Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Nitrate Reductase (NADH): An NAD-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM and is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. It was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.1.Silver Nitrate: A silver salt with powerful germicidal activity. It has been used topically to prevent OPHTHALMIA NEONATORUM.Nitrate Reductase (NAD(P)H): An iron-sulfur and MOLYBDENUM containing FLAVOPROTEIN that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This enzyme can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors. It is a key enzyme that is involved in the first step of nitrate assimilation in PLANTS; FUNGI; and BACTERIA. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.2.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Isosorbide Dinitrate: A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.Nitroglycerin: A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Pentaerythritol Tetranitrate: A vasodilator with general properties similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a more prolonged duration of action. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1025)Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fertilizers: Substances or mixtures that are added to the soil to supply nutrients or to make available nutrients already present in the soil, in order to increase plant growth and productivity.Denitrification: Nitrate reduction process generally mediated by anaerobic bacteria by which nitrogen available to plants is converted to a gaseous form and lost from the soil or water column. It is a part of the nitrogen cycle.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Nitric Acid: Nitric acid (HNO3). A colorless liquid that is used in the manufacture of inorganic and organic nitrates and nitro compounds for fertilizers, dye intermediates, explosives, and many different organic chemicals. Continued exposure to vapor may cause chronic bronchitis; chemical pneumonitis may occur. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Nitrate Reductase (NADPH): An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in the presence of NADP+. It is a FLAVOPROTEIN that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM. This enzyme was formerly classified as EC 1.6.6.3 and should not be confused with the enzyme NITRATE REDUCTASE (NAD(P)H).Nitrogen Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain nitrogen as an integral part of the molecule.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Chlorella: Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.Nitrogen Isotopes: Stable nitrogen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element nitrogen, but differ in atomic weight. N-15 is a stable nitrogen isotope.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Pteridines: Compounds based on pyrazino[2,3-d]pyrimidine which is a pyrimidine fused to a pyrazine, containing four NITROGEN atoms.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Tungsten Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain tungsten as an integral part of the molecule.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Formates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)MissouriTrihalomethanes: Methanes substituted with three halogen atoms, which may be the same or different.Air Filters: Barriers used to separate and remove PARTICULATE MATTER from air.Groundwater: Liquid water present beneath the surface of the earth.Inorganic Chemicals: A broad class of substances encompassing all those that do not include carbon and its derivatives as their principal elements. However, carbides, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, and carbon disulfide are included in this class.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Vapor Pressure: The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.Pemphigoid, Benign Mucous Membrane: A chronic blistering disease with predilection for mucous membranes and less frequently the skin, and with a tendency to scarring. It is sometimes called ocular pemphigoid because of conjunctival mucous membrane involvement.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Mouth Mucosa: Lining of the ORAL CAVITY, including mucosa on the GUMS; the PALATE; the LIP; the CHEEK; floor of the mouth; and other structures. The mucosa is generally a nonkeratinized stratified squamous EPITHELIUM covering muscle, bone, or glands but can show varying degree of keratinization at specific locations.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Veterinarians: Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)
Plants can absorb nitrate or ammonium from the soil via their root hairs. If nitrate is absorbed, it is first reduced to ... Due to their very high solubility and because soils are highly unable to retain anions, nitrates can enter groundwater. ... Nitrate is depleted in near-surface water except in upwelling regions. Coastal upwelling regions usually have high nitrate and ... However, there are regions of high surface nitrate but low chlorophyll that are referred to as HNLC (high nitrogen, low ...
For the body to generate nitric oxide through the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway, the reduction of nitrate to nitrite (by ... Nitric oxide is absorbed systemically after inhalation. Most of it moves across the pulmonary capillary bed where it combines ... A high salt intake was demonstrated to attenuate NO production in patients with essential hypertension, although ... Abrams, J (1996). "Beneficial actions of nitrates in cardiovascular disease". The American Journal of Cardiology. 77 (13): 31C- ...
Ingested Low-fired oxides and soluble salts such as nitrate can be absorbed into the blood stream. If they are inhaled then it ... the nitrates and the tributyl phosphate, and a model compound of a dioxouranium(VI) complex with two nitrates and two triethyl ... High-speed storage engines or memory storage engines; photoconversion molecular engines based on Ln(II) and Ln(III); ... This extraction is of the nitrate salts and is classed as being of a solvation mechanism. For example, the extraction of ...
It easily absorbs atmospheric carbon dioxide to form the hydrated carbonate ThOCO3·xH2O and, under high-pressure conditions in ... It can also be prepared by electrolysis of thorium nitrates. It is stable from 260-450 °C; at 470 °C and above it continuously ... while thorium nitrate forms tetra- and pentahydrates, is soluble in water and alcohols, and is an important intermediate in the ... At high temperatures, it is easily attacked by oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, the halogens, and sulfur. It can also form binary ...
