Choline Deficiency: A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Choline Kinase: An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.Phosphatidylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses three sequential METHYLATION reactions for conversion of phosphatidylethanolamine to PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE.Ethionine: 2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.Glycerylphosphorylcholine: A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.Phosphorylcholine: Calcium and magnesium salts used therapeutically in hepatobiliary dysfunction.Betaine: A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341)Choline O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.S-Adenosylhomocysteine: 5'-S-(3-Amino-3-carboxypropyl)-5'-thioadenosine. Formed from S-adenosylmethionine after transmethylation reactions.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.S-Adenosylmethionine: Physiologic methyl radical donor involved in enzymatic transmethylation reactions and present in all living organisms. It possesses anti-inflammatory activity and has been used in treatment of chronic liver disease. (From Merck, 11th ed)Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hemicholinium 3: A potent inhibitor of the high affinity uptake system for CHOLINE. It has less effect on the low affinity uptake system. Since choline is one of the components of ACETYLCHOLINE, treatment with hemicholinium can deplete acetylcholine from cholinergic terminals. Hemicholinium 3 is commonly used as a research tool in animal and in vitro experiments.Cytidine Diphosphate Choline: Donor of choline in biosynthesis of choline-containing phosphoglycerides.Choline Dehydrogenase: An enzyme bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane that catalyzes the oxidation of CHOLINE to BETAINE.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Steatorrhea: A condition that is characterized by chronic fatty DIARRHEA, a result of abnormal DIGESTION and/or INTESTINAL ABSORPTION of FATS.Flurazepam: A benzodiazepine derivative used mainly as a hypnotic.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Heat Exhaustion: A clinical syndrome caused by heat stress, such as over-exertion in a hot environment or excessive exposure to sun. It is characterized by SWEATING, water (volume) depletion, salt depletion, cool clammy skin, NAUSEA, and HEADACHE.Drug Information Services: Services providing pharmaceutic and therapeutic drug information and consultation.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Magnetocardiography: The measurement of magnetic fields generated by electric currents from the heart. The measurement of these fields provides information which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROCARDIOGRAPHY.Estuaries: A partially enclosed body of water, and its surrounding coastal habitats, where saltwater from the ocean mixes with fresh water from rivers or streams. The resulting mixture of seawater and fresh water is called brackish water and its salinity can range from 0.5 to 35 ppt. (accessed http://oceanservice.noaa.gov/education/kits/estuaries/estuaries01_whatis.html)Drug Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a drug container or wrapper. It includes contents, indications, effects, dosages, routes, methods, frequency and duration of administration, warnings, hazards, contraindications, side effects, precautions, and other relevant information.Pharmacists: Those persons legally qualified by education and training to engage in the practice of pharmacy.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Waiting Lists: Prospective patient listings for appointments or treatments.Asthma, Exercise-Induced: Asthma attacks following a period of exercise. Usually the induced attack is short-lived and regresses spontaneously. The magnitude of postexertional airway obstruction is strongly influenced by the environment in which exercise is performed (i.e. inhalation of cold air during physical exertion markedly augments the severity of the airway obstruction; conversely, warm humid air blunts or abolishes it).Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Peak Expiratory Flow Rate: Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.Asthma, Occupational: Asthma attacks caused, triggered, or exacerbated by OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE.Selenium Oxides: Inorganic compounds formed through the oxidation of selenium.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Indans: Aryl CYCLOPENTANES that are a reduced (protonated) form of INDENES.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
... have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups, which causes dysfunction of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. This inhibition ... may lead to acetylcholine deficiency, and can have consequences on motor function. Botulinum toxin (Botox) acts by suppressing ... Following the evolution of choline transporters, the abundance of intracellular choline paved the way for choline to become ... Acetylcholine is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl- ...
Rates of conversion are 15% higher for women, with those taking oral contraceptives demonstrating 10% higher DHA levels. DHA is ... DHA deficiency is associated with cognitive decline. Phosphatidylserine (PS) controls apoptosis, and low DHA levels lower ... DHA modulates the carrier-mediated transport of choline, glycine, and taurine, the function of delayed rectifier potassium ... It has been recommended to eat foods which are high in omega-3 fatty acids for women who want to become pregnant or when ...
PEMT deficiency prevents artherosclerosis in mice fed high-fat, high-cholesterol diets. This is largely a result of lower ... While the CDP-choline pathway, in which choline obtained either by dietary consumption or by metabolism of choline-containing ... "Aberrant estrogen regulation of PEMT results in choline deficiency-associated liver dysfunction". The Journal of Biological ... PEMT deficiency in mice, genetically induced by PEMT gene knockout, produced minimal effect on PE and PC levels. However, upon ...
... higher for pregnant and breastfeeding women. The AI for adult men is 550 mg/day. Choline deficiency can lead to health problems ... Choline deficiency has also been associated with hypertension in rats. There is also some evidence that choline is an anti- ... "Iron deficiency-adults". High-risk groups such as vegetarians, adolescent girls and women athletes need to eat iron-rich foods ... For iron: "Iron deficiency-adults". Better Health Channel. Government of Victoria, Australia. Retrieved February 4, 2011. High- ...
