ice to the highest global sea level of the modern record, the 2012 State of the Climate report ... Sea level reaches record high: Following sharp decreases in global sea level in the first half of 2011 that were linked to the ... Ocean salinity trends continue: Continuing a trend that began in 2004, oceans were saltier than average in areas of high ... sea levels rebounded to reach record highs in 2012. Globally, sea level has been increasing at an average rate of 3.2 ± 0.4 mm ...
limited natural freshwater resources; high levels of soil and water salinity in the coastal plains; beach pollution from oil ... The highest court(s) subfield includes the name(s) of a countrys highest level court(s), the number and titles of the judges, ... highest courts: Supreme Court (consists of 5 judges) judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the 9-member ... For instance, high sex ratios at birth in some Asian countries are now attributed to sex-selective abortion and infanticide due ...
... analyses confirmed that the recovered crystals are sodium chloride with very high purity (,99.9%), also indicated by the cubic ... Generally, its high salinity level restricts the treatment options. Membrane crystallization (MCr) is an emerging membrane ... Generally, its high salinity level restricts the treatment options. Membrane crystallization (MCr) is an emerging membrane ... analyses confirmed that the recovered crystals are sodium chloride with very high purity (,99.9%), also indicated by the cubic ...
Water temperatures can be very high, while oxygen levels can be very low. As the pool shrinks from evaporation, its salinity ...
Average yields in all major crops are only a small fraction of record yields, and drought and soil salinity are the main ... Average yields in all major crops are only a small fraction of record yields, and drought and soil salinity are the main ... 2002). Trehalose accumulation in rice plants confers high tolerance levels to different abiotic stresses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... FIGURE 2. Diagram of basic and general stress responses caused by high soil salinity or drought. Under stress, plant cells try ...
Application of PGPR inoculants is a promising measure to combat salinity in agricultural fields, thereby increasing global food ... It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting ... This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting ... It is well understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance mechanisms but imparting ...
  • Rosmarinic acid ameliorates the negative effects of salinity in in vitro-regenerated potato explants ( Solanum tuberosum L. (springer.com)
  • ETR max was not related to salinity, suggesting that the detrimental effects of salinity on production were through decreased photochemical efficiency and not decreased photosynthetic capacity. (springer.com)
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of salinity on germination traits and seedling growth of sorghum (cultivar Wad Ahmed) and S. hermonthica . (hindawi.com)
  • Negative effects of salinity on pepper plants can be overcome, to some extent, by foliar application of macro and/or micro nutrients [5]. (scirp.org)
  • Currently, the literature is unavailable on the individual effects of salinity, temperature and photoperiod and their interactions on the seed germination of populations of wild wheat ( Aegilops L.) species. (scialert.net)
  • comprise an experimental set to test some questions related to germination behaviors, such as: (a) What are the individual and combination effects of salinity, temperature and light on germination, taking into account populations of Aegilops species? (scialert.net)
  • Reduction in leaf CO2 assimilation rate is a common effect of salinity stress. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The effect of salinity on plant growth is a complex trait that involves osmotic stress, ion toxicity, mineral deficiencies, and physiological and biochemical perturbations [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The overall effect of salinity on plants is the eventual shrinkage of leaf size, which leads to death of the leaf and finally the plant. (hindawi.com)
  • These disorders may result from the effect of salinity on nutrient availability, competitive uptake and transport or partitioning of nutrients within the plant. (scirp.org)
  • The higher the salinity, the lower the dissolved oxygen concentrations. (answers.com)
  • The best way to diagnose a potential salinity problem is to determine the salt concentrations in your irrigation water and soil. (ufl.edu)
  • The results showed that melon plants grafted on Cucurbita rootstock are more tolerant than non-grafted ones to high boron concentrations, and this can probably be explained by the decrease in boron accumulation caused by the rootstock. (ashs.org)
  • At both low (1 mM) and high (750 mM) NaCl concentrations in nutrient solution, plants could maintain growth and water content in organs, demonstrating a noticeable increase in the dry weight and a slight increase in the water content at 250 mM NaCl. (deepdyve.com)
  • At all NaCl concentrations in nutrient solution, S. altissima tissues contained a relatively high K+ amount. (deepdyve.com)
  • Unpleasant taste, high water-treatment costs, mineral accumulation in plumbing, staining, corrosion, and restricted use for irrigation are among the problems associated with elevated concentrations of dissolved solids. (usgs.gov)
  • Concentrations of dissolved solids in water can be so high that the water is unsuitable for drinking, irrigation, or other uses. (usgs.gov)
  • High concentrations of dissolved solids are more likely to be a problem in groundwater than in surface water. (usgs.gov)
  • Consequently, elevated concentrations of dissolved solids tend to be higher in groundwater in the arid western part of the U.S. than in the humid east. (usgs.gov)
  • In a study of groundwater in Principal Aquifers in nine regions of the U.S., the highest concentrations of dissolved solids in groundwater were measured in the Denver Basin, High Plains, and Southwestern Basin-Fill Principal Aquifers. (usgs.gov)
  • Non-plume stations were characterized by high light Prochlorococcus carbon fixation gene expression that was positively correlated with dissolved CO2 concentrations. (osti.gov)
  • These indicators include greenhouse gas concentrations, temperature of the lower and upper atmosphere, cloud cover, sea surface temperature, sea-level rise, ocean salinity, sea ice extent and snow cover. (climate.gov)
  • Production (biomass, rosette production, and leaf area index) was affected more by salinity than by light, apparently because of morphological plasticity (increased leaf length and width), increased photosynthetic efficiency, and increased chlorophyll concentrations under low light. (springer.com)
