Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.Antigens, CD44: Acidic sulfated integral membrane glycoproteins expressed in several alternatively spliced and variable glycosylated forms on a wide variety of cell types including mature T-cells, B-cells, medullary thymocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, erythrocytes, and fibroblasts. CD44 antigens are the principle cell surface receptors for hyaluronate and this interaction mediates binding of lymphocytes to high endothelial venules. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD40: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily with specificity for CD40 LIGAND. It is found on mature B-LYMPHOCYTES and some EPITHELIAL CELLS, lymphoid DENDRITIC CELLS. Evidence suggests that CD40-dependent activation of B-cells is important for generation of memory B-cells within the germinal centers. Mutations of the gene for CD40 antigen result in HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 3. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Antigens, CD38: A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.Antigens, CD80: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CD28 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD80 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a costimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD24: A cell adhesion protein that was originally identified as a heat stable antigen in mice. It is involved in METASTASIS and is highly expressed in many NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD2: Glycoprotein members of the immunoglobulin superfamily which participate in T-cell adhesion and activation. They are expressed on most peripheral T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and thymocytes, and function as co-receptors or accessory molecules in the T-cell receptor complex.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Antigens, CD86: A costimulatory ligand expressed by ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS that binds to CD28 ANTIGEN with high specificity and to CTLA-4 ANTIGEN with low specificity. The interaction of CD86 with CD28 ANTIGEN provides a stimulatory signal to T-LYMPHOCYTES, while its interaction with CTLA-4 ANTIGEN may play a role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Antigens, CD30: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that may play a role in the regulation of NF-KAPPA B and APOPTOSIS. They are found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; MAST CELLS and NK CELLS. Overexpression of CD30 antigen in hematopoietic malignancies make the antigen clinically useful as a biological tumor marker. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD36: Leukocyte differentiation antigens and major platelet membrane glycoproteins present on MONOCYTES; ENDOTHELIAL CELLS; PLATELETS; and mammary EPITHELIAL CELLS. They play major roles in CELL ADHESION; SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION; and regulation of angiogenesis. CD36 is a receptor for THROMBOSPONDINS and can act as a scavenger receptor that recognizes and transports oxidized LIPOPROTEINS and FATTY ACIDS.Antigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Antigens, CD20: Unglycosylated phosphoproteins expressed only on B-cells. They are regulators of transmembrane Ca2+ conductance and thought to play a role in B-cell activation and proliferation.Antigens, CD7: Differentiation antigens expressed on pluripotential hematopoietic cells, most human thymocytes, and a major subset of peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. They have been implicated in integrin-mediated cellular adhesion and as signalling receptors on T-cells.Antigens, CD43: A sialic acid-rich protein and an integral cell membrane mucin. It plays an important role in activation of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Antigens, CD47: A ubiquitously expressed membrane glycoprotein. It interacts with a variety of INTEGRINS and mediates responses to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Antigens, CD59: Small glycoproteins found on both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD59 restricts the cytolytic activity of homologous complement by binding to C8 and C9 and blocking the assembly of the membrane attack complex. (From Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p234)Antigens, CD70: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that specifically binds to CD27 ANTIGEN. It is found on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS where it plays a role in stimulating the proliferation of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES and CD8-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES.Antigens, CD46: A ubiquitously expressed complement receptor that binds COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT C4B and serves as a cofactor for their inactivation. CD46 also interacts with a wide variety of pathogens and mediates immune response.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Antigens, CD137: A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily that is specific for 4-1BB LIGAND. It is found in a variety of immune cell types including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and DENDRITIC CELLS. Activation of the receptor on T-LYMPHOCYTES plays a role in their expansion, production of cytokines and survival. Signaling by the activated receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.CD30 Ligand: A membrane-bound tumor necrosis family member found primarily on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that binds specifically to CD30 ANTIGEN. It may play a role in INFLAMMATION and immune regulation.Antigens, CD31: Cell adhesion molecules present on virtually all monocytes, platelets, and granulocytes. CD31 is highly expressed on endothelial cells and concentrated at the junctions between them.