One sign of choline deficiency is an elevated level of the liver enzyme ALT. If low choline intake causes an elevated ... Neurons, conversely, acquire choline by both high- and low-affinity transporters. Choline is stored as membrane-bound ... Choline-providing dietary supplement ingredients include: choline chloride, choline bitartrate, citicoline (CDP-choline), L- ... Choline (C5H14NO+) Choline chloride Choline hydroxide Acetylcholine Cytidine diphosphate choline Dimethylethanolamine ...
In order to successfully screen hFMO3 in a high throughput fashion hFMO3 was successfully fixed to graphene oxide chips in ... However, doctors recommend patients to avoid foods containing choline, carnitine, nitrogen, sulfur and lecithin. FMOs have also ... causes abnormal FMO3-mediated metabolism or a deficiency of this enzyme in an individual. A person with this disorder has a low ... Individuals with deficient FMO3 activity have a higher prevalence of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases, since ...
Deficiencies of other B vitamins result in symptoms that are not part of a named deficiency disease. Because water-soluble B ... Vitamin B4: can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine. Choline is synthesized by the human body, but ... "High prevalence of low plasma thiamine concentration in diabetes linked to a marker of vascular disease". Diabetologia. 50 (10 ... In cases of severe deficiency, B vitamins, especially B12, may also be delivered by injection to reverse deficiencies.[ ...
... which causes dysfunction of the enzyme choline acetyltransferase. This inhibition may lead to acetylcholine deficiency, and can ... Organic mercurial compounds, such as methylmercury, have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups, ... Following the evolution of choline transporters, the abundance of intracellular choline paved the way for choline to become ... Acetylcholine is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl- ...
... or an enzyme with relatively high residual activity but still phenotypic consequences. This enzyme deficiency allows glutaric ... Choline increases carnitine uptake and retention. Choline supplements are inexpensive, safe (probably even in all children ... While GCDH deficiency is a rare disease, GLO deficiency is the most common of metabolic diseases affecting children, limiting ... It is thus important to investigate all cases of macrocephaly of unknown origins for GCDH deficiency, given the importance of ...
For instance, deficiencies of the main dietary sources of methyl donors, methionine and choline, lead to the formation of liver ... Whether it is deficiency in enzymes such as methylthioadenosine phosphorylase, methionine-dependency of cancer cells, high ... Ghoshal, AK; Farber, E (1984). "The induction of liver cancer by dietary deficiency of choline and methionine without added ... higher in fruits and vegetables, to have a lower risk of cancer. A "drinker dietary pattern" is also associated with higher ...
Key components of the diet are high fat content to meet caloric requirements of growth, high protein to meet requirements for ... Choline is also a AAFCO recommended ingredient for kittens, which is important for neurotransmission in the brain and as a ... Sturman, J. A., Moretz, R. C., French, J. H., & Wisniewski, H. M. (1985). Postnatal taurine deficiency in the kitten results in ... Cats are naturally carnivores and require high amounts of protein in the diet. Kittens are undergoing growth and require high ...
Succinyl choline, phenothiazines and tricyclic antidepressants causes trismus as a secondary effect. Trismus can be seen as an ... Complications of Chemotherapy: Oral mucosal cells have high growth rate and are susceptible to the toxic effects of ... Gaucher disease which is caused by deficiency of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase. Giant cell arteritis Illegal Stimulant drugs, ...
Cell membranes require high levels of cholesterol - typically an average of 20% cholesterol in the whole membrane, increasing ... In sphingomyelin the primary hydroxyl group of sphingosine is esterified to phosphoryl choline. In glycolipids, the sugar ... "Environmental Iodine Deficiency: A Challenge to the Evolution of Terrestrial Life?". Thyroid. 10 (8): 727-9. doi:10.1089/ ... Plant thylakoid membranes maintain high fluidity, even at relatively cold environmental temperatures, due the abundance of 18- ...
... high density lipoprotein cholesterol) Health Healthy weight Herb High density lipoprotein cholesterol Human nutrition ... Choline Inositol Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) Vitamin D IU=mcg Vitamin E (tocopherol) IU=mg Vitamin K Biotin Carotenoids Alpha ... vitamin deficiency) Nutrition transition Eating disorders Binge eating Bulimia Overeating Fat tax Health claims on food labels ... vitamin deficiency) Multivitamin Vitamin A (retinol) Vitamin B complex Vitamin B1 (thiamin) Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) Vitamin B3 ...
RDAs are set higher than EARs to cover people with higher than average needs. Adequate Intakes (AIs) are set when there is not ... Deficiencies can be due to a number of causes including an inadequacy in nutrient intake, called a dietary deficiency, or any ... Choline, inositol, taurine, arginine, glutamine and nucleotides are classified as conditionally essential and are particularly ... RDA U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowances; higher for adults than for children, and may be even higher for women who are pregnant ...