  • High pesticide concentrations in subsurface drainage water are less probable because of the filtering action of the soil. (fao.org)
  • Temperature and salinity effects on plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations and growth in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). (gu.se)
  • High salt concentrations may cause leaf tip and marginal leaf burn, bleaching, or defoliation. (ngwa.org)
  • Also, high salt concentrations in the soil around plant roots may cause plant dehydration by reversing osmotic conditions (water will flow out of the plant in an attempt to achieve equilibrium). (ngwa.org)
  • The bacteria are found in highest concentrations in estuaries, inlets and the Intracoastal Waterway, said Paul Gulig, a professor of molecular genetics and microbiology at the University of Florida. (news-journalonline.com)
  • For example, in the summer the epilimnion of dimictic lakes may contain high concentrations of dissolved oxygen , and the hypolimnion low concentrations. (britannica.com)
  • Changes in oxygen concentration are particularly important because many aquatic animals cannot survive when oxygen concentrations dip below a certain level. (britannica.com)
  • Orange patches may appear in the water where high concentrations of Dunaliella exist. (hubpages.com)
  • Diverse organisms regulate concentrations of intracellular organic osmolytes in response to changes in environmental salinity or desiccation. (nih.gov)
  • In marine crustaceans, accumulation of high concentrations of proline is a dominant component of response to hyperosmotic stress. (nih.gov)
  • Increased duration of tidal inundation decreased plant growth in both species, but tissue P and N concentrations were highest with the longest time of inundation in both species. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Water with high salt concentrations downstream of mountaintop mines and valley fills is toxic to some stream organisms, disrupting ionic and osmoregulatory functions. (epa.gov)
  • We hypothesize that CO2 reduction is the dominant metabolic pathway, however acetate fermentation is enhanced in areas where there is more labile organic matter, lower salinity concentrations, and more rapid recharge rates, such as in shallow coal zones and near the shale subcrop. (wvcoal.com)
  • The change in the level of ground water before the construction had enabled soil erosion , which led to high concentration of salts in the water table. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity in drylands can occur when the water table is between two and three metres from the surface of the soil. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since soil salinity makes it more difficult for plants to absorb soil moisture, these salts must be leached out of the plant root zone by applying additional water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil salinity can be reduced by leaching soluble salts out of soil with excess irrigation water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil salinity control involves watertable control and flushing in combination with tile drainage or another form of subsurface drainage . (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] [5] A comprehensive treatment of soil salinity is available from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization . (wikipedia.org)
  • High levels of soil salinity can be tolerated if salt-tolerant plants are grown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil salinity-the buildup of salts in the soil. (ufl.edu)
  • Salinity refers to the concentration of salts present in irrigation water or in the soil solution (liquid phase in the soil). (ufl.edu)
  • Soil salinity level is likewise reported as an EC value. (ufl.edu)
  • Table 2 shows how soil EC values relate to plant salinity tolerance. (ufl.edu)
  • Salinity problems can be diagnosed by visual inspection of the soil and landscape. (ufl.edu)
  • Excess of boron and salinity in soil and irrigation water can limit the production of melons ( Cucumis melo). (ashs.org)
  • Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) is a satellite which forms part of ESA's Living Planet Programme. (wikipedia.org)
  • When used for irrigation, water with high dissolved solids can reduce crop yield because the dissolved salts make it more difficult for plants to extract water from the soil. (usgs.gov)
  • In coastal and inland areas of Sri Lanka, soil salinity caused by climate change is increasingly causing problems for crops. (oneworld.net)
  • Our objective is to find out what crop varieties can be cultivated under climate stress situations such as soil salinity," said Ramitha Wijethunga, UNDP's national programme officer for disaster management. (oneworld.net)
  • Average yields in all major crops are only a small fraction of record yields, and drought and soil salinity are the main factors responsible for yield reduction. (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, depending on soil type and hydrologic conditions (precipitation and evapotranspiration), some instruments might have higher maintenance requirements than others. (ufl.edu)
  • Soil salinity is known to suppress the growth of most crop species, but considerable differences in salinity tolerance exist between species [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, the extremely deep and massively thick root system of vetiver binds the soil and at the same time makes it very difficult for it to be dislodged under high velocity water flows. (vetiver.org)
  • Ability to re-grow very quickly after being affected by drought, frosts, salinity and adverse conditions after the weather improves or soil ameliorants added. (vetiver.org)
  • Out of an abundance of caution and without accurate salinity measurements, farmers have traditionally over-irrigated their fields to send salts into lower soil depths where they are less harmful to crops. (eurekalert.org)
  • The unique EnviroPro® Sub Surface Soil Probes from Instrotech Australia are suitable for moisture, temperature and salinity measurements and logging in all soil types.With factory calibrated accuracy readings, these soil probe instruments provide soil measurements and data logging with CMOS or SDI-12 outputs in agricultural, mining and industrial environments. (ferret.com.au)
  • Acidity, salinity and solonetzic soil problems can be major limiting factors in canola production. (canolacouncil.org)
  • When severe, they affect soil characteristics and crop growth in ways that are very visible and easily determined, but at less limiting levels growth and yield may still be reduced without these obvious recognizable effects. (canolacouncil.org)
  • An in vitro regeneration protocol was established using explants of the potato cultivar White Desiree to assess tolerance to salinity at a morphological, cellular, and biochemical level. (springer.com)
  • Bayuelo-Jimenez JS, Craig R, Lynch JP (2002) Salinity tolerance of species during germination and early seedling growth. (springer.com)