... have high concentrations of nitrate. When eaten and absorbed into the bloodstream, nitrate is concentrated in saliva (about 10- ... Prominent examples are S-nitrosothiols, certain organic nitrates, nitrosylated metal complexes, dinitrosyl-iron complexes (DNIC ... A similar mechanism is thought to protect the skin from fungal infections, where nitrate in sweat is reduced to nitrite by skin ... It is also produced naturally by the extremely high air temperatures produced along the path of lightning in thunderstorms. In ...
Each tonne of microalgae absorbs two tonnes of CO. 2. Scottish Bioenergy, who run the project, sell the microalgae as high ... Nitrate was found to be the preferred source of nitrogen, in regards to amount of biomass grown. Urea is a readily available ... In addition to this, the ammonia, nitrates, and phosphates that would normally render the water unsafe actually serve as ... which is 10 to 23 times as high as the next highest yielding crop, oil palm, at 5 950 L/ha/year.[45] ...
It is commonly reduced to metallic high purity cobalt. It can be absorbed on to various catalyst supports for use in Fischer- ... "Anhydrous Nitrates and Nitrosonium Nitratometallates of Manganese and Cobalt, M(NO3)2, NO[Mn(NO3)3], and (NO)2[Co(NO3)4]: ... Each nitrate ion coordinates to three cobalts. The dihydrate is a two-dimensional polymer, with nitrate bridges between Co(II) ... Cobalt Nitrate is the inorganic cobalt(II) salt of nitric acid, often with various amounts of water. It is more commonly found ...
Manganese nitrate) Zn + 2 HNO3 → Zn(NO3)2 + H2 (Zinc nitrate) Nitric acid can oxidize non-active metals such as copper and ... 2 NO (g) + O2 (g) → 2 NO2 (g) (ΔH = −114 kJ/mol) This is subsequently absorbed in water to form nitric acid and nitric oxide. 3 ... An electric arc was used to provide the high temperatures, and yields of up to 4% nitric oxide were obtained. The nitric oxide ... most metals give the corresponding nitrates. Some metalloids and metals give the oxides; for instance, Sn, As, Sb, and Ti are ...
... finds use as a test for nitrates (see nitrate test). Diphenylamine is used to make phenothiazine-based drugs such ... In animal experiments diphenylamine was rapidly and completely absorbed after ingestion by mouth. It underwent metabolism to ... 2 HI Arylation with iodobenzene gives triphenylamine. Diphenylamine is used as a pre- or postharvest scald inhibitor for apples ...
In the high-yttrium versions of these ore concentrates, yttrium is about two-thirds of the total by weight, and erbia is about ... The solution is treated with magnesium nitrate to produce a crystallized mixture of double salts of rare-earth metals. The ... Other uses: Used in nuclear technology in neutron-absorbing control rods. When added to vanadium as an alloy, erbium lowers ... Bruce, D. W.; Hietbrink, B. E.; Dubois, K. P. (1963). "The acute mammalian toxicity of rare earth nitrates and oxides". ...
Rare cases of nitrates being converted to the more toxic nitrites have been reported, mostly with infants. Skin Contact: Causes ... Harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Causes irritation to skin, eyes and respiratory tract. SAF-T-DATA ... Special Information: Wear full protective clothing and breathing equipment for high-intensity fire or potential explosion ... Potassium nitrate Nitric acid Niter Black powder Sodium nitrate Sodium nitrite Potassium nitrite. ...
Activated carbon filters absorb nitrogen compounds and other toxins from the water. Biological filters provide a medium ... Higher biological loading represents a more complicated ecology, which makes equilibrium easier to imbalance. The surface area ... In a planted aquarium, aquatic plants also metabolize ammonium and nitrate as nutrients, removing them from the water column ... and nitrates must be removed at the end. Nitrogen bound up in plant matter is removed when the plant grows too large. Hobbyist ...
Faster-burning propellants generate higher temperatures and higher pressures, however they also increase wear on gun barrels. ... bismuth nitrate, bismuth antimonide); the bismuth compounds are favored as copper dissolves in molten bismuth, forming brittle ... but ballistic uniformity suffered as the paper absorbed atmospheric moisture. In 1871, Frederick Volkmann received an Austrian ... Explosives Company at Stowmarket patented an improved formulation of nitrated cotton gelatinised by ether-alcohol with nitrates ...