Choline is often supplemented in cat diets in the form of choline chloride, but is also found in eggs, liver, chicken, and soya ... Central retinal deficiency is a cognitive dysfunction in cats that primarily caused by a nutritional deficiency but can be ... 1997), when pregnant domestic felines were fed a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids that their offspring showed high levels of ... Free choline is in vegetables like cauliflower and dark leafy greens, and the choline metabolite betaine is found in beets and ...
Among mammals, in particular, there is very high sequence similarity. Human and cat (Felis catus) ChAT, for example, have 89% ... a disease which leads to general motor function deficiency and weakness. Further symptoms include fatal apnea. Out of ten ... Choline is bound in the active site of ChAT by non-covalent interactions between the positively charged amine of choline and ... In humans, the choline acetyltransferase enzyme is encoded by the CHAT gene. Choline acetyltransferase was first described by ...
Hard Red Spring - Hard, brownish, high-protein wheat used for bread and hard baked goods. Bread Flour and high-gluten flours ... Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = ... Supplementation with proteins from other food sources (mainly legumes) is commonly used to compensate for this deficiency, ... more of them being created in higher populated countries such as China. Bread wheat with high grain iron and zinc content was ...
RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. RDA for ... Mild deficiencies can exceed 50% of the population in Third World countries and in refugee situations. Deficiency is uncommon ... and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 87-122. ISBN 0-309-06554-2. Archived from the original on 2015- ... Riboflavin deficiency is usually found together with other nutrient deficiencies, particularly of other water-soluble vitamins ...
High fuel prices in mid-2007 led to higher demand for ethanol, which in turn led to higher prices paid to farmers for maize. ... the deficiency theory (which was eventually shown to be true) said that pellagra was due to a deficiency of some nutrient, and ... Choline; Ca = Calcium; Fe = Iron; Mg = Magnesium; P = Phosphorus; K = Potassium; Na = Sodium; Zn = Zinc; Cu = Copper; Mn = ... For small farms, their unit cost can be too high, as their higher fixed cost cannot be amortized over as many units. Before ...
2-acyl-sn-glycerol that can be modified by choline phosphotransferase and CDP choline. Peroxisome biogenesis disorders are ... Total RBC plasmalogen levels were found to be lower in humans than in bonobos, chimpanzees, or gorillas, but higher than in ... In addition, genetic mutations in the GNPAT or AGPS genes can result in plasmalogen deficiencies, which lead to the development ... As there is no plasmenylcholine desaturase choline plasmalogens can be formed only after hydrolysis of ethanolamine PLs to 1-O ...
Pseudocholinesterase deficiency can result in higher levels of intact succinylcholine molecules reaching receptors in the ... is a nonspecific cholinesterase enzyme that hydrolyses many different choline-based esters. In humans, it is made in the liver ... "Pseudocholinesterase Deficiency". Medscape. WebMD LLC. Zheng F, Yang W, Ko MC, Liu J, Cho H, Gao D, Tong M, Tai HH, Woods JH, ... Pseudocholinesterase deficiency results in delayed metabolism of only a few compounds of clinical significance, including the ...
Infants are at a higher risk of vitamin B12 deficiency if they were born to vegetarian mothers. The elderly who have diets with ... and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 340-342. ISBN 0-309-06554-2. Retrieved February 7, 2012. " ... RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. RDA for ... Vitamin B12 deficiency can also cause symptoms of mania and psychosis. Vitamin B12 deficiency is most commonly caused by low ...
Acetylcholine is synthesized in the cytoplasm of the neuron from choline and acetyl-CoA. Choline acyltransferase is the enzyme ... 50 with a higher concentration of sodium outside and a higher concentration of potassium inside. When an action potential ... In a study on a patient with AChE deficiency, doctors noted that he had developed severe proximal and truncal muscle weakness ... Vesicle depletion from the readily releasable pool occurs during high frequency stimulation of long duration and the size of ...
Riboflavin deficiency can cause ariboflavinosis, which may result in cheilosis (cracks in the lips), high sensitivity to ... Vitamin B4: can refer to the distinct chemicals choline, adenine, or carnitine.[38][39] Choline is synthesized by the human ... Deficiencies[edit]. See also: Vitamin deficiency § Water-soluble vitamins. Several named vitamin deficiency diseases may result ... Deficiency effects B1. Thiamine. Deficiency causes beriberi. Symptoms of this disease of the nervous system include weight loss ...
In the laboratory, choline can be prepared by methylation of dimethylethanolamine with methyl chloride. Choline chloride is mass-produced with world production estimated at 160 000 tons in 1999.[2] Industrially, it is produce by the reaction of ethylene oxide, hydrogen chloride, and trimethylamine,[3] or from the pre-formed salt:[4] ...
In enzymology, a diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CDP-choline + 1,2-diacylglycerol ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CMP + a phosphatidylcholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are CDP-choline and 1,2-diacylglycerol, whereas its two products are CMP and phosphatidylcholine. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring non-standard substituted phosphate groups. The systematic name of this enzyme class is CDP choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase. Other names in common use include: 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-m-glycerol:CDPcholine choline phosphotransferase, 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol ...