  • It is well-understood that environmental adaptations and genetic traits regulate salinity tolerance in plants, but imparting the knowledge gained towards crop improvement remain arduous. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review intends to elucidate the understanding of salinity tolerance mechanisms attributed by plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). (frontiersin.org)
  • Overexpression of DREB1/CBF driven by the 35S CaMV promoter causes growth retardation under normal growth conditions and increases stress tolerance of drought, high-salinity, and freezing in transgenic Arabidopsis ( 10 , 12 , 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • High level of tolerance to herbicides and pesticides. (vetiver.org)
  • Reseeding degraded communities with this species requires information about light and temperature requirements and salinity tolerance at different temperatures of its seed germination. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The lower salinity tolerance during germination in H. salicornicum at 15°C was attributed to reversible osmotic effect, but lower salinity tolerance at 30°C was attributed to Na + toxicity that usually causes irreversible damage. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Understanding molecular mechanisms underlying plant salinity tolerance provides valuable knowledgebase for effective crop improvement through genetic engineering. (mcponline.org)
  • Tolerance Index allowed to classify genotypes, thus SC2 and AD3 lines were that reached highest value of the index and therefore would be tolerant lines, while AF3 and LP3 had a low index and were seen as sensible. (scirp.org)
  • Plants showing the most tolerance for salinity levels were portulaca, Missouri primrose, Blackfoot daisy and trailing lantana. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • The project will continue to test plants for salinity tolerance and provide future recommendations for landscape plantings. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • Again, a place with lower salinity levels than most Gulf beaches. (al.com)
  • Whilst studies mainly on salmonids, demonstrate that GH essentially performs a role as a seawater adapting hormone a clear correlation of elevated GH with growth and isoosmotic salinity exposure has been identified from studies on sparids. (deepdyve.com)
  • MIRAS will measure changes in the wetness of the land and in the salinity of seawater by observing variations in the natural microwave emission coming up off the surface of the planet. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the water level steadily drops, more seawater seeps in, increasing the aquifer's salinity. (ipsnews.net)
  • We provide experimental evidence of wettability alteration using seawater salinity brine of an oil-wet system composed of a three-dimensional carbonate micromodel, crude oil, and connate-water brine salinity. (onepetro.org)
  • The water contact angle of the ganglia showed a 70% reduction in contact angle from an oil-wet to a water-wet system using an approximate seawater salinity and a 63% reduction in contact angle in the case of a full synthetic seawater. (onepetro.org)
  • Shifts in microbial communities along the salinity gradient formed by the mixing of freshwater and seawater are commonly observed in estuaries [ 9 - 13 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Poleward of the temperate latitudes salinity is also low, because little evaporation of seawater takes place in these areas. (academickids.com)
  • Here, we investigated responses to salinity change at multiple organizational levels in five species of shrimp representing at least three independent invasions of the anchialine ecosystem, defined as habitats with marine and freshwater influences with spatial and temporal fluctuations in salinity. (biologists.org)
  • Aquatic system effects: Some freshwater organisms are able to tolerate low dissolved solids levels. (ngwa.org)
  • However, in estuarine and coastal waters where salinity varies with freshwater input and rainfall during the wet season, hypoxia frequently occurs, especially when waters are highly eutrophic. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The number of utilized substrates was generally high in the upstream freshwater dominated zone and low in the downstream zone, suggesting a shift in metabolic profiles among bacterioplankton assemblages along the estuarine gradient. (hindawi.com)
  • If you are in Mobile Bay or any of our inside waters, pretty much everywhere you go is higher risk, even up to where you use a freshwater fishing license, above the bridges on Fish River or Dog River. (al.com)
  • The inshore waters, however, such as Mobile Bay, which have a lot of freshwater flowing in from rivers can vary from high levels of salt in the early fall to being almost purely fresh in the late winter and early spring when floodwaters are high. (al.com)
  • Some features of deep, freshwater lakes, such as water level and salinity, do not vary seasonally. (britannica.com)
  • The Osmolator puts an end to this by continuously sensing the rate of evaporation (water level) and adding back the right amount of freshwater. (marinedepot.com)
  • The anammox activity of a freshwater anammox consortium was strongly inhibited at low-salinity level. (bibsys.no)
  • The only way to reconcile the results would be to have had a sharp compensating increase in freshwater from the ice sheets adding to sea level (from 0.7 mm/yr to 2.9 mm/yr). (realclimate.org)
  • Increased levels of salts, as measured by osmotic pressure, disrupt the life cycle of freshwater aquatic organisms. (epa.gov)
  • Some freshwater plants and animals can adjust to saltier waters, but many are unable to cope with extreme ranges of salinity. (epa.gov)
  • Human practices can increase the salinity of soils by the addition of salts in irrigation water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity from irrigation can occur over time wherever irrigation occurs, since almost all water (even natural rainfall) contains some dissolved salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, the first concern when examining reclaimed water quality is to evaluate its salinity hazard, which refers to the concentration of total soluble salts present (US EPA, 2004). (ufl.edu)
  • Salinity causes massive loss of economic crops due to the build-up of toxic salts in shoot. (springer.com)
  • Combinations of these ions-sodium and chloride, for example-form salts, and salinity is another term commonly used to describe the dissolved solids content of water. (usgs.gov)
  • Salinization-the buildup of salts in soils to levels that are harmful to plants-is a worldwide problem and affects about one-fourth of the irrigated land in the United States. (usgs.gov)
