Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
All-purpose surfactant, wetting agent, and solubilizer used in the drug, cosmetics, and food industries. It has also been used in laxatives and as cerumenolytics. It is usually administered as either the calcium, potassium, or sodium salt.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Toxic, volatile, flammable liquid hydrocarbon byproduct of coal distillation. It is used as an industrial solvent in paints, varnishes, lacquer thinners, gasoline, etc. Benzene causes central nervous system damage acutely and bone marrow damage chronically and is carcinogenic. It was formerly used as parasiticide.
Signs and symptoms of higher cortical dysfunction caused by organic conditions. These include certain behavioral alterations and impairments of skills involved in the acquisition, processing, and utilization of knowledge or information.
The application of pathology to questions of law.
A highly toxic compound used as a gasoline additive. It causes acute toxic psychosis or chronic poisoning if inhaled or absorbed through the skin.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
A class of saturated compounds consisting of two rings only, having two or more atoms in common, containing at least one hetero atom, and that take the name of an open chain hydrocarbon containing the same total number of atoms. (From Riguady et al., Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry, 1979, p31)
A usually four-wheeled automotive vehicle designed for passenger transportation and commonly propelled by an internal-combustion engine using a volatile fuel. (Webster, 1973)
A widely used industrial solvent.
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
Compounds consisting of two or more fused ring structures.
Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
Drugs manufactured and sold with the intent to misrepresent its origin, authenticity, chemical composition, and or efficacy. Counterfeit drugs may contain inappropriate quantities of ingredients not listed on the label or package. In order to further deceive the consumer, the packaging, container, or labeling, may be inaccurate, incorrect, or fake.
Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)
The covalent bonding of an alkyl group to an organic compound. It can occur by a simple addition reaction or by substitution of another functional group.
Zeolites. A group of crystalline, hydrated alkali-aluminum silicates. They occur naturally in sedimentary and volcanic rocks, altered basalts, ores, and clay deposits. Some 40 known zeolite minerals and a great number of synthetic zeolites are available commercially. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons of the type Cn-H2n, indicated by the suffix -ene. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p408)
A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.
The industry concerned with the removal of raw materials from the Earth's crust and with their conversion into refined products.
A residue of coal, left after dry (destructive) distillation, used as a fuel.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
Radiographic visualization of the body between the thorax and the pelvis, i.e., within the peritoneal cavity.
Collections of systematically acquired and organized information resources, and usually providing assistance to users. (ERIC Thesaurus, http://www.eric.ed.gov/ accessed 2/1/2008)
The use of automatic machines or processing devices in libraries. The automation may be applied to library administrative activities, office procedures, and delivery of library services to users.
Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Toluene is a component of high-octane gasoline; xylene is used in the production of polyester fibers and resins. ... Whereas, there may be a more obvious steeply sloping loss at high frequencies for a high frequency dead region. Although it is ... For a high frequency dead region, the tip is shifted downwards from the signal frequency to the functioning area below the dead ... Using headphones at high volume over time, or being in loud environments regularly, such as a loud workplace, sporting events, ...
Soviet auto models can run on low octane gasoline; European models run superior around higher-octane gas. A way to increase a ... to obtain higher octane/leaded gasoline. This in turn affects the composition of exhaust emissions, making its concentrations ... The Caucasus eco-region, where Georgia is part of, is identified as having global significance by WWF due also to high levels ... Georgia is importing increasing numbers of 2nd hand European cars with catalytic converters and it imports a lot of low octane ...
MTBE is an oxygenate and raises gasoline's octane number. Its use declined in the United States in response to environmental ... MTBE spreads more easily underground than other gasoline components due to its higher solubility in water. Cost estimates for ... In 1995 high levels of MTBE were unexpectedly discovered in the water wells of Santa Monica, California, and the U.S. ... The case began in 2006, when a gasoline tank sprang a leak that was not detected for 34 days. Testing of 120 wells resulted in ...
... a very high-octane component of the end-product gasoline or petrol. Dimerization unit converts olefins into higher-octane ... Alkylation unit uses sulfuric acid or hydrofluoric acid to produce high-octane components for gasoline blending. The "alky" ... Isomerization converts linear molecules such as normal pentane to higher-octane branched molecules for blending into gasoline ... The octane grade of gasoline can also be improved by catalytic reforming, which involves removing hydrogen from hydrocarbons ...
A High-Octane Component of Automotive Gasoline". Chemistry and Technology of Fuels and Oils. 41 (5): 362-369. doi:10.1007/ ... A method to produce high purity 2,2-dimethylpentane is to react the grignard reagent of n-propyl bromide (CH3CH2CH2MgBr) with ... Coefficient of thermal expansion is 0.001268/°, highest of the heptanes. Surface tension is 17.80 dynes/cm. Viscosity is ... The adiabatic compressibility is 0.0001289 and isothermal compressibility is 0.00016279 atmospheres, highest for the heptanes. ...
The alkylation unit makes high-octane blending components for gasoline. One worker was critically burned. July 28, 2009 - A ... News, Jonathan Thompson High Country. "Navajos battle to protect Chaco Canyon from oil drilling". paysonroundup.com. "VIDEO: ... An attack with seven high expansion and five low expansion foam generators produced more than 4 million cubic feet of foam. ... June 13, 2010 - Lightning struck a tank of gasoline at the Colonial Pipeline Company tank farm in Greensboro, and ignited a ...
The technology allows the production of high-octane gasoline components meeting the EURO 5 standard. IС7 is a technology ... The technology helps to increase production of high-octane gasoline. Oil refinery List of oil refineries Distillation Фото: ... The PRIS technology allows the use of a low-octane straight-run gasoline fraction with a benzole-containing fraction as raw ... Official website Russian cleantech Euro-5 gasoline production technology unveiled 俄罗斯RRT Global公司: 寻求机会,结识伙伴--新闻中心 NTV
High Octane fuel is also more expensive. Many modern four-stroke engines employ gasoline direct injection or GDI. In a gasoline ... A fuel with a higher numerical octane rating allows for a higher compression ratio, which extracts more energy from the fuel ... The higher temperature more effectively evaporates fuels such as gasoline, which increases the efficiency of the compression ... The direct fuel injector injects gasoline under a very high pressure into the cylinder during the compression stroke, when the ...
... with 91 octane gasoline and 840 hp (626 kW; 852 PS) with 100 octane fuel or higher (both outputs are with the red key fob ... per ton on 91 octane gasoline and 435 hp (324 kW; 441 PS) per ton on 100 octane or higher. The SRT Demon accelerates from 0-30 ... using 100 octane racing fuel or higher, or 808 hp (603 kW; 819 PS) and 717 lb⋅ft (972 N⋅m) using 91 octane premium fuel 8-speed ... With the red key and the use of 100+ octane gasoline, the Demon can utilize its full power potential. Only 3,300 cars were made ...
She worked on the development of high-octane gasoline for aviation fuel. Her later work included improved distillation column ...
Initially used for higher octane Super Unleaded petrol/gasoline (formerly known as Optimax in some regions), it is now ... higher octane "Super Plus Unleaded" - often formulated with higher quality additives, is usually set at around 98 RON in ... Petrol or gasoline is assessed, categorised and sold by an octane rating. Generally, in most areas of the world, the Research ... The previously obtainable higher grade V-Power Racing which contained 5% ethanol to boost V-Power's octane rating to 100 RON ...
It runs on 96 octane automotive gasoline or 100LL avgas. Lubrication is 50:1 super two stroke oil premixed with the fuel. 535A ... It employs dual Bosch or Ducati magnetic high-voltage condenser ignition systems, one or two carburetors and produces a maximum ... 96 octane automotive gasoline or 100LL avgas Oil system: 50:1 super two stroke oil premixed with fuel Cooling system: liquid ... The Rotax 535 is a twin cylinder two-stroke, in-line, 521.2 cc (31.8 cu in) displacement, liquid-cooled, gasoline engine design ...
Notably, Koosharem has only 83 octane gasoline available. While gasoline is generally available, some sections of the trail may ... Motor vehicles lose power output at higher altitudes, and vehicles prone to vapor lock will be much more affected at higher ... Gasoline is available in most of the populated areas along the trail system. Some of the smaller localities may have limited ... August is also a good time for the high country, although the lower portions of the trail can be hot. After October, storms may ...
Due to this low compression ratio, a WLA will run on 74 octane gasoline. The WLA also features springer front suspension. ... L : "high compression", in the usual HD scheme. The "low compression" W model was only briefly available. A : Army. The company ... Though the model designation suggested high compression, for reliability, the Army version actually used a medium-compression ...
Approximately 85% of aviation gasoline was produced in Azerbaijan. 1 million tons of B-78 high-octane gasoline was delivered to ... Baku oil was transported to all regions of the USSR, and Baku's port was distinguished for a high intensity of cargo handling ... also influenced the high level of cargo-turnover. Oil and oil products, which were mainly transported from Baku to Astrakhan ... which was indicative of a high level of work in the region. Nikolai Baibakov, a citizen of Baku, was in charge of a special ...
In 1983, Sun Oil launched Sunoco ULTRA 94, the market's highest octane unleaded gasoline. Then in 1988, Sun undertook a ... Originally featuring two high-octane options (Sunoco 260 and 280), Sunoco Race Fuels now produces 18 different high-performance ... the latter a super-premium grade of 102 octane that was advertised as the "highest octane pump gas" and very popular with ... The company has said that its cost for exiting the refining business could be as high as US$2.7 billion. According to one ...
Higher quality gasoline is also an alternative, so that additives such as MTBE are unnecessary. Iso-octane itself is used. MTBE ... at gasoline stations or by gasoline containing MTBE being spilled onto the ground. The higher water solubility and persistence ... In the U.S. MTBE has been used in gasoline at low levels since 1979, replacing tetraethyllead (TEL) as an antiknock (octane ... Oxygenates also help gasoline burn more completely, reducing tailpipe emissions and dilute or displace gasoline components such ...
To aid quick deployment once ashore, high-octane gasoline was stored in barrels on deck. In the weeks leading up to the ... dropping of a mortar round being unloaded from the LCT on the LST-353 the ignition of gasoline vapors from high-octane fuel ... a mortar round aboard LST-353 detonated during an unloading operation because it was either dropped or went off when gasoline ...
The production of isobutane was a necessary step in the production of high-octane gasoline. The catalytic conversion of ... He is best known for his work with Vladimir Ipatieff on the catalytic conversion of high-octane aviation fuel, which was made ... the processes of alkylation and butane isomerization led to the development of high octane fuels for use in aviation gasoline. ... Mullen, William (July 15, 1990). "Unlikely hero: A Polish immigrant's high-octane role in winning the Battle of Britain". ...
102 octane RON [Sunoco 260] represented the highest octane gasoline sold at common retail stations.) As impressive as the ZL1 ... Both engines used the same high-lift, long-duration, high-overlap camshaft and large-port, cast-iron heads to maximize cylinder ... on high-octane, i.e., race-gas. The Vortec 7400 L29 7.4 L (454 cu in) V8 was a truck version of the Chevrolet Big-Block engine ... capable of running on 92 octane pump gasoline for street applications. Another version of the same engine is available as a ...
The engine will run using standard gasoline, 87 Octane or higher, diesel, or JP-8. The SRTV is constructed of MIL-STD aircraft ... The light-weight tactical vehicle has a high performance mid-engine for maximum stability with 430 horsepower and 425 lb-ft of ... also allowing high speed J-turns. The vehicle provides rollover safety for all occupants without limiting mission operational ... while also providing the capability of transporting the rescue team and the IP from an area of high threat to a defendable ...