As described above, PLD hydrolyzes PC to form PA and choline. Because choline is very abundant in the cell, PLD activity does not significantly affect choline levels; and choline is unlikely to play any role in signaling.[citation needed] The role of PLD activation in numerous signaling contexts, combined with the lack of a role for choline, suggests that PA is important in signaling. However, PA is rapidly converted to DAG, and DAG is also known to be a signaling molecule. This raises the question as to whether PA has any direct role in signaling or whether it simply acts as a precursor for DAG production.[16][17] If it is found that PA acts only as a DAG precursor, then one can raise the question as to why cells should produce DAG using two enzymes when they contain the PLC that could produce DAG in a single step. PA produced by PLD or by ...
... (also known as CK,ChoK and choline phosphokinase) is an enzyme which catalyzes the first reaction in the choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis. This reaction involves the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to choline in order to form phosphocholine. ATP + choline ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + O-phosphocholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and choline, whereas its two products are adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and O-phosphocholine. Choline kinase requires magnesium ions (+2) as a cofactor for this reaction. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring ...
ഒരു അപൂരിത ആലിഫാറ്റിക ആൽഡിഹൈഡ്. ഫോർമുല, CH2 = CH - CHO. നിറമില്ലാത്ത ദ്രവവസ്തു. തിളനില 53oC. അസഹ്യമായ ഗന്ധമുണ്ട്. ജലത്തിൽ അലിയും. വെറുതെ വച്ചിരുന്നാൽതന്നെ പോളിമറീകരിച്ചു വെളുത്ത പൊടിയായി മാറുന്നു. അക്രൊലീൻ ആൽഡിഹൈഡിന്റെയും ഒലിഫീനിന്റെയും രാസഗുണധർമങ്ങൾ പ്രദർശിപ്പിക്കുന്നു. അക്രൊലീന്റെ നിരോക്സീകരണംവഴി പല യൗഗികങ്ങളും ഉത്പാദിപ്പിക്കാം. മഗ്നീഷ്യം അമാൽഗം, സോഡിയം അമാൽഗം, അലൂമിനിയം ഐസൊ ...
... (also known as CK,ChoK and choline phosphokinase) is an enzyme which catalyzes the first reaction in the choline pathway for phosphatidylcholine (PC) biosynthesis. This reaction involves the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to choline in order to form phosphocholine. ATP + choline ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + O-phosphocholine Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and choline, whereas its two products are adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and O-phosphocholine. Choline kinase requires magnesium ions (+2) as a cofactor for this reaction. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring ...
As described above, PLD hydrolyzes PC to form PA and choline. Because choline is very abundant in the cell, PLD activity does not significantly affect choline levels; and choline is unlikely to play any role in signaling.[citation needed] The role of PLD activation in numerous signaling contexts, combined with the lack of a role for choline, suggests that PA is important in signaling. However, PA is rapidly converted to DAG, and DAG is also known to be a signaling molecule. This raises the question as to whether PA has any direct role in signaling or whether it simply acts as a precursor for DAG production.[16][17] If it is found that PA acts only as a DAG precursor, then one can raise the question as to why cells should produce DAG using two enzymes when they contain the PLC that could produce DAG in a single step. PA produced by PLD or by ...
... ". Human Metabolome Database. The Metabolomics Innovation Centre, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. 17 August 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2016 ...
... , also known as lysophospholipase, is an enzyme with a combination of both PLA1 and PLA2 activities; that is, it can cleave acyl chains from both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of a phospholipid. In general, it acts on lysolecithin (which is formed by the action of PLA2 on lecithin). Phospholipase J.E. Vance; Dennis E. Vance (14 March 2008). Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes. Elsevier. pp. 312-313. ISBN 978-0-08-055988-9 ...
Some years after Gordon Freeman and other scientists accidentally opened a portal to a dimension of hostile aliens at the Black Mesa Research Facility, Freeman is awoken from stasis by the mysterious G-Man.[1][2] The portal attracted the attention of the Combine, a technologically superior multidimensional empire which conquered Earth in seven hours. The Combine have implemented a brutal police state by biologically assimilating humans and other species, and preventing humans from breeding via a "suppression field". The G-Man inserts Gordon into a train arriving at City 17, site of the Combine Citadel, where Dr. Wallace Breen, the former Black Mesa administrator who negotiated Earth's surrender, governs as the Combine's puppet ruler.[3]. After eluding Combine forces, Gordon joins resistance members including Barney Calhoun, a former Black Mesa security guard working undercover as a Combine police officer; Dr. Eli Vance, former Black Mesa scientist and leader of the resistance; Alyx Vance, Eli's ...
