Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Polymerization: Chemical reaction in which monomeric components are combined to form POLYMERS (e.g., POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE).Kininogens: Endogenous peptides present in most body fluids. Certain enzymes convert them to active KININS which are involved in inflammation, blood clotting, complement reactions, etc. Kininogens belong to the cystatin superfamily. They are cysteine proteinase inhibitors. HIGH-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (HMWK); is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. LOW-MOLECULAR-WEIGHT KININOGEN; (LMWK); is split by tissue kallikrein to produce KALLIDIN.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Prekallikrein: A plasma protein which is the precursor of kallikrein. Plasma that is deficient in prekallikrein has been found to be abnormal in thromboplastin formation, kinin generation, evolution of a permeability globulin, and plasmin formation. The absence of prekallikrein in plasma leads to Fletcher factor deficiency, a congenital disease.Kininogen, High-Molecular-Weight: A plasma protein, molecular weight of 110 kD, that normally exists in plasma in a 1:1 complex with PREKALLIKREIN. HMWK is split by plasma kallikrein to produce BRADYKININ. The complex is a cofactor in the activation of coagulation factor XII. The product of this reaction, XIIa, in turn activates prekallikrein to KALLIKREINS. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Biopolymers: Polymers synthesized by living organisms. They play a role in the formation of macromolecular structures and are synthesized via the covalent linkage of biological molecules, especially AMINO ACIDS; NUCLEOTIDES; and CARBOHYDRATES.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Factor XI: Stable blood coagulation factor involved in the intrinsic pathway. The activated form XIa activates factor IX to IXa. Deficiency of factor XI is often called hemophilia C.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Kaolin: The most common mineral of a group of hydrated aluminum silicates, approximately H2Al2Si2O8-H2O. It is prepared for pharmaceutical and medicinal purposes by levigating with water to remove sand, etc. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) The name is derived from Kao-ling (Chinese: "high ridge"), the original site. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Factor XII: Stable blood coagulation factor activated by contact with the subendothelial surface of an injured vessel. Along with prekallikrein, it serves as the contact factor that initiates the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Kallikrein activates factor XII to XIIa. Deficiency of factor XII, also called the Hageman trait, leads to increased incidence of thromboembolic disease. Mutations in the gene for factor XII that appear to increase factor XII amidolytic activity are associated with HEREDITARY ANGIOEDEMA TYPE III.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Isoelectric Point: The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Kinins: A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Microfilament Proteins: Monomeric subunits of primarily globular ACTIN and found in the cytoplasmic matrix of almost all cells. They are often associated with microtubules and may play a role in cytoskeletal function and/or mediate movement of the cell or the organelles within the cell.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glutens: Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Electrophoresis, Disc: Electrophoresis in which discontinuities in both the voltage and pH gradients are introduced by using buffers of different composition and pH in the different parts of the gel column. The term 'disc' was originally used as an abbreviation for 'discontinuous' referring to the buffers employed, and does not have anything to do with the shape of the separated zones.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Actin Cytoskeleton: Fibers composed of MICROFILAMENT PROTEINS, which are predominately ACTIN. They are the smallest of the cytoskeletal filaments.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Hemoglobin, Sickle: An abnormal hemoglobin resulting from the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at position 6 of the beta chain of the globin moiety. The heterozygous state results in sickle cell trait, the homozygous in sickle cell anemia.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Fibrin: A protein derived from FIBRINOGEN in the presence of THROMBIN, which forms part of the blood clot.PolysaccharidesMelanoma-Specific Antigens: Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Physicochemical Phenomena: The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.TritiumChemistry, Physical: The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Profilins: A family of low molecular weight proteins that bind ACTIN and control actin polymerization. They are found in eukaryotes and are ubiquitously expressed.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Fibrinogens, Abnormal: Fibrinogens which have a functional defect as the result of one or more amino acid substitutions in the amino acid sequence of normal fibrinogen. Abnormalities of the fibrinogen molecule may impair any of the major steps involved in the conversion of fibrinogen into stabilized fibrin, such as cleavage of the fibrinopeptides by thrombin, polymerization and cross-linking of fibrin. The resulting dysfibrinogenemias can be clinically silent or can be associated with bleeding, thrombosis or defective wound healing.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Actin-Related Protein 2: A PROFILIN binding domain protein that is part of the Arp2-3 complex. It is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and binds ATP.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Acrylamides: Colorless, odorless crystals that are used extensively in research laboratories for the preparation of polyacrylamide gels for electrophoresis and in organic synthesis, and polymerization. Some of its polymers are used in sewage and wastewater treatment, permanent press fabrics, and as soil conditioning agents.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Phalloidine: Very toxic polypeptide isolated mainly from AMANITA phalloides (Agaricaceae) or death cup; causes fatal liver, kidney and CNS damage in mushroom poisoning; used in the study of liver damage.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein, Neuronal: A member of the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein family that is found at high levels in NERVE CELLS. It interacts with GRB2 ADAPTOR PROTEIN and with CDC42 PROTEIN.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.Actin-Related Protein 2-3 Complex: A complex of seven proteins including ARP2 PROTEIN and ARP3 PROTEIN that plays an essential role in maintenance and assembly of the CYTOSKELETON. Arp2-3 complex binds WASP PROTEIN and existing ACTIN FILAMENTS, and it nucleates the formation of new branch point filaments.Protein PrecursorsDisulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight: Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Actin-Related Protein 3: A component of the Arp2-3 complex that is related in sequence and structure to ACTIN and that binds ATP. It is expressed at higher levels than ARP2 PROTEIN and does not contain a PROFILIN binding domain.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Electrophoresis, Agar Gel: Electrophoresis in which agar or agarose gel is used as the diffusion medium.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Succinic Anhydrides: A subclass of anhydrides with the general structure of dihydrofurandione. They can be substituted on any carbon atom. They modify and inhibit proteins and enzymes and are used in the acylation of amino- and hydroxyl groups.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Transglutaminases: Transglutaminases catalyze cross-linking of proteins at a GLUTAMINE in one chain with LYSINE in another chain. They include keratinocyte transglutaminase (TGM1 or TGK), tissue transglutaminase (TGM2 or TGC), plasma transglutaminase involved with coagulation (FACTOR XIII and FACTOR XIIIa), hair follicle transglutaminase, and prostate transglutaminase. Although structures differ, they share an active site (YGQCW) and strict CALCIUM dependence.Crystallins: A heterogeneous family of water-soluble structural proteins found in cells of the vertebrate lens. The presence of these proteins accounts for the transparency of the lens. The family is composed of four major groups, alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, and several minor groups, which are classed on the basis of size, charge, immunological properties, and vertebrate source. Alpha, beta, and delta crystallins occur in avian and reptilian lenses, while alpha, beta, and gamma crystallins occur in all other lenses.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Thiazolidines: Reduced (protonated) form of THIAZOLES. They can be oxidized to THIAZOLIDINEDIONES.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.

*Methoxide

It is used as an initiator of an anionic addition polymerization with ethylene oxide, forming a polyether with high molecular ... weight. Both sodium methoxide and its counterpart prepared with potassium are frequently used as catalysts for commercial-scale ...

*Sodium methoxide

... is used as an initiator of anionic addition polymerization with ethylene oxide, forming a polyether with high ... molecular weight. Biodiesel is prepared from vegetable oils and animal fats, that is, fatty acid triglycerides, by ...

*Antimicrobial surface

This process also allows for high density grafting of high molecular weight polymer which further improves efficacy. A ... anionic, or cationic mechanisms and can be controlled utilizing reversible addition transfer polymerization (RAFT), atom ... grafting density and molecular weight represent opposing factors that can be manipulated to achieve high efficacy. This ... For a process like this, grafting density depends on the concentration and molecular weight of the polymer as well as the ...

*Ring-opening polymerization

... anionic or cationic. Some cyclic monomers such as norbornene or cyclooctadiene can be polymerized to high molecular weight ... thereby controlling the molecular weight of the synthesized polymer chains. Reversible Addition Fragmentation Transfer (RAFT) ... ability to control the polymer's molecular weight and molecular weight distribution, tolerance to high temperatures, ability to ... The first high-molecular weight polymers (Mn up to 105) with a repeating unit were prepared by ROP as early as in 1976. ...

*Living anionic polymerization

The molecular weights obtained are comparatively high (~40kDa), which is thought to be necessary to avoid the gelation due to ... Synthesis of block copolymers by sequential monomer addition is one of the most important applications of living polymerization ... Living anionic polymerization is a living polymerization technique involving an anionic propagating species. Living anionic ... This method leads to polymers with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Odian, G. Ionic ...

*Coordination polymerization

... high-density polyethylene (HDPE) or even ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Polymerizations catalysed by ... Coordination polymerisation is a form of addition polymerization in which monomer adds to a growing macromolecule through an ... The active site is usually anionic but cationic coordination polymerization also exists. In many applications Ziegler-Natta ... Coordination polymerization has a great impact on the physical properties of vinyl polymers such as polyethylene and ...

*Star-shaped polymer

... similar molecular weight linear chains. The addition of functional groups to the arms of star-shaped polymers as well as ... living anionic polymerization, living cationic polymerization, ring opening polymerization, ring-opening metathesis ... As is typical of most core-first approaches, this scheme had issues with high viscosity and gelation. The star-shaped polymer ... One common approach to the arm-first synthesis is through anionic polymerization methods. This involves using "arms" that are ...

*Polyaspartic acid

Main benefits from their application is increasing of the conversion rate and higher molecular weight of the product. ... High control over repeating unit isomers can be achieved by polymerization of N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) derivatives, by ... In addition and due to its ability to chelate metal ions, it provides corrosion inhibition. It can act as a super-swelling ... Due to presence of carboxylic groups it is polyelectrolyte with anionic character. Naturally occurring PASA fragments consists ...

*Copolymer

Free radical polymerization is less expensive than other methods, and produces high-molecular weight polymer quickly. Several ... or Reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization (RAFT). These methods are favored over anionic ... The molecular weight of the polystyrene blocks in the main picture is 102,000; the inset picture has a molecular weight of ... ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP), and living cationic or living anionic polymerizations. An emerging technique is ...

*Cationic polymerization

These low molecular weight polyisobutylene polymers are used for caulking and as sealants. High molecular weight PIBs are ... Formation of radical and anionic species are often observed. Propagation proceeds via addition of monomer to the active species ... are polymerized in a process similar to high molecular weight PIBs. Butyl rubber polymerization is carried out as a continuous ... Another characteristic of high molecular weight PIB is its low toxicity which allows it to be used as a base for chewing gum. ...

*Polymerization

... in molecular weight at a very slow rate at lower conversions and reach moderately high molecular weights only at very high ... Other forms of chain growth polymerization include cationic addition polymerization and anionic addition polymerization. While ... suspension polymerization, and precipitation polymerization. Although the polymer polydispersity and molecular weight may be ... Free radical addition polymerization of ethylene must take place at high temperatures and pressures, approximately 300 °C and ...

*Polyacrylonitrile

Anionic polymerization also can be used for synthesizing PAN. For textile applications, molecular weight in the range of 40,000 ... However, applications are limited by PAN's high price of around $15/lb. In addition to being a carbon fiber precursor, Oxidized ... For producing carbon fiber higher molecular weight is desired. In the production of carbon fibers containing 600 tex (6k) PAN ... These unique properties have made PAN an essential polymer in high tech. Its high tensile strength and tensile modulus are ...

*Anionic addition polymerization

... because Szwarc had found a way to make polymers with greater control over molecular weight, molecular weight distribution and ... Polar monomers, using controlled conditions and low temperatures, can undergo anionic polymerization. However, at higher ... occur in many anionic addition polymerizations. The advantage of living anionic addition polymerizations is that they allow for ... 2163-2193 Anionic addition polymerization is a form of chain-growth polymerization or addition polymerization that involves the ...

*P4-t-Bu

... both of which inhibit anionic polymerization. Heating to temperatures >100 °C removes CO2 and water and restores the anionic ... can also be polymerized with catalytic amounts of P4-t-Bu and water or silanols as initiators under good molecular weight ... P4-t-Bu owes its extraordinarily high basicity with low nucleophilicity to its very high steric hindrance and the involvement ... Traces of water and protic impurities can be eliminated by addition of bromoethane. The base is both very hydrophilic and very ...

*Addition polymer

... s form high molecular weight chains rapidly, with much monomer remaining. Since addition polymerization has ... cationic polymerization, anionic polymerization and coordination polymerization. Most of the common addition polymers are ... One universal distinction between polymerization types is development of molecular weight by the different modes of propagation ... When two or more types of monomer undergo addition polymerization, the polymer formed is known as an addition copolymer. Saran ...

*Chain-growth polymerization

This type of polymerization result in high molecular weight polymer being formed at low conversion. This final weight is ... an addition polymerization can be considered a living polymerization. This is most often seen with anionic polymerization as it ... Addition polymerization produces only a polymer molecule, while condensation polymerization produces a polymer as well as a ... Chain growth polymerization and addition polymerization (also called polyaddition) are two different concepts. In fact ...

*Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene oxide, or high-molecular weight polyethylene glycol, is synthesized by suspension polymerization. It is necessary ... the mechanism of polymerization can be cationic or anionic. The anionic mechanism is preferable because it allows one to obtain ... In addition, PEG is used when working with green wood as a stabilizer, and to prevent shrinkage. PEG has been used to preserve ... Lower-molecular-weight PEGs are also available as purer oligomers, referred to as monodisperse, uniform, or discrete. Very high ...