Cars built from 1955-1972 which were designed for high-octane leaded gasoline, which allowed compression ratios up to 13∶1. ... Motorsport engines often run on high octane petrol and can therefore use higher compression ratios. For example, motorcycle ... 1 designed for 86 or 87 octane fuel. Ethanol and methanol can take significantly higher compression ratios than gasoline. ... Higher compression ratios can make gasoline (petrol) engines subject to engine knocking (also known as "detonation", "pre- ...
... regular gasoline) 160 PS (158 hp; 118 kW) / 177 N⋅m (18 kg⋅m; 131 lb⋅ft) (high octane gasoline) 240K - 2.4 L L24 I6 122 PS (120 ... dual carburetors regular gasoline) 130 PS (128 hp; 96 kW) / 172 N⋅m (18 kg⋅m; 127 lb⋅ft) (dual carburetors high octane gasoline ... single carburettor high octane gasoline) 2000GT-X - 2.0 L L20A I6 125 PS (123 hp; 92 kW) / 167 N⋅m (17 kg⋅m; 123 lb⋅ft) ( ... Use of high tensile springs front and rear. Shrinking the ABS actuator. Light aluminum wheels with higher rigidity The front ...
Engines could be designed with higher compression ratios to take advantage of high-octane gasoline. This led to more highly ... technology used to produce aviation gasoline resulted in the availability of large amounts of inexpensive high octane gasoline ... As a result of this, and of gasoline prices several times as expensive as in the U.S., four- and six-cylinder engines powered ... Engineers calculated that torsional stresses would be too high if they took power from the end of the long crankshaft, so they ...
... the same additives could also be used to boost the gasoline to much higher octane ratings. Higher-octane fuel resists auto ... The development of 100-octane aviation fuel, pioneered in the USA before the war, enabled the use of higher boost pressures to ... However, the additives were not limited to making poor-quality oil into 87-octane gasoline; ... Nonetheless, turbochargers were useful in high-altitude bombers and some fighter aircraft due to the increased high altitude ...
Gasoline surrogate components include n-heptane and iso-octane.[citation needed] Hexadecane is a diesel surrogate component.[ ... is an example of a fuel requiring a surrogate for experimental research and numerical modelling due to its complexity and high ...
Doolittle helped influence Shell Oil Company to produce the first quantities of 100 octane aviation gasoline. High octane fuel ... The development of 100-octane aviation gasoline on an economic scale was due in part to Doolittle, who had become Aviation ... Before this the Army had considered 100-octane tests using pure octane but at $25 a gallon it did not happen. By 1936 tests at ... By 1938 the price was down to 17.5 cents a gallon, only 2.5 cents more than 87 octane fuel. By the end of WW II the price would ...
The mechanical failure was caused by the use of ordinary gasoline instead of 100-octane fuel. The incident was reported by El ... Comercio as "Pilot Moore and Miss Carmela Combe fall from high altitude. The passengers were unharmed." The impact of the ...
... for example in the production of high-octane gasoline. Alkylating antineoplastic agents are a class of compounds that are used ... "Synthesis and antimicrobial screening of some novel chalcones and flavanones substituted with higher alkyl chains". Medicinal ...
2001-2002 - JSC "LINOS" (Lysychansk refinery), project manager for the construction of high-octane gasoline line. 2003-2007 - ...
... as compared to gasoline) due to its high octane rating (114[10]) and high heat of vaporization. However, its low energy content ... The results on the Audi-engine indicate that methanol is more EGR tolerant than gasoline, due to its higher flame speed. An EGR ... Eddie Sachs and Dave MacDonald died in the crash when their gasoline-fueled cars exploded. The gasoline-triggered fire created ... As a fuel for mud racers, methanol mixed with gasoline and nitrous oxide produces more power than gasoline and nitrous oxide ...
2OH) is that it has a higher octane rating than ethanol-free gasoline available at roadside gas stations, which allows an ... In high-altitude (thin air) locations, some states mandate a mix of gasoline and ethanol as a winter oxidizer to reduce ... Ethanol can be used in petrol engines as a replacement for gasoline; it can be mixed with gasoline to any percentage. Most ... Atmospheric Formaldehyde was 160% higher in Brazil, and Acetaldehyde was 260% higher.[75] ...
Gasoline - Petrol / a complicated mixture of hydrocarbons that includes isomers of octane, C8H18 ... Vapor pressure is a major determinant of the flash point, with higher vapor pressures leading to lower flash points and higher ... gasoline, acetone 4. Materials that rapidly vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal temperatures, or readily disperse in ... Martin Oil Safety Brochure, subtitle: Gasoline is Highly Flammable. Diesel Fuel is Combustible. ...
His "high percentage" solution was to mix ethanol with gasoline, while his "low percentage solution" looked for additives that ... would be added in small quantities to increase what later would be called the octane rating of gasoline.[20] Thomas Midgley Jr. ... Among his most widely used automotive developments were the electrical starting motor[3] and leaded gasoline.[4][5] In ... Kettering Fairmont High School in Kettering, Ohio. *Kettering Elementary School in Westland, Michigan (now closed and ...
A higher octane rating allows a higher compression ratio or supercharger boost, and thus higher temperatures and pressures, ... This is because higher-octane fuels allow for a higher compression ratio without knocking, resulting in a higher cylinder ... Japan bought 550 percent more sub-87 octane aviation gasoline in the five months after the July 1940 ban on higher octane sales ... Some scientists[who?] even predicted that a nation with a good supply of high-octane gasoline would have the advantage in air ...
... , also known as isooctane or iso-octane, is an octane isomer which defines the 100 point on the octane ... rating scale (the zero point is n-heptane). It is an important component of gasoline. ...
The advantages of butanol are its high octane rating (over 100) and high energy content, only about 10% lower than gasoline, ... Gasoline[edit]. Main article: Gasoline. Gasoline is the most widely used liquid fuel. Gasoline, as it is known in United States ... The higher the octane rating, the more resistant the fuel is to autoignition under high pressures, which allows for a higher ... This fuel blend called E85 has a higher fuel octane than most premium types of gasoline. When used in a modern Flexible fuel ...
... and long-established engines such as the Wright Cyclone and Double Wasp were re-rated on fuel of much higher octane rating ( ... Fuel type: 100/130 octane gasoline. *Cooling system: Air-cooled. Performance. *Power output: 2,100 hp (1,567 kW) @ 2,700 rpm ... The last two were twin-engine aircraft of size, passenger capacity, and high wing loading comparable to the DC-4 and the first ... 100 Octane fuel was used, unless otherwise noted. ...
The product, called "alkylate", is composed of a mixture of high-octane, branched-chain paraffinic hydrocarbons (mostly ... By combining fluid catalytic cracking, polymerization, and alkylation refineries can obtain a gasoline yield of 70 percent. The ... For upgrading of petroleum, alkylation produces a premium blending stock for gasoline.[2] ... isoheptane and isooctane). Alkylate is a premium gasoline blending stock because it has exceptional antiknock properties and is ...
... valuable petrochemical for use as a solvent and intermediate in chemical manufacturing processes and as a high octane gasoline ... The pyrolysis gasoline typically consists of C6 to C8 aromatics, heavier aromatics containing 9 to 12 carbon atoms, and non- ... About 70 percent of the global production of benzene is by extraction from either reformate or pyrolysis gasoline.[4] ... The BTX aromatics can be extracted from catalytic reformate or from pyrolysis gasoline by many different methods. Most of those ...
Because gasoline is so cheap and abundant, and also because ethanol is taxed at a high level, early US automobiles are adapted ... Standard Oil experiments with a 10% alcohol, 90% gasoline blend for a few months to increase octane and stop engine knock. ... and rising demand for gasoline in Asia, as Asians buy more cars. Alcohol fuel prices are much closer to the price of gasoline. ... while retail gasoline prices had reached an all-time high of 28 cents per gallon. ...
... "gasoline" is primarily defined through source, properties and octane rating. ... Thus, the user of the chemical in the US might choose between the bulk or "technical grade" with higher amounts of impurities ... For example, gasoline is not a single chemical compound or even a particular mixture: different gasolines can have very ... Non-metals lack the metallic properties described above, they also have a high electronegativity and a tendency to form ...
The octane rating of a given fuel is a measure of the fuel's resistance to self-ignition. A fuel with a higher numerical octane ... The higher temperature more effectively evaporates fuels such as gasoline, which increases the efficiency of the compression ... High Octane fuel is also more expensive.. Diesel engines by their nature do not have concerns with pre-ignition. They have a ... in a gasoline engine) or by heat generated by high compression (diesel engines), forcefully returning the piston to B.D.C. This ...
In broad terms, fuels with a higher octane rating are used in high-performance gasoline engines that require higher compression ... but they are not indicative of a higher octane rating). However, higher octane levels of gasoline are found in many stations ( ... An octane rating, or octane number, is a standard measure of the performance of an engine or aviation gasoline. The higher the ... Therefore, high compressibility of the fuel matters mainly for gasoline engines. Use of gasoline with lower octane numbers may ...
Gasoline - Petrol / a complicated mixture of hydrocarbons that includes isomers of octane, C8H18 ... Vapor pressure is a major determinant of the flash point, with higher vapor pressures leading to lower flash points and higher ... gasoline, acetone. 4. Materials that rapidly vaporize at atmospheric pressure and normal temperatures, or readily disperse in ... A lower flash point indicates higher flammability. Materials with flash points below 100 °F (38 °C) are regulated in the United ...
... high-octane gasoline.[43]. AlloysEdit. The nickel-based superalloys have improved creep strength with the addition of rhenium. ... which is a chemical process to convert petroleum refinery naphthas with low octane ratings into high-octane liquid products. ... The high melting point of both elements, together with their high atomic mass, makes them stable against the prolonged electron ... Rhenium has the third-highest melting point and second-highest boiling point of any element at 5903 K. Rhenium resembles ...
Ethanol is mixed with gasoline to decrease the amount of pollutants emitted when used to fuel motor vehicles. High fuel prices ... for motor fuels to increase the octane rating, lower pollutants, and reduce petroleum use (what is nowadays also known as " ... For small farms, their unit cost can be too high, as their higher fixed cost cannot be amortized over as many units. ... The development of high lysine maize and the promotion of a more balanced diet have also contributed to its demise. Pellagra ...
... use a higher compression ratio due to this fuel's higher octane number of 120-130.[71] ... However, it is not to be confused with gasoline, especially in North America, where the term gasoline is often shortened in ... while MTG can produce synthetic gasoline from natural gas. STG+ can produce drop-in gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and aromatic ... The energy efficiency is generally equal to that of gasoline engines, but lower compared with modern diesel engines. Gasoline/ ...
... which are less suitable for use in gasoline. They form instead the major part of diesel and aviation fuel. Diesel fuels are ... Octane (C. 8H. 18). *Nonane (C. 9H. 20). *Decane (C. 10H. 22) ... Look up higher alkanes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.. ... The term higher alkanes is sometimes used literally as "alkanes with a higher number of carbon atoms". One definition ... Higher alkanes are alkanes having nine or more carbon atoms. Nonane is the lightest alkane to have a flash point above 25 °C, ...
Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane ... where necessary generating higher temperatures than fossil fuels), can be converted into mechanical energy with high efficiency ... Ethanol can be used as a fuel for vehicles in its pure form, but it is usually used as a gasoline additive to increase octane ... and minivans that can use gasoline and ethanol blends ranging from pure gasoline up to 85% ethanol. By mid-2006, there were ...