Episode One foregår lige efter hændelserne i Half-Life 2. Gordon Freeman bliver igen kontaktet i sin dvale af G-Man, men før G-Man kan nå at sige noget, dukker en gruppe lysene vortigaunter frem som fører Gordon bort og omringer G-Man, som med et lettere irriteret ansigtsudtryk blot siger: "Vi får at se." Samtidig bliver Alyx Vance reddet fra Citadelens' eksploderende generator af en anden gruppe vortigaunter.. Et ukendt antal timer senere vågner Gordon i en bunke murbrokker, som DOG, Alyx' godmodige robot, graver ham fri af, og han bliver genforenet med hende. De kontakter straks Eli Vance og Isaac Kleiner, som er i gang med at omgruppere oprørshæren et sted udenfor City 17. Eli og Kleiner fortæller dem at Citadelens reaktorkerne er ved at nedsmelte, og at eksplosionen vil tage City 17, hvor en del af oprørshæren sidder fast, med i købet. Alyx beslutter sig for at prøve at få kernen midlertidigt stabiliseret for at skaffe hende og Gordon mere tid til at flygte. Imens de udfører ...
The Last Castle" de Jack Vance (1967) · "Gonna Roll the Bones" de Fritz Leiber (1968) · "The Sharing of Flesh" de Poul Anderson (1969) · "Goat Song" de Poul Anderson (1973) · "The Deathbird" de Harlan Ellison (1974) · "Adrift Just Off the Islets of Langerhans: Latitude 38° 54' N, Longitude 77° 00' 13" W" de Harlan Ellison (1975) · "The Borderland of Sol" de Larry Niven (1976) · "The Bicentennial Man" de Isaac Asimov (1977) · "Eyes of Amber" de Joan D. Vinge (1978) · "Hunter's Moon" de Poul Anderson (1979) · "Regii nisipurilor" de George R. R. Martin (1980). ...
... also known as patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 6 (PNPLA6) is a neuropathy target esterase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PNPLA6 gene. Neuropathy target esterase is a phospholipase that deacetylates intracellular phosphatidylcholine to produce glycerophosphocholine. It is thought to function in neurite outgrowth and process elongation during neuronal differentiation. The protein is anchored to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum in both neurons and non-neuronal cells. Neuropathy target esterase is an enzyme with phospholipase B activity: It sequentially hydrolyses both fatty acids from the major membrane lipid phosphatidylcholine, which generates water-soluble glycerophosphocholine. In cells of eukaryotes from yeast to humans, NTE is anchored to the cytoplasmic face of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and is particularly ...
The endogenous choline supply limits glycine betaine synthesis in transgenic tobacco expressing choline monooxygenase. Plant J. ... In order to avoid deficiency in the radiolabeled substrate, [methyl-14C]glycine betaine was used at 40 μM for 2 h of incubation ... Characterization of three choline transport activities in Rhizobium meliloti: modulation by choline and osmotic stress. J. ... Overexpressed choline oxidase might compete for choline with the enzymes involved in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, an ...
Learn how you can get enough choline from natural food sources. ... Learn how you can get enough choline from natural food sources. ... Choline deficiency appears to be a significant trigger of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ... Choline deficiency appears to be a significant trigger of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ... "Eggs rank very high on the list of foods that are high in either lecithin, which converts to choline, or in choline itself. ...
Are you even familiar with the B vitamin choline? There is a good chance you are not. The Institute of Medicine didnt even ... Symptoms associated with choline deficiency include high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and nervous system disorders ... Excess alcohol consumption, high sugar intake, low folic acid intake, and nicotine can all contribute to a choline deficiency. ... Choline deficiency consistently leads to fatty liver disease, which can cause inflammation and scarring of the liver. ...
Find out what foods are good sources of choline and which foods are high in choline. What happens in choline deficiency. ... Choline deficiency. Choline deficiency can cause muscle damage, liver damage, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or ... Sources of choline. Choline foods. Many foods contain choline 51). The main dietary sources of choline in the United States ... Excessive choline health risks. High intakes of choline are associated with a fishy body odor, vomiting, excessive sweating and ...
Choline is an essential nutrient that humans need for neurodevelopment and many other bodily functions. Learn more about ... who have genetic alterations that increase the bodys demand for choline may also have a higher risk of choline deficiency. ... Although choline deficiencies can lead to adverse health effects, too much choline can also cause problems, including:. * ... those with higher choline levels had better cognitive functioning than participants with low choline levels. ...
Choline deficiency did not affect body or adipose depot weights but amplified liver fat accumulation with high-fat diet (281%, ... Hi, high-fat diet, 45% calories as fat; CS, choline supplemented; CD, choline deficient. Data are expressed as means ± SE and ... diets were either choline deficient or choline supplemented. In choline replete animals, high-fat feeding induced weight gain, ... Effect of choline deficiency on high-fat diet-induced obesity, fatty liver, insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, and serum ...
Diets high in fat aggravate choline deficiency and thus increase requirement. Fatty liver is generally enhanced by fats ... Even with choline deficiency, however, choline content of the egg was not affected by low dietary choline. ... Deficiency. Growth retardation and perosis result from choline deficiency in young poultry. Perosis is the primary clinical ... A severe folic acid deficiency has been shown to cause secondary liver choline deficiency in rats (Kim et al., 1994). ...