*PH-sensitive polymers

Living polymerization is often used for making pH sensitive polymers because molecular weight distribution of the final ... Examples include group transfer polymerization (GTP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), and reversible addition- ... In contrast, at higher pH values they are neutral. Swelling behavior is seen when the pH is less than the pKa of the polymer. ... Polyacids, also known as anionic polymers, are polymers that have acidic groups. Examples of acidic functional groups include ...

*DuPont Central Research

Hyperbaric recrystallization of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene led to DuPont's business in Hylamer polyethylene for ... O. W. Webster and coworkers, Group-transfer polymerization. 1. A new concept for addition polymerization with silicon ... the first new polymerization process developed since living anionic polymerization. The major aspects of the mechanism of the ... The Hay Grades for those in management started higher and ended considerably higher, but there was significant overlap with the ...

*Gradient copolymer

... chain transfer polymerization as well as other living polymerization techniques including anionic addition polymerization and ... and the molecular weight increases with time as the polymer forms. For the compatiabilization of immiscible blends, the ... Micelles of the gradient copolymer can form when the gradient copolymer concentration is too high in a block copolymer solution ... Because the rate of addition of the second monomer influences the polymerization and therefore properties of the formed polymer ...

*Chain transfer

... ring-opening polymerization, coordination polymerization, and cationic as well as anionic addition polymerization. IUPAC ... The Buna-S recipe, however, produced a very tough, high molecular weight rubber that required heat processing to break it down ... Chain transfer to monomer is especially significant in cationic addition polymerization and ring-opening polymerization. ... Chain transfer reactions occur in most forms of addition polymerization including radical polymerization, ...

*Polyoxymethylene

MacDonald as the inventor of high-molecular-weight POM. Patents by MacDonald and coworkers describe the preparation of high- ... Here, PTFE or a high grade stainless steel may be a more appropriate choice. In addition, POM can have undesirable ... The polymerization can take place in a non-polar solvent (in which case the polymer forms as a slurry) or in neat trioxane (e.g ... The formaldehyde is then polymerized by anionic catalysis and the resulting polymer stabilized by reaction with acetic ...

*End-group

Controlled radical polymerization, namely reversible addition−fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization (RAFT), is a common ... Mass Spectrometry is helpful for the determination of the molecular weight of the polymer, structure of the polymer etc. ... The schematic for "grafting to" shows an example using anionic polymerizations, the polymer containing the carbonyl ... it is required that the polymer be thermally stable to high temperature and therefore may not be effective for some polymers. ...

*Dehydrogenative coupling of silanes

"Highly ordered high-molecular weight alternating polysilylene copolymer prepared by anionic polymerization of masked disilene ... In addition to high selectivity for dehydrogenative coupling, the reaction also has the advantage of being easy to separate ... The substituent and molecular weight of the polymer influences the electronic properties of polysilane. Polymerization of para ... It can produce cyclic oligomers, polymers with high molecular weight, but it is limited by the number of tolerable functional ...

*Coordination complex

... brings about the polymerization of organic compounds with carbon-carbon double bonds to form polymers of high molecular weight ... Therefore a anionic complex can stabilised by a hydrogen cation. But that complex further became an acid which can dissociates ... to release the cationic hydrogen.But this kind of complex compound end with central metal addition with "ic" after the cental ... The lability of a metal complex also depends on the high-spin vs. low-spin configurations when such is possible. Thus, high- ...