  • During low flows, the river tends to be high in salts as is common in desert rivers below dams. (nps.gov)
  • Solonetzic soils are formed on material that is naturally high in sodium salts or from materials that have been enriched with sodium salts through the upward movement of ground water. (canolacouncil.org)
  • Osmotic pressure is based on the level of dissolved salts and other constituents in the water. (epa.gov)
  • Sensitive crops lose their vigor already in slightly saline soils, most crops are negatively affected by (moderately) saline soils, and only salinity-resistant crops thrive in severely saline soils. (wikipedia.org)
  • All natural waters contain some dissolved solids (salinity) from contact with soils, rocks, and other natural materials. (usgs.gov)
  • Some of the biggest challenges to crops include drought and high levels of salinity in soils. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, salinity reduces phosphate uptake in crops grown in soils primarily by reducing phosphate availability. (scirp.org)
  • Higher organic matter will improve canola yield potential on most soils. (canolacouncil.org)
  • Sand particles are much larger than silt and clay particles, and soils high in sand have lower water holding capacities. (canolacouncil.org)
  • Clay soils are denser with smaller particle sizes and air spaces, and have higher water holding capacities. (canolacouncil.org)
  • Solonetzic soils, often called burnout, blow-out or gumbo soils, are characterized by an impermeable, high sodium, clay hardpan from 5 to 30 cm (2" to 12") or more below the surface (top of Bnt horizon). (canolacouncil.org)
  • Some of these soils have a tough hardpan and are high in exchangeable sodium. (canolacouncil.org)
  • Although all five species were generally strong osmoregulators, salinity-induced changes in gill physiology and gene expression were highly species specific. (biologists.org)
  • Species-specific patterns were found when examining: (1) numbers and identities of differentially expressed genes, (2) salinity-induced expression of genes predicted a priori to play a role in osmoregulation, and (3) salinity-induced expression of orthologs shared among all species. (biologists.org)
  • Potential reasons for species-specific patterns are discussed, including variation among anchialine habitats in salinity regimes and divergent evolution in anchialine taxa. (biologists.org)
  • Some chironomid species tolerate higher salinity levels better than others. (nhm.ac.uk)
  • Oyster prices in the coming months will be the highest ever and they will be higher every year after this one," said Jim Harris, president of Blue Point Oyster Bar Co., a Los Angeles-based firm which specializes in the Gulf Coast species of the shellfish. (latimes.com)
  • If total dissolved solids increase in the water body, a shift to more salinity-tolerant species can be expected (James and Evison, 1979). (ngwa.org)
  • Thus, if the volume of fresh water entering the estuary fluctuates sufficiently to cause a change in the salinity patterns, species may be displaced and the ecosystem disrupted (EPA, 1986). (ngwa.org)
  • Both practices merge into a new three-dimensional micromodel set-up that uses only reservoir species (no high x-ray contrast chemicals). (onepetro.org)
  • Mycorrhizal inoculation marginally improved growth and P and nitrogen (N) content of both plant species at low levels of P supply but significantly increased tillering in both plant species. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • The availability of high-quality juveniles is a bottleneck in the farming of many marine fish species. (bibsys.no)
  • Salinity in urban areas often results from the combination of irrigation and groundwater processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of this potable water use can be replaced by reclaimed water, which is treated domestic wastewater that is considered a high quality alternative to potable water for landscape irrigation. (ufl.edu)
  • You can directly determine the salinity of irrigation water with a water quality test. (ufl.edu)
  • Once the EC w value of irrigation water reaches 1.56 dS/m or higher, salinity problems may become evident. (ufl.edu)
  • Table 1 provides interpretation and options for management of high salinity irrigation water. (ufl.edu)
  • Irrigation with high salinity water influences plant growth, production of photosynthetic pigments and total phenols, leading to reduction in crop yield and quality. (scirp.org)
  • A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of foliar application of potassium (K) on pepper plants grown with different salinity water irrigation (3000 and 6000 ppm as compared to tap water with salinity level of 300 ppm). (scirp.org)
  • Irrigation using high salinity water decreased plant height, biomass production, and fruit yield as compared to those of the plants irrigated by tap water. (scirp.org)
  • The most serious affect was for the plants under highest salinity irrigation (6000 ppm) as compared to that of the plants under moderate salinity irrigation (3000 ppm). (scirp.org)
  • This study demonstrated that foliar application of KMP, to some extent, mitigated the negative effects of high salinity water irrigation on pepper plant growth and fruit yield. (scirp.org)
  • The lab that conducts the test will report salinity as the electrical conductivity of the water (EC w ). (ufl.edu)
  • The drought-fueled salinity has created a hostile, foreign environment for oyster spawning. (latimes.com)
  • Environmental stresses such as heat, cold, drought, and high salinity influence plant growth and productivity. (pnas.org)
  • Salinity, temperature and light affect seed germination of Haloxy. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In non-saline treated seeds, germination in light conditions was similar for temperatures up to 25°C, but declined significantly at 30°C. Germination in darkness at either 15 or 20°C was significantly greater than at 25 and 30°C. Both final germination percentage and germination rate decreased as salinity increased. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • In higher salinity levels (500 - 700 mM), germination at moderate temperatures was greater than at both lower and higher temperatures. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Seed germination was partly or completely inhibited in all populations with an increase in salinity and this inhibition was more important at 25/35°C than in 15/25°C temperature regime. (scialert.net)
  • The highest germination percentage s occurred at 15/25°C for all populations. (scialert.net)
  • Seed germination of Bi -2 population was higher than Bi -1 population in dark. (scialert.net)
  • Because of the interaction between salinity and light requirements for growth, effective management of SAV requires that growth requirements incorporate the effects of combined stressors. (springer.com)