... then consider adding the nutrient choline in your diet. It not only helps the proper functioning of the brain, it also helps ... A deficiency in any of these nutrients can result in a deficiency in choline also. Why? Because choline basically cannot work ... How Does Choline Really Work?. Choline is a nutrient that is contained in lipids (fats) in the body. The brain contains a high ... high (about 110 mg). boiled and steamed chicken may give the maximum choline content. Sauteed chicken may have fewer choline ...
... in addition to the highest-quality protein without carbs or sugar. ... in addition to the highest-quality protein without carbs or sugar. ... Choline is an essential nutrient you must get from food; eggs are a good source, ... Choline is an essential nutrient you must get from food; eggs are a good source, ...
Read chapter 12 Choline: Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source ... Males may have a higher choline requirement than do females. Female rats are less sensitive to choline deficiency than are male ... Hepatic choline and choline metabolite concentrations have been shown to decrease during choline deficiency in the rat (Zeisel ... choline chloride contains more choline by weight than does choline bitartrate. Dietary supplements containing choline are ...
How Much Choline Do You Need? Some people have a higher risk of choline deficiency than others. Endurance athletes, heavy ... Fatty liver disease is triggered by choline deficiency. *Choline deficiency rate estimated at 90%; linked with chronic illness ... Early research from animal studies points to choline deficiencies being associated with a higher risk of liver cancer and ... The nutrient? Choline! What is Choline? Choline is one of the essential nutrients your body needs for everyday function. You ...
... used in NASH research is a nutritional model where NASH is induced by feeding a diet deficient in both methionine and choline. ... Choline Deficiency * Diet, Fat-Restricted * Diet, High-Fat / adverse effects * Disease Models, Animal* ... Male mice were fed a choline-deficient, L-amino acid-defined, high-fat diet (CDAHFD) consisting of 60 kcal% fat and 0.1% ... Exclusive, long-term feeding with a high-fat diet (HFD) produced fatty liver and obesity in mice, but the HFD for several ...
This is a detailed review of choline and its health effects. ... Choline is an essential nutrient that has many benefits for ... High alcohol intake: Alcohol can increase choline requirements and your risk of deficiency, especially when intake is low (. 17 ... If you are looking for a supplement, CDP-choline and alpha-GPC tend to be higher in choline content per unit weight. They are ... Choline deficiency can cause harm, especially for your liver.. One small study in 57 adults found that 77% of men, 80% of ...
Eggs are high in choline. But once again, her symptoms dont seem to be typical of choline deficiency. I did some searching and ... higher-protein animal foods when they could have tried the higher-protein, higher-fat plant foods but didnt because they are ... Still, choline deficiency is a potential culprit.. Iron - Except for the fact that she never says she got her iron levels ... higher saturated fat, or higher choline plant foods? ... But her symptoms are not indicative of B12 deficiency. Choline ...
Choline is one of the lipotropic B vitamins-that is, it helps the utilization of fats in the body and thereby supports weight ... Deficiency and toxicity:There are no known toxic effects from choline, though high doses could aggravate epileptic conditions ... Choline may be helpful for fatigue, and athletes have benefited from choline supplementation. With high cholesterol and high ... Humans can synthesize choline from the amino acid glycine. The highest amount of choline is present in lecithin, usually ...
Choline and its derivatives serve as components of structural lipoproteins, blood and membrane lipids, and as a precursor of... ... Choline is an essential nutrient, but is also formed by de novo synthesis. ... High intake and plasma level of choline in the mother seems to afford reduced risk of neural tube defects. Intake of choline ... Choline and betaine are important sources of one-carbon units, in particular, during folate deficiency. Choline or betaine ...
The best choline foods include eggs, chicken breast, asparagus, & salmon. ... Choline is a water-soluble essential nutrient that is often grouped into the B-vitamin complex. ... There has been some debate about the need for choline supplementation, as choline deficiency is rare. However, for those people ... Foods High in Choline. The best choline foods include split peas, chicken breast, asparagus, nuts, and bok choy, among others. ...
Plant-Based Diets: How Choline Deficiency Affects Childhood Brain Development and Alzheimers. ... Reduced Slow-Wave Sleep Is Associated with High Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ42 Levels Emerging evidence suggests a role for sleep in ... Plant-Based Diets: How Choline Deficiency Affects Childhood Brain Development and Alzheimers. ... Middle-aged adults with high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease or stroke could be at increased risk for cancer and ...
Plant-Based Diets: How Choline Deficiency Affects Childhood Brain Development and Alzheimers. ... Reduced Slow-Wave Sleep Is Associated with High Cerebrospinal Fluid Aβ42 Levels Emerging evidence suggests a role for sleep in ... Plant-Based Diets: How Choline Deficiency Affects Childhood Brain Development and Alzheimers. ... Middle-aged adults with high blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, heart disease or stroke could be at increased risk for cancer and ...
No real deficiency state exists. although in clinical treatments doctors have prescribed high dosages of 1 gram or more. ... can be substituted for choline, which aids in reducing liver fat. Methionine seems to act. as a catalyst for choline and ... dosages (for hard training weight lifters) as high as 400 mcg.. Although higher than the recommended serving of chromium may ... deficiency is not likely unless you are following a strict fad diet that is limiting in variety. of foods and multivitamins or ...