Higher alkanes present as impurities in hexanes have similar retention times as the solvent, meaning that fractions containing ... Hexanes are significant constituents of gasoline. They are all colorless liquids, odorless when pure, with boiling points ... Octane (C. 8H. 18). *Nonane (C. 9H. 20). *Decane (C. 10H. 22) ...
... primarily from leaking underground gasoline storage tanks where MTBE was used as an octane booster and oxygenated-additive.[ ... High relative humidity and high temperatures allow more vaporization of formaldehyde from wood-materials.[32] ... Their high vapor pressure results from a low boiling point, which causes large numbers of molecules to evaporate or sublimate ... Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are organic chemicals that have a high vapor pressure at ordinary room temperature. ...
The net result is a higher octane charge that supports very high compression ratios or significant forced induction pressures ... a b c d e Wilson, J. Parley., Effects of Water Injection and Increased Compression Ratio in a Gasoline Spark Ignition Engine. ... alt., 2016 Water Injection - High Power and High Efficiency combined in: 25. Aachener Kolloquium Fahrzeug- und Motorentechnik ... As a general rule, the fuel mixture is set at full rich on an aircraft engine when running it at high power settings (such as ...
In 2006, all fuel stations sell 91 and 95 octane gasoline/petrol and diesel fuel. LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) and NGV (natural ... Internet shops with high speed connections have for many years provided service to those who cannot afford or do not have ... The region boasts high biodiversity and many endemic species, with several national parks. Both wildlife and plant species are ... The average temperature range is from 30.2 °C (86.4 °F) to 19.6 °C (67.3 °F). The highest temperature recorded was 43.9 °C ( ...
Gasoline gel was difficult to manufacture because it used natural rubber, which was in high demand and expensive. Napalm ... A later variant, napalm-B, also called "super napalm", is a mixture of low-octane gasoline with benzene and polystyrene. It was ... Often it is jellied gasoline. Napalm is actually the thickener in such liquids. When it is mixed with gasoline, the thickener ... mixing equal parts gasoline and diet cola, or thickening gasoline with cat litter, will work. ...
... acting similar to higher octane fuel. Methanol/water mixture allows for higher compression because of the less detonation-prone ... Higher temperature tolerances for gasoline engines, ball bearings in the turbine shaft and variable geometry have reduced ... Turbocharged engines today run high boost and high engine temperatures to match. When injecting the mixture into the intake ... Despite the negative points, turbocharged aircraft fly higher for greater efficiency. High cruise flight also allows more time ...
... a high octane gasoline component. The process occurs in the presence of an acid such as sulfuric acid (H2SO4) or hydrofluoric ... In the gasoline summer pool, the content of alkylate can be as high as 15% because lower Reid vapor pressure (RVP) reduces the ... The product of the unit, the alkylate, is composed of a mixture of high-octane, branched-chain paraffinic hydrocarbons (mostly ... In general, higher olefin space velocities tend to increase sulfuric acid consumption rates and decrease alkylate octane. ...
The feasibility of cryogenic fuels is associated with what is known as a high mass flow rate.[2] With regulation, the high- ... As for LNG, the bulk majority of efficiency depends on the methane number, which is the gas equivalent of the octane number.[3] ... Among other things, the greenhouse gas rate could potentially be reduced by 11-20% using LNG as opposed to gasoline when ... Cryogenic storage tanks must be able to withstand high pressure. High-pressure propellant tanks require thicker walls and ...
... is used as a gasoline additive to improve its octane number.[7] ... At high temperature and pressure, RbCl adopts the caesium chloride (CsCl) structure (NaCl and KCl undergo the same structural ... This is RbCl's highest possible coordination number. Therefore, according to the radius ratio rule, cations in this polymorph ... reflecting the higher coordination number of the ions in the solid phase.[2] ...
... a compound that raises the octane rating of gasoline (petrol). Sulfuric acid is also often used as a dehydrating or oxidising ... 4 HI → 2 I. 2 + 2 H. 2. (320 °C) The compounds of sulfur and iodine are recovered and reused, hence the consideration of the ... Sulfuric acid at high concentrations is frequently the major ingredient in acidic drain cleaners[11] which are used to remove ... Water has a higher heat capacity than the acid, and so a vessel of cold water will absorb heat as acid is added. ...
EC number: 297-458-9 , CAS number: 93572-29-3 A complex high octane combination of hydrocarbons obtained by the catalytic ...
... blends of ethanol to leverage the alcohols inherent high octane rating to produce ethanol-gasoline blends with higher octane ... Using higher volume blends of ethanol to leverage the alcohols inherent high octane rating to produce ethanol-gasoline blends ... However, they also offer a high research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON) as compared to gasoline. The ... 1. Phase out the low and use only the higher octane? or 2. Provide price supports to make the higher octane gas cost the same ...
... a proprietary methaforming process reportedly enabling a one-step conversion of methanol-containing hydrocarbons into gasoline ... High yield of high-octane gasoline blendstock is achieved at the cost of hydrotreater operation and resembles the hydrotreater ... The technology is said to make it possible to produce gasoline from naphtha and methanol at 30% of the standard production cost ... Tags: gasoline (6) / Skolkovo (337) / methanol (12) / methaforming (0) / NGT Synthesis (0) / ...
Gasification and techno-economic analysis of high-impact biomass feedstocks for the synthesis of high-octane gasoline / R. Gary ... Gasoline , United States , Anti-knock and anti-knock mixtures , Observations. Biomass chemicals , United States , Observations. ...
Gasoline Octane manufacturers, suppliers ☆ Gasoline Octane buyers, importers, wholesalers, distributors ... High effective gasoline octane booster. 1.Improve gasoline octane number 2.Improve automobile engine power 3.lower the fuel ... Gasoline octane 87,Gasoline octane 93,Gasoline octane 89. GASOLINE Octane rating or octane number is a standard measure of the ... Gasoline Octane rating analyzer. OCTANE ANALYZER FOR CHECKING OCTANE NUMBER OF GASOLINE MEAURING RANGE:70-110# CHECK OCTANE ...
Its suppose to clean the fuel injection system and/or burn the gas at a higher temperature this being the reason for improved ... higher the octane rating higher the octane rating means the fuel is less exsplosive and burns cooler. the higher octane fuel is ... if ur engine is built to run 87 octane like 8.5 to 1 compression it will be slower/preform worse on 93 octane ... get away with but the fact of the matter is you can run up to ten percent acetone in gas and it will work fine as high octane ...
... and higher, e.g. 92% or 95% or even higher are achievable. A high octane product is produced, comprising mono-, di- and tri- ... High levels of benzene conversion with conversions of at least 90% ... achieving high levels of benzene and olefin conversion. ... with light refinery olefins which is capable of achieving high ... Process for making high octane gasoline with reduced benzene content by benzene alkylation at high benzene conversion ...
Understanding the octane increase with ethanol blending is of great fundamental and practical importance. Potential issues with ... Ethanol has a high octane rating and can be added to gasoline to produce high octane fuel blends. ... Ethanol has a high octane rating and can be added to gasoline to produce high octane fuel blends. Understanding the octane ... 50 molar alcohol-gasoline blend and the octane numbers of the gasoline (ONg) and alcohol (ONa). The octane number of any ...
Characteristics of Sub/Supercritical Gasoline and Iso-Octane Jets in High Temperature Environment. 2019-04-02 ... of gasoline and iso-octane at different fuel temperatures under the high ambient temperature were studied by means of high- ... and strong knocking combustion for premixed iso-octane/air mixture was studied in a high-strength optical rapid compression ... A high CCV leads to misfire or knock, limiting the engines operating regime. To understand the mechanism of the effect of flow ...
Gasoline Petroleum Suppliers Directory - Find variety Gasoline Petroleum Suppliers, Manufacturers, Companies from around the ... increase The Gasoline Octane Value) , High Quality Methylcyclopentadiene Manganese Tricarbonyl/mmt(increase The Gasoline Octane ... Gasoline Engine Oil Additive Package , Gasoline Engine Oil Compound Additive , Petroleum Lubricant Additive Package Gasoline ... High Grade Gasoline Engine Oil Additive Package/SN SM Engine oil addpack/lubricant additive package ...
An Attempt to Produce a High Octane Gasoline from C4 Hydrocarbons Description: This thesis presents the results of an ...
High-Octane Gasoline May Not Be the Best Solution. June 15, 1989 ... laboratory analysis of the octane level of the high octane gas ... "Our gasoline meets our octane specifications.". "Shell believes the gasoline in question met the posted octane level," the ... that hundreds of thousands of drivers in the New York area may be paying for high octane while actually receiving lower octane ... "high octane bandits." He said consumers pay "for cream when getting sour milk" when they are deceived at the pump. ...
High-octane gasoline manufacturing. *Some household rust removers Note: This list may not be all inclusive. ... A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health ... Cancer of the esophagus is a high risk in people who live after ingesting hydrofluoric acid. ...
Stand Oil of Baton Rouge Refinery Helps Make Rubber, High-Octane Gasoline and Explosives. Andreas Feininger. Stretched Canvas ...
Production of high octane gasoline. US4960504 *. Feb 22, 1988. Oct 2, 1990. Uop. Dewaxing catalysts and processes employing ... Production of high octane gasoline. US4842714 *. Jul 23, 1987. Jun 27, 1989. Uop. Catalytic cracking process using ... The higher the percentage of 700 F.-minus product converted from the components in the feedstock boiling above 700 F. for a ... The feedstock may contain waxy components, e.g., n-paraffins and isoparaffins, and thus have a high pour point, e.g., at least ...
Production of high octane gasoline. US4943366 *. Apr 6, 1988. Jul 24, 1990. Mobil Oil Corporation. Production of high octane ... the refiner has an increasingly difiicult task in meeting the market demand for suificient quantities of high-octane gasoline. ... as far as their tendency to form high octane gasoline is concerned. ... the normal butane and light gasoline to gasoline blending and the heavy gasoline is reformed in a new catalytic reformer. In ...
... ethanol high-octane gasoline blend. Eni and FCA develop A20: 15% methanol, 5% ethanol high-octane gasoline blend. 24 April 2019 ... they investigated the use of alcohols-gasoline DFSI Combustion for knock suppression and high fuel efficiency using a gasoline ... Posted on 10 August 2015 in Engines, Ethanol, Fuel Efficiency, Fuels, High Octane Fuels, Methanol , Permalink , Comments (0) ... By harnessing its low carbon content, bio component and high octane number (RON... Read more → ...
... yield loss by contacting such gasolines at elevated temperatures with acidic zeolites having alpha values between 5 and 100. ... Olefin containing gasolines are upgraded to improve octane number with less than 5 wt.% ... 4. The yield octane is 1 R+O/1% C1 -C4 make. At higher octane, ZSM-12 may be more effective than ZSM-5. One of the ZSM-12s ... Process for improvement of octane gasoline US07040707 US4753720A (en) 1986-02-24. 1987-04-16. Process for improving the octane ...
If the majority of light-duty vehicles in the United States ran on higher-octane gasoline, the automotive industry as a whole ... or high-octane, fuel) - numbers that are commonly displayed at the pump. The higher the octane rating, the more resistant the ... Switching to High Octane Gasoline Saves Money and Fuel. Jennifer Chu. November 1st 2014 ... the team considered a scenario in which fuel is manufactured under a redefined octane rating - the measure of a gasolines ...
Higher is not always better when it comes to gasoline. You might be tempted to use a higher octane fuel to get more power. If ... Using a higher octane fuel than your car was tuned for can result in lower engine efficiency instead of improving performance. ... Theres a reason sports cars require higher octane fuel. Theyre designed to use it. The engine itself is often electronically ... High-efficiency engines and high-quality oil have changed the way we approach this service. Some vehicles dont have to get an ...