*Starch

In the United States sugar prices are two to three times higher than in the rest of the world; high fructose corn syrup is ... In addition to starchy plants consumed directly, 66 million tonnes of starch were being produced per year worldwide by 2008. In ... Synthetic amylose made from cellulose has a well-controlled degree of polymerization. Therefore, it can be used as a potential ... Depending on the plant, starch generally contains 20 to 25% amylose and 75 to 80% amylopectin by weight. Glycogen, the glucose ...
Highly branched polystyrene was prepared by atom transfer radical polymerization of styrene with p-styrenesulfonyl chloride as an initiator. The molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of the polymers obtained at different ratios of the initiator to the monomer and different monomer conversions were determined by gel permeation chromatography. It was found that the molecular weights were higher than the calculated ones by assuming that one polymer chain was generated per p -styrenesulfonyl chloride molecule, and that the molecular weight distributions were broad with multi-peaks.
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The effect of various organic reducing agents, in the. form of monosaccharide reducing sugars, on the rate of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of n-butyl methacrylate and methyl methacrylate is reported in this study. The addition of the reducing sugars has a positive effect on the rate of ATRP. Up to 100% increase in the rate of polymerization was recorded, in some cases. These organic reducing agents have little effect on the molecular weight and molecular weight distribution of the polyin-butyl methacrylate) and polydispersity indexes remain well below 1.2. The molecular weight of the poly(methyl methacrylate), when glucose and galactose are added to the reaction mixture, compares well with the theoretical expected values. An explanation for these observations is the ability of the reducing sugars to reduce part of the Cu(II) species, that serves to deactivate ...
en] Due to an increasing need for polymers with well-defined architecture (diblock-, graft-, star-shaped copolymers), molecular weight and/or functional end-groups, the use of controlled radical polymerization (CRP) in scCO2 has started to gain attention. Among all the controlled processes, Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization has emerged as a robust tool for the preparation of polymers with well-defined molecular weight, architecture and chain-end functionality. In a very recent paper, we reported the first efficient dispersion ATRP of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in scCO2 using a fluorinated polymeric ligand that had a dual role, i.e., the complexation of the copper salt and the stabilization of PMMA growing particles. In this contribution, we extended this new system to the dispersion ATRP of styrene2, to the synthesis of diblock copolymers beads2 or to the preparation of PMMA particles by AGET ATRP. Because both ATRP and alkyne-azide ...
Three brønsted acidic ionic liquids, 1-methylimidazolium acetate ([Hmim][CH3COO]), 1-methylimidazolium propionate ([Hmim][CH3CH2COO]) and 1-methylimidazolium butyrate ([Hmim][CH3CH2CH2COO]) were used as reaction medium for atom transfer radical polymerization of methyl methacrylate with ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB)/CuBr as the initiating system. Kinetic studies, chain extension and block copolymerization confirmed the well-controlled manner of these polymerizations in three brønsted acidic ionic liquids. The reactions were fast and the polydispersities of the polymers were quite narrow (1.10,Mw/Mn,1.34). The rate of polymerization in [Hmim][RCOO] decreased with the increasing alkyl chain lengths (n from 1 to 3), indicating a strong dependence of reaction rate on the length of the substituted groups of the anions in ionic liquids. ...
D4001 - 13 Standard Test Method for Determination of Weight-Average Molecular Weight of Polymers By Light Scattering , light scattering, polymers, weight-average molecular weight,
In this work, we present a generalization of our previous model, which allows us to account for the entire molecular weight distribution, as well as the long-chain branching. We develop a deeper insight into the vinyl group distribution among the molecules given the operating conditions of the modification process. We focus on the modification taking place in a press at constant temperature, under conditions where scission is not measurable. II. MATHEMATICAL MODEL We develop a set of mass balances for the reacting species where the different lengths, number of vinyls and number of branching points are taken into account. A triple moment technique was used to calculate number and weight average molecular weights as well as average number of branching points for species having j vinyls, j=0, 1, 2 To calculate molecular weight distributions we apply another transform technique that makes use of ...
Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer or RAFT polymerization is one of several kinds of reversible-deactivation radical polymerization. It makes use of a chain transfer agent in the form of a thiocarbonylthio compound (or similar, from here on referred to as a RAFT agent, see Figure 1) to afford control over the generated molecular weight and polydispersity during a free-radical polymerization. Discovered at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) of Australia in 1998, RAFT polymerization is one of several living or controlled radical polymerization techniques, others being atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and nitroxide-mediated polymerization (NMP), etc. RAFT polymerization uses thiocarbonylthio compounds, such as dithioesters, thiocarbamates, and xanthates, to mediate the polymerization via a reversible chain-transfer process. As with other controlled radical polymerization techniques, RAFT ...
TABLE-US-00003 TABLE 2 Toner particles External additive (zeolite) Addition amount Addition amount of negative with respect to charge control External Aluminum 100 parts of Toner Toner resin D50t Average additive ratio toner particles No. particle No. Production method (part(s)) (μm) circularity No. (%) (part(s)) Example 1 (1) (1) Suspension polymerization method 0.3 6.3 0.985 (1) 1.8 0.3 Example 2 (2) (2) Suspension polymerization method 0.7 6.5 0.980 (2) 11.3 0.1 Example 3 (3) (2) Suspension polymerization method 0.7 6.5 0.980 (3) 7.0 0.1 Example 4 (4) (1) Suspension polymerization method 0.3 6.3 0.990 (4) 0.3 0.3 Example 5 (5) (2) Suspension polymerization method 0.7 6.5 0.980 (5) 22.5 0.1 Example 6 (6) (3) Suspension polymerization method -- 7.2 0.975 (1) 1.8 0.1 Example 7 (7) (4) Pulverization method 0.3 8.1 0.970 (1) 1.8 0.3 Example 8 (8) (5) Pulverization method 10.0 8.7 0.965 (1) 1.8 1.0 Comparative (9) (1) Suspension polymerization method 0.3 6.3 0.990 -- -- -- ...
A novel cationic nanodiamond-polymer brush was synthesized by 2-bromoisobutyrate-modified nanodiamond (ND) surface-initiated atomic transfer radical polymerization of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). Elemental analysis, FTIR, HRTEM, TGA and zeta potential analysis were used to confirm the successful synthesis of ND-polymer brushes. It was shown that the ND-brushes were capable of condensing plasmid DNA into stable nanoparticles, protecting DNA from enzyme degradation. Transfection studies demonstrated that the ND-brushes could not only efficiently deliver plasmids into COS-7 cells, but also mediate higher expression than PEI25k with lower cytotoxicity. The green fluorescence of ND-brushes could also be detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy, making the nanodiamond-polymer brushes an excellent multifunctional gene vector with not only high transfection efficiency but allowing for bioimaging.. ...
The influence of molecular weight distribution and extrusion processing variables on the morphological features and orientation of high density polyethylene (HDPE) uniaxially extruded tubular films was investigated. In order to gain a better understanding of the orientation-crystallization behavior occurring during extrusion processing, the melt flow properties of the two HDPE resins with identical <(M)over bar (n)> (14 600) values but different molecular weight distributions (<(M)over bar (w)>/<(M)over bar (n)> = 10.3, 15.1), utilized in our previous study, were characterized by dynamic rheological experiments over the temperature range from 150 degrees C to 230 degrees C within the angular frequency range from 0.1 to 100 rad/s. The experimental data were shifted to produce master flow curves. The how activation energy calculated from the shifting process was found to be 25.9 kJ/mol for resin 1 and 29.1 kJ/mol for resin 2. ...
Simultaneous measurement of the molecular weight distribution and 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene content across the molecular weight distribution of ethylenepropylenediene terpolymer via a new size exclusion chromatographyultravioletrefractive index method Journal of Applied Polymer Science , 2016, 133 , 43911 Z. Zhou, M. Janco, R. Cong, D. Lee, C. Li...
X- RAY INTEN S TY June 4, 1974 w E 3,814,607 CRYSTALLINE PHOTOPOLYMERIZABLE COMPOSITIONS WITH IMPROVED STORAGE LIFE Filed Aug. 7, 1972 DIFFRACTION ANGLE 29 United States Patent 3,814,607 CRYSTALLINE PHOTOPOLYMERIZABLE COM- POSITIONS WITH IMPROVED STORAGE LIFE William John Nebe, Wilmington, Del., assignor to E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, Wilmington, Del. Filed Aug. 7, 1972, Ser. No. 278,459 Int. Cl. G03c 1/70 U.S. Cl. 96-115 P 11 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE Predominantly crystalline photopolymerizable compositions containing a reducing agent such as 4-dimethylamino-3-propionyloxybenzophenone have excellent storage life without significant loss of photographic speed. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION Field of the invention This invention relates to photopolymerization, especially to predominantly crystalline compositions characterized in having high photographic speed. The invention is specifically concerned with improving the storage life of the photopolymerizable compositions. ...
Until the mid 90s, free radical polymerization (FRP) was characterized by producing polymers with high average molecular weig hts (1×10 5-1×106) since the beginning of polymerization, index of polidispersity (PDI) greater than 1.5 and wide molecular weight distribution (MWD). When necessary to produce polymers with more defined structure, it was usually used anionic polymerization, which is capable to produce polymers with narrow molecular weight distribution and PDI around 1.0 (1.1-1.2). The ionic polymerization, however, needs to be held in a high degree of purity and in the absence of inhibitors, what make the ionic polymerization expensive and not very practical from the industrial point of view. A promising alternative to ionic polymerization has been the living radical polymerization (LFRP), which is much more robust to the impurities and kind of solvent and it is able ...
In Nature, the polypeptide chains required for the preparation of a target protein are of the same length and composition, having a polydispersity index (PDI) of exactly 1. As protein function arises due to precise chain folding of these monodisperse polypeptides, an important target for polymer chemists is the preparation of monodisperse macromolecules that will minimize structural defects during self-assembly. A range of covalent polymerization methods that approximate to living processes54 have been developed for the preparation of block copolymers, including anionic,55 cationic,56 atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP),57 reversible addition-fragmentation transfer (RAFT) polymerization,58 nitroxide-mediated radical polymerization59 and ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP).60 The solution self-assembly of such amphiphilic block copolymers is arguably one of the most important methods for the preparation of well-defined and functional nanostructures.61,62 ...
Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) is an example of a reversible-deactivation radical polymerization. Like its counterpart, ATRA or atom transfer radical addition, it is a means of forming a carbon-carbon bond through a transition metal catalyst. The polymerization from this method is called Atom transfer radical addition polymerization (ATRAP). As the name implies, the atom transfer step is the key step in the reaction responsible for uniform polymer chain growth. ATRP (or transition metal-mediated living radical polymerization) was independently discovered by Mitsuo Sawamoto and by Jin-Shan Wang and Krzysztof Matyjaszewski in 1995. The following scheme presents a typical ATRP reaction: IUPAC definition for ATRP Controlled reversible-deactivation radical polymerization in which the deactivation of the radicals involves reversible atom transfer or reversible group transfer catalyzed usually, though not exclusively, by transition-metal complexes. ATRP usually employs ...
The authors report a photochemically controlled ATRP polymerization of MMA. The polymerization is copper catalyzed, uses visible light wavelengths, and results in living polymerizations with low (~1.1) PDI ...
Extractable dietary fiber (DF) plays an important role in nutrition. This study on porridge making with whole grain rye investigated the effect of rest time of flour slurries at room temperature before cooking and amount of flour and salt in the recipe on the content of DF components and molecular weight distribution of extractable fructan, mixed linkage (1→3)(1→4)-β-D-glucan (β-glucan) and arabinoxylan (AX) in the porridge. The content of total DF was increased (from about 20% to 23% of dry matter) during porridge making due to formation of insoluble resistant starch. A small but significant increase in the extractability of β-glucan (P = 0.016) and AX (P = 0.002) due to rest time was also noted. The molecular weight of extractable fructan and AX remained stable during porridge making. However, incubation of the rye flour slurries at increased temperature resulted in a significant decrease in extractable AX molecular ...
a) a method in which a monomer mixture is allowed to undergone polymerization reaction with a suspension polymerization method, an emulsification polymerization method, a seed polymerization method or a dispersion polymerization method, to thereby produce a dispersion liquid of resin particles; (b) a method in which a monomer mixture is allowed to undergone polymerization, and the obtained resin is then pulverized using a fine pulverizer of, for example, mechanically rotating type or jetting type, followed by classifying, to thereby produce resin particles; (c) a method in which a monomer mixture is allowed to undergone polymerization, and the obtained resin is then dissolved in a solvent, followed by spraying of the resultant resin solution, to thereby produce resin particles; (d) a method in which a monomer mixture is allowed to undergone polymerization, the obtained resin is dissolved in a solvent, another solvent is added to the resultant resin solution to precipitate resin particles, and ...
Macrophage suppression has been shown to be mediated by a unique, low molecular weight fraction of murine serum. The present investigation involves the in vitro production of this macrophage modulator (suppressor) by Concanavalin A-stimulated spleen cells. Spleen cell culture supernatant containing macrophage suppressor factor (MSF) caused a significant decrease in in vitro phagocytosis of Listeria monocytogenes by non-elicited peritoneal macrophages. The molecular weight of MSF was determined by ultrafiltration to be less than 10,000, and the modulating activity of MSF was not altered by heating at 100°C for 30 minutes or freezing at -70°C for six months. MSF is resistant to treatment with Pronase E, but is, however, sensitive to acid hydrolysis. Activity of MSF in spleen cell culture supernatants from normal mice does not differ from supernatants from mice immunized with L. monocytogenes. It was therefore concluded that MSF is not ...
We have used Soxhlet solvent purification to fractionate a broad molecular weight distribution of the polycarbazole polymer PCDTBT into three lower polydispersity molecular weight fractions. Organic photovoltaic devices were made using a blend of the fullerene acceptor PC71BM with the molecular weight fractions. An average power conversion efficiency of 5.89% (peak efficiency of 6.15%) was measured for PCDTBT blend devices with a number average molecular weight of Mn = 25.5 kDa. There was significant variation between the molecular weight fractions with low (Mn = 15.0 kDa) and high (Mn = 34.9 kDa) fractions producing devices with average efficiencies of 5.02% and 3.70% respectively. Neutron reflectivity measurements on these polymer:PC71BM blend layers showed that larger molecular weights ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extended Fujita approach to the molecular weight distribution of polysaccharides and other polymeric systems. AU - Harding, Stephen E.. AU - Schuck, Peter. AU - Abdelhameed, Ali Saber. AU - Adams, Gary. AU - Kök, M. Samil. AU - Morris, Gordon A.. PY - 2011/5. Y1 - 2011/5. N2 - In 1962 H. Fujita (H. Fujita, Mathematical Theory of Sedimentation Analysis, Academic Press, New York, 1962) examined the possibility of transforming a quasi-continuous distribution g(s) of sedimentation coefficient s into a distribution f(M) of molecular weight M for linear polymers using the relation f(M)=g(s)·(ds/dM) and showed that this could be done if information about the relation between s and M is available from other sources. Fujita provided the transformation based on the scaling relation s=κsM0.5, where κs is taken as a constant for that particular polymer and the exponent 0.5 essentially corresponds to a randomly coiled polymer under ideal ...
Four size exclusion chromatography (SEC) calibration techniques were tested for use in the molecular weight characterisation of Streptococcal Hyaluronic Acid (HA). An exponential equation, evaluated using the Hamielec method, was superior to the customary peak position method. It provided the most accurate estimates of the weight average molecular weight, Mw. The calibration was valid for HA in the range 800 - 2500 kDa, and permitted the calculation of both polydispersity and molecular weight distributions for HA from Streptococcal fermentations. This exponential calibration approach should have application in the characterisation of other large biopolymers, particularly where pore size of available SEC media is limiting ...
The ethanolic reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer dispersion polymerization (RAFTDP), at 21 wt-%, of 2-(naphthalen-2-yloxy)ethyl methacrylate (NOEMA) and 2-phenoxyethyl methacrylate (POEMA) with a poly[2- (dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] macro-chain transfer agent (CTA) with an average degree of polymerization of 20 (PDMAEMA20) is described. DMAEMA20-b-NOEMAy (y¼20-125) block copolymers were readily prepared under dispersion conditions in ethanol at 708C. However, the polymerization of NOEMA was not well controlled, with size exclusion chromatograms being distinctly bi or multimodal with measured dispersities (Ð M=Mw/Mn) ≤ 1.69. Though NOEMA copolymerization was not ideal, the resulting series of block copolymers did exhibit the anticipated full spectrum of nanoparticle morphologies (spheres, worms, and vesicles). Interestingly, these morphology transitions occurred over a relatively narrow range of block copolymer compositions. In the case of POEMA, copolymerization was also ...
About 10% of the Chinese population are chronic carriers of hepatitis B virus (HBV). Thus, the development of a highly efficient process for the preparation of a vaccine based on a recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) is very important to the Chinese national immunization program. To this end, the ion exchange chromatography recovery of CHO-HBsAg from a recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell line was shown to increase from about 55 to 80% by the addition of 1% poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG 10,000) to the mobile phase. Furthermore, based on analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), the intact glycoprotein form of CHO-HBsAg was completely preserved by the addition of PEG. In the absence of PEG the glycoprotein form of CHO-HBsAg was also spread out into the high salt elution fraction. High-performance size-exclusion chromatography with on-line multiangle-laser-light scattering ...