Although animal studies have implied a causal relationship between choline deficiency and carcinogenesis, the role of these two ... High intakes of choline and betaine reduce breast cancer mortality in a population-based study.. Xu X1, Gammon MD, Zeisel SH, ... There was an indication that a higher intake of free choline was associated with reduced risk of breast cancer (P(trend)=0.04 ... Higher intakes of betaine, phosphocholine, and free choline were associated with reduced all-cause as well as breast cancer- ...
Alcoholics, strict vegetarians and endurance athletes may be at a higher risk for choline deficiency and as such may benefit ... Choline. Choline is another essential nutrient. A deficiency of choline may contribute to health problems such as liver disease ... It is especially important for pregnant women as its deficiency may cause neural tube defects in the fetus. Choline has also ... There are no recognized symptoms of PABA deficiency.. Pantothenic Acid. Pantothenic acid, or vitamin B5, is an essential ...
Deficiencies in B vitamins, particularly vitamin B1 and choline may also be involved. \n. \n"Since amino acids are the ... Higher than accepted levels may lead to neurotransmitter excess. One example of amino acid excess causing hyperactive behaviour ... John Ott, the pioneer in light-deficiency disorders, proved an association of natural light deficiency with ADD in the school ... White spots on the nails could be a sign of zinc deficiency even when blood tests for zinc are normal. The expression, "No zinc ...
Higher zinc levels have been linked to better immune function and higher CD4+ cell counts, whereas zinc deficiency has been ... Studies have found deficiencies of vitamins A, B1, B6, B12, and E, beta-carotene, choline, folate, selenium, and zinc to be ... High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997;15: ... High risk of HIV-related mortality is associated with selenium deficiency. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1997;15: ...
This combination of vitamins and selected minerals is used to prevent or treat vitamin deficiency due to poor eating habits, ... This vitamin/mineral combination contains high levels of B vitamins (e.g., folic acid, niacin, B-1, B-2, B-6, and B-12) and ... This combination of vitamins and selected minerals is used to prevent or treat vitamin deficiency due to poor eating habits, ... mv-min-FA 67 mcg-inosit 12.5 mg-choline 12.5 mg-bioflav 17 mg capsule. ...
  • The absence of a potential gene encoding Na + /H + antiporters in B. japonicum could explain its very high Na + sensitivity. (asm.org)
  • Thus, choline and betaine showed opposite relations with key components of metabolic syndrome, suggesting a disruption of mitochondrial choline oxidation to betaine as part of the mitochondrial dysfunction in metabolic syndrome. (springer.com)
  • We also explored associations of polymorphisms of three key choline- and betaine-metabolizing genes and breast cancer mortality. (nih.gov)
  • Our study supports the important roles of choline and betaine in breast carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Choline and its metabolites are needed for three main physiological purposes: structural integrity and signaling roles for cell membranes, cholinergic neurotransmission (acetylcholine synthesis), and a major source for methyl groups via its metabolite, trimethylglycine (betaine), which participates in the S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) synthesis pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. (hindawi.com)
  • Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. (hindawi.com)
  • We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. (hindawi.com)
  • The biosynthesis of glycine betaine from choline is encoded by an operon of four genes, betICBA , as determined by sequence and mutant analysis. (pnas.org)
  • In addition to the genes encoding a presumed regulatory protein ( betI ), the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase ( betB ), and the choline dehydrogenase ( betA ) enzymes also found in Escherichia coli , a new gene ( betC ) was identified as encoding a choline sulfatase catalyzing the conversion of choline- O -sulfate and, at a lower rate, phosphorylcholine, into choline. (pnas.org)
  • Unlike what has been shown in other bacteria and plants, choline- O -sulfate is not used as an osmoprotectant per se in S. meliloti , but is metabolized into glycine betaine. (pnas.org)
  • In conclusion, choline- O -sulfate and phosphorylcholine, which are found in higher plants and fungi, appear to be substrates for glycine betaine biosynthesis in S. meliloti . (pnas.org)
  • Among these compatible solutes, glycine betaine ( N , N , N -trimethylglycine) has been shown to be a very efficient osmolyte found in a wide range of bacterial and plant species, where it is accumulated at high cytoplasmic concentrations in response to osmotic stress. (pnas.org)
  • Although it has been shown that S. meliloti has the ability to use different compatible solutes in presence of an osmotic stress, it appears that glycine betaine is the most potent osmoprotectant and strongly stimulates the growth rate of the bacteria in high-salt medium ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • Glycine betaine either can be taken up directly from the environment by specific transport systems or synthesized from choline by a two-step pathway with betaine aldehyde as intermediate ( 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Higher plants and Gram-negative bacteria both are using a conserved betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase to catalyze the betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine reaction. (pnas.org)
  • Choline is oxidized to betaine which acts as an important methyl donor and osmolyte. (geneticgenie.org)
  • Regarding, Betaine , it is still not clear how much is converted from the "buckets" of Choline that the eggs contain. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Not much Betaine is found in egg, but equally important choline is in buckets plus virtually all other important nutrients except Vit C (clearly not very important for the formation of a whole organism! (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Egg has choline that we can use to make betaine of, but conversion amounts have not been established, I believe. (newmediaexplorer.org)