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Antigens, CD58: Glycoproteins with a wide distribution on hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells and strongly expressed on macrophages. CD58 mediates cell adhesion by binding to CD2; (ANTIGENS, CD2); and this enhances antigen-specific T-cell activation.Antigens, CD63: Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin proteins that are found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES and have been implicated in intracellular transport of proteins.Antigens, CD13: Zinc-binding metalloproteases that are members of the type II integral membrane metalloproteases. They are expressed by GRANULOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and their precursors as well as by various non-hematopoietic cells. They release an N-terminal amino acid from a peptide, amide or arylamide.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antigens, CD147: A widely distributed cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein that stimulates the synthesis of MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES. It is found at high levels on the surface of malignant NEOPLASMS and may play a role as a mediator of malignant cell behavior.Antigens, CD82: A widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a METASTASIS suppressor protein. It is underexpressed in a variety of human NEOPLASMS.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cadmium: An element with atomic symbol Cd, atomic number 48, and atomic weight 114. It is a metal and ingestion will lead to CADMIUM POISONING.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Antigens, CD274: An inhibitory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN. CD274 antigen provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses and is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Antigens, CD146: A cell adhesion molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and is involved in INTERCELLULAR JUNCTIONS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Antigens, CD15: A trisaccharide antigen expressed on glycolipids and many cell-surface glycoproteins. In the blood the antigen is found on the surface of NEUTROPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES. In addition, CD15 antigen is a stage-specific embryonic antigen.Antigens, CD79: A component of the B-cell antigen receptor that is involved in B-cell antigen receptor heavy chain transport to the PLASMA MEMBRANE. It is expressed almost exclusively in B-LYMPHOCYTES and serves as a useful marker for B-cell NEOPLASMS.Antigens, CD98: A heterodimeric protein that is a cell surface antigen associated with lymphocyte activation. The initial characterization of this protein revealed one identifiable heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) and an indeterminate smaller light chain. It is now known that a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS) can dimerize with the heavy chain. Depending upon its light chain composition a diverse array of functions can be found for this protein. Functions include: type L amino acid transport, type y+L amino acid transport and regulation of cellular fusion.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Antigens, CD164: A sialomucin protein that functions as a cell adhesion molecule. It is a negative regulator of certain types of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Antigens, CD53: Tetraspanin proteins found at high levels in cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage. CD53 antigens may be involved regulating the differentiation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and the activation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Cell SeparationSpleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Neoplastic Stem Cells: Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.ADP-ribosyl Cyclase: A membrane-bound or cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). This enzyme generally catalyzes the hydrolysis of cADPR to ADP-RIBOSE, as well, and sometimes the synthesis of cyclic ADP-ribose 2' phosphate (2'-P-cADPR) from NADP.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Antigens, Differentiation, B-Lymphocyte: Membrane antigens associated with maturation stages of B-lymphocytes, often expressed in tumors of B-cell origin.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mice, Inbred C57BLInterleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.CTLA-4 Antigen: An inhibitory T CELL receptor that is closely related to CD28 ANTIGEN. It has specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN and acts as a negative regulator of peripheral T cell function. CTLA-4 antigen is believed to play role in inducing PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Jurkat Cells: A CELL LINE derived from human T-CELL LEUKEMIA and used to determine the mechanism of differential susceptibility to anti-cancer drugs and radiation.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 2: A lectin and cell adhesion molecule found in B-LYMPHOCYTES. It interacts with SIALIC ACIDS and mediates signaling from B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Fas Ligand Protein: A transmembrane protein belonging to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that was originally discovered on cells of the lymphoid-myeloid lineage, including activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. It plays an important role in immune homeostasis and cell-mediated toxicity by binding to the FAS RECEPTOR and triggering APOPTOSIS.