... at least three times higher in homes with gas stoves compared to electric stoves with the highest levels being in multifamily ... NO 2 is used to generate anhydrous metal nitrates from the oxides: MO + 3 NO 2 → M(NO 3) 2 + NO Alkyl and metal iodides give ... These sources make NO 2 a trace gas in the atmosphere of Earth, where it plays a role in absorbing sunlight and regulating the ... NO 2 is used as an intermediate in the manufacturing of nitric acid, as a nitrating agent in manufacturing of chemical ...
By 1991, four manufacturers - BMW, Honda, Mercedes-Benz and Volvo - offered the air bag on some of their higher-end models, but ... The ammonium nitrate-based inflators have a flaw where old inflators with long-term exposure to hot and humid climate ... As with later missions, these would use the airbags to bounce along the surface, absorbing landing energy. The Mars Pathfinder ... US patent 6958101, Ivan V. Mendenhall, Robert D. Taylor, "Substituted basic metal nitrates in gas generation" ...
Ammonium ions are absorbed by the plant via ammonia transporters. Nitrate is taken up by several nitrate transporters that use ... doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2011.02311.x. Tischner, R. (2000). "Nitrate uptake and reduction in higher and lower plants". Plant, ... Plants that reduce nitrates in the shoots and excrete alkali from their roots need to transport the alkali in an inert form ... Nitrate reduction is carried out in two steps. Nitrate is first reduced to nitrite (NO2−) in the cytosol by nitrate reductase ...
The aquarium keeper must remove water once nitrate concentrations grow, or remove plants which have grown from the nitrates. ... Nitrite is toxic to fish in high concentrations. Another type of bacteria (genus Nitrospira) converts nitrite into nitrate, a ... The bigger the tank, the easier such a systemic shock is to absorb, because the effects of that event are diluted. For example ... High biological loading presents a more complicated tank ecology, which in turn means that equilibrium is easier to upset. ...
Higher yield per acre crops were also planted as potatoes went from about 300,000 acres in 1800 to about 400,000 acres in 1850 ... Guano and nitrates from South America were introduced in the mid-19th century and fallow steadily declined to reach only about ... New fertilisers, besides the organic fertilisers in manure, were slowly found as massive sodium nitrate (NaNO3) deposits found ... that plants could absorb readily and increased crop yields. Mining coprolite and processing it for fertiliser soon developed ...
Producing high purity samples has proved to be difficult. Single crystals of the higher borides have been grown in a low ... Ce(IV) in ceric ammonium nitrate is a useful oxidizing agent. Otherwise tetravalent lanthanides are rare. The Ce(IV) is the ... All of the sesquioxides are basic, and absorb water and carbon dioxide from air to form carbonates, hydroxides and ... Typically an aqueous solution of nitrates is extracted into kerosene containing tri-n-butylphosphate. The strength of the ...
The sand itself is dug out and leached for nitrates which were then converted to potassium nitrate using potash, as above. From ... Combats high blood pressure and was once used as a hypotensive. Electrolyte in a salt bridge Active ingredient of condensed ... It is not very hygroscopic, absorbing about 0.03% water in 80% relative humidity over 50 days. It is insoluble in alcohol and ... Potassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ...
Black powder is a granular mixture of a nitrate, typically potassium nitrate (KNO3), which supplies oxygen for the reaction; ... In quarrying, high explosives are generally preferred for shattering rock. However, because of its low brisance, black powder ... It was also discovered that if the paste was rolled into balls before drying the resulting gunpowder absorbed less water from ... If one takes the median of 17 of these 22 compositions for rockets (75% nitrates, 9.06% sulfur, and 15.94% charcoal), it is ...
or nitrates: Ca(NO3)2 → CaO + 2NO2 + 1/2O2. The oxides exhibit basic character: they turn phenolphthalein red and litmus, blue ... In electronics, beryllium is used as a p-type dopant in some semiconductors,[56] and beryllium oxide is used as a high-strength ... Exposed to air, it will absorb water vapour from the air, forming a solution. This property is known as deliquescence. ... which is dissolved with other elements to form other compounds, such as barium nitrate. These in turn are thermally ...
Other uses of the metal include high-energy lasers, vapour glow lamps, and vapour rectifiers. The high density of the caesium ... Caesium nitrate is used as an oxidizer and pyrotechnic colorant to burn silicon in infrared flares, such as the LUU-19 flare, ... After conversion to the nitrates and extraction with ethanol, a sodium-free mixture was obtained. From this mixture, the ... of absorbed radiocaesium washes out of the body relatively quickly in sweat and urine. The remaining 90% has a biological half- ...