Infection of barley leaves by powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f.sp. hordei) causes increased dark respiration, par tof which is associated with active host responses to infection, and a consequence of which is reduced plant growth. The pathogen cannot be grown separately from the host. Therefore, in order to examine those changes in respiratory activity peculiar to the host, attempts were made to isolate protoplasts from infected tissues, and from healthy controls. Isolation of useful numbers (, 106cm−6) of viable mesophyll protoplasts from infected tissues was possible with one among several batches of commercial Cellulysin tested; on analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), this batch contained a low molecular weight protein at 20.1 kDa not found in other batches. In all isolated protoplasts, total respiration increased with the age of the source-leaf, but within 24 h of inoculation respiration was stimulated by infection. ...
The (Chilean) flat oyster, Ostrea chilensis, is native to New Zealand and the west coast of South America. It is a commercially important species in New Zealand because of its exquisite taste that attracts premium prices. This thesis describes the first isolation and partial charcterisation of an oyster haemolymph calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding protein. This protein chiletin was originally isolated from oyster haemolymph by binding to the agarose-galactan matrix of a Sepharose column. Chiletin was predominantly composed of a 24 kilodalton (kDa) band when examined with one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under non-reducing conditions and a 12 kDa band with reduction of disulphide bonds. The N-terminal sequence of the 24 kDa band was determined to be IAGPGWEKYN. This sequence was not homologous to any known protein. Examination of isolated chiletin with two-dimensional protein analysis gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of three (~12 kDa) ...
SUMMARY: Fourteen strains of Streptococcus mutans serotype c were examined for their cell-surface protein antigens in terms of hydrophobicity, M r and immunochemical specificities. Thirteen strains were hydrophobic, while strain GS-5 was markedly hydrophilic as compared to the other strains tested. Cell-surface protein antigens were then analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western immunoblotting. A protein antigen of M r 190000 (PAc) was found in cell extracts and culture supernatants of all the hydrophobic strains. Neither culture supernatant nor cell extract of strain GS-5 contained PAc. Strain GS-5, however, produced extracellularly a large amount of a protein of M r 155000 (PAGS-5) which reacted with rabbit anti-PAc serum. Immunodiffusion analysis showed that PAGS-5 lacked a part of the antigenic moieties in the PAc molecule. SDS-PAGE and radioimmunoassay showed a small amount of PAGS-5 on the cell surface of strain GS-5. These findings suggest that
A mathematical model is developed for the molecular weight distribution (IMWD) of a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) polycondensation process based on the reaction mechanisms and the operating conditions. It employs the logical combination of the reaction extent method, the moment method and the statistical fitting technique. An optimization scheme is then discussed on the tracking of the desired MWD during the polymerization process.. ...
A method to evaluate molecular weight distribution (MWD) from dynamic moduli is presented here. It relies on the least-square fitting of the dynamic data to a model whose parameters depend on the...
HIGHLIGHTS Integrin Antagonists and Other Low Molecular Weight Compounds as Inhibitors of Angiogenesis: New Drugs in Cancer Therapy** Athanassios Giannis* and Frank Riibsam Angiogenesis (neovascularization), the process by which new blood capillaries are formed from an already existing blood vessel, is of fundamental importance for a number of physiological and pathological events including embryogenesis, wound healing, chronic inflammation. and malignant processes.[] Due to the observation that an adequate blood supply is necessary for tumor growth, Folkman postulated in the early 1970s that inhibitors of angiogenesis are of potential use in cancer therapy.[] Subsequent investigations revealed that not only tumor growth but also tumor metastasis depends on angiogenesi~.[~] In recent years many endogenous regulators of angiogenesis have been isolated and identified. The most important positive regulators include growth factors like basic fibroblast growth ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mungbean protein isolate (MPI) on the potential possibility of water binding agent and as a substrate for the microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) in myofibrillar protein. Cooking loss (CL,%), gel strength (GS, gf), sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were measured. The addition of MPI reduced CL, indicating that it has a water binding capacity during cooking. The major protein band (53 kDa) of MPI appeared when MPI was mixed with MP, but it disappeared when MTGase was incorporated. MPI treatment changed the endothermic peaks as compared with those of CTL. MTGase (1%) mediated pork MP increased CL and GS (P , 0.05), and reduced peak temperatures with vanishing of endothermic intensity at 1st and 3rd peaks, suggesting the structural changes of protein gelation. In microstructures, MTGase treatment showed a finely stranded ...
The effects of anoxic submergence (16 h at 15°C) on cellular mRNA contents were assessed in five organs of anoxia tolerant turtles Trachemys scripta elegans. Poly(A)+ RNA was extracted from liver, red and white skeletal muscle, kidney and heart of control and anoxic turtles, as well as from heart and kidney of turtles allowed 24 h aerobic recovery (at 15°C) after anoxia exposure. Poly(A)+ RNA content increased by 30% in white muscle from anoxic turtles relative to control animals but was unchanged by metabolic state in other organs. Extracted mRNA was translated in vitro in a wheat germ lysate system and the 35S-labelled polypeptides that were produced were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Overall translational activity of the mRNA pool [cpm 35S-methionine incorporated per microgram poly(A)+ RNA] was altered by anoxia exposure in three organs, increasing by 38 and 18% in liver and kidney and decreasing by 42% in red muscle. Anoxia exposure also led to ...
In this study, the potential use of Moringa oleifera as a clotting agent of different types of milk (whole, skim, and soy milk) was investigated. M. oleifera seed extract showed high milk-clotting activity followed by flower extract. Specific clotting activity of seed extract was 200 times higher than that of flower extract. Seed extract is composed by four main protein bands (43.6, 32.2, 19.4, and 16.3 kDa). Caseinolytic activity assessed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and tyrosine quantification, showed a high extent of casein degradation using M. oleifera seed extract. Milk soy cheese was soft and creamy, while skim milk cheese was hard and crumbly. According to these results, it is concluded that seed extract of M. oleifera generates suitable milk clotting activity for cheesemaking. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report comparative data of M. oleifera milk clotting activity between different types ...
article{9ffe9df9-5a4c-440c-bdd1-534be5ba851a, abstract = {We report a case of a 5-year-old child who suffered an oral allergy syndrome and lip angiedema after eating grapes. We obtained a positive prick test with commercial grape extract and a positive prick-by-prick test with pulp and peel of fresh white grape (Moscatel variety) and pulp and peel of blue grape. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting revealed specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in the patients serum against a 94,000 molecular-weight antigenic band. Lip open challenge was positive.}, author = {Rodriguez, Angel and Trujillo, María Jesús and Matheu, Victor and Baeza, María Luisa and Zapatero, Lidia and Martinez, Maribel}, issn = {0905-6157}, language = {eng}, number = {5}, pages = {289--290}, publisher = {Wiley-Blackwell}, series = {Pediatric Allergy and Immunology}, title = {Allergy to grape: a case report}, url = ...
Background: Prawns and shrimp certainly are a regular cause of sea food allergy mediated by IgE antibodies. adjustments. Quickly the shell and meats of each varieties had been combined in 1 M phosphate-buffered saline (pH 7.2) and extracted overnight in 4 °C under regular blending. The homogenates had been centrifuged at 14 000 rpm at 4 °C for a quarter-hour. The supernatants had been sterile-filtered lyophilised and kept at after that ?20 °C until make use of. For preparation of the boiled extracts the homogenates of the prawns were boiled for 5 minutes before extraction as described above. The protein concentration of each extract was decided using the Total Protein Kit (Sigma-Aldrich UK) and bovine serum albumin as a standard. SDS-PAGE of prawn extracts Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was performed as described by Nakano et al. (17) with some modifications. The samples of the extracts were heated at 97 °C for 4 minutes and Precision Plus Protein ...
To determine whether there is diversity among clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori in Chinese patients with peptic ulcer disease, 40 strains of H. pylori were isolated from antral biopsy specimens obtained at the gastroenterology clinic of Xiangya Hospital from January 1996 to June 1998. Total protein profile by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and DNA diversity by polymerase chain reaction-random amplified polymorphic DNA (PCR-RAPD) fingerprinting were performed with these isolates. All the isolates from peptic ulcer disease were relatively homogeneous in protein profiles, but they showed a great DNA sequence diversity by PCR-RAPD fingerprinting. In Chinese patients H. pylori demonstrated an enormous diversity. The diversity among clinical isolates of H. pylori could be distinctly demonstrated and this observation will be helpful in the management of intrafamilial and recurrent H. pylori infection. PCR-RAPD fingerprinting is an efficient method of distinguishing
Scrub typhus is an acute and febrile infectious disease caused by the Gram-negative α-proteobacterium Orientia tsutsugamushi from the family Rickettsiaceae that is widely distributed in Northern, Southern and Eastern Asia. In the present study, we analysed the serum proteome of scrub typhus patients to investigate specific clinical protein patterns in an attempt to explain pathophysiology and discover potential biomarkers of infection. Serum samples were collected from three patients (before and after treatment with antibiotics) and three healthy subjects. One-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was performed to identify differentially abundant proteins using quantitative proteomic approaches. Bioinformatic analysis was then performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Proteomic analysis identified 236 serum proteins, of which 32 were differentially expressed in normal subjects, naive scrub typhus patients and
This research is focused on the polymerization of 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline homopolymers and 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline containing copolymers with well-defined structures. In addition, the potential of selected materials as polymer blend compatibilizers was briefly evaluated. The polymerization of 2-alkyl-2-oxazoline was investigated with regard to the effects of initiator structures on molecular weight control and molecular weight distribution, living characteristics, and mechanisms and kinetics. The structure of initiators was shown to greatly affect the molecular weight control and molecular weight distribution of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline). The living nature of poly (2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) in chlorobenzene initiated by benzyl iodide, benzyl chloride/NaI, or chloroethyl ethyl ether/NaI has been established by Mn-conversion plots and sequential monomer ...
Filaments with a diameter of 80-120 Å have been prepared from 14-d-old chick embryonic skeletal muscle, using a physiological salt solution and gel filtration chromatography. The filaments obtained are composed of the two known muscle intermediate-filament proteins, vimentin and desmin, as well as the vimentin- and desmin-associated high molecular weight protein, synemin (230,000 mol. wt). In addition, they contain a previously unidentified high molecular weight protein (280,000 mol wt) which differs from synemin by isoelectric point, molecular weight, and immunological reactivity. Immunofluorescence on cultured myogenic cells,using antisera to the 280,000-dalton polypeptide, has revealed that this protein has the same spatial distribution as desmin, vimentin, and synemin in both early myotubes, where it associates with cytoplasmic filaments, and late in ...
Pantothenase (EC 3.5.1.22) from Pseudomonas fluorescens UK-1 was purified to homogeneity as judged by disc-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. The purification procedure consisted of four steps: DEAE-Sephadex chromatography, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography and preparative polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Gel filtration on Ultrogel AcA 34 was used to determine the molecular weight, and sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis to study the subunit molecular weight. The enzyme appeared to be composed of two subunits with mol.wts. of approx. 50000 each. The total mol.wt. of the enzyme was thus about 100000. The isoelectric point was 4.7 at 10 degrees C. ...
The extraction of the polyethylene material in this study shows that there is a molecular weight difference between the unaged and aged material, with the aged material showing broadening in the molecular weight distribution. This change can be explained by oxidative degradation, which is supported by the oxidation index. The test methodology shows that a larger ratio of solvent to sample is required to ensure extraction without gelation of the extracted material, and that 4 hours is sufficient to extract the larger molecular weight species. The impact of the molecular weight change on in vivo performance, however, cannot be discerned from this test ...
Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and lysozyme have been chemically transformed into macroinitiators for the synthesis of fluorescent bioconjugates by living radical polymerization. A new fluorescent monomer based on rhodamine B has been synthesized and incorporated Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and lysozyme have been chemically transformed into macroinitiators for the synthesis of fluorescent bioconjugates by living radical polymerization. A new fluorescent monomer based on rhodamine B has been synthesized and incorporated into the polymer backbone of the bioconjugate by copolymerization. This provides a new strategy for the synthesis of fluorescent bioconjugates with improved traceability in biological environments, during biomedical assays. [+] [-] ...
Polymerization-induced self-assembly and re-organization (PISR) was used to prepare polymeric nanostructured materials with a variety of morphologies. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of styrene in a selective solvent, methanol, was carried out using cyanoisopropyl dithi
... ,High Molecular Weight DNA Markers are suitable for sizing linear double-stranded DNA from 9 to 48 kb on low-percentage agarose gels. The 13 bands consist of 8.3- to 48.5-kb fragments generated from restriction endonuclease digests of Lambda DNA (cIind1ts857 Sam7). Ethidium bromide staining causes t,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
A compressible printing plate is prepared by casting liquid photopolymerizable resin directly onto a compressible material having open cells on its surface. The photopolymerizable resin is incompletely cured by exposure to actinic radiation, preferably in the absence of a coverfilm covering the photopolymerizable resin. A further layer of photopolymerizable resin is then cast onto the incompletely cured resin, and the whole exposed to actinic radiation through an image-bearing transparency. A release composition may be placed between the image-bearing transparency and the photopolymerizable resin to provide for decreased adhesion therebetween. After development, an image-bearing laminate suitable as a printing plate for flexographic printing is obtained. The printing plate achieves excellent short and long term adhesion between the compressible layer and the photopolymer plate, without the necessity of a tie layer or adhesive therebetween.
A novel immunogenic antigen, the 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6), from short-term culture filtrates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was purified by hydrophobic interaction chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography by use of fast protein liquid chromatography. The antigen focused at two different pIs of 4.0 and 4.5 during isoelectric focusing, and each of these components separated into three spots ranging from 4 to 6 kDa during two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The apparent differences in molecular masses or pIs of these isoforms were not due to posttranslational glycosylation. The molecular weight of the purified native protein was determined by applying gel filtration and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and found to be 24 kDa. ESAT-6 is recognized by the murine monoclonal antibody HYB 76-8, which was used to screen a recombinant lambda gt11 M. tuberculosis DNA library. A phage ...
An electrically conductive polymer composition containing a polymer mixture containing a first crystalline polymer having a weight-average molecular weight of at least 50,000 and a second crystalline polymer having a weight-average molecular weight of at most 10,000, and a particulate electrically conductive filler has good processability and exhibits a low resistivity at 20 C. and a good positive temperature coefficient (PTC) behavior.
The isolation of a salt-soluble homogeneous elastin from the aortas of lathyritic chicks by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and salt precipitation is described. These new techniques, as well as some previously published by other workers, were evaluated with the help of antiserum raised in sheep against insoluble chick elastin. The purified elastin was very basic and behaved in a predictable manner in coacervation studies. The protein migrated in sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gels as a single band moving slightly faster than pyruvate kinase (mol.wt. 57000).. ...
Research Corridor has published a new research study titled "Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market - Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis and Forecast, 2017 - 2025". The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market report studies current as well as future aspects of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market based upon factors such as market dynamics, key ongoing trends and segmentation analysis. Apart from the above elements, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market research report provides a 360-degree view of the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns industry with geographic segmentation, statistical forecast and the competitive landscape.. Browse the complete report at http://www.researchcorridor.com/ion-exchange-chromatography-columns-market/. Geographically, the Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns Market report comprises dedicated sections centering on the regional market revenue and trends. The Ion Exchange Chromatography Columns market has been segmented on the ...
Purpose. Crosslinked, degradable derivatives of low-molecular-weight polyethylenimine (PEI) are relatively efficient and non-cytotoxic gene delivery agents. To further investigate these promising materials, a new synthetic approach was developed using a poly(4-vinylpyridine)-supported Fe(III) catalyst (PVP(Fe(III))) that provides more facile synthesis and enhanced control of polymer molecular weight.. Methods. Biodegradable polymers (D.PEI) comprising 800-Da PEI crosslinked with 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate and exhibiting molecular weights of 1.2, 6.2, and 48 kDa were synthesized utilizing the PVP(Fe(III)) catalyst. D.PEI/DNA polyplexes were characterized using gel retardation, ethidium bromide exclusion, heparan sulfate displacement, and dynamic light scattering. In vitro transfection, cellular uptake, and cytotoxicity of the polyplexes were tested in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and human breast cancer ...
Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) was measured combined with molecular weight (MW) distribution during a long time operation of a pilot scale ozonation/BAC (biological activated carbon) process in a water treatment plant in China. The AOC measurement was done on different samples: raw water, water samples after sedimentation, sand filtration, ozonation and BAC filtration. MW distribution variation of AOC during ozonation/BAC process was evaluated. Results showed that AOC was mainly related to the NOM (natural organic matter) with MW , 1 kDa. The fraction of the NOM with MW , 1 kDa corresponds to 53-67% of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to all the samples while AOC corresponds to 2.7-5.9% of DOC. So just a small part of the fraction with MW , 1 kDa was AOC. This indicates that ozonation/BAC process removing a large part of DOC will not necessarily result in a great reduction in AOC. ...
ampicillin sodium molecular weight, 30mg. Package Per. Your doctor or pharmacist has more information on medicines to be careful ampicillin nursing implications.SYNONYMS: Citric acid anhydrous, 2-Hydroxy-1, 2, 3-propanetricarboxylic acid,. Molecular weight: 192.13: H.S. Code: 29181400. Packings. 1kg. Application.ampicillin concentration liquid culture tek Vial stability dosis kucing metallic taste in mouth from metformin ampicillin concentration liquid culture tek bacteriolytic.Ampicillin was from Actavis, Denmark. (Fermentas) molecular weight standards were used. The procedure was done as recommended by the manufacturer.Assay (on anhydrous substance) Min. 99 %: Assay (V/V) 69 - 71 %: Evaporation residue: Max. 50 ppm: ASIAAN LIITTYVÄT TIEDOT Sertifikaatit. Enter a Lot Number.. . the permeation of cuticular membranes to ionised calcium salts with anhydrous molecular weights ...
Low molecular weight heparin offers several advantages concerning therapeutic efficacy and safety as compared to unfractionated heparin. Due to renal clearance of low molecular weight heparin problems with the use of low molecular weight heparins may occur in patients with renal failure. Current experience using low molecular weight heparin in patients with renal failure is based on single-dose pharmacokinetic studies, on retrospective analysis and on non-randomized prospective studies. Large randomized studies investigating the use of low molecular weight heparin (e. g. in acute coronary syndrome) have excluded patients with renal failure. Based on the findings mentioned above, treatment with low molecular weight heparin in patients with severe renal failure should follow only under special conditions. In ...
0030]According to the invention there are present in the coating agent for producing the conversion layer low molecular weight compounds that contain at least one group capable of crosslinking by radical polymerization. Low molecular weight compounds are to be understood as being liquid or solid, monomeric or oligomeric compounds, or mixtures thereof, which contain on average one or more double bonds reactive in the polymerization, as well as a further H-active functional group. Polar and/or ionic components are contained in the molecule, and non-polar hydrophobic components. Compounds having such double bonds are, for example, esters or amides of low molecular weight unsaturated carboxylic acids, such as acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, crotonic acid, maleic acid, fumaric acid, etc., or polyester or polyether oligomers having lateral or terminal (meth)acrylic groups, or other monomers containing activated ...
Mucilage is extruded from the bark of Pseudolarix amabilis and Abies nephrolepis upon injury. The aim of this study was to characterize the structure and chemical contents of mucilage extruded from mucilage cells (MCs) in the bark of these species. A large number of MCs containing translucent or dark materials in their lumina were observed in the secondary phloem of P. amabilis and A. nephrolepis. The translucent or dark materials in MCs stained positive with ruthenium red and PAS, indicating the presence of polysaccharides. The average length and diameter of MC in P. amabilis were 1500 μm and 254 μm, respectively, and the corresponding values for A. nephrolepis were 419 μm and 166 μm. Chemical analysis of low molecular weight fractions prepared from mucilage by HPAEC-PAD showed sucrose, glucose and fructose peaks, and in addition galacturonic acid and fucose peaks. Furthermore, 1H NMR spectra for the high molecular ...
A catalyst composition for polymerizing olefins to polymers having bimodal molecular weight distribution comprises two transition metal-containing metallocene compounds, a magnesium compound, an alcohol, an aluminum containing co-catalyst and a polymeric support. The transition metal in one of the metallocene compounds is zirconium and the transition metal in the second metallocene compound is selected from the group consisting of titanium, vanadium and hafnium. Polyolefin polymers made using the catalyst composition have broad molecular weight distributions and are useful in film and blow molding applications.
This work explores the possibility of exploiting structure-property relationships to manufacture tailor-made polymers with target end-use properties. A novel framework which aims to improve upon current industrial practices in polymerization process and product quality control is proposed. The strong inter-relationship between the molecular architecture and rheological properties of polymers is the basis of this framework. The melt index is one of the most commonly used industrial measures of a polymers processibilty. However, this single-point non-Newtonian viscosity is inadequate to accurately reflect the polymer melts flow behavior. This justifies monitoring the entire viscosity-shear rate behavior during the polymerization stage. In addition, the crucial role played by the polymer melts elastic characteristics is not reflected in its shear viscosity and so elasticity meaurements are also warranted. In this study, rheological models available in the open literature are ...
Rapid destruction of hepatocytes after hepatocyte transplantation has hampered the application of this procedure clinically. The instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) is a plausible underlying cause for this cell loss. The present study was designed to evaluate the capacity of low molecular weight dextran sulfate (LMW-DS) to control these initial reactions from the innate immune system. Fresh and cryopreserved hepatocytes were tested in an in vitro whole-blood model using ABO-compatible blood. The ability to elicit IBMIR and the capacity of LMW-DS (100 mu g/ml) to attenuate the degree of activation of the cascade systems were monitored. The effect was also compared to conventional anticoagulant therapy using unfractionated heparin (1 IU/ml). Both fresh and freeze thawed hepatocytes elicited IBMIR to the same extent. LMW-DS reduced the platelet loss and maintained the cell counts at the same degree as unfractionated heparin, but controlled the coagulation and ...
The effects of pH of medium and molecular weight of chitosan on polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) formation between pectin and chitosan was investigated using capillary viscometry. The intrinsic viscosity of the polymers was determined using Huggins plot. PECs were formed between pectin and chitosan in the pH range 2.9-5.6, but no PEC was formed at pH 1.5. The proportion of pectin in pectin-chitosan PEC varied with pH of the medium due to different levels of ionisation of the polymers and also probably due to the flexibility of pectin molecule. The amount of pectin in the PEC increased with a decrease in pH while that of chitosan increased with an increase in pH of medium. Linear relationships were established between the pH of media used and the weight fraction of pectin required for optimal PEC formation with molecular weight grades of chitosan. Molecular weight of chitosan appeared to have no ...
Polymerization reactions may be carried out in a solvent at a temperature which is above its lower critical solution temperature thereby resulting in a two-phase system comprising a solvent phase containing dissolved therein monomers and low molecular weight fractions of polymer and dispersed fluid phase comprising a solution of solvent in the higher molecular weight fraction of polymer being formed. This process technique is particularly advantageous in the preparation of low molecular weight isoolefin conjugated diolefin copolymers. In particular, propane has been found to be an ideal solvent for the isoolefin conjugated diolefin polymerization processes. The use of this type of polymerization process results in a low viscosity system having excellent heat transfer and low fouling characteristics.
Analysis of major outer membrane protein (MOMP) profiles of various meningococci by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed the presence of 0 to 2 low-molecular-weight, heat-modifiable MOMPs (molecular weight, 25,000 to 32,000) and 1 to 3 high-molecular-weight MOMPs (molecular weight, 32,000 to 46,000). Heat modifiability was investigated by comparing MOMP profiles after heating in SDS solutions at 100°C for 5 min or at 40°C for 1 h. Low-molecular-weight MOMPs shifted to higher apparent molecular weights after being heated at 100°C. Heat modifiability of high-molecular-weight MOMPs varied among strains; whenever modified these proteins shifted to lower apparent ...
Subunit 9 of mitochondrial ATPase (Su9) is synthesized in reticulocyte lysates programmed with Neurospora poly A-RNA, and in a Neurospora cell free system as a precursor with a higher apparent molecular weight than the mature protein (Mr 16,400 vs. 10,500). The RNA which directs the synthesis of Su9 precursor is associated with free polysomes. The precursor occurs as a high molecular weight aggregate in the postribosomal supernatant of reticulocyte lysates. Transfer in vitro of the precursor into isolated mitochondria is demonstrated. This process includes the correct proteolytic cleavage of the precursor to the mature form. After transfer, the protein acquires the following properties of the assembled subunit: it is resistant to added protease, it is soluble in chloroform/methanol, and it can be immunoprecipitated with antibodies to F1-ATPase. The precursor to Su9 is also detected in intact cells after ...
A heterogeneous method for the acetylation of cotton cellulose was used for the preparation of high-molecular weight cellulose triacetate. The rates of acetylation and degradation of cellulose using different catalyst (zinc chloride), concentrations at different temperatures were studied. Viscosity-concentration studies for solutions of cellulose triacetate in the solvents chloroform, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethane, formic acid and m-cresol were carried out. Molecular weight determinations were carried out osmometrically (Mechro-lab Model) using chloroform as a solvent, for cellulose triacetate samples in the molecular weight range of 30,000-150,000. The Mark-Houwink viscosity-molecular weight relationship for cellulose triacetate in the above solvents and the Huggins viscosity-concentration relationship were investigated and the respective values of ...
Protein electrophoresis is a method for analysing the proteins in a fluid or an extract. The electrophoresis may be performed with a small volume of sample in a number of alternative ways with or without a supporting medium: SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (in short: gel electrophoresis, PAGE, or SDS-electrophoresis), free-flow electrophoresis, electrofocusing, isotachophoresis, affinity electrophoresis, immunoelectrophoresis, counterelectrophoresis, and capillary electrophoresis. Each method has many variations with individual advantages and limitations. Gel electrophoresis is often performed in combination with electroblotting immunoblotting to give additional information about a specific protein. Because of practical limitations, protein electrophoresis is generally not suited as a preparative method. SDS-PAGE, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, describes a collection of related techniques to separate proteins according to their electrophoretic mobility (a ...
Silicone oil droplets have limited deposition on hair due to electrostatic repulsion with negative surface charge of hair substrates. Aiming to improve silicone deposition on hair substrates, surface properties of uniform-sized silicone oil droplets (produced by membrane emulsification) were modified using layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition. By using this method, silicone oil droplets were coated with large molecular weight polymers, i.e. quaternized chitosan and alginate, and low molecular weight compounds, i.e. diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride and glycerol to obtain six alternate layers of different surface charges. It was found that the dispersion of coated silicone oil droplets of narrow size distribution exhibited much improved mechanical strength and increased viscosity against shear compared to uncoated droplets. These multilayered silicone oil droplets were then added into model shampoos and conditioners to study the effect of ...
The molecular weight and aggregation tendency of a reference-soil fulvic acid in Armadale horizon Bh were determined by vapor-pressure osmometry using tetrahydrofuran and water as solvents. With tetrahydrofuran, number-average molecular weight values of 767 ?? 34 and 699 ?? 8 daltons were obtained from two separate sets of measurements. Two sets of measurements with water also yielded values within this range (754 ?? 70 daltons) provided that the fulvic acid concentration in water did not exceed 7 mg ml-1; at higher concentrations (9.1-13.7 mg ml-1) a number-average molecular weight of 956 ?? 25 daltons was resolved, providing evidence of molecular aggregation. Extension of these studies to 80% neutralized fulvic acid showed that a sizeable fraction of the sodium counter ion is not osmotically active....
Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI is useful to assess the early effects of drugs acting on tumor vasculature, namely anti-angiogenic and vascular disrupting agents. Ultra-high-field MRI allows higher-resolution scanning for DCE-MRI while maintaining an adequate signal-to-noise ratio. However, increases in susceptibility effects, combined with decreases in longitudinal relaxivity of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GdCAs), make DCE-MRI more challenging at high field. The aim of this work was to explore the feasibility of using DCE-MRI at 11.7 T to assess the tumor hemodynamics of mice. Three GdCAs possessing different molecular weights (gadoterate: 560 Da, 0.29 mmol Gd/kg; p846: 3.5 kDa, 0.10 mmol Gd/kg; and p792: 6.47 kDa, 0.15 mmol Gd/kg) were compared to see the influence of the molecular weight in the highlight of the biologic effects induced by combretastatin A4 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Schwann Cell Surface Proteins and Glycoproteins. AU - Pleasure, David E. AU - Hardy, Mattie. AU - Kreider, Barbara. AU - Stern, Janet. AU - Doan, Hung. AU - Shuman, Sandra. AU - Brown, Spencer. PY - 1982/1/1. Y1 - 1982/1/1. N2 - Abstract: To identify surface sialoglycoproteins of rat Schwann cells and to compare molecular weights of these sialoglycoproteins with those present in rat peripheral nervous system myelin, we prepared Schwann cells from sciatic nerves of 1-3‐day‐old rats and cultured them in monolayer. Surface sialoglycoproteins of the cultured cells were tritium‐labeled by the periodateborohydride procedure and compared with sialoglycoproteins of adult rat peripheral nervous system myelin by fluorography following polyacrylamide slab gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate. Three radioactive bands with apparent molecular weights of 114,000-132,000, 105,000-115,000, and 44,000-56,000 were observed in both the ...
An ethylene-alpha-olefin-polyene random copolymer rubber comprising ethylene, an alpha-olefin having 3 to 10 carbon atoms and a polyene, wherein (A) a molar ratio of ethylene/alpha-olefin is 55/45 to 95/5, (B) the polyene is a mixture of 5-ethylidene-2-norbornene (ENB) and 5-vinyl-2-norbornene (VNB) in a molar ratio of ENB/VNB of 1/1 to 20/1, (C) an iodine value of the copolymer rubber is 2 to 40, (D) an intrinsic viscosity [η] of the copolymer rubber is 1.0 to 6.0 dl/g measured in decalin at 135 C., and (E) g.sub.η * defined by a ratio of the intrinsic viscosity [η] to an intrinsic viscosity [η]l of a linear ethylene-propylene random copolymer having an ethylene content of 70 mole % and the same weight-average molecular weight determined by a light-scattering method as that of the copolymer rubber is 0.2 to 0.9. Also a process for preparing this random copolymer rubber and vulcanizate derived from the same are also disclosed. This random copolymer rubber ...
The viroid can be purified from infected avocado leaves by a procedure described for the purification of chrysanthemum stunt viroid from chrysanthemum leaves (Palukaitis & Symons, 1980). The method involves the initial preparation of a partially purified nucleic acid extract containing mostly low M. Wt RNA and DNA, followed by electrophoresis of this extract in polyacrylamide slab gels under non-denaturing conditions. The viroid band, located by staining, is eluted electrophoretically from the gel and further purified by electrophoresis in polyacrylamide slab gels under denaturing conditions (7 M urea); circular viroid molecules are separated from linear ones at this stage. Highly purified circular and linear viroid molecules are eluted electrophoretically from the gel. Residual contaminating polyacrylamide can be removed by sedimentation of the viroid in a sucrose gradient (Palukaitis et al., 1981). Circular viroid molecules purified by this method are infective (Allen, Palukaitis & Symons, ...
Figure 1 Purification of reconstituted T10/β2m heterodimer by ion exchange chromatography. (A) SDS-PAGE analysis of T10 heavy chain (lane 1) and hβ2m (lane 2) in urea, a 0.25 M NaCl ion exchange column peak fraction from the T10/hβ2m purification (lane 3), and a 0.5 M NaCl high salt wash ion exchange column fraction (lane 4). Subunits in lanes 1 and 2 have been size purified in 6 M urea after solubilization in guanidine-HCl. The gel was stained with Coomassie blue. (B) SDS-PAGE analysis of T10 heavy chain (lane 1) and mβ2m (lane 2) solubilized in guanidine-HCl, a 0.27 M NaCl ion exchange column peak fraction from the T10/mβ2m purification (lane 3), and a 0.5 M NaCl high salt wash ion exchange column fraction (lane 4). The gel was stained with Coomassie blue. (C) Ion exchange chromatography profile from the T10/hβ2m heterodimer purification. Two major peaks, one at 0.25 M NaCl in the 0.1-0.3 M NaCl gradient and a second peak eluting at 0.5 M NaCl in the high ...
The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor type III is a low abundance cell surface component that binds TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 with high affinity and specificity, and is present in many mammalian and avian cell types. Type III TGF-beta receptors affinity-labeled with 125I-TGF-beta migrate in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis gels as diffuse species of 250-350 kDa. Here we show that type III receptors deglycosylated by the action of trifluoromethanesulfonic acid yield affinity-labeled receptor cores of 110-130 kDa. This marked decrease in molecular weight is also achieved by combined treatment of type III receptors with heparitinase and chondroitinase ABC. Digestion of receptor-linked glycosaminoglycans by treatment of intact cell monolayers with heparitinase and chondroitinase does not prevent TGF-beta binding to the type III receptor core polypeptide and does not release the receptor polypeptide from the membrane. The ...
Two low-molecular-weight fractions of sodium hyaluronate (Na-HA), denominated Hyalastin® and Hyalectin®, were investigated as potential adjuvants for ophthalmic vehicles containing pilocarpine nitrate (PiN). Tests were also performed on an ionic complex (HA/PiB) prepared from hyaluronic acid (derived from Hyalastin®) and pilocarpine base. The performance of the vehicles under study was verified by miosis and ocular retention tests carried out on albino rabbits, against a series of reference vehicles, three of which contained a high-molecular-weight fraction of Na-HA (Healon®). The group of 14 reference and test preparations exhibited Newtonian or pseudoplastic flow characteristics and encompassed a wide range of apparent viscosities (1 to 1054 mPa s). The results indicate that the HA/PiB salt and the high-MW Na-HA can significantly increase the bioavailability of pilocarpine with respect to reference ...