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.T-Lymphocytopenia, Idiopathic CD4-Positive: Reproducible depletion of CD4+ lymphocytes below 300 per cubic millimeter in the absence of HIV infection or other known causes of immunodeficiency. This is a rare, heterogeneous syndrome and does not appear to be caused by a transmissible agent.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Interleukin-7 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-7 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-7.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.NAD+ NucleosidaseSialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3: A 67-kDa sialic acid binding lectin that is specific for MYELOID CELLS and MONOCYTE-MACROPHAGE PRECURSOR CELLS. This protein is the smallest siglec subtype and contains a single immunoglobulin C2-set domain. It may play a role in intracellular signaling via its interaction with SHP-1 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE and SHP-2 PROTEIN-TYROSINE PHOSPHATASE.Immunoconjugates: Combinations of diagnostic or therapeutic substances linked with specific immune substances such as IMMUNOGLOBULINS; MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES; or ANTIGENS. Often the diagnostic or therapeutic substance is a radionuclide. These conjugates are useful tools for specific targeting of DRUGS and RADIOISOTOPES in the CHEMOTHERAPY and RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY of certain cancers.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Antibodies, Blocking: Antibodies that inhibit the reaction between ANTIGEN and other antibodies or sensitized T-LYMPHOCYTES (e.g., antibodies of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G class that compete with IGE antibodies for antigen, thereby blocking an allergic response). Blocking antibodies that bind tumors and prevent destruction of tumor cells by CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES have also been called enhancing antibodies. (Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Cell Communication: Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.Histocompatibility Antigens Class I: Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Receptor-CD3 Complex, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecule composed of the non-covalent association of the T-cell antigen receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL) with the CD3 complex (ANTIGENS, CD3). This association is required for the surface expression and function of both components. The molecule consists of up to seven chains: either the alpha/beta or gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor, and four or five chains in the CD3 complex.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Antigens, CD98 Heavy Chain: A transmembrane glycoprotein subunit that can dimerize with a variety of light chain subunits (ANTIGENS, CD98 LIGHT CHAINS). This protein subunit serves a diverse array of functions including amino acid transport and cell fusion. Its function is altered depending which of the light chain subunits it interacts with.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Granzymes: A family of serine endopeptidases found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of LEUKOCYTES such as CYTOTOXIC T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS. When secreted into the intercellular space granzymes act to eliminate transformed and virus-infected host cells.Clonal Anergy: Functional inactivation of T- or B-lymphocytes rendering them incapable of eliciting an immune response to antigen. This occurs through different mechanisms in the two kinds of lymphocytes and can contribute to SELF TOLERANCE.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
AITL typically has the phenotype of a mixture of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, with a CD4:CD8 ratio greater than unity. Polyclonal ... A classic morphological finding is the aborization and proliferation of high endothelial venules. Hyperplastic germinal centers ... and high endothelial venules (HEVs) and systemic involvement. Patients with this disease usually present at an advanced stage ...
... reduced CD4:CD8 ratio, moderately high B cell counts, and mild neutropenia. Their neutropenia may be related to their chronic ... XMEN patients generally have chronically high levels of EBV with increased EBV-infected cells, diminished thymic output of CD4+ ... MAGT1 is evolutionarily conserved and expressed in all mammalian cells with higher expression in hematopoietic lineages. XMEN ... "Mg2+ regulates cytotoxic functions of NK and CD8 T cells in chronic EBV infection through NKG2D". Science. 341 (6142): 186-191 ...
People living with HIV who have a higher CD4/CD8 ratio may have a lower HIV reservoir. A high CD4+/CD8+ ratio is associated ... The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of ... "The CD4:CD8 ratio is associated with markers of age-associated disease in virally suppressed HIV-infected patients with ... "The inverted CD4:CD8 ratio is associated with cytomegalovirus, poor cognitive and functional states in older adults". ...
TNF-α is produced by infected macrophages and the interaction between dendritic cells presenting the antigen to CD8 (T Killer ... Mortality in HIV-infected patients with cardiomyopathy is increased independently of CD4 count, age, sex, and HIV risk group. ... In addition, patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular dysfunction had a higher chance of having cardiac ... the hazard ratio is 3.4. Cardiomyopathy and encephalopathy are hypothesised to be linked by the HIV reservoir cells which are ...
