Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Aptitude Tests: Primarily non-verbal tests designed to predict an individual's future learning ability or performance.Factor Analysis, Statistical: A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.College Admission Test: Test designed to identify students suitable for admission into a graduate or undergraduate curriculum.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.School Admission Criteria: Requirements for the selection of students for admission to academic institutions.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Psychological Tests: Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)Disability Evaluation: Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.Intention: What a person has in mind to do or bring about.Educational Measurement: The assessing of academic or educational achievement. It includes all aspects of testing and test construction.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Geriatric Assessment: Evaluation of the level of physical, physiological, or mental functioning in the older population group.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Self Report: Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.Activities of Daily Living: The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.Interview, Psychological: A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Accidental Falls: Falls due to slipping or tripping which may result in injury.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Models, Psychological: Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Tobacco Use Disorder: Tobacco used to the detriment of a person's health or social functioning. Tobacco dependence is included.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Personality Assessment: The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.Social Adjustment: Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Self Efficacy: Cognitive mechanism based on expectations or beliefs about one's ability to perform actions necessary to produce a given effect. It is also a theoretical component of behavior change in various therapeutic treatments. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)Students, Medical: Individuals enrolled in a school of medicine or a formal educational program in medicine.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Alcoholism: A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Mental Disorders: Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.United StatesSmoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Adolescent Behavior: Any observable response or action of an adolescent.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Translations: Products resulting from the conversion of one language to another.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Translating: Conversion from one language to another language.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Discriminant Analysis: A statistical analytic technique used with discrete dependent variables, concerned with separating sets of observed values and allocating new values. It is sometimes used instead of regression analysis.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Cross-Cultural Comparison: Comparison of various psychological, sociological, or cultural factors in order to assess the similarities or diversities occurring in two or more different cultures or societies.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Sickness Impact Profile: A quality-of-life scale developed in the United States in 1972 as a measure of health status or dysfunction generated by a disease. It is a behaviorally based questionnaire for patients and addresses activities such as sleep and rest, mobility, recreation, home management, emotional behavior, social interaction, and the like. It measures the patient's perceived health status and is sensitive enough to detect changes or differences in health status occurring over time or between groups. (From Medical Care, vol.xix, no.8, August 1981, p.787-805)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Self Disclosure: A willingness to reveal information about oneself to others.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Validation Studies as Topic: Research using processes by which the reliability and relevance of a procedure for a specific purpose are established.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Malingering: Simulation of symptoms of illness or injury with intent to deceive in order to obtain a goal, e.g., a claim of physical illness to avoid jury duty.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.BrazilGermanyMolecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Statistics as Topic: The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Bias (Epidemiology): Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Self-Assessment: Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.JapanOdds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Spain: Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Turkey
  • If the test measured OCD then benzodiazepines would not affect rodent behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus far, there have only been small amounts, if any, of research specifically looking at an undergraduate population and examining their Type A/Type B behavior pattern, high or low self-concept, and introvert/extrovert status. (mckendree.edu)
  • FSL rats exhibit greater immobility in the forced swim test and reduced social interaction compared with FRL rats, but do not differ in saccharin intake, behavior in the elevated plus maze, or responses for rewarding brain self-stimulation. (scirp.org)
  • The objective of this article is to analyze the predictive capacity of some individual, family, and community variables concerning the likelihood that a teenager will engage in aggressive behavior toward others using a mobile phone or the Internet, occasionally or intensely, controlling for the effect of potential confounding variables. (isciii.es)