Metals present in environment render the bacteria to attain certain resistance machinery to survive, one of which is transformation of metal ions to nano forms. Various enzymes and proteins have been suggested to play significant role in synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in bacteria. In present study, we have purified lignin peroxidase from secreted enzyme extract of Acinetobacter sp. employing diethyl aminoethyl cellulose ion exchange and Biogel P-150 gel filtration column chromatography. The purified fraction has a specific activity of 1.571 U/mg with substrate n-propanol and 6.5-fold purification. The tetrameric enzyme, with molecular weight of 99 kDa, consisted of dimers of two polypetides of 23.9 and 24.6 kDa as revealed by native and SDS-PAGE. On exposure to purified enzyme, spherical polydispersed AgNPs of ~ 50 nm were obtained as observed under transmission electron microscope. Optimum activity of the purified enzyme was obtained at pH 2 and 60 °C with ...
The present invention is directed to a biguanide-containing disinfecting solution containing a particular type of poloxamine for stabilizing a polymeric biguanide. The poloxamine surfactant comprises at least about 90 weight percent of poly(oxyethylene) and poly(oxypropylene) segments, in one or more copolymer chains, wherein the weight average molecular weight of said surfactant is from about 10,000 to about 30,000 and wherein at least about 70 weight percent of said poly(oxyethylene) and poly(oxypropylene) segments are poly(oxyethylene) segments, and wherein the HLB value is at least 27. The method of the present invention comprises cleaning and disinfecting a contact lens with the above-described solution. Products according to the present invention provide enhanced cleaning while maintaining biocidal efficacy.
0003] In the field of top coats for automotive finish, a pigment dispersion resin capable of providing an aqueous pigment dispersion that has, for example, low viscosity even at a high pigment concentration and is good at chromogenic properties as well as good in finished appearance and film performances of a coated film has been developed. Patent Document 1 describes a resin having a weight average molecular weight within a range of 3,000 to 100,000 obtained through copolymerization, performed in the presence of a radical polymerization initiator, of a monomer mixture consisting of a macromonomer (A) obtained by polymerizing monomer components consisting of at least one polymerizable monomer selected from methacrylic esters and styrene, and methacrylic acid if necessary, in the presence of a metal complex working as a catalytic chain transfer agent or an addition fragmentation chain transfer agent, and a radical ...
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GE AKTA fast protein liquid chromatography system is an eagle-i resource of type Fast protein liquid chromatography instrument at Universidad Central del Caribe.
Highly purified toxin A of Clostridium difficile was obtained by bovine thyroglobulin affinity chromatography followed by two sequential anion-exchange chromatography steps on Q Sepharose FF and Mono Q. After Q Sepharose FF chromatography of a thyroglobulin affinity-purified toxin A preparation, two major peaks of cytotoxicity representing toxins A and B were detected. The homogeneity of the final toxin A preparation obtained from Mono Q anion-exchange fast protein liquid chromatography was ascertained by gel electrophoresis developed by silver stain. The mol. wt of toxin A in non-denaturing conditions was estimated to be 520-540 Kda by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) developed by silver stain. In contrast, with sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-PAGE under reducing or non-reducing conditions, a major band of 240 Kda and 10 minor and 27 faint bands (non-reduced conditions), or four minor and 31 faint bands (reduced conditions) were detected after silver staining. In ...
Water-soluble, nonionic, relatively inert, liquids or solids. Confers slip and humectant properties to coatings. See poly(ethylene oxide) for higher molecular weights. The terms poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide) refer to polymers which are chemically identical. Polymer chains are hydroxyl-terminated at both ends. At all except the lowest molecular weights poly(ethylene glycol) has a broad molecular weight distribution ranging from ~ 0.5x to 1.5x the values shown.. Soluble in: alcohol, acetone, chloroform, toluene, dichloromethane. PEG Learn More ...
purpose. To analyze free and total water in human normal and cataractous lenses.. methods. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine total water, and differential scanning calorimetry was used for free water.. results. In normal human lenses, the total water content of the nucleus remained unchanged with age, but the state of the water altered. The ratio of free to bound water increased steadily throughout adult life. In a 20-year-old person, there was approximately one bound water molecule for each free water molecule in the lens center, whereas in a 70- to 80-year-old person, there were two free water molecules for each bound water molecule. This conversion of bound to free water does not appear to be simply a consequence of the aggregation of soluble crystallins into high molecular weight aggregates because studies with intact pig lenses, in which such processes were facilitated by heat, did not show similar changes. The region of the lens in which ...
To investigate the effect of polymer molecular weight (MW) on rhBMP-2 delivery by thermoreversible polymers, four polymers with similar lower critical solution temperatures (20 degrees -22 degrees C) but different MWs were studied. Thermoreversible polymers were based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NiPAM), ethyl methacrylate (EMA), and N-acryloxysuccinimide (NASI), and had MWs of either approximately 49 kDa or approximately 400 kDa. The NASI content was either 0 or 1-1.6%. High MW polymers, irrespective of their NASI content, formed a stable gel with significantly lower water uptake and exhibited a dense micelle with average pore size smaller than the low MW polymers. NiPAM/EMA polymers without NASI did not conjugate with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). NiPAM/EMA polymers containing NASI, however, gave conjugation with rhBMP-2. For polymers without NASI, a high MW was essential for rhBMP-2 retention when injected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prospective trial of lower molecular weight heparin versus unfractionated heparin in moderately injured patients. AU - Cohn, Stephen M.. AU - Moller, B. A.. AU - Burns, G. A.. AU - Feinstein, A. J.. AU - Ginzburg, E.. AU - Hammers, L.. PY - 1998/10/1. Y1 - 1998/10/1. N2 - Purpose: To compare the safety and efficacy of low molecular weight heparin (LMH) with conventional unfractionated heparin (UH) in preventing deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in trauma patients with moderate injuries. Methods: We performed a prospective double-blind randomized trial at a level I trauma center. After informed consent, trauma patients meeting inclusion criteria (age,45 or requiring ,2 days bedrest) received LMH or UH twice daily. Patients were excluded if they had severe brain injuries or bleeding injuries not accessible to hemostatic control (eg: severe visceral contusions). Clinical examination and weekly venous duplex ultrasound evaluations ...
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Chitin deacetylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of acetamido groups of N-acetylglucosamine in chitin, has been purified to homogeneity from mycelial extracts of the fungus Mucor rouxii and further characterized. The enzyme exhibits a low pI (approximately 3). Its apparent molecular mass was determined to be approximately 75 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and approximately 80 kDa by size-exclusion chromatography, suggesting that the enzyme exists as a monomer. Carbohydrate analysis of purified chitin deacetylase revealed that the enzyme is a high-mannose glycoprotein and that its carbohydrate content is approximately 30% by weight. Chitin deacetylase is active on several chitinous substrates and chitin derivatives. The enzyme requires at least four N-acetylglucosamine residues (chitotetraose) for catalysis, and it is inhibited by carboxylic acids, particularly acetic acid. When glycol chitin (a water-soluble ...
We report a methodology for the isolation of peroxisome membranes from the yeast Candida tropicalis pK233 grown on oleic acid, and the characterization of the polypeptide and lipid compositions of these membranes. Peroxisomes purified in either sucrose or Nycodenz gradients are treated with Tris-HCl (pH 8.5) and then with sodium carbonate (pH 11.5) to yield a final peroxisome membrane preparation (hereafter called peroxisome membranes). Electron microscopy revealed peroxisome membranes that are approximately 8.1 nm thick, have a typical trilaminar appearance, and form either flattened sheets or whorled structures. Peroxisome membranes contain 3.1% and 2.2% of the total protein of sucrose- and Nycodenz-gradient-purified peroxisomes, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed three predominant polypeptide bands of 34 (PMP 34), 29 (PMP 29), and 24 (PMP 24) × 10(3) Mr in peroxisome membranes. Immunoblotting with an antiserum to PMP 24 showed that PMP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of the cyanogen bromide fragments of the β chain of human haptoglobin. AU - Kurosky, Alexander. AU - Hay, Regine E.. AU - Kim, Han Hwa. AU - Touchstone, Billy. AU - Rasco, Marilyn A.. AU - Bowman, Barbara H.. PY - 1976. Y1 - 1976. N2 - Characterization of the cyanogen bromide (CNBr) fragments of the β chain of human haptoglobin revealed five major fragments resulting from cleavage of four methionyl residues. The fragments were isolated by gel filtration in guanidine-HCl on Sepharose 6B and Bio-Gel P10 and P60. Compositional analyses of the five cyanogen bromide fragments accounted for 248-253 amino acid residues in agreement with the number of residues determined for the intact β chain. Most of the carbohydrate was attached to CNBr II. Automated amino-terminal sequence analysis and carboxyl-terminal hydrolysis with carboxypeptidase of the haptoglobin β chain and cyanogen bromide fragments identified 139 residues, or about 55% of the β-chain molecule. The ...
In this nested case-control study, we found a strong inverse association between total adiponectin and risk of lower extremity PAD in otherwise healthy men. This association was apparent over the entire range of adiponectin concentrations and persisted even after controlling for traditional biochemical risk factors, such as HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, CRP, and other established PAD risk factors, including cumulative lifelong smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus. No interactions were observed between adiponectin and lipids, and markers of glycemic control, inflammation, or kidney function.. To our knowledge, only 1 prospective study has investigated the effect of adiponectin on risk of incident PAD.18 Similar to our findings in men, data from the Womens Health Study showed a strong inverse association between total and high molecular weight adiponectin with risk of symptomatic PAD (defined as intermittent claudication or ...
The kinin-kallikrein system or simply kinin system is a poorly understood hormonal system with limited available research. It consists of blood proteins that play a role in inflammation, blood pressure control, coagulation and pain. Its important mediators bradykinin and kallidin are vasodilators and act on many cell types. The system was discovered in 1909 when researchers discovered that injection with urine (high in kinins) led to hypotension (low blood pressure). The researchers Emil Karl Frey, Heinrich Kraut and Eugen Werle discovered high-molecular weight kininogen in urine around 1930. kinin [Gk] kīn(eîn) to move, set in motion. kallikrein [Gk ] kalli~ sweet and krein = kreos, flesh, named for the pancreatic extracts where it was first discovered The system consists of a number of large proteins, some small polypeptides and a group of enzymes that activate and deactivate the compounds. High-molecular ...
Destruction of articular cartilage is a characteristic feature of osteoarthritis (OA). Collagen hydrolysates are mixtures of collagen peptides and have gained huge public attention as nutriceuticals used for prophylaxis of OA. Here, we evaluated for the first time whether different bovine collagen hydrolysate preparations indeed modulate the metabolism of collagen and proteoglycans from human OA cartilage explants and determined the chemical composition of oligopeptides representing collagen fragments. Using biophysical techniques, like MALDI-TOF-MS, AFM, and NMR, the molecular weight distribution and aggregation behavior of collagen hydrolysates from bovine origin (CH-Alpha®, Peptan™ B 5000, Peptan™ B 2000) were determined. To investigate the metabolism of human femoral OA cartilage, explants were obtained during knee replacement surgery. Collagen synthesis of explants as modulated by 0-10 mg/ml collagen hydrolysates was determined using a novel dual radiolabeling ...
weight loss (270) weight loss methods (204) lose weight (127) way to lose weight (47) diet (25) weight loss tips (22) Weight loss recipes (14) healthy weight loss (13) slimming (13) healthy way to lose weight (12) ways to lose weight (12) Rapid weight loss (11) to lose weight (11) weight-loss (10) Weight loss diet (9) fast way to lose weight (9) obesity (9) Exercise to lose weight (7) acupuncture weight loss (7) Lose weight fast (6) Rapid weight loss methods (6) Winter weight loss (6) The most effective way to lose weight (5) fast weight loss (5) weight loss secret (5) Dieting to lose weight (4) Fast weight ...
The influence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) plasticiser content and molecular weight on the physicochemical properties of films cast from aqueous blends of poly(methyl vinyl ether-co-maleic acid) was investigated using thermal analysis, swelling studies, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR spectroscopy revealed a shift of the C=O peak from 1708 to 1731 cm(-1), indicating that an esterification reaction had occurred upon heating, thus producing crosslinked films. Higher molecular weight PEGs (10,000 and 1000Da, respectively), having greater chain length, producing hydrogel networks with lower crosslink densities and higher average molecular weight between two consecutive crosslinks. Accordingly, such materials exhibited higher swelling rates. Hydrogels crosslinked with ...
Abstract: The most common technique for analysis of drug substances is high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a variable wavelength detector (UV). Cremophor® EL (ethoxylated castor oil, CrEL) is a non-ionic emulsifier that is used to assist in the solubilization of hydrophobic drugs such as the antineoplastic agent, paclitaxel. However, the molecular weight distribution of CrEL creates difficulties in the analysis of potency and related substances of hydrophobic drugs via UV detection. Using a precipitation method, CrEL was selectively removed from the paclitaxel by pre-treating the injectable dosage form with mercuric chloride and analyzing the filtered extract by HPLC-UV. The removal of CrEL from the injectable dosage form of paclitaxel by precipitation with mercuric chloride resulted in a solution that was suitable to quantitate active and related substances by HPLC-UV. The precipitate was then characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance, ...
en] Copolymerization of binary mixtures of alkyl (meth)acrylates has been initiated in toluene by a mixed complex of lithium silanolate (s-BuMe2SiOLi) and s-BuLi (molar ratio , 21) formed in situ by reaction of s-BuLi with hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3). Fully acrylate and methacrylate copolymers, i.e., poly(methyl acrylate-co-n-butyl acrylate), poly(methyl methacrylate-co-ethyl methacrylate), poly(methyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl methacrylate), poly(methyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl methacrylate), poly(isobornyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl methacrylate), poly(isobornyl methacrylate-co-n-butyl methacrylate) of a rather narrow molecular weight distribution have been synthesized. However, copolymerization of alkyl acrylate and methyl methacrylate pairs has completely failed, leading to the selective formation of homopoly(acrylate). As result of the isotactic stereoregulation of the alkyl methacrylate polymerization by the s-BuLi/s-BuMe2SiOLi initiator, highly ...
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. This research was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2014A030310145) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (21476091).. REFERENCES CITED. APHA 2000 (2000). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.. Bijan, L., and Mohseni, M. (2005). "Integrated ozone and biotreatment of pulp mill effluent and changes in biodegradability and molecular weight distribution of organic compounds," Water Research 39(16), 3763-3772. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2005.07.018. Bila, D. M., Montalvão, A. F., Silva, A. C., and Dezotti, M. (2005). "Ozonation of a landfill leachate: Evaluation of toxicity removal and biodegradability improvement," Journal of Hazardous Materials 117(2-3), 235-242. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2004.09.022. Chang, E. E., Hsing, H. J., Chiang, P. C., Chen, M. Y., and Shyng, J. Y. (2008). "The chemical and biological characteristics of coke-oven ...
Developing a Renewable Hybrid Resin System. Part I: Characterization of Co-Polymers of Isocyanate with Different Molecular Weights of Phenolic Resins. Xiaomei Liu,a Yiqiang Wu,b Rubin Shmulsky,a Yan Luo,a Xiaodong (Alice) Wang,c I wei Chu,d and Hui Wan a,*. Co-polymer systems of methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resins with different molecular weights were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FTIR and TGA coupled with differential thermogravimetric (DTG) results showed that higher molecular weight of PF resins not only promoted the reaction of isocyanate and PF co-polymer system, but also resulted in a better thermal property of prepared co-polymers. The XRD results revealed that higher molecular weight led to a ...
1. A stable, more highly purified, preparation of UDP-glucuronyltransferase was obtained than previously reported. 2. Enzyme activity towards o-aminophenyl and p-nitrophenyl was increased 43- and 46-fold respectively. 3. The final preparation contains only three staining polypeptide bands visible after sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 4. The only known major accompanying protein appears to be epoxide hydratase. 5. The purified enzyme activity towards o-aminophenol can still be activated 3 fold by diethylnitrosamine. 6. On evidence from purification, o-aminophenol and p-nitrophenol appear to be glucuronidated by the same enzyme protein. The possible recognition of the UDP-glucuronyltransferase enzyme is discussed. ...
Looking for online definition of Double Immunodiffusion in the Medical Dictionary? Double Immunodiffusion explanation free. What is Double Immunodiffusion? Meaning of Double Immunodiffusion medical term. What does Double Immunodiffusion mean?
The present invention relates to an anode material excellent in its charging and discharging characteristics and a secondary battery excellent in its charging and discharging cyclic characteristics. An anode active material is used for a nonaqueous electrolyte secondary battery including an anode having the anode active material, a cathode having a cathode active material and a nonaqueous electrolyte. The capacity of the anode is expressed by the sum of a capacity component obtained when light metal is doped and dedoped in an ionic state and a capacity component obtained when the light metal is deposited and dissolved. The light metal includes an anode base material capable of doping and dedoping the light metal in an ionic state and a fibrous material having an electric conductivity.