Arsenic exposure in small children distorts the ratio of T helper cells (CD4) to cytotoxic T cells (CD8), which are responsible ... Arsenic's high toxicity naturally led to the development of a variety of arsenic compounds as chemical weapons, e.g. ... The related drug Melarsoprol is still in use against late-state African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), despite its high ... Arsenite derivatives generally have higher binding affinity compared to the arsenate metabolites. These bindings restrict ...
... increased CD4:CD8 ratio) TSH-receptor antibodies (TSH-R Abs) This condition is commonly undiagnosed by physicians due to either ... The process is normally self-limiting, but when conventional antibodies are found there is a high chance of this proceeding to ... Women with symptoms or a very high TSH level, or both, are usually prescribed a course of levothyroxine. Asymptomatic women ...
In at least one study the induced sputum ratio of CD4/CD8 and level of TNF was correlated to those in the lavage fluid. A ... Incidence is highest for individuals younger than 40 and peaks in the age-group from 20 to 29 years; a second peak is observed ... A bronchoalveolar lavage can show an elevated (of at least 3.5) CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, which is indicative (but not proof) of ... Findings that make it likely include large lymph nodes at the root of the lung on both sides, high blood calcium with a normal ...
Mild defects in T-cell function can also be observed, in addition to an inverted CD4/CD8 ratio Once a diagnosis is made, the ... Mutations in the sugar-binding domain leads to reduced PGM3 abundance and impairs PGM3 function and glycosylation to a higher ... and very high concentrations of the serum antibody IgE levels. Skin infections are prominent, with recurrent staphylococcal and ...
Ratios of immune effectors such as CD4 and CD8 to immune checkpoints such as PD-L1 and M2 macrophages are independent of and ... HLA-B: The strongest association in the HLA region was with HLA-B, the SNP rs2523607 and allele HLA-B08: 01, with a very high ... "Ratios of T-cell immune effectors and checkpoint molecules as prognostic biomarkers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: a ... "A New Immunostain Algorithm Classifies Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma into Molecular Subtypes with High Accuracy". Clinical ...
Current research tends to focus on Th1 and Th17 which mediate allograft rejection via the CD4 and CD8 T cells Graft-versus-host ... Of high risk in kidney transplants is rapid clumping, namely agglutination, of red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes), as an ... particularly in telltale ratios, (2) structural compromise of tissue anatomy, varying by tissue type transplanted, and (3) ... When memory helper T cells' CD4 receptors bind to the MHC class II molecules which are expressed on the surfaces of the target ...
... higher ALT or AST level, higher AST/ALT ratio, low platelet count, and an ultrasound steatosis score. In the early stages (as ... of the initial innate response and create a cytokine environment that results in the recruitment of CD4 T-helper and CD8 ... Risk of infection is highest among intravenous drug users, individuals with high-risk sexual behaviors, healthcare workers, ... ALT with ratio of AST:ALT>2:1 while in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis ALT>AST with ratio of ALT:AST>1.5:1. Of note, liver biopsy ...
Arsenic exposure in small children distorts the ratio of T helper cells (CD4) to cytotoxic T cells (CD8), which are responsible ... Arsenic's high toxicity naturally led to the development of a variety of arsenic compounds as chemical weapons, e.g. ... The related drug Melarsoprol is still in use against late-state African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), despite its high ... which is volatile at high temperatures and is released into the atmosphere. Poultry and swine farms make heavy use of the ...
Class II tetramers have been used for analysis of a variety of human CD4 T cell responses to pathogens, including influenza A, ... Co, M. D., Kilpatrick, E. D. & Rothman, A. L. Dynamics of the CD8 T-cell response following yellow fever virus 17D immunization ... MHC multimers are oligomeric forms of MHC molecules, designed to identify and isolate T-cells with high affinity to specific ... and quantification of these specific T-cell populations due to an improved signal-to-noise ratio not present in prior ...