So a high-performance engine has a higher compression ratio and requires higher-octane fuel. The advantage of a high ... Octane handles compression very well -- you can compress it a lot and nothing happens. Eighty-seven-octane gasoline is gasoline ... Lower-octane gas (like regular 87-octane gasoline) can handle the least amount of compression before igniting. ... The octane rating of gasoline tells you how much the fuel can be compressed before it spontaneously ignites. When gas ignites ...
Process for producing high-octane gasoline base. WO1994010128A1. 22 Oct 1993. 11 May 1994. Affymax Technologies N.V.. Novel ... Parallel preparation of high fidelity probes in an array format. US8114342. 28 Apr 2006. 14 Feb 2012. The Invention Science ... Parallel preparation of high fidelity probes in an array format. US8729251. 20 Nov 2012. 20 May 2014. Affymetrix, Inc.. ... Parallel preparation of high fidelity probes in an array format. US8758679. 20 May 2010. 24 Jun 2014. The Invention Science ...
Ethanol is praised for its ability to increase the octane rating of gasoline. Higher-octane ratings make gasoline burn more ... New buildings had levels of some chemicals that were 100 times higher than outdoor levels. The levels remained higher for as ... The highest emitters of volatile organic compounds were common items: molding and carpet adhesives, latex caulks and paints, ... the top octane enhancers used by the oil industry since environmental laws required the reduction of lead levels in gasoline in ...
A process is described for the production of aromatics boiling in the gasoline boiling range from methanol carried out in two ... Process for producing high octane gasoline. US4849568 *. 31 Dec 1987. 18 Jul 1989. Mobil Oil Corporation. Stabilization of zinc ... Process for producing high octane gasoline. WO1996015082A1 *. 7 Nov 1995. 23 May 1996. Starchem Technologies, Inc.. Conversion ... The light hydrocarbon gases thus employed are easily separated from the higher boiling gasoline boiling components and can be ...
Biodegradation of high-octane gasoline. Pages 187-196in J. M. Sharpley and A. M. Kaplan (eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd ... A laboratory study indicated relatively high numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing organisms relative to glucose-utilizing ...
... to double that figureby 2020 and is lobbying the government to end caps on gasolineprices to enhance that effort.HIGH OCTANE ... causingprices of the biofuel to rise at the pump and promptingBrazilian motorists to switch to gasoline. Gasoline is currentlya ... through flex-fuel technology in the last decade.High prices for ethanol turned many drivers away fromethanol back to gasoline ... Hydrous ethanol isused by Brazils flex-fuel car fleet when it is sufficientlycheap compared with the price of gasoline at the ...
Alkylation units provide octane for making premium gasoline.. The explosion occurred just as U.S. gasoline demand hit an all- ... RBOB gasoline futures for July were 3.3% higher Friday, at $1.85 per gallon. At the pump, retail prices are down 20 cents a ... The national average for unleaded gasoline at the pump was $2.66 per gallon Friday, but it has been slightly higher in ... Because of Iran and higher crude prices, I suspect well see higher RBOB prices. Instead of falling 10 to 15 cents, it could go ...
... to gasoline is an effective method for maintaining a high octane number and low vapor pressure for gasoline. ... Method of producing high octane alkylate gasoline. 1981-11-17. Haskell et al.. 585/304. ... the worldwide demand for leadless high-octane gasoline has increased continuously. In the meantime, the content of olefins and ... has a relatively high octane number as well as relatively high C8 content, thus further increasing the yield of the product. ...
... gasoline; gasoline-alcohol blend; gasoline-ethanol blend; gasoline-ether blend; gasoline-oxygenate blend; high octane number ... fuel; induction period; lead; methanol; MTBE; octane number; octane number requirement; oxidation stability; oxygenate; ... ASTM-D8076 Standard Specification for 100 Research Octane Number Test Fuel for Automotive Spark-Ignition Engines - alcohol; ... gasoline; gasoline-alcohol blend; gasoline-ethanol blend; gasoline-ether blend; gasoline-oxygenate blend; high octane number ...
  • A complex high octane combination of hydrocarbons obtained by the catalytic dehydrogenation of a predominantly naphthenic naphtha. (europa.eu)
  • A young Russian company called NGT Synthesis, which is a resident of the Skolkovo Technopark just outside Moscow, earlier this year unveiled a proprietary methaforming process that reportedly enables a one-step conversion of methanol-containing hydrocarbons into gasoline. (marchmontnews.com)
  • 208-56) This invention relates to processes for the catalytic conversion of hydrocarbons boiling in the gas oil boiling range along with residual fractions, to produce more valuable products, including gasoline and middle distillates. (google.com)
  • No. 3,984,107), discloses the conversion of alcohols to a reaction product containing water and highly aromatic, gasoline boiling range hydrocarbons by contact with a crystalline zeolite having a silica to alumina ratio of at least about 12 and a constraint index of about 1 to 12. (google.com.au)
  • As with all low-molecular-weight hydrocarbons, octane is volatile and very flammable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Benzene and Naphthalene Sorption on Soil Contaminated with High Molecular Weight Residual Hydrocarbons from Unleaded Gasoline. (epa.gov)
  • the tendency for preflame reactions is high for straight chain hydrocarbons, medium for branched hydrocarbons, and low for aromatics. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gas to liquids ( GTL ) is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons, such as gasoline or diesel fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mixture of dimethyl ether and methanol is then further dehydrated over a zeolite catalyst such as ZSM-5 , which in practice is polymerized and hydrogenated to give a gasoline with hydrocarbons of five or more carbon atoms making up 80% of the fuel by weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octanes are a family of hydrocarbons that are typical components of gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • To appreciate the role these additives play, however, we need a basic understanding of hydrocarbons, the main ingredient of both crude oil and gasoline. (slate.com)
  • The ethanol, butanol or gasoline provide the hydrocarbons to fuel the explosions that provide the power. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • The combination of an iron-based Fischer-Tropsch catalyst and an HZSM-5 co-catalyst was studied in a Berty micro reactor at two temperatures, namely 330 and 350 °C. The higher operating temperature adversely affected the performance of the iron catalyst, as it caused a shift in the Fischer-Tropsch product spectrum towards lighter hydrocarbons at the expense of the desired product (gasoline). (chemweb.com)
  • Alkylation , in petroleum refining , chemical process in which light, gaseous hydrocarbons are combined to produce high-octane components of gasoline . (britannica.com)
  • In broad terms, fuels with a higher octane . (ecplaza.net)
  • Eighty-seven-octane gasoline is gasoline that contains 87-percent octane and 13-percent heptane (or some other combination of fuels that has the same performance of the 87/13 combination of octane/heptane). (howstuffworks.com)
  • 1981. Analysis and environmental fate of Air Force distillate and high density fuels. (cdc.gov)
  • 1.1.1 The fuels described by this specification are intended for developing technologies that lead to reduced vehicle energy consumption, such as higher compression ratio, higher power density, increased turbocharger boost pressure, smaller swept displacement volume, and operation at lower engine speeds. (document-center.com)
  • 1.1.2 The fuels described in this test fuel specification may not meet all of the performance or regulatory requirements for use in vehicles using commercial gasoline. (document-center.com)
  • As gasoline prices continue to hold at a steady and, thankfully, low price across most of the United States, alternative fuels are still being developed at a rapid pace. (dailyfueleconomytip.com)
  • Our gasoline and alcohol blended fuels offer superior performance over similar traditional gasoline blends. (benzinga.com)
  • All of our fuels can be transported, stored and pumped like regular gasoline. (benzinga.com)
  • The octane rating was originally determined by mixing fuels from only heptane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (a highly branched octane), and assigning anti-knock ratings of zero for pure heptane and 100 for pure 2,2,4-trimethylpentane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some fuels have an octane rating higher than 100, notably those containing methanol or ethanol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today's fuels, however, lack sufficient treatments of either enough additives or high quality additives. (amsoil.com)
  • Higher octane fuels of 4-5 octane numbers can be used to help prevent knock, an effect called octane requirement increase. (amsoil.com)
  • Mr. Bonner said present United States refining equipment could produce "only ,minor quantities of unleaded higher‐octane fuels. (nytimes.com)
  • In broad terms, fuels with a higher octane rating are used in high-performance gasoline engines that require higher compression ratios . (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, fuels with lower octane numbers (but higher cetane numbers ) are ideal for diesel engines , because diesel engines (also referred to as compression-ignition engines) do not compress the fuel, but rather compress only air and then inject fuel into the air which was heated by compression. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are colorless liquids that boil around 125 °C (260 °F). One member of the octane family, isooctane, is used as a reference standard to benchmark the tendency of gasoline or LPG fuels to resist self-ignition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Octane ratings are not indicators of the energy content of fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Racing fuels, avgas , LPG and alcohol fuels such as methanol may have octane ratings of 110 or significantly higher. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fuel Saving Technologies What alternative fuels to gasoline are there? (prezi.com)
  • Higher Octane fuels are meant for higher compression engines. (lake-link.com)
  • If your engine is not running the compression needed for higher octane fuels your are wasting money. (lake-link.com)
  • They have mid grade 89 octane and 91 octane alcohol free fuels. (lake-link.com)
  • The gasoline that fuels your car is actually 10 percent ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, and that fact has had a profound impact on America's farming landscape. (cpr.org)
  • Gasoline - High octane fuels are our business. (uop.com)
  • To stimulate a serious move away from fossil fuels, the market is going to have to drive prices up much higher, or the government is going to have to intervene. (theoildrum.com)
  • Ethanol-and methanol-have some performance issues in gasoline blends, such as lower energy density than gasoline, potentially higher or lower vapor pressures, altered distillation properties, and potential for water-induced phase separation. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The technology is said to make it possible to produce gasoline from naphtha and methanol at 30% of the standard production cost. (marchmontnews.com)
  • High yield of high-octane gasoline blendstock is achieved at the cost of hydrotreater operation and resembles the hydrotreater process flow except that methanol is used in lieu of hydrogen and no recycle compressor is needed. (marchmontnews.com)
  • A process is described for the production of aromatics boiling in the gasoline boiling range from methanol carried out in two stages wherein a heat dissipating diluent is employed in the second stage during contact with a crystalline zeolite catalyst selective for the purpose and the first stage exothermic. (google.com.au)
  • A process is described for the production of aromatics boiling in the gasoline boiling range from methanol carried out in two stages wherein a heat dissipating diluent is employed in the second stage during contact with a crystalline zeolite catalyst selective for the purpose and the first stage exothermic temperature rise is catalytically restricted. (google.com.au)
  • This invention relates to the method and system for converting methanol to gasoline boiling components. (google.com.au)
  • The invention relates to accomplishing the sequential restructuring of vaporized methanol first to ether and then to aromatics and isoparaffins boiling in the gasoline boiling range. (google.com.au)
  • Methanol is a conveniently handled combustible liquid, but its energy density is half of that of gasoline. (wikipedia.org)
  • The methanol thus formed may be converted to gasoline by the Mobil process and methanol-to-olefins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injecting methanol/water mixtures is a proven means of limiting detonation under high boost. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • However, the high octane rating of ethanol could be used in a mid-level ethanol blend to increase the minimum octane number (Research Octane Number, RON) of regular-grade gasoline, J.E. Anderson and colleagues suggest in a new paper published in the journal Fuel . (greencarcongress.com)