Another type of bacteria, genus Nitrospira, on-converts nitrite into less-toxic nitrate. (Nitrobacter bacteria were previously ... Higher biological loading represents a more complicated ecology, which makes equilibrium easier to imbalance. The surface area ... Activated carbon and other substances, such as ammonia absorbing resins, stop working when their pores fill, so these ... and nitrates must be removed at the end. Nitrogen bound up in plant matter is removed when the plant grows too large. ...
Dark soils tend to absorb more heat, and are therefore preferred. As crops grow, they absorb nutrients from the soil, so land ... aim to protect ground and surface water from contamination with nitrates and manure. The Nitrates Directive was reviewed and ... nitrate concentrations occasionally exceed this level and the government has brought in regulations to control nitrate levels ... This relatively high soil acidity is one of the factors that lead to liming. Lime tends to counteract soil acidity, and with ...
It is found in very dry areas. If it was wet, then the sodium nitrate would dissolve. But it is normally made artificially by reacting sodium hydroxide and nitric acid. Chile used to have much sodium nitrate naturally in the very dry Atacama Desert. It is found in small amounts in leafy green vegetables. ...
... , also called vanadium oxytrinitrate or vanadium oxynitrate is a compound of vanadium in the +5 oxidation state with nitrate groups and oxygen. The formula is VO(NO3)3. It is made from dinitrogen pentoxide and vanadium pentoxide. It is a nitrating agent, adding nitro groups to aromatic compounds such as benzene, phenol, chlorobenzene, anisole, acetanilide, benzoic acid, ethyl benzoate, and toluene. Vanadyl nitrate can be made by soaking vanadium pentoxide in liquid dinitrogen pentoxide for durations around two days at room temperature. The yield for this method is about 85%. V2O5 + 3N2O5 → 2VO(NO3)3. Purification can be done by vacuum distillation. Vanadyl nitrate can also be made from vanadyl trichloride VOCl3 and dinitrogen pentoxide. Vanadyl nitrate is a pale yellow liquid. It is viscous but can be ...
... forms nine molecular oxides, some of which were the first gases to be identified: N2O (nitrous oxide), NO (nitric oxide), N2O3 (dinitrogen trioxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide), N2O4 (dinitrogen tetroxide), N2O5 (dinitrogen pentoxide), N4O (nitrosylazide),[57] and N(NO2)3 (trinitramide).[58] All are thermally unstable towards decomposition to their elements. One other possible oxide that has not yet been synthesised is oxatetrazole (N4O), an aromatic ring.[57] Nitrous oxide (N2O), better known as laughing gas, is made by thermal decomposition of molten ammonium nitrate at 250 °C. This is a redox reaction and thus nitric oxide and nitrogen are also produced as byproducts. It is mostly used as a propellant and aerating agent for sprayed canned whipped cream, and was formerly commonly used as an anaesthetic. Despite appearances, it cannot be considered to be the anhydride of hyponitrous acid (H2N2O2) because that acid is not produced by the dissolution of nitrous oxide in ...
2 intae uiseful compoonds, but at the same time causin release o lairge amoonts o eften uiseful energy when the compoonds burn, explode, or decay back intae nitrogen gas. Seenthetically-produced ammonie an nitrates are key industrial fertilizers an fertilizer nitrates are key pollutants in causin the eutrophication o watter seestems. Ootside thair major uises as fertilizers an energy-stores, nitrogen compounds are versatile organics. Nitrogen is pairt o materials as diverse as Kevlar fabric an cyanoacrylate "super" glue. Nitrogen is a constituent o molecules in every major pharmacological drog class, includin the antibiotics. Mony drugs are mimics or prodrugs o naitural nitrogen-containin signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin an nitroprusside control bluid pressur bi bein metabolized tae naitural nitric oxide. Plant alkaloids (eften defence chemicals) contain nitrogen bi ...
As well as the anhydrous compound Co(NO3)2, several hydrates of cobalt(II) nitrate exist. These hydrates have the chemical formula Co(NO3)2·nH2O, where n = 0, 2, 4, 6. Anhydrous cobalt(II) nitrate adopts a three-dimensional polymeric network structure, with each cobalt(II) atom approximately octahedrally coordinated by six oxygen atoms, each from a different nitrate ion. Each nitrate ion coordinates to three cobalts.[3] The dihydrate is a two-dimensional polymer, with nitrate bridges between Co(II) centres and hydrogen bonding holding the layers together. The tetrahydrate consists of discrete, octahedral [(H2O)4Co(NO3)2] molecules. The hexahydrate is better described as hexaaquacobalt(II) nitrate, [Co(OH2)6][NO3]2, as it consists of discrete [Co(OH2)6]2+ and [NO3]− ions.[4] Above 55 °C, the hexahydrate ...