  • Literature in the field argues that 'from the point of view of practical value, the most important property of a personnel assessment method is predictive validity' (Schmidt and Hunter, 1998). (ivoryresearch.com)
  • Another study of 10,000 students at 11 selective public and private institutions of higher education found that a 100-point increase in SAT combined scores, holding race, gender, and field of study constant, led to a one-tenth of a grade point gain for college GPA (Vars, F. & Bowen, W. in The Black-White Test Score Gap, 1998). (fairtest.org)
  • Methods Hamstring muscle strength of 482 amateur and semielite players from 16 football clubs, mean age 20.7 (range 16-34 years), was tested during the 2011 preseason. (bmj.com)
  • Among predictive factors already reported, many are not readily available from daily clinical assessment, because they require genomic analyses and/or advanced experimental methods. (rxpgnews.com)
  • Some perspectives in the literature seem to indicate that selection methods are reliable in some instances for content validity, 'only when you want to sample a current level of performance' (Dreher & Sackett, 1981), while 'in criterion-related work, the selection procedure, or what Grant (1980) calls the selector, is characterized as a predictor of future performance and not as a measure of performance' ( Dreher & Sackett, 1981). (ivoryresearch.com)
  • Null Hypothesis) Significance Testing ([NH]ST) is the most prominent of these methods. (frontiersin.org)
  • The Reported Validity and Reliability of Methods for Evaluat. (lww.com)
  • Purpose To appraise the reported validity and reliability of evaluation methods used in high-quality trials of continuing medical education (CME). (lww.com)
  • Conclusions The evidence for CME effectiveness is limited by weaknesses in the reported validity and reliability of evaluation methods. (lww.com)
  • Educators should devote more attention to the development and reporting of high-quality CME evaluation methods and to emerging guidelines for establishing the validity of CME evaluation methods. (lww.com)
  • While the founder of Proove maintains its legitimacy, and the company is in the process of restructuring, some questions remain in the scientific field as to the validity of its methods. (fastcompany.com)
  • The test distinguished those with lymphedema from healthy subjects with an accuracy approaching 90 percent - good enough for use as a clinical diagnostic tool and a vast improvement over current detection methods, said Rockson. (healthcanal.com)
  • The aim of this study was to translate and adapt the Treatment Beliefs Questionnaire for interdisciplinary pain rehabilitation and to examine the measurement properties of the Dutch translation including the predictive validity for dropout. (hindawi.com)
  • We confirmed the structural validity of the Treatment beliefs Questionnaire in the Dutch translation with three subscales, necessity, concerns, and perceived barriers. (hindawi.com)
  • Predictive validity showed the questionnaire was unable to predict dropouts. (hindawi.com)
  • To that end, the Cyber-Aggression Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYBA) as well as previously validated scales for the evaluation of the potential indicators analyzed were applied to 3,059 adolescents 12 to 18 years of age ( M = 14.01, SD = 1.39). (isciii.es)
  • Reproducibility and validity of the questionnaire items on fruit and vegetable intake were found to be reasonable in a study of 127 male health professionals 45 to 70 years of age. (ahajournals.org)
  • Additionally, we aimed to assess the association between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and the activity monitor data and to determine if activity monitor data was more strongly associated with related variables. (researchgate.net)
  • Intelligence tests are widely assumed to measure maximal intellectual performance, and predictive associations between intelligence quotient (IQ) scores and later-life outcomes are typically interpreted as unbiased estimates of the effect of intellectual ability on academic, professional, and social life outcomes. (pnas.org)
  • Second, we tested whether individual differences in motivation during IQ testing can spuriously inflate the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. (pnas.org)
  • After adjusting for the influence of test motivation, however, the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes was significantly diminished, particularly for nonacademic outcomes. (pnas.org)
  • Collectively, our findings suggest that, under low-stakes research conditions, some individuals try harder than others, and, in this context, test motivation can act as a third-variable confound that inflates estimates of the predictive validity of intelligence for life outcomes. (pnas.org)
  • The predictive power of IQ for such diverse outcomes suggests intelligence as a parsimonious explanation for individual and group differences in overall competence. (pnas.org)
  • The direction of bias depends on the relation between test-taking motivation and life outcomes: If test motivation does not derive from relatively stable and adaptive traits, then the influence of test motivation will erode IQ-outcome associations, indicating that current inferences about the effects of intelligence on success in life are spuriously low. (pnas.org)
  • If, on the other hand, the tendency to try hard on low-stakes intelligence tests derives from what Wechsler called "nonintellective" traits ( 9 ) (e.g., competitiveness, compliance with authority) that also predict life outcomes, then test motivation will inflate IQ-outcome associations, resulting in an overestimation of the predictive power of intelligence ( Fig. 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Further, we hypothesize that test motivation is a third-variable confound that tends to inflate, rather than erode, the predictive power of IQ scores for later-life outcomes. (pnas.org)