  • Total energy content (calories per individual), however, increased significantly with both DO and salinity, but the interaction between salinity and DO was statistically indistinguishable. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Osmotic stress is the immediate impact of salinity (occurs within minutes) due to hypertonic conditions and ion toxicity (occurs over several hours to days and weeks) is the result of toxic ions (Na + and Cl - ) accumulating in the cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Provide the seed industry with improved grass germplasm and management practices that reduce the impact of salinity, weeds, and diseases on seed quality and profitability. (usda.gov)
  • Marine invertebrates inhabiting estuarine and coastal areas are exposed to short-term (tidal) and long-term (rainy seasons) changes in salinity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • They are tolerate higher salinity levels and low oxygen levels. (michigan.gov)
  • Vibrio typically doesn't tolerate high levels of salinity found in the ocean, Gulig said. (news-journalonline.com)
  • The research is identifying annuals and perennials that can tolerate poor-quality water to free up high-quality water for domestic rather than landscape use. (jewishvirtuallibrary.org)
  • His major source, Louisiana, is troubled by increasing salt levels in the brackish bayous and tributaries of the Mississippi River, where the oyster beds are traditionally found. (latimes.com)
  • But only in brackish water, where the salinity gets below about 30 parts per thousand,' DePaola said. (al.com)
  • Low salinity, brackish water is almost always implicated in Vibrio cases. (al.com)
  • Alterations in environmental salinity impose osmoregulatory stress on fish and upon exposure to increased salinities GH has been shown to be important in maintaining hypoosmoregulatory function. (deepdyve.com)
  • Environmentally important pollutants, including xenoestrogens and heavy metals have been shown to affect GH mediated mechanisms, in fish, possibly via interference with the GH receptor and/or GH transcription, whereas aquacultural related stressors such as handling, confinement/overcrowding and nutritional stress have also been shown to affect GH levels. (deepdyve.com)
  • Responses of Glutamine Synthetase-Glutamate Synthase Cycle Enzymes in Tomato Leaves under Salinity Stress. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The results showed that stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation rate, NO - content and NO - metabolizing enzymes (NR and NiR) activities decreased in salinity stressed tomato leaves, which indicated that C-N crisis is dominant during salinity stress. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Results also showed that important C and N providing enzymes such as NADP-ICDH, protease and NADH-GDH activities were enhanced during salinity stress. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Finally, it is concluded that GS/GOGAT cycle plays an important role for proline synthesis in tomato leaves during salinity stress. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2009) and it is one of the main causes for leaf growth reductions under salinity stress (James et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In addition, ammonium and nitrate assimilation curtailed seriously during salinity stress (Hoai et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Therefore, it is evident that both C and N are limiting factor for the plant growth during salinity stress. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Anthropogenic activities were very high at the sites throughout the period of the study and may have resulted in the stress conditions of the area. (scirp.org)
  • Salinity affects plant growth and is a major abiotic stress that limits crop productivity. (frontiersin.org)
  • For most production and morphology parameters, high light ameliorated salinity stress to a limited degree, but only between the 0 and 5 psu regimes. (springer.com)
  • Comparative transcriptome analysis of Yersinia pestis in response to hyperosmotic and high-salinity stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • DNA microarray was used as a tool to investigate genome-wide transcriptional responses of Yersinia pestis to hyperosmotic and high-salinity stress. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Hyperosmotic stress specifically upregulated genes responsible for ABC-type transport and the cytoplasmic accumulation of certain polysaccharides, while high-salinity stress induced the transcription of genes encoding partition proteins and several global transcriptional regulators. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Nitrates are not as toxic as ammonia or nitrites but they are harmful and will stress your fish at high enough levels. (fishlore.com)
  • Plants respond and adapt to these stresses to survive under stress conditions at physiological and biochemical levels. (pnas.org)
  • An important stress for yeast in the wild is high osmolarity. (nature.com)
  • These data suggested that the up-regulation of some cell wall related genes mediated cell enlargement to possibly mitigate the salinity-induced ionic toxicity, and different genes had specific function in response to salt stress. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One reason of the growth suppression is inadequate photosynthesis due to stomatal closure and consequently limited carbon dioxide uptake under salt stress [ 4 ] and thus most morphological and transcriptional studies on the effect of excess salinity have been focused on shoots and leaves because they are responsible for photosynthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proline biosynthesis genes and their regulation under salinity stress in the euryhaline copepod Tigriopus californicus. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast to results from higher plants, neither levels of P5CS nor P5CR mRNAs increase in response to salinity stress in T. californicus. (nih.gov)
  • Identify bioactive compounds and genes that mediate the response of Lolium and Festuca to salinity related stress. (usda.gov)
  • Thirteen different inbred lines in relation to the type of grain and life cycles were characterized by testing for osmotic stress associated with salinity. (scirp.org)
  • Ocean salinity is crucial to the understanding of the role of the ocean in climate through the global water cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, ocean salinity is one of the variables that regulate CO2 uptake and release and therefore has an effect on the oceanic carbon cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study aimed to analyze cell morphological alterations in maize roots as a consequence of excess salinity in relation to the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the cell wall related protein genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Histone modification as a mediator may contribute to rapid regulation of cell wall related gene expression, which reduces the damage of excess salinity to plants. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In arid regions, where precipitation is low and evaporation rates are high, there is less water to dilute the products of rock weathering. (usgs.gov)