  • The octane number reflects the ability of a fuel to resist "knock"-resulting from premature autoignition-in spark-ignited engines, which can cause engine damage when severe. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Higher RON in the fuel blend would enable greater thermal efficiency in future engines through higher compression ratio (CR) and/or more aggressive turbocharging and downsizing, and in current engines on the road today through more aggressive spark timing under some driving conditions. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Tetraethyl lead/TEL-B for gasoline AVGAS100LL octane additives Ethyl fluid(For Aviation) Tetraethyllead content:≥61.48%+(0.5~1) 1.2- dibromoethane content:36.67% Fuel and dissolvent content:1.85% Appearance:clear liquid Density:≥1.74 Flash. (ecplaza.net)
  • GASOLINE Octane rating or octane number is a standard measure of the performance of a motor or aviation fuel. (ecplaza.net)
  • The higher the octane number, the more compression the fuel can withstand before detonating. (ecplaza.net)
  • 1.Improve gasoline octane number 2.Improve automobile engine power 3.lower the fuel consumption Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl can be decomposed into small particles of active manganese oxides, owing to their facial function, these. (ecplaza.net)
  • higher the octane rating means the fuel is less exsplosive and burns cooler. (hybridcars.com)
  • the higher octane fuel is for higher compression engines so that you dont get detination meaning the fuel is burning to early in short words. (hybridcars.com)
  • I think in adding an acetone in gasoline, it can be good, but it might damage up your car parts like the Fuel Injectors and the like. (hybridcars.com)
  • This invention relates to a process for the production of gasoline boiling range motor fuel by the alkylation of benzene. (justia.com)
  • Ethanol has a high octane rating and can be added to gasoline to produce high octane fuel blends. (sae.org)
  • Potential issues with fuel flow rate and fuel vaporization have led to questions of the accuracy of octane measurements for ethanol-gasoline blends with moderate to high ethanol content (e.g. (sae.org)
  • One set of measurements was conducted using a CFR™ engine equipped with manufacturer-supplied enhancements (GE Energy Waukesha XCP-OA™ digital octane panel) for digital knock measurement and precise control of temperatures and fuel flow. (sae.org)
  • Both approaches address fuel flow issues at high ethanol concentrations. (sae.org)
  • This study supports a companion paper (SAE 2012-01-1277) in which a state-of-the-art single-cylinder engine equipped with multiple fuel injection systems was used to evaluate the knock-limited performance of the ethanol-gasoline blends described herein and to evaluate the relevance of octane ratings and heat of vaporization as predictors of this performance. (sae.org)
  • The main objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of injection pressures and fuel temperatures on the secondary injection spray evolution at the end of injection from a multi-hole gasoline direct injection (GDI) injector by Mie-scattering technique. (sae.org)
  • Blue World Technologies has acquired 15% of Danish Power Systems, a developer and manufacturer of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for high-temperature PEM fuel cells. (greencarcongress.com)
  • If the majority of light-duty vehicles in the United States ran on higher-octane gasoline, the automotive industry as a whole would reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by 35 million tons per year, saving up to $6 billion in fuel costs, according to a new analysis by MIT researchers. (thecuttingedgenews.com)
  • In a study published in the journal Environmental Science & Technology, the team considered a scenario in which fuel is manufactured under a redefined octane rating - the measure of a gasoline's ability to resist engine knocking during combustion. (thecuttingedgenews.com)
  • Currently in the United States, a car's octane rating is based on the antiknock index (AKI) - a specification for fuel composition that is determined by a standard research octane number (RON) and a motor octane number (MON). The resulting octane ratings for today's car engines typically range from 87 (regular fuel) to 93 (premium, or high-octane, fuel) - numbers that are commonly displayed at the pump. (thecuttingedgenews.com)
  • The higher the octane rating, the more resistant the fuel is to knocking. (thecuttingedgenews.com)
  • You might be tempted to use a higher octane fuel to get more power. (toyota.com)
  • If sports cars perform better with higher octane fuel, what about your car? (toyota.com)
  • There's a reason sports cars require higher octane fuel. (toyota.com)
  • The engine itself is often electronically tuned to account for a particular octane level when delivering fuel to the engine cylinder. (toyota.com)
  • Using a higher octane fuel than your car was tuned for can result in lower engine efficiency instead of improving performance. (toyota.com)
  • The octane rating of gasoline tells you how much the fuel can be compressed before it spontaneously ignites. (howstuffworks.com)
  • So a 'high-performance engine' has a higher compression ratio and requires higher-octane fuel. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Hydrous ethanol is used by Brazil's flex-fuel car fleet when it is sufficiently cheap compared with the price of gasoline at the pump. (reuters.com)
  • 1.1 This specification covers the requirements of a high octane number test fuel suitable for spark-ignition engines to be utilized in ground vehicles that will require 100 research octane number (RON) minimum rated fuel. (document-center.com)
  • 1.3 This specification provides a description of high RON test fuel for automotive spark-ignition engines that are not currently in the marketplace but are being developed and require a defined standard test fuel. (document-center.com)
  • The high RON fuel could become available in the marketplace if/when such engines are introduced in commerce. (document-center.com)
  • As gas prices keep going ever higher many people have started looking for alternative ways to save money on fuel. Driving less, electric cars, commuting and many other even more unconventional methods are being used. (dailyfueleconomytip.com)
  • One is a specific type of fuel-cell vehicle and the other is an internal combustion engine, similar to the one in your car right now, that's been made to use hydrogen instead of gasoline. (dailyfueleconomytip.com)
  • Dynamo™ Gasoline Octane Booster allows consumers to purchase regular 87 octane gasoline and increase the power and performance of that fuel to equal that of superior high test 93 octane gasolines, by adding a bottle of our Dynamo™ Gasoline Octane Booster to their tank at fill up. (benzinga.com)
  • Reduces the need for costly higher octane fuel. (amsoil.com)
  • As the engine ages, its performance suffers from gasoline fuel-generated deposits that form on the fuel injectors, intake valves and combustion chamber. (amsoil.com)
  • Port Fuel Injector Deposits form after the engine has been shut down and there is no gasoline flowing through the injectors. (amsoil.com)
  • Higher compression and stored heat cause increased intake fresh charge temperatures and the increased likelihood of pre-ignition knock or pinging when the fuel spontaneously combusts prior to spark ignition. (amsoil.com)
  • As a vehicle ages, more-expensive, higher-octane fuel is needed to keep it operating at peak performance. (amsoil.com)
  • Gasoline is a complex mixture of molecules with a boiling range of 40 - 200 ° C (104 - 392 ° F). To produce various grades, there is a blending of many refinery components, each of which promotes specific fuel qualities such as desired octane rating, volatility, and minimization of engine deposits. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Octane number is a measure of the antiknock properties of the fuel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The octane number for a test gasoline represents the percentage by volume of isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) in a reference fuel consisting of the mixture of isooctane and heptane that would be necessary to match the test fuel's knocking tendency. (encyclopedia.com)
  • By adding Octane Supreme-130 to your fuel, your engine will perform better by increasing horsepower and burning the fuel more efficiently. (batterystuff.com)
  • 2. Boosts octane from 2-16 points when added to fuel. (batterystuff.com)
  • MIT researchers are developing a half-sized gasoline engine that performs like its full-sized cousin but offers fuel efficiency approaching that of today's hybrid engine system-at a far lower cost. (mit.edu)
  • Given the short fuel-savings payback time-three to four years at present U.S. gasoline prices-the researchers believe that their "ethanol-boosted" turbo engine has real potential for widespread adoption. (mit.edu)
  • Using well-established computer models, they determined that their small, turbocharged, high-compression-ratio engine will provide the same peak power as the full-scale SI version but will be 20 to 30 percent more fuel efficient. (mit.edu)
  • If all goes as expected, within five years vehicles with the new engine could be on the road, using an alternative fuel to replace a bit of gasoline and make more efficient use of the rest. (mit.edu)
  • Koch-Glitsch and Invista Performance Technology (IPT), affiliates of Koch Industries, announced a new partnership to offer DTL process technology, allowing refineries to capture the value spread between replacement fuel costs and high-octane gasoline blend stock. (process-worldwide.com)
  • On Friday, Dan Nicholson, General Motors' vice president of global propulsion systems, told the House Energy and Commerce Committee's environment subcommittee that switching to 95 octane would align the U.S. with Europe and is one of the most affordable ways to boost fuel economy and lower greenhouse emissions. (thetruthaboutcars.com)
  • David Filipe, vice president of Ford's powertrain engineering, joined Nicholson to say 95 octane fuel must become more affordable for this strategy to work. (thetruthaboutcars.com)
  • Gasoline's octane rating signifies the amount of compression the fuel can handle before spontaneous ignition. (wisegeek.com)
  • I have used fuel cleaners and higher octane gasoline. (wisegeek.com)
  • Historically, that fuel blend has been banned when temperatures are hotter because of the higher evaporative emissions as the gas is dispensed from pumps. (dispatch.com)
  • As a result, the move to allow a higher ethanol mix in fuel has resulted in some intriguing political alignments putting environmentalists and the petroleum industry on the same side. (dispatch.com)
  • E85 gas (also known as flex fuel) is a high-level combination of ethanol and gasoline that consists of 51 percent to 83 percent ethanol blended with gasoline. (caranddriver.com)
  • Cars.com reports that flex-fuel vehicles are capable of running on both ethanol-gasoline blends and regular gasoline. (caranddriver.com)
  • When fueling their flex-fuel vehicles with E85 instead of regular gasoline, drivers won't notice many differences other than a decrease in miles per gallon. (caranddriver.com)
  • Compared to gasoline, ethanol provides less energy per gallon, meaning that the higher the percentage of ethanol, the more significant the impact on fuel economy. (caranddriver.com)
  • Despite the lower miles per gallon, flex-fuel vehicles often put out more torque and more horsepower when running on E85 instead of regular gasoline. (caranddriver.com)
  • This is what happens when the gubmint mandates burning food crops as fuel - food shortages and high prices. (freerepublic.com)
  • of the Gulf Oil Company, said the new models might knock excessively because the engines had been engineered to burn higher‐octane, unleaded fuel than refineries could turn out in large quantity. (nytimes.com)
  • In an article last week in The, Oil Daily, an industry publication, Mr. Bonner said that if motorists were dissatisfied with the engine performance of their new cars they could attribute it to "an extraordinary blunder" by officials of the Environmental Protection Agency, who, he said, had allowed the automakers to use 96‐octane fuel in emission‐certi'fication tests and to use up to 95‐octane fuel in perfortests. (nytimes.com)
  • An automobile - industry spokesman said that some automakers might have adjusted their engines as close as possible to the top octane line in order to get the best fuel economy. (nytimes.com)
  • This effect works against the increasing temperature of the fuel burn, meaning although the temperature from the burn is still high (still the same energy going into the same mass of air) the overall pressure is dramatically reduced. (physicsforums.com)
  • A third gas-to-liquids process builds on the MTG technology by converting natural gas-derived syngas into drop-in gasoline and jet fuel via a thermochemical single-loop process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline engines rely on ignition of air and fuel compressed together as a mixture, which is ignited near the end of the compression stroke using electrically activated spark plugs . (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, high compressibility of the fuel matters mainly for gasoline engines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Performance is optimized when the lowest octane rated fuel that can be used without detonation is used. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is possible for a fuel to have a Research Octane Number (RON) more than 100, because iso-octane is not the most knock-resistant substance available. (wikipedia.org)