... (stylized as Drāno) is a drain cleaner product manufactured by S. C. Johnson & Son. According to the National Institutes of Health's Household Products Database, the crystal form is composed of: Sodium hydroxide (lye), NaOH Sodium nitrate, NaNO3 Sodium chloride (salt), NaCl Aluminium shards, Al After Drano crystals are added to water, the reaction works as follows: Aluminium reacts with lye: 2NaOH + 2Al + 2H2O → 3H2 + 2NaAlO2, although the exact species in solution may be NaAl(OH)4. The release of hydrogen gas stirs the mixture and improves the interaction between the lye and the materials clogging the drain. It's possible that pressure may build up inside the pipe, causing the hot, caustic solution to spurt out of the drain. Sodium nitrate reacts with hydrogen: 2NO3− + 9H2 → 2NH3 + 6H2O. This removes hydrogen, which poses a fire and explosion hazard and produces ammonia, which is also capable of decomposing organic material, albeit ...
सोडियम नाइट्रेट (Sodium nitrate) एक रासायनिक यौगिक है जिसका रासायनिक सूत्र NaNO3 है। इसे चिली साल्टपीटर भी कहते हैं क्योंकि चिली में इसके विशाल भण्डार हैं। ...
An teksto in available ha ilarom han Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; kadugangan nga terms in puyde mag-apply. Kitaa anMga Terms of Use para han mga detalye ...
... s are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (−NO2). The nitro group is one of the most common explosophores (functional group that makes a compound explosive) used globally. The nitro group is also strongly electron-withdrawing. Because of this property, C−H bonds alpha (adjacent) to the nitro group can be acidic. For similar reasons, the presence of nitro groups in aromatic compounds retards electrophilic aromatic substitution but facilitates nucleophilic aromatic substitution. Nitro groups are rarely found in nature, being almost invariably produced by nitration reactions starting with nitric acid. Aromatic nitro compounds are typically synthesized by nitration. Nitration is achieved using a mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid, which produce the nitronium ion (NO2+), which the electrophile: + H+ The nitration product produced on the largest scale, by far, is nitrobenzene. Many explosives are produced by nitration including trinitrophenol ...
... are a group of chemical compounds based upon the molecular structure R-ONO. Formally they are alkyl esters of nitrous acid. They are distinct from nitro compounds (R-NO2). The first few members of the series are volatile liquids; methyl nitrite and ethyl nitrite are gaseous at room temperature and pressure. The compounds have a distinctive fruity odor. Another frequently encountered nitrite is amyl nitrite (3-methylbutyl nitrite). Alkyl nitrites were initially, and largely still are used as medications and chemical reagents, a practice which began in the late 19th century. In their use as medicine, are often inhaled for relief of angina and other heart-related symptoms of disease. However, when referred to as "poppers", alkyl nitrites represent recreational drugs. ...
... is a botanical term that indicates a preference for a habitat rich in nitrate. This term was first introduced by George Fuller during the 1930s. The word is a contraction of the Greek words νἰτρον (nitron) meaning "saltpetre" and φίλος (phylos) meaning "friendly". Nitrophily is traditionally expressed as a score between 1 (not nitrophilous at all) and 10 (extremely nitrophilous) according to the Ellenberg N Index. Alternatively, the response of leaf area to nitrogen supply is a relatively simple method to produce a proxy for the nitrophily. Mostly the nitrophily is consistent with the nitrate availability, where the lowest values occur with plants that grow in peat bogs (such as Drosera- and Erica-species), while the highest values occur with plants that grow on fresh organic waste such as dung piles, waste heaps and strandlines (such as Chenopodium-, and Urtica-species). "Nitrophilous". Oxford Dictionalries. Retrieved ...
Jutta Pohl, Dieter Pohl, Gunadi Adiwidjaja (1992). "Phase Transition in Rubidium Nitrate at 346 K and Structure at 296, 372, 413 and 437 K". Acta Crystallographica Section B. B48: 160-166. doi:10.1107/S0108768191013459 ...
It is a yellow crystalline solid. It is an oxidizing agent in an acidic condition. It is toxic though, because it contains chromium in its +6 oxidation state. It can be destroyed by reaction with reducing agents. It is very rarely found in the ground. It reacts with lead nitrate to make lead chromate, a yellow pigment. ...
Only after nitrates have been absent from the body for several hours has response to nitrates been restored. ... high-dosage) and females (both high and intermediate dosage groups). Benign interstitial cell tumors of the testes were also ... Attempts to overcome nitrate tolerance by dose escalation, even to doses far in excess of those used acutely, have consistently ... About 2/3 of a 50-mg dose of 14C-hydralazine HCl given in gelatin capsules was absorbed in hypertensive subjects. In patients ...