  • It has been suggested that genomic profiling in the general population or in high-risk populations for type 2 diabetes (T2D) might lead to management changes (e.g., earlier initiation or higher rates of medical interventions, or targeted recommendations for behavioral change) that improve T2D outcomes or prevent T2D. (cdc.gov)
  • Does the use of the T2D Multigene Panel test lead to improved outcomes for the patient/consumer, or is it useful in medical or personal decision making? (cdc.gov)
  • What are the issues relating to the use of the T2D Multigene Panel test in the general population and its impact on patient/consumer outcomes? (cdc.gov)
  • How would outcomes change based on use of this test in a direct to consumer model? (cdc.gov)
  • Clinical Scenario 2 - Does the use of TCF7L2 Testing in a High Risk Population to Determine Short Term (3-4 yrs) Risk of Developing Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) Improve Outcomes? (cdc.gov)
  • Univariate analyses showed that VCAM1 high expression is strongly associated with better outcomes in clear cell and papillary RCCs. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Recent reviews have highlighted the need for robust multicenter validation studies while underscoring the potential for biomarker monitoring of immunosuppressive therapy and transplant outcomes [ 8 , 9 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • Relevant outcomes include overall survival, test accuracy and validity, morbid events and resource utilization. (cam-policies.com)
  • However, evidence from high-quality studies that has demonstrated that the use of CAC score measurement in clinical practice leads to changes in patient management or in individual risk behaviors that improve cardiac outcomes is lacking. (cam-policies.com)
  • The data being presented by our academic collaborators at ACR show that the Vectra test accurately measures inflammation and can help predict patients' risk of adverse health outcomes, enabling clinicians to tailor precision treatment plans to achieve better outcomes. (globalbankingandfinance.com)
  • The main outcomes were HC for age Z-score and cognitive, gross motor and language scores from Bayley Scales of Infant Development-III tests. (bmj.com)
  • It is becoming increasingly crucial for medical professionals to use valid and reliable tests and measures in practice to determine outcomes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The marble burying test measures one acute dose of anti-anxiety agent for thirty minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first major independent research study on a closely watched licensing test for teachers that measures classroom skills, the edTPA, has some mixed answers to that question. (edweek.org)
  • Males significantly reported a higher potential for alcohol abuse than females on the alcohol composite measure as well as the individual measures of the MAST and AUDIT. (mckendree.edu)
  • Reaction-time based indirect measures, such as the Implicit Association Test (IAT), are less susceptible to such biases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Awareness: Do Measures of Implicit High Standards Predict Subjective Happiness Above and Beyond Measures of Explicit High Standards? (bates.edu)
  • Furthermore it was explored whether implicit measures of high standards are better predictors of happiness than explicit measures. (bates.edu)
  • One hundred and thirty four participants completed self report measures of maximizing (high standards, alternative search and decision difficulty), subjective happiness, regret and demographics before completing a personalized Implicit Associations Task (IAT) which paired words 'I need,' 'I don't need,' 'best,' and 'good' in different orders with one another. (bates.edu)
  • Either the IAT designed does not measure implicit high standards or it measures an aspect of having high standards that is uncorrelated with explicitly endorsed high standards. (bates.edu)
  • Other important findings were that (a) predictive validity of self-report measures. (psu.edu)
  • This article summarizes research that has been conducted to evaluate the predictive validity of IAT measures. (psu.edu)
  • Subjects' desire to be perceived positively is widely assumed to be a potential source of distortion of self-report measures (e.g. (psu.edu)
  • Strength/power measures included back extensor muscle strength, standing long jump (SLJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), and 3-hop jump tests. (humankinetics.com)
  • B. How well does this testing alone predict risk for T2D? (cdc.gov)
  • C. How well does this testing in combination with other clinical factors (e.g., family history, age, BMI/obesity, glucose levels) predict risk for T2D? (cdc.gov)
  • LifeKit Predict analyzes a patient's genetic makeup and says it can determine how likely they are to become addicted to opioids-before they're even prescribed painkillers. (fastcompany.com)
  • Called LifeKit Predict , the test, according to Prescient, can determine with 97% sensitivity whether an individual will become dependent on opioids, and will enable doctors to opt for a non-opioid treatment course instead. (fastcompany.com)
  • When testing whether an automatic classifier (decision tree) could predict if a query was medium- or high-risk based on the text of the query and the coded symptoms, performance reached an area under the receiver operating curve (ROC) curve of 0.67 (CI 95% 0.50-0.78), whereas predicting from the text and the coded signs resulted in an area under the curve of 0.82 (0.80-0.86). (jmir.org)