  • RON is determined by running the fuel in a test engine with a variable compression ratio under controlled conditions, and comparing the results with those for mixtures of iso-octane and n-heptane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instead, they're allowed to add foreign chemicals to the gasoline to get lower-quality fuel to behave like 87 octane. (slate.com)
  • Limited fuel often makes this water-purification method impossible, especially at high altitudes. (nap.edu)
  • I though it was just a type of fuel that you can add in your combustion to get a higher octane. (m3post.com)
  • The magnesium and aluminum parts in the fuel system would need to be changed to stainless or something that won't be corroded and you'd need larger injectors and ECU/VANOs adjustments to take advantage of the higher octane & large change in AFR. (m3post.com)
  • This argument over the virtues and evils of ethanol focuses on one particular law: the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which requires that gasoline manufacturers purchase large and, until this year, ever-growing amounts of ethanol, which they then blend into the nation's fuel supply. (cpr.org)
  • And here's their bottom line: If the law changed tomorrow and gasoline companies were free to ignore ethanol, they'd almost certainly keep right on blending ethanol into their fuel. (cpr.org)
  • Whether it's meeting diesel demand in developing economies, responding to octane needs and diesel sulfur reduction, upgrading heavy fuel oil, or maximizing profits from underutilized assets, let UOP find your unique solution. (uop.com)
  • At an average fuel economy rate of 22.5 miles per gallon, the average traveling party will purchase 35.2 gallons of gasoline for their trip. (ilcorn.org)
  • Refiners charge more for higher octane fuel, and premium grade gasoline is the most expensive. (eia.gov)
  • What do I pay for in a gallon of gasoline and diesel fuel? (eia.gov)
  • How much tax do we pay on a gallon of gasoline and diesel fuel? (eia.gov)
  • There's how "efficiently" a fuel gives up it's btu's in an ICE, and there's OCTANE. (coyoteblog.com)
  • A: Higher octane fuel may help prevent engine knock under heavy loads such as pulling a trailer up mountainous roads. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Recent research findings show that mid-range ethanol blends - fuel mixtures most likely between E20 and E30 - can in some cases provide better fuel economy than regular unleaded gasoline, even in standard, non-flex-fuel vehicles. (typepad.com)
  • E20 and E30 ethanol blends outperformed unleaded gasoline in fuel economy tests for certain autos. (typepad.com)
  • Contrary to Btu-based estimates of fuel economy for ethanol blends, three of the four vehicles tested achieved their highest fuel efficiency not on gasoline, but on an ethanol blend. (typepad.com)
  • Mid-level blends of ethanol E20 (20% ethanol, 80% gasoline) and E30 (30% ethanol, 70% gasoline) offered the best fuel economy in these tests. (typepad.com)
  • E30 offered better fuel economy than gasoline (a 1% increase) in both the Toyota and the Ford. (typepad.com)
  • E20 offered better fuel economy than gasoline (a 15% increase) in the flex-fuel Chevrolet. (typepad.com)
  • The non-flex-fuel Chevrolet more closely followed the Btu-calculated trend for fuel economy, but did experience a significant improvement over the trend line with E40 (40% ethanol, 60% gasoline), indicating that this may be the "optimal" ethanol blend level for this vehicle. (typepad.com)
  • The three non-flex-fuel vehicles tested operated on levels as high as E65 before any engine fault codes were displayed. (typepad.com)
  • Researchers used the EPA Highway Fuel Economy Test (HWFET) to examine a range of ethanol-gasoline blends from straight Tier 2 gasoline up to 85 percent ethanol. (typepad.com)
  • Although there are safety issues with ammonia, the issues are no more severe than those with gasoline and diesel fuel. (agmrc.org)
  • Gasoline and diesel fuel internal combustion engines can be converted to run on ammonia. (agmrc.org)
  • So a small amount of high-cetane (the combustion quality during compression ignition) fuel is added. (agmrc.org)
  • About 75% of the 6.79 billion barrels of petroleum that we used in 2012 were gasoline, heating oil/diesel fuel, and jet fuel. (slideshare.net)
  • A higher octane fuel for use in engines designed to run on unleaded petrol. (tradekey.com)
  • The Commission proposes amendments to its Rule for Automotive Fuel Ratings, Certification and Posting ("Fuel Rating Rule" or "Rule") that would adopt and revise rating, certification, and labeling requirements for ethanol-gasoline blends and would allow an alternative octane rating method. (federalregister.gov)
  • This was his first year racing on Ignite Fuel, a 90 percent ethanol and 10 percent gasoline blend. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Currently, ethanol is blended into a gasoline blendstock formulated with lower octane rating such that the net octane rating of the resulting final blend is unchanged from historical levels. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The parameter P g can be estimated from the measured octane number of a 50:50 molar alcohol-gasoline blend and the octane numbers of the gasoline (ON g ) and alcohol (ON a ). (sae.org)
  • The octane number of any ethanol-gasoline blend (ON b ) with that blendstock can then be estimated (within 1 ON) from the molar fraction of the alcohol (x a ) using the following expression: ON b = (1-x a )ON g + x a ON a + P g x a (1-x a )(ON a - ON g ). (sae.org)
  • E85 ethanol is sold at many gasoline stations across the country already, and it's a blend of 15% gasoline and 85% ethanol. (dailyfueleconomytip.com)
  • A blend of ethyl alcohol (ethanol - CH3CH2OH) and gasoline, usually in a 10% ethanol to 90% gasoline mixture. (everything2.com)
  • The ethanol blend of 10% with 90% percent gasoline is what's at a vast majority of gas stations across the country. (dispatch.com)
  • Gas stations owned by the oil industry may not opt to allow a higher ethanol blend because it means using 5% less of the their product at the pump. (dispatch.com)
  • Also, the 10% blend gives them all of the octane they need, he said. (dispatch.com)
  • of N. Dakota, and Mn State 3 out of the 4 cars tested got better "mileage" on an ethanol blend than they did with straight gasoline. (coyoteblog.com)
  • The FF Impala attained 15% higher mileage on an E20 blend. (coyoteblog.com)
  • Isobutanol's most valuable property is its low Reid Vapor Pressure (RVP) blend value with other gasoline components. (epa.gov)
  • Isobutantol blend RVP is 3.8 - 5.2, which is similar to the premium value gasoline component alkylate with an RVP of 4 - 5. (epa.gov)
  • All of the vehicles got better mileage with ethanol blends than the ethanol's energy content would predict, and three out of four actually traveled farther on a mid-level ethanol blend than on unleaded gasoline. (typepad.com)
  • This latter process is believed to operate by selectively cracking aliphatics in the feed to produce active fragments at least some of which alkylate existing aromatics in the feed whereby increasing the highly desirable, high octane aromatic content thereof while decreasing the less desirable, low octane paraffin content thereof. (google.com)
  • The unique feed stream (100-percent isobutylene) available from the Hengli Petrochemical facility marks the beginning of a new era for alkylation in the gasoline market as the butane-to-alkylate movement grows around the world. (prweb.com)
  • The grassroots refinery complex, with the addition of STRATCO® alkylation technology, will allow Hengli to produce a high quality alkylate product (used as a blending component in the gasoline pool) from a 100% isobutylene feed stream. (prweb.com)
  • An oil refining unit in which propylene or butylene reacts with iso-butylene to yield a high octane gasoline blending component called alkylate. (opisnet.com)
  • Alkylate helps improve the environmental qualities of gasoline - low vapor pressure, zero sulfur content, zero olefin content, zero benzene and a high octane number. (opisnet.com)
  • There are other compounds that you can add to boost octane levels, but many, like alkylate or iso-octane, are generally more expensive than ethanol. (cpr.org)
  • This alkylate is used in blending high octane gasoline. (cpchem.com)
  • The liquid fraction of this mixture, known as alkylate, consists mainly of isooctane , a compound that lends excellent antiknock characteristics to gasolines. (britannica.com)
  • Keywords: - Antiknock Agent - Gasoline Octane Booster - Petroleum Additive Quick Details: - Product Name: Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl(MMT) - CAS No: 12108-13-3 - Molecular Formula: CH3C5H4Mn(CO)3 - Package: 1. (ecplaza.net)
  • Gasoline Octane Improver /Petroleum Additive /Non-metallic Antiknock: N-methylaniline CAS#: 100-61-8 N-methylaniline is used as Non-metallic Antiknock Additive due to its chemical structure goodacteristic of which octane number is over 300. (ecplaza.net)
  • Polyetheramine B-100,T-3000,M-2070 for Gasoline Cleaners Agent Additive Petroleum Additives. (alibaba.com)
  • Polyetheramine HF-B100 PEA FL-1000 Used for Gasoline Cleaners Agent Additive Petroleum Additives. (alibaba.com)
  • Polyether amine HF-B100 for Gasoline Cleaners Agent Additive / Petroleum Additives. (alibaba.com)
  • AMSOIL P.i. is the most potent gasoline additive available today. (amsoil.com)
  • Since 1921, TEL has been the original additive that (1) Boosts octane numbers, (2) Eliminates engine knock, and (3) Protects valves and valve guides. (batterystuff.com)
  • In the 1920s, tetraethyl lead was added to gasoline as an antiknock, higher-octane additive. (healthy.net)
  • What are the main components of the retail price of gasoline? (eia.gov)
  • The cost of crude oil is the largest factor in the retail price of gasoline. (eia.gov)
  • Federal, state, and local government taxes also contribute to the retail price of gasoline. (eia.gov)
  • Sales taxes along with taxes applied by local and municipal governments can have a significant impact on the price of gasoline in some locations. (eia.gov)
  • Distribution, marketing, and retail dealer costs and profits are also included in the retail price of gasoline. (eia.gov)
  • Okay, add in the $0.51/gal blending Tax Credit (by the way, I thought we were in favor of lower taxes) and you're still about 20% below the price of gasoline in many locations. (coyoteblog.com)
  • If you are concerned about the price of gasoline, do not buy the Lexus. (tauntongazette.com)
  • Using a linear molar octane blending model they had developed earlier to quantify RON potential from ethanol and blendstock, the team estimated that an increase of 4-7 points in RON are possible by blending in an additional 10-20%v ethanol above the 10% already present. (greencarcongress.com)
  • A linear molar octane blending model was found to describe most of the nonlinearity in the RON and MON data, but measured values were still somewhat greater than predicted. (sae.org)
  • An independent laboratory test of gasoline at the companies' distribution terminals, ordered by the Consumer Affairs Department, alleged that hundreds of thousands of drivers in the New York area may be paying for high octane while actually receiving lower octane at the pump. (latimes.com)
  • Lower-octane gas (like 'regular' 87-octane gasoline) can handle the least amount of compression before igniting. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Use of gasoline with lower octane numbers may lead to the problem of engine knocking . (wikipedia.org)
  • Methyl t -butyl ether (MTBE) has been the antiknock agent of choice for unleaded gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • MTBE provides high-octane quality along with low volatility and is readily soluble in gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • However, leakage of gasoline from underground storage tanks has resulted in the detection of MTBE in the drinking water of several urban areas. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This prompted the state of California to order the removal of MTBE from California gasoline by 2003. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Typical "octane booster" gasoline additives include MTBE , ETBE , isooctane and toluene . (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1989, with several U.S. cities gripped by smog, the EPA mandated that gasoline producers find a way to solve the problem, and MTBE proved to be the most effective chemical. (slate.com)
  • In some areas, gasoline was 15 percent MTBE. (slate.com)
  • A process for the alkylation of a benzene-containing refinery stream such as reformate with light refinery olefins which is capable of achieving high benzene conversion levels operates in a fixed bed of an MWW zeolite catalyst, preferably MCM-22, in single pass mode in the liquid phase at a relatively low to moderate temperatures with pressure maintained at a value adequate to ensure subcritical operation. (justia.com)
  • Trace amounts of olefins and diolefins found in gasoline are prone to reaction with oxygen dissolved in the gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He and his team developed a process in which certain light olefins present in waste gas, when subjected to heat and pressure in the presence of phosphoric acid and kieselguhr, are induced to polymerize into liquid olefins that can be further refined into gasoline. (britannica.com)
  • and reformulated gasoline, but excludes aviation gasoline. (everything2.com)