It is commonly reduced to metallic high purity cobalt. It can be absorbed on to various catalyst supports for use in Fischer- ... "Anhydrous Nitrates and Nitrosonium Nitratometallates of Manganese and Cobalt, M(NO3)2, NO[Mn(NO3)3], and (NO)2[Co(NO3)4]: ... Each nitrate ion coordinates to three cobalts. The dihydrate is a two-dimensional polymer, with nitrate bridges between Co(II) ... Cobalt Nitrate is the inorganic cobalt(II) salt of nitric acid, often with various amounts of water. It is more commonly found ...
Remember to consider both sources of nitrate.. For more information regarding nitrates and nitrate poisoning, refer to NDSU ... High-saline water is not the same as alkaline water. A pH of 7 would be neutral; a number higher than 7 indicates alkalinity; ... However, many mineral salts are relatively insoluble and pass through the body without being absorbed. Even in hard water, the ... Nitrates. Water may be a source of toxic levels of nitrate for livestock. Water may become contaminated by fertilizer, animal ...
Dry conditions in the High Plains have livestock producers on high alert for possible livestock nitrate poisoning. Extension ... "When nitrate levels are high, the nitrite will accumulate and be absorbed by red blood cells, reducing their ability to ... Recommendations for preventing nitrate poisoning include avoiding or diluting forages that are high in nitrates, feeding dry ... Dry conditions in the High Plains have livestock producers on high alert for possible livestock nitrate poisoning. Extension ...
high levels of dietary nitrates and is a in the DNA. often left with critical decisions to "youll want to look back and see ... ing nitrate supplements. Pairing high-vitamin-C foods, such as are declaring Christ to the world.. fennel, with iron-rich foods ... Heart health the ability of the body to absorb iron. Kingdom is the gift He has in store. for those who turn from the way of. ... associated with a higher risk for bone when "many of those who sleep in. fracture. Fennel is a source of vitamin B-6, the dust ...
... and sufficiently high concentrations can kill the same plants. Duckweed, nut grass and water lilies are known to absorb these ... It took two to three days longer than the land filter to lower nitrite and nitrate levels but did bring them to zero, as per ... The land filter also quickly lowered nitrates, nitrites and chlorine from initial levels (of 10, 0.5 and 0.5 ppm, respectively ... In addition to absorbing chemicals useful to them, certain plants can "lock up" harmful substances such as lead, zinc and ...
Plants can absorb nitrate or ammonium from the soil via their root hairs. If nitrate is absorbed, it is first reduced to ... Due to their very high solubility and because soils are highly unable to retain anions, nitrates can enter groundwater. ... Nitrate is depleted in near-surface water except in upwelling regions. Coastal upwelling regions usually have high nitrate and ... However, there are regions of high surface nitrate but low chlorophyll that are referred to as HNLC (high nitrogen, low ...
Test baled cornstalks for nitrate levels and feed them to cattle with caution, says University of Missouri Extension livestock ... Excess nitrate is then absorbed into the bloodstream, which reduces the ability of blood to carry oxygen. Symptoms of nitrate ... However, grain feeding does not eliminate problems associated with high levels of nitrates. Schmitz says it is important for ... MU Extension agronomists across the state report high nitrate levels caused by this summers drought. County MU Extension ...
It just so happens that beetroots are one of the best natural sources of nitrates. Studies show that the high nitrate levels of ... Nitrates are compounds that are converted into nitric acid when they are absorbed into your body. Nitric acid can help lower ... Because beetroots are so high in nitrates and betalains, consuming them can help increase blood flow and oxygen to the muscles ... Beetroot juice is extremely high in antioxidants. Betalains are the natural plant pigments that give beetroots their vibrant ...
Nitrates, however, will pass through carbon filters.. Reverse osmosis units use large amounts of water. Typically, about 75 ... Activated carbon filters absorb impurities as they pass through a carbon cartridge. Generally, they are used to eliminate ... However, these filters are not designed to remove persistently high levels of these contaminants. When contamination cannot be ... However, boiling concentrates inorganic impurities such as nitrate and sulfates. Boiled water also tastes flat because the ...
... nitrate poisoning is still a concern for cattle and sheep producers. ... the roots will absorb very little nitrate. In plants that survive drought conditions, nitrates are often high for several days ... Some moisture must be present in the soil for the plant to absorb and accumulate nitrate. If the major supply of nitrates for ... and thus horses are generally tolerant of rather high concentrations of nitrate," Stoltenow says. "Nitrate poisoning is ...