  • Algorithms used by authorities to predict the likelihood of criminal conduct are facing a major legal test in Wisconsin. (typepad.com)
  • Data they analyzed demonstrated that using the high school record alone to predict who would complete a bachelor's degree resulted in "correct" admission 73.4% of the time, while using the SAT and high school GPA forecast "correct" admissions decisions in 72.2% of the cases. (fairtest.org)
  • To learn more about the shortcomings of the SAT's predictive ability, read FairTest's newly released fact sheet "Demystifying the SAT's Ability to Predict College Success," available on-line at http://www.fairtest.org/facts/satvalidity.html , or by sending a self-addressed stamped envelope to SAT Validity c/o FairTest, 15 Court Square, Suite 820, Boston, MA 02108. (fairtest.org)
  • After a three-year validity study analyzing the power of the SAT I, SAT II, and high school grades to predict success at the state's eight public universities, University of California (UC) President Richard Atkinson presented a proposal in February 2001 to drop the SAT I requirement for UC applicants. (fairtest.org)
  • Machine-learning algorithms can analyze large datasets and determine combinations of variables that consistently classify or predict a certain outcome. (nature.com)
  • This study evaluated the ability of the Vectra test to predict patients' "individual percentage risk" of RP within one year. (globalbankingandfinance.com)
  • Although it was designed by Linda Darling-Hammond-one of the country's most influential teacher-educators-and her team at the Stanford Center for Assessment, Learning, and Equity, or SCALE, some teacher-educators say the edTPA diminishes their own responsibility to determine when someone is ready to teach. (edweek.org)
  • This paper focuses on the assessment of leadership potential in terms of a number of related philosophical, theoretical, and technical considerations. (integralleadershipreview.com)
  • These four aspects represent a holistic perspective on the assessment and development of leadership potential. (integralleadershipreview.com)
  • The risk assessment tools that have been utilized suggest that you're extremely high risk to reoffend," Judge Scott Horne in La Crosse County said at Mr. Loomis's sentencing. (typepad.com)
  • The TruGraf test is a blood-based assay that provides non-invasive, accurate assessment of adequacy of immunosuppression in kidney transplant recipients. (omicsonline.org)
  • Assessment with this instrument enables detection of residents' strengths, needs and potential risks to inform individualized care planning and monitoring. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The end product combines terms and definitions with all types of media support to enhance user interaction and engagement," explains marketing director Marianne Calilhanna, adding that the engine also "has complex assessment content built into the application to test knowledge about those terms and definitions learned. (publishersweekly.com)
  • Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), in combination with tests of psychomotor coordination, verbal learning and speed processing, yielded area under curve scores of above 0.75, the primary outcome of receiver operating characteristic analysis. (springer.com)
  • However, as completion of the entire protocol is often cumbersome and time-consuming, there is a rising demand for brief, streamlined neurocognitive assessment tools that guide the preliminary identification of patients who require further testing. (springer.com)
  • The main objectives of this study were to investigate the mechanisms underlying lower BMI characterizing CRPS patients responding poorly to intravenous ketamine therapy and identify potential biomarkers for predicting response. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The bias-corrected mean produced more favourable HEG as we observed higher between-job variance and more explained variance than either means or medians. (bmj.com)
  • We conducted a patient-provider dyad study, co-enrolling members of a representative community-based cohort of indigent adults with HIV-infection and their primary care providers (PCPs) to determine the concordance and discordance of PCPs' judgments about prescription opioid misuse and illicit substance use compared to patients' self-reports. (springer.com)
  • To determine their six-protein biomarker-panel's validity, Rockson's group collected blood from a new cohort of 36 lymphedematous and 15 healthy adults, extracted blood samples and tested them with the panel. (healthcanal.com)
  • Conclusions Within the same hospital, patients treated by older physicians had higher mortality than patients cared for by younger physicians, except those physicians treating high volumes of patients. (bmj.com)
  • Linkage testing is labor-intensive and expensive and can result in erroneous conclusions caused by incorrectly attributed paternity, misdiagnosis, and the distance between the gene and the markers used for testing. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The optimal cutoff for drinking days determining a positive Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score among middle school subjects was ≥1 drinking day, whereas the optimal cutoff for high school subjects was ≥2 drinking days. (aappublications.org)
  • A positive screen suggests that referral for further evaluation is indicated to determine if an adolescent has an AUD. (aappublications.org)
  • Consider a firm that has a unique business concept, significant growth opportunities, and no real positive cash flow to show the profit potential of the venture. (slideshare.net)
  • Individuals who screened positive for khat dependence reported longer duration of khat sessions per day, higher frequency of khat use per week, greater levels of negative mood and sleep disturbances, and were more likely to endorse physical symptoms after khat use (P (who.int)