  • Alkylation units were installed in petroleum refineries in the 1930s, but the process became especially important during World War II , when there was a great demand for aviation gasoline. (britannica.com)
  • Gasoline antiknock additives MMT Methyl cyclopentadiene manganese Tricarbonyl MMT is high efficiency gasoline octane booster without lead. (ecplaza.net)
  • All octane number booster wholesalers & octane number booster manufacturers come from members. (chinacomputerparts.com)
  • We doesn't provide octane number booster products or service, please contact them directly and verify their companies info carefully. (chinacomputerparts.com)
  • Octane Booster 1.product Information Decrease in automobile exhaust NOx, CO, HC and other harmful gases emitted. (chinacomputerparts.com)
  • Using higher volume blends of ethanol to leverage the alcohol's inherent high octane rating to produce ethanol-gasoline blends with higher octane numbers could yield "substantial societal benefits", according to a team of researchers from Ford Motor Company. (greencarcongress.com)
  • 4. The process of claim 1 wherein a gamma alumina is relied upon to produce said product comprising dimethyl ether and a ZSM-5 type crystalline zeolite is employed to form gasoline boiling range components comprising aromatics and iso-paraffins. (google.com.au)
  • Yet, ten years later in World War II, after transfer of the Standard Oil of New Jersey hydrogenation patents and technology to I. G. Farben (used to produce synthetic gasoline from coal), Germany produced about 6 1/2 million tons of oil of which 85 percent (5 1/2 million tons) was synthetic oil using the Standard Oil hydrogenation process. (reformation.org)
  • The MAX3™ sulfuric acid plant for Xingfa's expansion project will have both high pressure and intermediate pressure steam generation that will be used to produce electricity and provide heat to the plant. (prweb.com)
  • The Xingfa configuration will produce more than 1.5 tons of high pressure steam per ton of acid, which is an increase of more than 25 percent over conventional acid plant technologies. (prweb.com)
  • A refining operation that takes low value derivatives from the cat cracking and other processes and unites them in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce a very high octane, low vapor pressure gasoline blending component. (opisnet.com)
  • It is higher in octane levels, which produce power. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • Yes both ethanol and butanol have high octane ratings and help gasoline produce power in high compression engines. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • Octane does not produce power. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • The chemical is used to produce high-octane gasoline at about of third of the 141 oil refineries in the United States, including the one at Torrance and another in Wilmington. (scpr.org)
  • The complex will produce 4.7 million tons of high-value petroleum products as part of Egypt's ambitious program to enhance its refining industry, a local report said. (arabnews.com)
  • It was established in cooperation with the private sector to produce high-octane gasoline and diesel. (arabnews.com)
  • They also developed an alkylation reaction in which two smaller molecules, one an olefin and the other an isoparaffin (usually isobutane), combine under the influence of a sulfuric acid catalyst to produce a high-octane longer-chain molecule. (britannica.com)
  • The cost of production has risen in recent years, causing prices of the biofuel to rise at the pump and prompting Brazilian motorists to switch to gasoline. (reuters.com)
  • At the pump, retail prices are down 20 cents a gallon from last year for unleaded gasoline. (cnbc.com)
  • While E85 gas costs less than regular gasoline at the pump, the decrease in miles per gallon makes it more expensive when driving. (caranddriver.com)
  • That's why higher octane ratings at the pump are better for high-performance cars, which need higher compression to generate more power. (slate.com)
  • While retail gasoline prices are indeed higher this Memorial Day than last year, pump prices would be even higher without ethanol. (ilcorn.org)
  • When gasoline leaked from tanks, the MBTE mixed easily with water and soil and biodegraded much slower than gasoline's other ingredients. (slate.com)
  • Octane is a measure of gasoline's tendency to ignite under pressure. (cpr.org)
  • But getting gasoline's octane rating up to that standard costs money. (cpr.org)
  • For decades, efforts to improve the efficiency of the conventional spark-ignition (SI) gasoline engine have been stymied by a barrier known as the "knock limit": Changes that would have made the engine far more efficient would have caused knock-spontaneous combustion that makes a metallic clanging noise and can damage the engine. (mit.edu)
  • Second, the engine can be designed with a higher compression ratio (the ratio of the volume of the combustion chamber after compression to the volume before). (mit.edu)
  • In some cases, gasoline problems cause the irregular combustion that leads to knocking sounds in an engine. (wisegeek.com)
  • What I believe is that the sooner the mixture is ignited the higher the pressure in the cylinder will be during the time when the piston is rising against and pushing down from the combustion. (physicsforums.com)
  • Ethanol energy density can be compared with gasoline in heat-of-combustion tables. (wikipedia.org)
  • Internal combustion engines work by compressing a mixture of air and gasoline in a closed cylinder, then igniting the mixture to create a controlled explosion. (slate.com)
  • The octane level of gasoline refers to its resistance to combustion. (eia.gov)
  • Seems to me that this may just be another system taht uses the heat from the burning gasoline to cause water to expand, thus not only adding to cylinder pressure, but also helping to cool the combustion chamber. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • since the pressure is much higher from cramming all that air in there it causes higher combustion temperatures which isnt good. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Pentane has five, hexane has six, heptane has seven and octane has eight carbons chained together. (howstuffworks.com)
  • This is in contrast to heptane, which burns with much knocking and is given an octane rating of 0. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Thus, a gasoline that burns with the same amount of knocking as a mixture of 92 percent isooctane and 8 percent heptane is classified as a 92 octane gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For example, gasoline with the same knocking characteristics as a mixture of 90% iso-octane and 10% heptane would have an octane rating of 90. (wikipedia.org)
  • An increase in blendstock RON from 88 to 92 would increase the RON of E10 from 92.5 to 95.6, and would provide higher RON with additional ethanol content (e.g. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Kidney effects of inhaled unleaded gasoline--comprehensive and critical summary of observations in rats and mice. (cdc.gov)
  • The value of ethanol is to boost octane, not to replace gasoline. (greencarcongress.com)
  • It is found that a higher boost pressure coupled with EGR can further tap the potential of Miller-LTC cycle, improving and expanding the Miller-LTC operation condition. (sae.org)
  • Octane Boost-130 is the only product with 100% TEL activate (NO SUBSTITUTES ) for maximum performance. (batterystuff.com)
  • So if you are tired of spending money on expensive Octane Boosters that don't work very well, go with Octane Boost-130. (batterystuff.com)
  • Alcohol and alcohol blends are added to gasoline in order to make it burn cleaner and boost octane. (opisnet.com)
  • Along with E85, other blends of ethanol and gasoline include E10 and E15. (caranddriver.com)
  • Fully automatic functional portable octane /cetane analyzer/diesel freezing temperature/Motor oil purity/portable octane tester Application: Measurement of octane level. (chinacomputerparts.com)
  • it is used in the United States as a gasoline octane enhancer and oxygenate, it increases octane 2.5 to 3.0 numbers at 10 percent concentration. (everything2.com)
  • Everywhere it went, the original octane enhancer left a nasty cloud of lead-which, as you might have heard, is really, really bad for our health and the environment . (slate.com)
  • So it does not need an octane enhancer and can be used in high compression engines. (agmrc.org)
  • Modern petroleum refinery technology is capable of reforming naphthas which are paraffinic and/or naphthenic in nature in order to increase the octane number thereof. (google.com)
  • The name 'octane' comes from the following fact: When you take crude oil and 'crack' it in a refinery , you end up getting hydrocarbon chains of different lengths. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The head of a New Jersey gasoline buyers' association says gasoline prices were already rising Thursday, as oil prices jumped on Iran tensions, and they could go as much as 10 cents higher at the wholesale level Friday night, due to the refinery fire. (cnbc.com)
  • RBOB futures represent gasoline prices in the New York Harbor, which is supplied by the Philadelphia refinery, among others. (cnbc.com)
  • Today gasoline is the most important product of a typical oil refinery: The entire refinery process is designed to maximize its production. (encyclopedia.com)
  • DuPont is pleased to provide Hengli Petrochemical with our world-class sulfuric acid alkylation technology to improve the overall gasoline pool from the refinery," said Kevin Bockwinkel, global business manager for the STRATCO® Alkylation Technology. (prweb.com)
  • The characteristics of the gasoline produced depend on the type of crude oil that is used and the type of processing technology available at the refinery where it is produced. (eia.gov)
  • ZOC-SO is an effective solid promoter of gasoline octane number used in fluid catalytic cracking unit of refinery. (chinacomputerparts.com)
  • This gasoline, introduced in June 1996, has a different formulation and burns cleaner than regular reformulated gas. (everything2.com)
  • by 1996, the EPA had banned lead from automobile gasoline entirely. (slate.com)
  • Refiners particularly prize octane, an eight-carbon molecule. (slate.com)
  • In addition, when isobutanol is converted to isobutylene it can serve as the precursor molecule for numerous high-value products such as terephthalic acid for the production of PET and other polymers. (epa.gov)
  • yield loss by contacting such gasolines at elevated temperatures with acidic zeolites having alpha values between 5 and 100. (google.com)
  • The method of the present invention increases the selectivity of the alkylation reaction to give the alkylation product a relatively high octane number and further increase the product yield. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • It is now used in combination with fractional distillation, catalytic cracking , and isomerization to increase a refinery's yield of automotive gasoline. (britannica.com)
  • And the ethanol could be E85, the ethanol/gasoline mixture now being pushed by federal legislation. (mit.edu)
  • If it's too low, the gasoline/air mixture in an engine's cylinders will burn too soon, creating damaging "knocking. (cpr.org)
  • Octane Supreme-130 contains 60 grams of genuine TETRAETHYL LEAD ( TEL ) for gasoline treatment. (batterystuff.com)
  • 1. The only product with 100% Tetraethyl Lead and other octane enhancing components (No substitute chemicals are added). (batterystuff.com)
  • One of the first gasoline additives used for this purpose was tetraethyl lead, which turned out to be an environmental disaster. (slate.com)
  • 1980. Acute toxicity tests: Unleaded motor gasoline. (cdc.gov)
  • Motor gasoline, as defined in ASTM Specification D 4814 or Federal Specification VV-G-1690C, is characterized as having a boiling range of 122 to 158 degrees Fahrenheit at the 10 percent recovery point to 365 to 374 degrees Fahrenheit at the 90 percent recovery point. (everything2.com)
  • All types of finished motor gasoline may be sold is this area. (everything2.com)
  • Finished motor gasoline formulated for use in motor vehicles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations as stated by the U.S Environmental Protection Agency under Section 211(k) of the Clean Air Act . (everything2.com)
  • By operating with staged olefin injection, the end point of the alkylation product can be maintained at a low value while, at the same time, achieving high levels of benzene and olefin conversion. (justia.com)
  • Olefin containing gasolines are upgraded to improve octane number with less than 5 wt. (google.com)
  • The alkane/olefin ratio in the raw material is higher than 1:1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Long ago S was lower in gasoline because reformer catalyst could not tolerate it. (eng-tips.com)
  • Fe/MgO catalyst shows the highest H 2 S removal capacity in wet oxidation at room temperature. (chemweb.com)
  • Tom Kloza, global head of energy analysis at Oil Price Information Service, said he does not believe the outage will be a major problem for the U.S. gasoline market, which is well supplied - even with a number of Gulf Coast refineries still in extended maintenance. (cnbc.com)
  • The unleaded gasoline being turned out in large quantity by the refineries may have a top octane rating of 91, and, in some cases, lower. (nytimes.com)
  • Most gasoline is shipped from refineries by pipeline to terminals near consuming areas, where it may be blended with other products (such as ethanol) to meet local government and market specifications. (eia.gov)