  • As the pool shrinks from evaporation, its salinity increases and the pH changes. (nps.gov)
  • Evaporation has caused the lake to have a very high concentration of salt, and the entire lake is rimmed in a salty crust. (hubpages.com)
  • 2000. Salinity increases CO 2 assimilation but reduces growth in field-grown, irrigated rice. (springer.com)
  • And as the fresh-water levels drop, the concentration of industrial pollutants also increases. (latimes.com)
  • As the salinity increases, the lake appears pink in color. (hubpages.com)
  • Farm managers with high producing dairy cows have reported substantial increases in milk output when cows have readily accessible water. (osu.edu)
  • Many aquarists also have stated that protein skimming dramatically increases 'aeration,' and that low oxygen levels in highly skimmed reef aquaria are rarely a concern. (reefkeeping.com)
  • After the construction, the continuous high level of the water table led to the salination of the arable land . (wikipedia.org)
  • Variations in water temperature have been shown to modulate fish GH with the overall consensus of highest levels of GH during the warmer seasons of the year, suggesting an important role for GH during the temperature acclimatization process, but whether this relates to growth is unclear. (deepdyve.com)
  • For best results, mow down the plants before raising the water level. (buzzle.com)
  • They will not survive in water with a high salinity level. (buzzle.com)
  • Use a salinity test kit to check the level of salt in the water. (buzzle.com)
  • MODIS satellite chlorophyll-a data implied a plume of high chlorophyll water far into the eastern Caribbean, yet field observations did not support this, most likely because of high levels of colored dissolved organic matter (cDOM) in the ORP. (osti.gov)
  • Silver carp leap high out of the water when disturbed by boat motors. (michigan.gov)
  • Water temperatures can be very high, while oxygen levels can be very low. (nps.gov)
  • The refugium is a section of my wet/dry whereby there is a small power head that pumps water from the main pump section of the wet/dry into the refugium section and the water level weirs over into the skimmer section. (wetwebmedia.com)
  • Range: 0 - 10 ppm NO3-N (typical water) or a range with the highest concentration greater that what is typically observed for your water body (polluted water. (globe.gov)
  • Nitrite is just as toxic to tropical fish as ammonia and the only way to quickly reduce nitrite levels is through a water change. (fishlore.com)
  • It is possible to raise or lower your pH levels with water changes or chemicals from your local pet store. (fishlore.com)
  • The hardness level of water has to do with the amount of minerals that are dissolved in the water. (fishlore.com)
  • The red pigments will also diffuse through the membrane because the water has higher water potential than the beetroot piece. (bartleby.com)
  • But high salinity is not the worst of Gaza's water problems. (ipsnews.net)
  • UNRWA responded by teaming with humanitarian aid organization Mercy Corps on a project to provide the 30,000 refugees in the Maghazi camp-which experienced some of the highest incidences of diarrhea -with at least three liters of potable water per day . (ipsnews.net)
  • Aquifers are prized drinking water sources because the water is often high quality, needing very little water treatment. (ngwa.org)
  • Have students research water standards for drinking water's total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity. (ngwa.org)
  • Drinking water effects: High levels of total dissolved solids may impart an objectionable taste to drinking water. (ngwa.org)
  • Sodium sulfate and magnesium sulfate levels above 250 mg/l in drinking water may produce a laxative effect. (ngwa.org)
  • Lake oxygenation effects: Salt water has a higher density than fresh water and tends to sink and form a dense layer in the bottom of the lake. (ngwa.org)
  • This saline layer does not mix with oxygenated surface lake water, leading to decreased dissolved oxygen levels along the lake bottom. (ngwa.org)
  • Therefore, our data suggest that microbial metabolic patterns in the subtropical estuary are likely influenced by the water discharge patterns created by dry and wet seasons along the salinity gradient. (hindawi.com)
  • we use real pacific sea water) is that too high? (tonmo.com)
  • This follows from the water density-temperature relationship ( Figure 1 ), according to which, at higher temperatures, water density changes rapidly with only small temperature rises. (britannica.com)
  • The concept of both is partly different: RM is correlating reduction of runoffs to salinity elevation and GM relates salt flux to the aquifer yield and the impact of lake water level is neglected. (scirp.org)
  • These three achievements resulted in the implementation of human control of the outflows with respect to runoff inflows to regulate Water Level (WL), daily withdrawal of 1 × 10 6 m 3 (mcm) from the lake, and the removal of about 30% of salt inputs. (scirp.org)
  • Increased groundwater withdrawal to meet the demand of the rapidly growing population is causing water levels to decline. (usgs.gov)
  • The high-tech German designed Osmolator uses a precision optical sensor to measure the water level. (marinedepot.com)
  • When you manually pour in water the salinity is suddenly decreased. (marinedepot.com)
  • This brings osmotic stability to the aquarium and keeps your sump and aquarium water at the right level. (marinedepot.com)
  • It should however be noted that formulae which give high accuracy also require a high accuracy of measured input data which in most places where water harvesting is practised will not be available. (fao.org)
  • When it is dry, the crop water needs are higher than when it is humid. (fao.org)
  • The highest crop water needs are thus found in areas which are hot, dry, windy and sunny. (fao.org)
  • While, for example, the daily water need of melons may be less than the daily water need of beans, the seasonal water need of melons will be higher than that of beans because the duration of the total growing season of melons is much longer. (fao.org)
  • Big Bend National Park staff sample the water for bacterial levels on a monthly basis at several locations within the park. (nps.gov)
  • The high salinity may reduce the amount of bacteria in the water during low flows. (nps.gov)
  • People who raft and canoe down the river will probably not be at high risk, however precautions should be taken to reduce the chances of ingesting river water, especially by children. (nps.gov)