  • Overall, the test must be accurate in picking out the true positives and true negatives, with the lowest possible false positive and false negative rate. (cns.org)
  • In clear cell RCC, VCAM1 expression levels were apparently high in patients asymptomatic at presentation and in patients with small tumor size, low-stage, low-grade, microvascular invasion-negative, and von Hippel-Lindau alteration-positive tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 19 Some diagnostic tests rely on two-step procedures, making use of inexpensive, fast screening tests for the presence of the organism followed by a second test for toxins if the first step test is positive. (ahrq.gov)
  • In Study 2, we extended these findings to a clinical population and found that muscle pains and aches, positive affect, goal motivation, emotion intensity, and intolerance of uncertainty were higher in GAD than in UDDs. (scribd.com)
  • Specifically, we completed a meta-analysis of random-assignment experiments testing the effects of material incentives on intelligence-test performance on a collective 2,008 participants. (pnas.org)
  • The other compound was identified using computational modeling based on x-ray crystallography of a receptor's structure, and exemplifies that technique's potential for identifying novel compounds that can meet highly specific therapeutic needs. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Biomarker research parallels therapeutic research, with all the same potential biases. (mdpi.com)
  • To demonstrate that use of calcium scores improves the efficiency or accuracy of the diagnostic workup of symptomatic patients, rigorous studies that define exactly how CAC scores are used in combination with other tests in the triage of patients would be necessary. (cam-policies.com)
  • Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the best combinations of cognitive tests for the screening battery. (springer.com)
  • 3 different combinations of cognitive tests that required minimal literacy, time to administer, and administrator training were found to classify HAND with fair accuracy. (springer.com)
  • Length, weight and HC were measured monthly, and cognitive tests were administered at 6, 15 and 24 months of age. (bmj.com)
  • A total of 347 subjects with negative or trace leukocytes, blood, and protein by urine dipstick provided two or more random first-morning or 24-h urine specimens for quantitative microalbumin and creatinine testing over a 1-year period. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We investigated the predictive ability of multiple pretransplant comorbidities for graft and patient survival. (wiley.com)
  • In the survival model, increasing age, stage, tumor size, tumor grade, comorbidity score and poor performance were significantly associated with higher mortality risks, while use of a n RS assay was associated with lower risks. (scirp.org)
  • To determine the impact of preexisting ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke on overall survival in prostate cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These aspects of patient care require clinical studies that are different in design and that generate evidence regarding choices of diagnostic tests and clinical measurement. (cns.org)
  • Identification of patients who are in early stages of lupus is currently done through clinical evaluation and is not greatly facilitated by available diagnostic tests. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For individuals with signs and/or symptoms suggestive of CAD who receive CAC scoring before other diagnostic testing, the evidence includes prospective and retrospective nonrandomized studies. (cam-policies.com)
  • CAC scoring has potential as a diagnostic test to rule out CAD in patients presenting with symptoms or as a "gatekeeper" test before invasive imaging is performed. (cam-policies.com)
  • However, decisions regarding nosology should not only account for current manifestations of symptom profiles, but also the potential diagnostic utility of associated characteristics, which, given past research, may suggest greater distinctiveness between these disorder classes. (scribd.com)
  • changes in mRNA and protein levels of CRHR1 were used to determine the regulation of CRHR1 by miR-34a. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Though ketamine treatment did not alter POMC expression, poor responders had higher levels of POMC mRNA than responders, both before and after treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 19 years) expressing FM FMR1 mRNA had significantly higher ADOS calibrated severity scores compared to FM-only males with completely silenced FMR1 (p = 0.011). (cra-rhone-alpes.org)
  • While decreased levels of mRNA may be more predictive of intellectual functioning than autism features. (cra-rhone-alpes.org)
  • In this chapter, we examine these key concepts of testing to provide a basis for the discussion in the rest of the report of the psychometrics of particular high-stakes uses of tests. (nap.edu)
  • A second way is to examine consistency across parallel forms of a test, which are developed to be equivalent in content and technical characteristics. (nap.edu)
  • Our client, by partnering with Cenveo to develop and author higher-ed curriculum content, effectively bypassed ongoing royalties and permissions. (publishersweekly.com)
  • Content is presented in a hierarchical way, with the highest level of available evidence listed first. (aafp.org)