In a severe drought, nitrate absorption will cease because of a lack of moisture, but nitrates will be rapidly absorbed ... If forages are suspected to contain high nitrates, it is recommended to take a nitrate analysis to determine potential toxicity ... Extreme temperatures, both high and low, can also increase nitrate levels.. The term nitrate toxicity is somewhat misleading, ... The majority of nitrogen absorbed by plant roots is in the nitrate form, and in normal weather conditions, nitrate is rapidly ...
High levels of nitrate ingestion and subsequent nitrite production overwhelm conversion to ammonia, and nitrite is absorbed ... Nitrates in forage are reduced to nitrite in the rumen, then quickly converted by rumen bacteria to ammonia, which is absorbed ... The sorghum silage nitrate analysis was 40,000 mg/kg dry weight (40,000 ppm or 4%). In general, feed with ,5,000 ppm nitrate is ... 17,000 ppm nitrate are considered to be toxic and should not be fed to cattle.1 Ocular fluid nitrate analysis was 52 mg/l. ...
Mag and Cal is better absorbed higher end. Be careful using calmag products as a foliar, they are both nitrates.. I would raise ... I dont know if this is a good idea or not but Cal cloride is completely desolvable in water and cal nitrate and cal carbonate ... Id say in the high 90%.. This is the feedback Im getting in the local industry.. Overblown marketing still sells shitty LEDs ... bumping this thread since the issue is happening again! same thing but i have my EC higher and its still happening! i think i ...
As a source of nitrate, beetroot ingestion provides a natural means of increasing in vivo nitric oxide (NO) availability and ... a high nitrate diet (~12 mmol) including beetroot juice, or a nitrate depleted diet (~0.09 mmol) for 24 h. Magnetic resonance ... The present data indicates that the bioactive constituents in beetroot, especially nitrate, appear to be well absorbed and ... Nitrate itself is not considered to mediate any specific physiological function; rather, nitrates beneficial effects are ...
This nitrate is readily absorbed and excreted in the urine.". Which is what is true and what we know, they go on to make a ... www.livestrong.com/article/367209-a-list-of-vegetables-high-in-nitrates/ ... Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise ... Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise ...
Get a good nitrate test kit and change enough water to keep the nitrates around 25 ppm. Dont let them get any higher than 50 ... It is NOT a good idea to keep carbon in the filter since it will absorb the medication. If the ammonia levels are OK then the ... Your high nitrates probably have stunted your Oscar. Sometimes well waters from agricultural areas contain high nitrates ... Get a nitrate test kit. I think you will find the nitrates are off the scale. Reduce the nitrates by doing a water change and ...
... beetroot and radish can contain high quantities of nitrate. Nitrite can form from nitrate in the body or even ... Minimisation of the nitrate content in the soil (by a reduced use of fertilisers) so that less nitrate is absorbed by plants ... Is there a health risk through nitrate and nitrite in foods? Nitrates by themselves are relatively safe. However, they can ... high temperatures result in lower and sustained drought in higher nitrate accumulation. As a rule, higher levels are also to be ...
These nitrates and sulfates, when they absorb water, tend to gather soot at high temperatures (150 to 300 C.) and undesirably ... Also, sulfates (e.g. calcium sulfate) and nitrates (e.g. calcium nitrate), which are formed from metal-based detergents and ... Relatively higher amounts are needed to ensure high deterging effect.. The extreme-pressure lubricants usable in the present ... High molecular polyamines are economically disadvantageous because the synthetic products have very high viscosities and ...
High levels of nitrate ingestion and subsequent nitrite production overwhelm conversion to ammonia, and nitrite is absorbed ... Nitrates in forage are reduced to nitrite in the rumen, then quickly converted by rumen bacteria to ammonia, which is absorbed ... The sorghum silage nitrate analysis was 40,000 mg/kg dry weight (40,000 ppm or 4%). In general, feed with ,5,000 ppm nitrate is ... Acute nitrate toxicosis in Holstein heifers. Acute nitrate toxicosis in Holstein heifers. Margaret Stalker, Clark Sinclair, ...
Is Potassium Nitrate Good for Banana Trees?. The banana plants (Musa spp.) in your tropical garden will grow rapidly, filling ... The high levels of potassium in the fertilizer are quickly absorbed by heavy feeders such as bananas. ... 2 Why a Plant Needs Nitrates * 3 How to Fertilize Tomatoes Synthetically ... Potassium Nitrate Fertilizer. Potassium nitrate fertilizer is made up of potassium, nitrogen and oxygen, with the potassium ...
... thus creating unusual high-energy environments. In devising synthetic methodologies to engineered nanomaterials, hydrothermal ... but the use of microwaves can be further extended to higher temperatures, ... transparent or absorbing ones. In MW-absorbing materials, the microwave power penetration depth (Dp) needs to be evaluated, and ... The solution of the metal precursor(s) nitrate(s) and the fuel is slowly evaporated and then ignited locally or volumetrically ...