  • The decline in water levels in the Hukatere Forest monitoring bore from 1987 to 1996 (as seen in the graph below) is likely to be as a result of less than average rainfall in the late 1980's to early 1990's, and the effects of plantation forestry reducing recharge to the system. (nrc.govt.nz)
  • Results from 2007-08 show a general increase in water levels due to greater than average rainfall during this period. (nrc.govt.nz)
  • Consumption may vary greatly depending on the kind and size of the animal, physical state, level of activity, dry matter intake, quality of water, temperature of water and the environmental temperature. (osu.edu)
  • Most elements in water do not cause problems because they do not occur at high enough levels in soluble form. (osu.edu)
  • Packing fish and coral in bags with a topping of pure oxygen is testimony to the concern with oxygen levels in small volumes of water. (reefkeeping.com)
  • The target is to reach a water level of just over 1,274m, something which "still requires substantial efforts," says Providas. (forbes.com)
  • A high level of suspended solids and an objectionable taste, odor or color in water can cause animals to drink less than they should. (missouri.edu)
  • Exposure of an organism to abiotic stresses such as high salinity may lead to the excessive accumulation of certain molecules causing balance disruption or failure. (usda.gov)
  • This "salinity rollercoaster" stresses the fish and invertebrates by causing extreme fluctuations in osmotic pressure. (marinedepot.com)
  • Estuarine aquatic life effects: It is generally tolerant of fluctuating salinity levels. (ngwa.org)
  • The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of two key environmental factors in estuarine and coastal waters-- dissolved oxygen (DO) and salinity--on growth and body composition of juvenile green-lipped mussels P. viridis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In estuarine and coastal systems, salinity can change dramatically across spatial and temporal scales (Kirkpatrick & Jones 1985). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The prokaryotic cell numbers also decreased along the estuarine salinity gradient. (hindawi.com)
  • A greenhouse study was conducted in order to compare the responses of grafted and non-grafted melon plants to combinations of high levels of boron and salinity. (ashs.org)
  • Likewise, boron accumulation in leaf tissue from non-grafted plants was higher than in grafted plants. (ashs.org)
  • Interestingly, some C-N rich compounds (glutamate, proline, glycine and serine) accumulated excessively in the leaves of salinity stressed plants. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2011). In higher plants, NH + is mainly assimilated through the concerted action of glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate synthase (GOGAT). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Salinity curtailed NO - uptake by decreasing the activities of NR and NiR in plants and also decreased NH + assimilation seriously by influencing GS activity (Wang et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • They tend to accumulate certain elements like boron and molybdenum in the root zone at levels that maybe toxic for plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salinity may also cause reduced ATP and growth regulators in plants. (hindawi.com)
  • In some cases, rather than destroying a crop, elevated salt levels may simply reduce crop yields and leave the plants prone to disease. (ngwa.org)
  • Furthermore, wastes with a higher risk to plants can be diluted or amended to increase the agronomic efficiency (Sharma et al. (scielo.br)
  • The potential plants could be characterized under the following categories i) hydrocarbon yielding plants ii) high molecular weight hydrocarbon yielding plants, iii) non edible oil yielding plants, iv) short rotation fast growing energy plants, vi) hill plants growing on Aravallis. (science20.com)
  • The understanding of the mechanisms by which plants cope with high concentration of salt could enhance productivity in the high saline conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Current proteomic technologies, which support reliable and high-throughput analyses, have been broadly used for exploring sophisticated molecular networks in plants. (mcponline.org)
  • Plants were grown in experimental "ebb and flow" boxes, simulating three levels of tidal inundation, to which two levels of applied phosphorus (P) and two levels of salinity were imposed. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Salinity affects some physiological and biochemical processes of the plants and reduces significantly the yield. (scirp.org)
  • Relative maximum electron transport rate (ETR max ) was highest in the 28% light treatment, indicating increased photosynthetic capacity. (springer.com)
  • For example, the clearing of trees for agriculture is a major reason for dryland salinity in some areas, since deep rooting of trees has been replaced by shallow rooting of annual crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • Farmers are worried that record-high temperatures and dry conditions will ruin corn crops well before the harvest. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The physiological effects of interactions between salinity and mineral nutrition in horticultural crops are extremely complex. (scirp.org)
  • Salinity is the most important environmental factor affecting the crop production in many parts of the world. (hindawi.com)
  • Crop performance may be adversely affected by salinity-induced nutritional disorders. (scirp.org)
  • Salinity is an environmental challenge that severely limits plant growth and productivity worldwide (Hasegawa et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Interestingly, there was no correlation between environmental salinity and IGF-I levels, although decreased salinity improves growth and feed conversion efficiency. (gu.se)
  • One of the commonly used approaches in environmental microbiology, broadly termed as microbial community level physiological profiles, is based on assessing the ability of microbial communities to metabolize a broad range of organic substrates [ 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the euryhaline copepod Tigriopus californicus, synthesis of proline from its metabolic precursor glutamate is tightly regulated by changes in environmental salinity. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, we assess sequence read abundance, as a proxy for gene expression, in response to salinity, an environmental factor potentially important in determining O. marina spatial distributions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A two-phase model to explain the inhibition of the growth under salinity conditions was proposes. (scirp.org)
  • High phosphate levels can cause algae outbreaks. (fishlore.com)