  • While ANA positivity is associated with SLE in almost all cases, the high prevalence of ANA positivity in the general population, which approaches 25%, means that most individuals with ANAs do not in fact have SLE or a related autoimmune disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, there is no national research on the QoL of HIV-infected women post-CSD despite South Africa having the highest HIV prevalence rate globally and KZN being the epicentre of the virus (South African Department of Health, 2011). (scielo.org.za)
  • The issue of leadership is central to the practice of industrial psychology and psychometrics, the purpose of which include realising human potential and transforming counter-productive cultural patterns in order to enhance sustainability, integration, and evolution within the realm of organisational and other social systems. (integralleadershipreview.com)
  • Sound measurement practice and professional standards (developed by the AERA, APA, and NCME) recommend a change in the score scale when significant changes to test specifications are made. (slideserve.com)
  • Watch Cara Laitusis, Senior Research Scientist at ETS, talk about our research on testing individuals with disabilities (3:27). (ets.org)
  • Phase 1 translation (T1) research seeks to move a basic genome-based discovery into a candidate health application (e.g., genetic test/intervention). (cdc.gov)
  • First, we examined whether motivation is less than maximal on intelligence tests administered in the context of low-stakes research situations. (pnas.org)
  • Abstract Previous research suggests that we have high standards without awareness. (bates.edu)
  • NHST is the preponderant form of significance testing and thus the main producer of p- values in psychology and many other fields of empirical research. (frontiersin.org)
  • We recently completed a comprehensive, two-year testing program for one of our research partners, Encyclopædia Britannica Online . (marketingexperiments.com)
  • The research also found that test scores diminish in their predictive power as an individual progresses through college, with the SAT-V and SAT-M relating only slightly to degree attainment (under .2). (fairtest.org)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages R01 grant applications to conduct rigorous health services and economic research to maximize the delivery of efficient, high-quality drug, tobacco, and alcohol prevention, treatment, and recovery support services. (nih.gov)
  • Based on the proportional contribution of each NHPA health condition to total NHPA-related DALYs, a higher than expected number of grants was allocated to diabetes and cancer research, and a lower than expected number to injury and mental health research. (mja.com.au)
  • It was also noted during the topic triage process that the topic has arisen in a number of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) venues recently, suggesting a broader concern and potential audience. (ahrq.gov)
  • National Research University - Higher School of Economics. (scielo.br)
  • Her research interests include how standards should be applied to breast cancer diagnostics (such as ER and HER2 testing), the utility of molecular panel-based testing in breast cancer, digital pathology applications and identifying the most appropriate management of specific pathologic diagnoses. (stanford.edu)
  • We tested our prediction method retrospectively by determining whether influenza isolates on phylogenetic lineages that underwent the greatest number of changes in the positively selected codons in past influenza seasons were more fit than other isolates. (sciencemag.org)
  • Then, each marker was tested for prediction of pathologic complete response (pCR) compared with pathologist estimation of the percentage of lymphocyte infiltrate. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Rhesus monkeys could serve as a surrogate species for humans in the development of opioid-related [medications], as several behavioral and physiological assays in nonhuman primates have been demonstrated to have predictive validity for the clinical use of opioids," he says. (drugabuse.gov)
  • All test takers, including individuals with disabilities, deserve high quality tests that deliver meaningful scores. (ets.org)
  • The researchers found a significant association between candidates who achieved the Washington state cutoff score-35 out of a possible 75 for most certification areas-and students' test scores in reading. (edweek.org)
  • But in math, there was no consistent link between teachers who had passing edTPA scores and students' test-score gains. (edweek.org)
  • To investigate that potential, the researchers also looked at whether students did better as candidates' scores improved. (edweek.org)
  • Higher PAV-COM scores were associated with greater fulfillment of preventive health behaviors such as vaccinations and cancer screenings. (springer.com)
  • For example, in a chapter in The Black-White Test Score Gap, Frederick Vars and William Bowen revealed that a 100-point increase in SAT total scores led to a negligible one-tenth of a grade point gain for college GPA, based on the experiences of 10,000 students at 11 selective public and private institutions of higher education. (fairtest.org)
  • A test is highly reliable if a student taking it on two different occasions will get two very similar if not identical scores. (nap.edu)
  • Before and after AIT, Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), and Short Sensory Profile (SSP) scores were calculated, and plasma GDNF levels were assayed by an EIA test. (cra-rhone-alpes.org)
  • In the current investigation, we hypothesize that individual differences in low-stakes test motivation are, in fact, much greater than currently assumed in the social science literature. (pnas.org)
  • The high-stakes decisions for individual students on which this report focuses-tracking, promotion and retention, and graduation or denial of high school diplomas-have profound implications for the development and future life chances of young people. (nap.edu)