Methoxide - WikipediaMethoxide - Wikipedia

It is used as an initiator of an anionic addition polymerization with ethylene oxide, forming a polyether with high molecular ... weight. Both sodium methoxide and its counterpart prepared with potassium are frequently used as catalysts for commercial-scale ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methoxide

Sodium methoxide - WikipediaSodium methoxide - Wikipedia

Sodium methoxide is used as an initiator of anionic addition polymerization with ethylene oxide, forming a polyether with high ... molecular weight. Biodiesel is prepared from vegetable oils and animal fats, that is, fatty acid triglycerides, by ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sodium_methoxide

Anionic | definition of anionic by Medical dictionaryAnionic | definition of anionic by Medical dictionary

... anionic explanation free. What is anionic? Meaning of anionic medical term. What does anionic mean? ... Looking for online definition of anionic in the Medical Dictionary? ... Water-soluble free radical addition polymerizations: polyacrylamides: acrylamide conform high-molecular-weight polymers and ... Related to anionic: anionic detergent, cationic, nonionic, anionic polymerization. an·i·on·ic. (an-ī-onik), Referring to a ...
more infohttp://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anionic

Measuring Polymerization Reactions | Polymer ChemistryMeasuring Polymerization Reactions | Polymer Chemistry

Measuring polymerization reactions is crucial to producing a material that meets the end-use requirements. Challenges ... Measuring polymerization reactions is crucial to producing a material that meets the end-use requirements. Challenges ... anionic polymerization yields a high-performance polymer that can be fine-tuned with regard to molecular weights and molecular ... What is Important to Measure for Polymerization Reactions?. Whether a polymerization proceeds via addition as a chain reaction ...
more infohttps://www.mt.com/in/en/home/applications/L1_AutoChem_Applications/L2_ReactionAnalysis/L2_Polymerization.html

Measuring Polymerization Reactions | Polymer ChemistryMeasuring Polymerization Reactions | Polymer Chemistry

Measuring polymerization reactions is crucial to producing a material that meets the end-use requirements. Challenges ... Measuring polymerization reactions is crucial to producing a material that meets the end-use requirements. Challenges ... anionic polymerization yields a high-performance polymer that can be fine-tuned with regard to molecular weights and molecular ... What is Important to Measure for Polymerization Reactions?. Whether a polymerization proceeds via addition as a chain reaction ...
more infohttps://www.mt.com/es/en/home/applications/L1_AutoChem_Applications/L2_ReactionAnalysis/L2_Polymerization.html

Publikationen PolymersynthesePublikationen Polymersynthese

High Molecular Weights by the Combination of Anionic and Reversible Addition-Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerizations ... High Molar Mass Poly(trimethylene carbonate) by Ph2BiOEt and Ph2BiBr-Initiated Ring-Opening Polymerizations Hans R. Kricheldorf ... Analysis of glass transition and relaxation processes of low molecular weight polystyrene-b-polyisoprene diblock copolymers ... Poly(vinyl trimethylsilane) and block copolymers of vinyl trimethylsilane with isoprene: anionic polymerization, morphology and ...
more infohttps://www.hzg.de/institutes_platforms/polymer_research/polymer_synthesis/publications/index.php.de

Chemicals, Solvents, Surfactants, Additives, Crude Oil, Parfumes, othersChemicals, Solvents, Surfactants, Additives, Crude Oil, Parfumes, others

Sodium methoxide is used as an initiator of anionic addition polymerization with ethylene oxide, forming a polyether with high ... molecular weight. Biodiesel is prepared from vegetable oils and animal fats, that is, fatty acid triglycerides, by ... MOLECULAR SIEVE. A molecular sieve is a material containing tiny pores of a precise and uniform size that is used as an ... methyl soyate is safer to handle and store due to its high flashpoint of approximately 360 degrees Fahrenheit and high boiling ...
more infohttp://chemical-news.blogspot.com

Chemicals Powders - Phosphorous Acid Manufacturer from MumbaiChemicals Powders - Phosphorous Acid Manufacturer from Mumbai

Sodium methoxide is used as an initiator of anionic addition polymerization with ethylene oxide, forming a polyether with high ... It has molecular formula of Cr2Na2O7 and molecular weight of 261.967539 g/mol. Made available as crystalline orange to red ... M-Benzenedicarboxylic acid and others and comes with molecular formula of C8H6O4 and molecular weight of 166.13084 g/mol. Made ... Their molecular weight is 376.3 and is represented as C18H16O9.They is widely used as resolving agents and has the following.. ...
more infohttps://www.antareschem.com/chemicals-powders.html

Southeast Asia marketting DOP substitute plasticizer Epoxy FSoutheast Asia marketting DOP substitute plasticizer Epoxy F

Sodium methoxide is used as an initiator of anionic addition polymerization with ethylene oxide, forming a polyether with high ... molecular weight. Biodiesel is prepared from vegetable oils and animal fats, that is, fatty acid triglycerides, by ... The pili pulp oil has a higher oleic fatty acid value than pili nut oil, as reflected by its higher iodine number. The ... DOP/DBP Substitute high quality Plasticizer Epoxy Fatty Acid Methyl Ester/EFAME Epoxy fatty acid methyl ester EFAME, ...
more infohttp://www.tassobxl.be/More_Posts/2019-08-01/Southeast-Asia-marketting-DOP-substitute-plasticizer-Epoxy-F.html

Anionic synonyms, anionic antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comAnionic synonyms, anionic antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

Antonyms for anionic. 2 synonyms for anionic: anionic detergent, non-ionic detergent. What are synonyms for anionic? ... Water-soluble free radical addition polymerizations: polyacrylamides: acrylamide conform high-molecular-weight polymers and ... Related to anionic: anionic detergent, cationic, nonionic, anionic polymerization. #vtZoom,.vt-link{cursor:pointer} .vt- ... Synonyms for anionic. a class of synthetic detergents in which the molecules do not ionize in aqueous solutions. Synonyms. * ...
more infohttps://www.freethesaurus.com/anionic

Sodium Methoxide Market To Witness Enhanced Demand From Pharmaceutical and Biodiesel Industries Till 2022 | Million Insights |...Sodium Methoxide Market To Witness Enhanced Demand From Pharmaceutical and Biodiesel Industries Till 2022 | Million Insights |...

... an initiator of the anionic additions of polymerization with an ethylene oxide forming a polyether with high molecular weight. ... When exposed to high heat it can be decomposed. It is available in the liquid and solid form; for e.g. vitamin A1, B1, ... There is higher demand in China India due to the growing need; along with increase in the research and developmental activities ... Sodium Methoxide is a compound with molecular formula CH3ONa. It is also termed as Sodium methylate. This is a colorless solid ...
more infohttp://www.oklahomanews-online.com/story/154389/sodium-methoxide-market-to-witness-enhanced-demand-from-pharmaceutical-and-biodiesel-industries-till-2022-million-insights.html

US4755567A - Perfluorination of ethers in the presence of hydrogen fluoride scavengers 
        - Google PatentsUS4755567A - Perfluorination of ethers in the presence of hydrogen fluoride scavengers - Google Patents

The HF scavenger permits use of more severe fluorination conditions i.e. higher initial fluorine, less gradual increases in ... 480 g of high molecular weight (1 million) polyethylene oxide was mixed with 2,400 g sodium powder (passed 100 mesh sieve) and ... In addition, anionic polymerization of perfluoro epoxides does not lend itself well to the manufacture of perfluoro copolymers ... 480 grams of high molecular weight (1 million) polyethylene oxide was mixed with 2400 grams sodium fluoride pellets and placed ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US4755567A/en

Patente US6652883 - Tissue bulking and coating compositions - Google PatentesPatente US6652883 - Tissue bulking and coating compositions - Google Patentes

... polymerization and other methods of increasing the molecular weight of polymers/oligomers to very high molecular weights. Chain ... cationic polymerization (including onium), anionic polymerization (including group transfer polymerization), certain types of ... In addition, the macromers can also contain small proportions, for example, up to 20%, preferably up to 5%, of comonomer units ... As an upper limit, the PVA may have a molecular weight of up to 1,000,000. Preferably, the PVA has a molecular weight of up to ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US6652883?dq=flatulence

Patent US7531241 - Coating agent - Google PatentsPatent US7531241 - Coating agent - Google Patents

... addition polymerization will tend to occur steadily, producing a high-molecular weight polymer, but if the ratio is larger than ... Examples of the anionic surfactants include alkyl sulfates, polyoxyethylene alkyl ether sulfates, polyoxyethylene alkylphenyl ... made into an aqueous emulsion or solution of the polyurethane resin as the component B by converting to a high-molecular weight ... by adding a polyvalent amine compound to the resulting aqueous emulsion or solution and converting to a high-molecular weight ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7531241?dq=patent:5992892

Addition Polymerization Assignment Help - Addition Polymerization Homework Help OnlineAddition Polymerization Assignment Help - Addition Polymerization Homework Help Online

30% discount ✓100% Cashback* ✓1010+ Addition Polymerization Experts. Ask Now ! Get 100% error-free solutions at affordable ... Get 24/7 Addition Polymerization Homework Help Online from experts on Transtutors.com. ✓ ... What is Characteristics Of Addition Or Chain Polymerization?. This polymer is formed by chain mechanism. High molecular weight ... Initiators used may be free radical, cationic, anionic or heterogeneous. Following type of monomers is used. ...
more infohttps://www.transtutors.com/homework-help/engineering-chemistry/polymer/addition-polymerization.aspx

US5342883A - Polymers containing macromonomers 
        - Google PatentsUS5342883A - Polymers containing macromonomers - Google Patents

... about 0.1-99 weight percent of one or more monoethylenically unsaturated macromonomers, and (D) about 0-20 weight percent or ... about 0-98.9 weight percent of one or more monoethylenically unsaturated monomers, typically ethyl acrylate; (C) ... Polymers are disclosed which comprise: (A) about 1-99.9 weight percent of one or more alpha, beta-monoethylenically unsaturated ... suspension polymerization, precipitation polymerization, addition polymerizations such as free radical, anionic, cationic or ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US5342883A/en

Investigations on the anionic polymerization of butadiene in capillaries by kinetic measurements and reactor simulation : Green...Investigations on the anionic polymerization of butadiene in capillaries by kinetic measurements and reactor simulation : Green...