  • One of the reasons of salinity is the high concentration of cations such as sodium, calcium, and magnesium whereas chloride, phosphate, and nitrate as anions. (hindawi.com)
  • The values of total dissolved solids (TDS) vary from 11,700 mg/l to 26,250 mg/l with the highest mean value obtained at the study station located downstream. (scirp.org)
  • As the temperature is higher, more bonds will break and more betalain will diffuse out of the membrane, causing a darker colour. (bartleby.com)
  • The plasma IGF-I levels increased with increasing temperatures reaching a plateau around 18 °C. Further, both temperature and salinity had a significant effect on growth, daily feed intake and feed conversion efficiency in juvenile turbot. (gu.se)
  • was investigated under different salinities (0-675 mM NaCl), temperatures (15/25 and 25/35°C, night/day) and photoperiods (in dark and in 12 h light: 12 h dark), using a completely randomized block design. (scialert.net)
  • When changes in biochemical content (weight per individual) were compared, both CP and CC content decreased significantly as salinity or DO decreased, whereas no pattern was observed for CF. EC (calories per gram) was not significantly different among DO treatments, but varied significantly with salinity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 2002, Wu 2002), relatively few studies have investigated the effect of hypoxia on growth and biochemical composition in bivalves, especially in ecosystems where salinity may be a confounding factor. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Understanding the regulation this pathway may elucidate the mechanisms limiting the salinity ranges of marine taxa. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, because the presence of pure halite in high quantities in the Keuper formation can generate brine close to salt saturation and thus yield fluid density variations up to 25%, the density effects, coupled with the temperature effects on density variation, were taken into account in the flow and transport modeling. (irsn.fr)
  • Variations in salinity appeared to be responsible for the seasonal pattern. (ias.ac.in)
  • In response to salinity, analysis of 454 read abundance highlighted 9 and 20 genes over or under expressed at 50 PSU, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • During a CIMAR 16 Fiordos cruise realized in the Magellan Region, 26 neustonic samples were collected to analyze the abundance, spatial distribution of copepodits and oceanographic conditions (temperature, salinity, and dissolved oxygen). (scielo.cl)
  • High levels of heterokont carbon fixation gene expression that correlated with CO2 drawdown were observed in the high plume, yet the magnitude of this phenomenon was far below that of the MRP, most likely due to the lower levels of anthropogenic nutrient input. (osti.gov)
  • Low salinity undoubtedly has significant effects on physiological processes in marine invertebrates, including osmoregulation, active intracellular transport, feeding rate or nutrient absorption, respiration, and excretion (Kinne 1971, Schmidt-Nielsen 1997). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Salinity can also cause a combination of complex interactions that affect plant metabolism, nutrient requirement, and susceptibility to injury [9]. (scirp.org)
  • Growth and nutrient content of S. alterniflora was improved at higher levels of salinity, but only increased nutrient content in S. cynosuroides. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • While the health department monitors bacteria levels at the beach, it doesn't test rivers, streams and lakes. (news-journalonline.com)
  • In salinity stressed tomato leaves, GS/GOGAT cycle enzymes (GS, NADH-GOGAT and Fd-GOGAT) activities were also increased significantly. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • 2005). Therefore, N status in the plant is also significantly influenced by salinity. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Unlike SoSOS1 and SoSOS2, which were expressed at similar or higher levels in leaves than roots, SoSOS3 expression was significantly higher in roots than leaves, suggesting its greater importance in roots. (usda.gov)
  • Selenium can be toxic to humans, but at significantly higher levels than to aquatic life. (epa.gov)
  • The present paper will focus on salinity as chloride concentration (ppm) [Cl] which is the common component for quality consideration. (scirp.org)
  • The regulation of carbon metabolism in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum at the cell, metabolite, and gene expression levels in exponential fed-batch cultures is reported. (bibsys.no)
  • Decaying plant or animal protein, nitrogen fertilizer, silage juices and other factors may contribute to high levels of nitrogen forms in surface waters. (osu.edu)
  • The results displayed that, with increasing salinity level, leaf area and dry biomass were increased, while the height was decreased. (hindawi.com)
  • Some countries are already using biomass to provide significant levels of fuel. (the-scientist.com)
  • Salinity is an important abiotic factor that affects growth and survival of marine organisms, especially in shallow waters where sessile invertebrates such as mussels live (Brown & Hartwick 1988a, Brown & Hartwick 1988b). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Among the recent cases, one was contracted in Biloxi, Miss. That would involve swimming in the low salinity waters of the Mississippi Sound. (al.com)
  • The chemical study―especially of salinity―of the Kinneret waters has a long history. (scirp.org)
  • The Kinneret waters' level of salinity became so critical that heavy national investments were carried out on anthropogenic interventions within the natural ecosystem. (scirp.org)
  • These copepodits inhabited waters ranging between 6.5-8.5 o C and salinity of 26-33, with maximum abundances (1,000-10,000 ind/5 min horizontal drag) at means of 7.2 ± 0.6°C and salinities of 30.7 ± 0.9. (scielo.cl)
  • Enables measurement of total alkalinity with an accuracy of at least 6.8 mg/L as CaCO3 (low range, under 136 mg/L), and 17 mg/L as CaCO3 (high range, above 136 mg/L). (globe.gov)
  • His specialty was Vibrio vulnificus , the bacteria responsible for a string of high profile deaths and amputations this summer among beachgoers. (al.com)
  • However, the sample results have shown some trends between river flow levels and high bacteria counts. (nps.gov)
  • For example, euryhaline crustaceans show predictable changes in the expression of ion-transporter genes during salinity transfers, although studies have typically been limited to specific genes, taxa and ecosystems of interest. (biologists.org)
  • Los copepoditos de M. rosea, el taxa holoneustónico más abundante (30%), se encontraron en todas las estaciones analizadas y fueron 0,5 veces más abundantes que los copépodos calanoides. (scielo.cl)