  • Choline is one of the essential nutrients your body needs for everyday function. (sott.net)
  • It's hard to know - there is very little research on craving nutrients during deficiency. (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • If someone has gone for years on an exceptionally low-fat diet and has depleted their fat stores to the point that they are having low-cholesterol and hormone irregularities, combined with iron deficiency, it seems plausible that they might crave the food that is most quickly going to replenish those nutrients such as eggs (cholesterol) and meat (iron). (jacknorrisrd.com)
  • Although animal studies have implied a causal relationship between choline deficiency and carcinogenesis, the role of these two nutrients in human carcinogenesis and tumor progression is not well understood. (nih.gov)
  • It suggests that high intake of these nutrients may be a promising strategy to prevent the development of breast cancer and to reduce its mortality. (nih.gov)
  • The USDA Nutrients Database has choline content for many foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic Broccoli Sprout Capsules now available, delivering 280mg of high-density nutrition, including the extraordinary "sulforaphane" and "glucosinolate" nutrients found only in cruciferous healing foods. (naturalnews.com)
  • The presence of nutrients within the gut supports intestinal cells that produce a variety of immune factors, in part explaining why EN carries a lower risk of infectious complications than PN. (nursingcenter.com)
  • 2 Appropriate PN recipients typically have medical conditions that prevent oral or EN, such as impaired digestion and absorption of nutrients, persistent vomiting or diarrhea, or inability to achieve enteral access. (nursingcenter.com)
  • 1997). There is an endogenous pathway for the de novo biosynthesis of the choline moiety via the sequential methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine using S -adenosylmethionine as the methyl donor (Bremer and Greenberg, 1961) (see Figure 12-1 ). (nap.edu)
  • High-dose choline reduced DNA damage in men with methylation problems. (bulletproof.com)
  • RNA and DNA were extracted from placentas collected on embryonic day 15.5 from pregnant mice fed a 1X or 4X choline diet, and were subjected to genome-wide sequencing procedures or mass-spectrometry-based assays to examine placental imprinted gene expression, DNA methylation patterns, and microRNA (miRNA) abundance. (mdpi.com)
  • Various metabolic functions and synthesis of choline are depicted in Figure 16-1. (dsm.com)
  • A study with mice published in the Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disorders in 2007 identified skin irritation and loss of hair color as possible effects of severe pantothenic acid deficiency. (livestrong.com)
  • Further, the Zebrafish with deficiency in Vitamin E also had metabolic defects and indications of mitochondrial damage. (iol.co.za)
  • Epidemiological studies have shown that an adverse in utero environment is associated with a higher risk of developing obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases later in life [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Three separate studies point to a high consumption of choline resulting in a lower risk of breast cancer among women. (sott.net)
  • Provided your body has not lost the ability to synthesize this neurotransmitter or you have not been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, increasing your consumption of choline-rich foods can boost production of acetylcholine and remove the symptoms associated with its deficiency. (azcentral.com)
  • With adequate choline in the body, the nerve's communication with each other will be more efficient and the nerve's control of the body's muscles will also become more efficient. (hubpages.com)
  • The results indicated that 60-93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI) for choline. (hindawi.com)
  • As we grow older, our body is much less in a position to help to make adequate acetylcholine, therefore if you are feeling "brain fog" or just basic failing to remember points extra often, it is very doable your brain has an acetylcholine deficiency. (diablofans.com)
  • When the body cannot obtain adequate choline, these people grab this using their company components of the brain so as to assistance the actual functioning associated with essential organs such as the heart and lungs and also to preserve nerve tissue and receptor internet sites for neurotransmitters in the brain. (diablofans.com)
  • Whether you're one of the at-risk groups of people or not, you should focus on adding choline-rich foods to your regular diet. (sott.net)
  • Choline may be helpful in the treatment of nerve conduction problems, memory deficiencies, muscle twitching, heart palpitations, and Alzheimer's disease, where it seems to help brain function and slow the progression of the disease. (healthy.net)
  • Choline is required as a constituent of the phospholipids needed for normal maturation of the cartilage matrix of the bone. (dsm.com)
  • Choline-phospholipids are extremely important structural elements of cells and are essential for the normal processing of dietary fat. (nap.edu)
  • Recently, researchers have begun to understand that choline-phospholipids also are transducers of signals from the exterior of cells to the nucleus. (nap.edu)
  • Citicoline, also known as CDP Choline, is a form of Choline that has been enhanced to allow improved transmission across the blood-brain barrier. (nootropics.com)
  • Glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine are storage forms for choline within the cytosol and the principal forms found in milk (Rohlfs et al. (dsm.com)
  • Human cells grown in culture have an absolute requirement for choline (Eagle, 1955). (nap.edu)