... the polymers show nearly the same molecular weights Mw (Table 2). Higher outlet pressures guarantee a liquid phase in the ... In the anionic polymerization of Bd as a monomer, the first addition of one monomer unit to the initiator, here n-butyllithium ... that a very fast anionic polymerization of styrene in pure THF can be performed in a micromixing device with molecular weights ... This leads to inhomogeneous polymerization degrees and therefore a broader distribution of the molecular weights of the polymer ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/gps.2013.2.issue-5/gps-2013-0059/gps-2013-0059.xml

Progesterone-binding modified hyperbranched polyglycerols : synthesis, characterization and biological assessment - UBC Library...Progesterone-binding modified hyperbranched polyglycerols : synthesis, characterization and biological assessment - UBC Library...

... through anionic ring-opening multibranching polymerization of glycidol with low PDI and predetermined molecular weight was ... Higher polymer concentration, in addition to longer incubation time with cells, exhibited higher intracellular distribution of ... Number average molecular weight Mw Weight average molecular weight MWCO Molecular weight cut off NaNO3 Sodium nitrate PBS ... the accumulation of higher molecular weight HPGs in the organs compared to lower 25 molecular weights, makes essential the need ...
more infohttps://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/24/items/1.0228622

Patente US6274667 - Synthetic polymers having hydrogen bonding capability and containing ... - Google PatentesPatente US6274667 - Synthetic polymers having hydrogen bonding capability and containing ... - Google Patentes

High molecular weight/low charge density flocculants are used most often for retention of fine particles in high shear and ... Unlike the anionic PAMs, cationic PAMs can be effectively charged across the entire pH range. Typical molecular weights (Mw) ... Addition rates of 0.1% to 0.5% of dry fiber typically give best results. High addition rates may cause over-cationization of ... First with regard to the synthetic polymers, they can be made via free radical polymerization of vinyl monomers of the form:. R ...
more infohttp://www.google.es/patents/US6274667?dq=flatulence

Patent US5984467 - Ink-jet media - Google PatentsPatent US5984467 - Ink-jet media - Google Patents

However, needed molecular weight control can be obtained by using the Group Transfer Polymerization technique, or other methods ... Anionic, nonionic, or amphoteric surfactants may be used in addition to the polymeric dispersants. A detailed list of non- ... These polymers are substantially free of higher molecular weight species that readily plug pen nozzles. Number average ... grade K-90, molecular weight 1,280,000) in 88.4 grams of water. To this was added 15.4 grams of a 5% aqueous solution of ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5984467?dq=6,757,710

4. Enabling Science | Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers | The National Academies Press4. Enabling Science | Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers | The National Academies Press

Under ultrasound irradiation, at low temperature, high molecular weights and monomodal molecular weight distributions are ... Addition or condensation polymerization can be used to prepare metal coordination polymers in which coordination occurs between ... Anionic polymerization in hydrocarbon solvents is industrially important and produces 90 percent 1,4-microstructure with short ... Of course, molecular weight and molecular weight distribution can play a role, along with molecular symmetry. This latter ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/2307/chapter/6

Patent US9487916 - Method of improving dewatering efficiency, increasing sheet wet web strength ... - Google PatentsuchePatent US9487916 - Method of improving dewatering efficiency, increasing sheet wet web strength ... - Google Patentsuche

The molecular weights of these polymers, both vinyl addition and condensation, range from as low as several hundred to as high ... Anionic preflocculation of fillers used in papermaking. US20150176286. 31. Juli 2013. 25. Juni 2015. Australian Ramp Systems ... Some organic coagulants suitable as a treating composition of matter are formed by condensation polymerization. Examples of ... High molecular weight compact structured polymers, methods of making and using. US20080082198. 18. Sept. 2006. 3. Apr. 2008. ...
more infohttps://www.google.ch/patents/US9487916

JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and ProtocolsJoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols

Higher molecular weight (water insoluble i.e. around 50,000) CDNP-PEO-P2MS-PEO-CDNP polymers, containing 1% single wall carbon ... is prepared by anionic living polymerization. The difunctional initiator utilized in the polymerization was prepared by ... In addition, we introduce a sensory-CNS-motor neuron-muscle circuit to demonstrate the effect of cuticular sensory stimulation ... The molecular weight distributions of the polymers were narrow (1.1-1.2) and polymers with molecular weights greater than ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/visualize/abstract/23626747/penetrating-cations-enhance-uncoupling-activity-anionic-protonophores

Polymer-Surfactant Interactions: Modes Of Association And Methods Of Analysis - Covering the Printing Inks, Coatings and Allied...Polymer-Surfactant Interactions: Modes Of Association And Methods Of Analysis - Covering the Printing Inks, Coatings and Allied...

Higher molecular weight glycols are believed to form true polymer-surfactant complexes in which the glycol is in the form of a ... Low molecular weight polyoxyethylene glycols (degree of polymerization , 10-15) are believed to form micelle-glycol complexes ... anionic behavior may be due to the different hydration characteristics of the cationic and anionic headgroups.. Anionic ... Conversely, addition of the surfactant to the half ester of SMA 1000 entailed a high degree of viscosity increase. One can ...
more infohttp://www.inkworldmagazine.com/issues/2004-03/view_features/polymer-surfactant-interactions-modes-of-asso/

Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis - WikipediaPolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis - Wikipedia

Lower percentage gels are better for resolving very high molecular weight molecules, while much higher percentages of ... This kind of reaction is known as vinyl addition polymerisation. A solution of these polymer chains becomes viscous but does ... It is an anionic dye, which non-specifically binds to proteins. The structure of CBB is predominantly non-polar, and it is ... It is common to run molecular weight size markers of known molecular weight in a separate lane in the gel to calibrate the gel ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PAGE
  • Hofman Professor of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Notre Dame, points out that the group of researchers had previously discovered that synthetic zinc (II)-dipicolylamine (Zn-DPA) coordination complexes can selectively target the outer surfaces of anionic (negatively charged) cell membranes. (freethesaurus.com)
  • The preparation of perfluoropolyethers by anionic polymerization of perfluoro epoxides first involves the oxidation of a perfluoro olefin to a perfluoro epoxide, followed by anionic polymerization of the epoxide to an acyl fluoride terminated perfluoropolyether and conversion of the acyl fluoride end groups to unreactive end groups by decarboxylation reactions or chain coupling photolytic decarboxylation reactions. (google.com)
  • Publications] 渡辺喜彦,相田卓三,井上祥平: 'Novel Visible LightーMediated Living and Immortal Polymerizations of Epoxides with Zinc Complexes of NーSubstituted Porphyrins. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] 杉本裕,相田卓三,井上祥平: 'RingーOpening Polymerizations of Lactone and Epoxide Initiated with Aluminum Complexes of Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrins.Molecular Design of Highly Active Initiators. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] 相田卓三,川口健一,井上祥平: 'Zinc NーSubstituted Porphyrins as Novel Initiators for the Living and Immortal Polymerizations of Episulfide. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This understanding involves factors including the kinetics of the reaction, monomer conversion rates and reactivity ratios, the relationship and influence of reaction parameters on the molecular weight and distribution, a thorough understanding of polymerization mechanism in initiation, propagation and termination phases and ensuring that the overall polymer structure meets the target application need. (mt.com)
  • Understanding critical polymer reaction parameters can lead to precise control of multi-step polymerizations, real-time residual monomer measurements, and ultimately improved end-use polymer properties. (mt.com)
  • Although the definitive molecular identity of the pore is still under debate, proteins such as cyclophilin D, VDAC and ANT contribute to mtPTP formation. (jove.com)
  • By comparing the relative ratio of the distance traveled by each protein to the length of the gel (Rf) one can make conclusions about the relative molecular weight of the proteins, where the length of the gel is determined by the distance traveled by a small molecule like a tracking dye. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro , mtPTP opening can be achieved by increasing Ca 2+ concentration inside the mitochondrial matrix through exogenous additions of Ca 2+ (calcium retention capacity). (jove.com)
  • Elastomers made at Schkopau are styrene butadiene rubber (SBR), polybutadiene rubber (PBR), anionic initiated polymerised rubbers of lithium Lo Cis polybutadiene rubber (Li-PBR), nickel Ziegler-Natta catalysed Hi Cis polybutadiene rubber (Ni-PBR), emulsion styrene butadiene rubber (ESBR) and solution styrene butadiene rubber (SSBR). (freethesaurus.com)
  • In addition to the basic kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, tables are included which are useful for emulsion polymerization and polymer fractionation studies. (scribd.com)
  • 1. A tissue bulking composition comprising microspheres formed from macromers, wherein the macromers prior to crosslinking have a polymeric backbone comprising units with a 1,2-diol or 1,3-diol structure and at least two pendant chains bearing crosslinkable groups which are olefinically unsaturated groups, wherein the macromers are crosslinked via free radical polymerization to form a hydrogel. (google.es)
  • 7. The method of claim 1 in which the composition of matter is a coagulant selected from the list consisting of: inorganic coagulants, organic coagulants, condensation polymerization coagulants, and any combination thereof. (google.ch)
  • 8. The method of claim 1 in which the composition of matter is a coagulant having a molecular weight range of between 200 and 1,000,000. (google.ch)
  • The HF scavenger permits use of more severe fluorination conditions i.e. higher initial fluorine, less gradual increases in fluorine gas concentrations and greater fluorine gas flow rates. (google.com)
  • mtPTP opening is triggered by matrix Ca 2+ but its activity can be modulated by several other factors such as oxidative stress, adenine nucleotide depletion, high concentrations of Pi, mitochondrial membrane depolarization or uncoupling, and long chain fatty acids 4 . (jove.com)
  • It has been suggested that controlled, reversible switching of rotor positions on the axle might provide a basis for functional molecular devices ( Figure 4.2 ). (nap.edu)
  • Since high-quality, functional mitochondria are required for the mtPTP opening assay, we also describe the steps necessary to obtain intact, highly coupled and functional isolated heart mitochondria. (jove.com)
  • Interest in the field of functionalized polymeric materials stems from the desire to combine the unique properties of a functional group with those of a high molecular weight polymer. (patentgenius.com)
  • Control of polymerization reaction is a subject of fundamental importance for the molecular design of high performance and functional polymer materials. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The purpose of this research is to establish the methods of the precise control of polymerization reaction as a general principle to apply to apply to the molecular design of polymer materials. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Real-time, in situ FTIR measurement has proven particularly valuable to provide insight into key kinetic, mechanistic and chemical structure information, while eliminating the difficulties associated with off line measurements of polymerizations reactions. (mt.com)
  • Polymerization reactions are widely investigated and have led to high value, high performance engineered materials that are in our homes, automobiles and even our bodies. (mt.com)
  • What is Important to Measure for Polymerization Reactions? (mt.com)
  • Over the past three decades, the investigation of polymerization reactions from the lab through scale-up to production has been one of the most prolific and valued uses for in situ FTIR technology. (mt.com)
  • The often used multipurpose batch reactors allow a high number of different chemical reactions, but they are not optimized for a special chemistry and their handling provokes accidents . (degruyter.com)
  • Here we showed that hydrophobic penetrating cations specifically targeted to mitochondria in a membrane potential-driven fashion increased proton-translocating activity of the anionic uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and carbonylcyanide-p-trifluorophenylhydrazone (FCCP). (jove.com)
  • The mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP) is a non specific channel that forms in the inner mitochondrial membrane to transport solutes with a molecular mass smaller than 1.5 kDa. (jove.com)
  • 11) Control of polymerization in bilayer membrane. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In addition, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does not list methyl soyate as an ozone-depleting chemical (ODC), hazardous air pollutant or volatile organic compound. (blogspot.com)
  • Being based on sucrose and edible fatty acids, sucrose esters are a unique range of high quality, non-ionic emulsifiers. (blogspot.com)
  • For the first time the anionic polymerization of 1,3-butadiene (Bd) is successfully transferred from semi-batch into a continuous microfluidic setup with comparable product properties. (degruyter.com)
  • Current synthetic methodology affords a high level of control of chain structure, and syntheses of linear and branched chains, stars, rings, and combs have been achieved. (nap.edu)
  • In the new paper, the researchers describe a significant expansion of the animal imaging capability of PSS-794 by showing that it can target the anionic dead and dying cells within tumours in rat and mouse models. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The molecular weight distribution described by the polydispersity index (PDI) is commonly used as a key criterion for product quality. (degruyter.com)
  • The primary raw material is common salt, usually in the form of underground deposits which are brought to the surface as a solution in a pumped high pressure water supply. (antareschem.com)
  • It is worth noting that the addition of a kind of appropriate stabilizers like loke protonic or Lewis acids and a small amount of a free-radical inhibitors used to prevent repolymerization are necessary (Figure 2.2). (ukessays.com)