Drought Nitrates accumulate in plants during periods of moderate drought because the roots continually absorb nitrate, but high ... Nitrate X 10,000 = Nitrate (ppm) Nearly all plants contain nitrate, but some species are more prone to accumulate nitrate than ... Extremely high temperatures also increase nitrate concentrations by reducing nitrate reductase enzyme activity. Applying high ... Because different laboratories report nitrate levels as either nitrate (NO3), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), or potassium nitrate ( ...
  • NP Pro accelerates the development and propagation of beneficial probiotic bacteria, which as the effect leads to the removal of harmful compounds such as nitrates and phosphates from the water. (marinedepot.com)
  • Studies show that the high nitrate levels of beetroot may even reduce your risk of heart failure. (naturalnews.com)
  • Additionally, beetroot juice contains high levels of flavonoids that can lower your levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. (naturalnews.com)
  • Moreover, beetroot juice contains high levels of dietary fiber that support regular bowel movements and healthy digestion. (naturalnews.com)
  • The recent interest in beetroot has been primarily driven by the discovery that sources of dietary nitrate may have important implications for managing cardiovascular health [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Lettuce and vegetables such as rocket, spinach, kohlrabi, beetroot and radish can contain high quantities of nitrate. (bund.de)
  • Vegetables such as rocket and other leaf lettuces, spinach, kohlrabi, beetroot, as well as red and white radish store a lot of nitrate. (bund.de)
  • Nitrate values in excess of 10 ppm are suspicious for, and in excess of 20 ppm are considered indicative of toxicity 2 . (uoguelph.ca)
  • 8. A dietary supplement according to claim 4, wherein the pressed and stored grapes are dried using high air flow convection without the addition of heat in excess of about 120° F. (50° C.) and wherein the dried grapes are ground at a temperature less than about 77° F. (25° C). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • High levels of sulfates can impact livestock health. (ndsu.edu)
  • If producers are considering utilizing low-yielding crops as livestock forage, they should be tested for nitrates prior to feeding," Sedivec warns. (hayandforage.com)
  • Test baled cornstalks for nitrate levels and feed them to cattle with caution, says University of Missouri Extension livestock specialist Gene Schmitz. (dairyherd.com)
  • Contact your local MU Extension livestock specialist for help with nitrate testing and feed ration formulation. (dairyherd.com)
  • Producers planning to use these crops as forage should have them analyzed for nitrate before feeding them to cattle or sheep or allowing livestock to graze on them, advises Charles Stoltenow, North Dakota State University Extension Service veterinarian, and Greg Lardy, NDSU Extension beef cattle specialist. (thedairysite.com)
  • Dr. Grant Maxie has established the AHL as a top-level, high-quality organization that serves the testing needs of animal health industries, livestock producers, and animal owners. (uoguelph.ca)
  • I theories that if you need emergency Cal folar fed, you might try Cal-cloride, I don't know if this is a good idea or not but Cal cloride is completely desolvable in water and cal nitrate and cal carbonate isnt so much. (rollitup.org)
  • 14 , 15 Some commercially prepared infant food vegetables are voluntarily monitored for nitrate content by private industry, including spinach, squash, and carrots. (aappublications.org)
  • Bailey SJ, Winyard P, Vanhatalo A, Blackwell JR, Dimenna FJ, Wilkerson DP, Tarr J, Benjamin N, Jones AM. Dietary nitrate supplementation reduces the O2 cost of low-intensity exercise and enhances tolerance to high-intensity exercise in humans. (nutritionfacts.org)
  • Usually stalks and stems pose the greatest risk while leaves, seeds, and flowers contain very little nitrate. (hayandforage.com)
  • If the nitrate level of stalks is less than approximately 2,500 parts per million, the stalks can be fed free-choice with no feeding restrictions," Schmitz says. (dairyherd.com)
  • If stalks have more than about 2,500 ppm nitrate, he recommends limiting the amount of stalks in the diet and warns against free-choice feeding in round bale feeders. (dairyherd.com)
  • Leaves contain less than stalks or stems, while the seed and flower usually contain little or no nitrate. (thedairysite.com)
  • The well-documented health benefits of a diet high in fruit and vegetables has led to a growing interest in so-called "functional foods" and their application in health and disease. (mdpi.com)
  • These components - specifically aerosols (particulates in the air - dust, soot, sulphates, nitrates, pollen etc.) and atmospheric chemistry (ozone, methane) - are both affected by climate and affect climate, since aerosols and ozone can interact, absorb, reflect or scatter solar and thermal radiation. (realclimate.org)