  • More than 100 refineries are among 1,900 facilities considered "high risk" by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, meaning they are prone to terrorist attacks or accidents that imperil surrounding communities. (scpr.org)
  • Alcohol has a higher octane than gas, and runs almost infinitely cleaner - with less wear on engines. (freerepublic.com)
  • Since gasoline has more energy content than alcohol, using straight gas will definitely provide more miles per gallon. (chicagotribune.com)
  • A laboratory study indicated relatively high numbers of hydrocarbon-oxidizing organisms relative to glucose-utilizing microorganisms in the unsaturated vadose zone. (springer.com)
  • Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3. (wikipedia.org)
  • A high octane level prevents premature explosion of the hydrocarbon air mix in the engine. (alternative-energy-news.info)
  • Because of Iran and higher crude prices, I suspect we'll see higher RBOB prices. (cnbc.com)
  • At higher concentration alcohols can be used as gasoline extenders, thus decreasing our dependency upon imported crude oil. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He said an additional half‐million barrels of crude oil daily would be needed to push the octane rating up to 94 without lead. (nytimes.com)
  • High volume (25,000 to 300,000 bbl) contractual agreements between oil companies dictating delivery of petroleum products or crude oil in the near future for an established sales price. (opisnet.com)
  • The thick crude oil that comes out of the earth bears little resemblance to the gasoline powering your Porsche. (slate.com)
  • The cost of crude oil as a share of the retail gasoline price varies over time and across regions of the country. (eia.gov)
  • Scope Applicable ' Gasoline Octane machine assay (MON)' GB / T503, 'Determination of the gasoline octane engine (research)' GB / T5487, and ASTM D2700, ASTM D2699 Features 1, using the FLD modular design, the motor method and research method can. (ecplaza.net)
  • The compression ratio of your engine determines the octane rating of the gas you must use in the car. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The advantage of a high compression ratio is that it gives your engine a higher horsepower rating for a given engine weight -- that is what makes the engine 'high performance. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The disadvantage is that the gasoline for your engine costs more. (howstuffworks.com)
  • Octane rating" is an index of a fuel's ability to resist engine knock at high compression, which is a characteristic of octane's branched-chain isomers, especially iso-octane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Knocking in a gasoline engine is a metallic clattering noise (pinging), which indicates excessive intensity in preflame reactions. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Moreover, the little engine provides high performance without the use of high-octane gasoline. (mit.edu)
  • For example, if all of today's cars had the new engine, current U.S. gasoline consumption of 140 billion gallons per year would drop by more than 30 billion gallons. (mit.edu)
  • According to a simulation developed by Bromberg, with ethanol injection the engine won't knock even when the pressure inside the cylinder is three times higher than that in a conventional SI engine. (mit.edu)
  • With knock essentially eliminated, the researchers could incorporate into their engine two operating techniques that help make today's diesel engines so efficient-but without causing the high emissions levels of diesels. (mit.edu)
  • But rather than seeking higher vehicle performance-the trend in recent decades-the researchers shrank their engine to half the size. (mit.edu)
  • The engine should use less than five gallons of ethanol for every 100 gallons of gasoline, so drivers would need to fill their ethanol tank only every one to three months. (mit.edu)
  • In some cases, improper gas octane is the cause of engine knocking. (wisegeek.com)
  • Research by the U.S. Energy Information Administration shows that pure ethanol has a lower heating value than gasoline, so it makes it harder to start a car's engine in areas with a cold climate. (caranddriver.com)
  • Shockwaves produced by detonation can cause much higher pressures than engine components are designed for, and can cause a "knocking" or "pinging" sound. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gasoline companies have been pushing engine-cleaning formulations lately. (slate.com)
  • Gasoline with a higher octane level is less prone to pre-ignition and detonation, also known as engine knocking. (eia.gov)
  • in essence, the water isexpanding inside the cylinder, and basically using it like a steam engine, but combining the "boiler" process into the cylinder, and using the burning gasoline to create the steam. (abovetopsecret.com)
  • Answer: The 3.0 V/6 engine requires high octane because of the compression ratio. (tauntongazette.com)
  • To use the 87 octane would not be in the best interest of the engine. (tauntongazette.com)
  • The lowest octane gases are typically the least capable of withstanding compression and are more likely to ignite this way. (wisegeek.com)
  • In 2017, the national average price of midgrade gasoline was about 25¢ per gallon more than regular grade gasoline, and the average price for premium grade gasoline was about 50¢ per gallon more than regular grade. (eia.gov)
  • 1988. Unscheduled DNA synthesis in rat primary hepatocytes with PS-6 unleaded gasoline, its evaporation residue and a DMSO extract. (cdc.gov)
  • A more modern implementation of MTG is the Topsøe integrated gasoline synthesis (TIGS). (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher-octane ratings make gasoline burn more efficiently. (csmonitor.com)
  • These exotic molecules include long chains of carbons, detergents, and chemical enhancers that supposedly make gasoline cheaper, greener, and more efficient-values that are often at odds with each other. (slate.com)
  • Automakers could implement higher compression ratios on new models, which sounds great and offers the potential for more-efficient engines, but what about all of those old models rocking lower compression rates? (thetruthaboutcars.com)
  • I believe power increases somewhat with higher compression ratios. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • I'm not gonna say I said it first, but I'm sure I said that 5 years ago here, in response to naysers who keep saying 'ethanol cannot replace gasoline' and the likes. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Lastly, the fact is that there simply isn't enough land in the United States to grow enough corn to replace gasoline completely, even if it was possible. (dailyfueleconomytip.com)
  • The government's policy of keeping gasoline prices cheap compared with rising international oil prices has made the production of hydrous ethanol unprofitable. (reuters.com)
  • Thus, a light catalytic cycle oil is predominantly a synthetic product boiling above the end point of gasoline and below the fresh feed initial boiling point, i.e., between about 430 and 650 R, which is highly aromatic. (google.com)
  • A portion of this material is reacted separately to form high density aromatic compounds. (epa.gov)
  • As a result, the synthetic gasoline product has high octane and desirable viscometric properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • it has a high octane number and 25 percent greater energy density compared to ethanol. (epa.gov)
  • However, it has a relatively low energy density per gallon - about half of gasoline. (agmrc.org)
  • Although hydrogen has high energy density by weight, it is the lightest of all elements and requires large volumes to power a motor vehicle. (agmrc.org)
  • Understanding the octane increase with ethanol blending is of great fundamental and practical importance. (sae.org)
  • Ethanol is praised for its ability to increase the octane rating of gasoline. (csmonitor.com)
  • It's believed that vehicles running on E85 will potentially have better performance than strictly gasoline vehicles because of the higher octane, higher compression ratio and the resulting increase in thermodynamic efficiency. (dailyfueleconomytip.com)
  • Seems to me RON is the octane measurement that was used here prior to mid 1973 and 95 RON would be tantamount to regular, or maybe a slight increase over 87. (thetruthaboutcars.com)
  • While a 5 percent increase in ethanol concentration in gasoline would increase domestic use of corn, it wouldn't be enough to offset losses. (dispatch.com)
  • When corn prices increase farmers reap higher yields by making changes. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • For the upcoming Memorial Day weekend, we assume (based on the results of the CARD study) that each gallon of gasoline purchased would have been $0.89/gallon more expensive without ethanol. (ilcorn.org)
  • The alcohols also have a greater latent heat of vaporization than gasoline, which contributes to their higher RON values and provides additional charge cooling in direct-injection (DI) engines. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Alcohols also have found use as octane enhancers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1990. Conversion of alkanes into gasoline on ZSM-5 zeolite catalysts. (cdc.gov)
  • Right now, researchers are studying a host of energy solutions, including hydrogen, high-mileage diesel, plug-in hybrids, radical reductions in vehicle weight and cellulosic ethanol (made from cornstalks, switchgrass or other nonfood crops). (coyoteblog.com)
  • Combination (Research and Motor method) Octane Rating Unit SINPAR FTC-M1/M2 provides a complete system for octane determination, conforming to ASTM D2699 (RON) and ASTM D2700(MON) Standard Test Method. (ecplaza.net)
  • The Combination Octane Rating Unit FTC- M1/M2 has the capability to switch between Research Method (RON) and. (chinacomputerparts.com)
  • D2700, ASTM D2699, GB/T503, GB/T5487 Combination (Research & Motor Method) Octane Rating Unit FTC-M1 is a complete system for octane determination, conforming to ASTM D 2699 (ISO 5164) and ASTM D 2700(ISO. (chinacomputerparts.com)
  • Octane engines FTC-M1/M2 provide the. (ecplaza.net)
  • High-efficiency engines and high-quality oil have changed the way we approach this service. (toyota.com)
  • If you've read How Car Engines Work , you know that almost all cars use four--stroke gasoline engines. (howstuffworks.com)
  • In 1892 the first gasoline-powered engines, for both car and tractor, were developed: This soon provided a market for the once useless substance, gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • TEL was used to promote the development of higher efficiency, higher compression engines. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Some carry E-85, which is 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, blended to work in specially modified engines. (prezi.com)
  • More advance engines, such as this GM product can, through downsizing, give MUCH GREATER mileage/per HP with E85 than with gasoline. (coyoteblog.com)
  • Gasoline demand and prices typically peak in May and June, as millions of American families embark on summer vacations. (ilcorn.org)
  • From 1995 through 2006, the price difference between grades of gasoline was typically about 10¢ per gallon. (eia.gov)
  • Gasoline is typically targeted to the range of 7 - 10 for RVP. (epa.gov)
  • The nonlinearity of octane ratings with volumetric ethanol content makes it difficult to assess the accuracy of such measurements. (sae.org)
  • Octane ratings for neat ethanol, denatured ethanol, and hydrous ethanol were also measured. (sae.org)
  • NEW YORK - The New York City Department of Consumer Affairs charged Thursday that a dozen oil companies--including such giants as Exxon, Gulf, Mobil, Shell and Sunoco--have misrepresented the octane ratings of gasoline sold to service stations in the New York metropolitan area. (latimes.com)
  • The octane ratings of gasoline can be increased by the addition of small amounts of antiknock agents. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Therefore, in some areas of the United States, such as the Rocky Mountain States, the octane ratings for the gasoline grades may be 2 or more octane points lower. (everything2.com)
  • Benzene has received much attention from regulatory agencies because it has been classified as a known human carcinogen (EPA classification, Group A) and causes blood disorders (leukemia) in workers exposed to high concentrations. (justia.com)
  • In summer, conventional gasoline is used in most of these areas. (everything2.com)
  • Each type of gasoline (conventional, oxygenated and reformulated) is classified by three grades - Regular, Midgrade, and Premium. (everything2.com)
  • Environ Res Lett 2007;2(2):024001 (13pp)), which showed that isooctane produced and combusted in light duty vehicles is expected to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 94.0 percent and fossil energy use by 97.3 percent compared to the production and use of conventional and reformulated gasoline. (epa.gov)
  • Continuing his studies in organic chemistry after his return to Russia, he soon learned to control and direct high-pressure catalytic reactions, demonstrating that inorganic compounds can induce chemical reactions in organic compounds . (britannica.com)
  • At the UOP laboratory Ipatieff applied his catalytic processes to the manufacture of high-octane gasoline from low-value feedstock. (britannica.com)
  • Refining costs and profits vary seasonally and by region in the United States, partly because of the different gasoline formulations required to reduce air pollution in different parts of the country. (eia.gov)