... previously recruited and activated by CD4 or CD8 coreceptors. Activated Fyn and Lck phosphorylates ITAMs on the CD3 and ζ ... TCRs have very high degree of antigen specificity, despite of fact that the affinity to the peptide/MHC ligand is in the ... This ratio changes during ontogeny and in diseased states (such as leukemia). It also differs between species. Orthologues of ... On helper T cells and regulatory T cells, this co-receptor is CD4 that is specific for MHC class II. On cytotoxic T cells, this ...
This would image the high-gyromagnetic-ratio hydrogen nucleus instead of the low-gyromagnetic-ratio nucleus that is bonded to ... Okuda Y, Okuda M, Apatoff BR, Posnett DN (August 2005). "The activation of memory CD4(+) T cells and CD8(+) T cells in patients ... Krakauer M, Sorensen PS, Sellebjerg F (December 2006). "CD4(+) memory T cells with high CD26 surface expression are enriched ... September 2008). "Expansion of CD4+CD28- T cells producing high levels of interferon-{gamma} in peripheral blood of patients ...
"Concurrent interaction of DCs with CD4+and CD8+T cells improves secondary CTL expansion: It takes three to tango". European ... The morphology of dendritic cells results in a very large surface-to-volume ratio. That is, the dendritic cell has a very large ... These cells are characterized by high endocytic activity and low T-cell activation potential. Immature dendritic cells ... IL-12 is a signal that helps send naive CD4 T cells towards a Th1 phenotype. The ultimate consequence is priming and activation ...
T-cell components associated with immunosenescence include: reduction in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio impaired development of CD4+ T ... "The aged microenvironment contributes to the age-related functional defects of CD4 T cells in mice". Aging Cell. 11 (5): 732-40 ... "Enhanced differentiation of splenic plasma cells but diminished long-lived high-affinity bone marrow plasma cells in aged mice ... "Longitudinal studies of clonally expanded CD8 T cells reveal a repertoire shrinkage predicting mortality and an increased ...
Originally, high expression of CD25 and CD4 surface markers was used (CD4+CD25+ cells). This is problematic as CD25 is also ... All T cells begin as CD4-CD8-TCR- cells at the DN (double-negative) stage, where an individual cell will rearrange its T cell ... it is now widely recognized that the ratio of Tregs to Teffectors in the tumor microenvironment is a determining factor in the ... If they receive these signals, they proliferate and express both CD4 and CD8, becoming double-positive cells. The selection of ...
... and CD4:CD8 ratios in asymptomatic FIV-infected cats". Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 10 (5): 423-430. doi:10.1016/j. ... 1997), when pregnant domestic felines were fed a diet high in omega-3 fatty acids that their offspring showed high levels of ... Natural sources of Vitamin E are primarily plant based and therefore cat diets with high amounts of raw protein, such as fish, ... Reactive oxygen species, free radicals, are a primary cause of neurological damage in aged brains, due to the high rate of ...
Two components of the immune system are particularly affected in AIDS, due to its CD4+ T cell dependency: *CD8+ T cells are not ... and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system[citation needed] ... CD4+/CD8+ ratio. *CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity. *CD8+ T cells ... Mature Th cells express the surface protein CD4 and are referred to as CD4+ T cells. Such CD4+ T cells are generally treated as ...
There was a higher rate of lower respiratory tract infections (including bronchitis and pneumonia) in the fingolimod groups ( ... Zhou PJ, Wang H, Shi GH, Wang XH, Shen ZJ, Xu D (July 2009). "Immunomodulatory drug FTY720 induces regulatory CD4+CD25+ T cells ... Unphosphorylated fingolimod impairs the ability of cytotoxic CD8 T cells to kill their target cells by a different mechanism ... hazard ratio 0.70 at 0.5 mg and 0.68 at 1.25 mg). Fingolimod patients also had better results according to MRI imaging of new ...
2016). "Role of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange in Treatment of Tumefactive Multiple Sclerosis-Associated Low CD4 and CD8 Levels". ... Usually, the ratio of choline to NAA is used. Typical tumefactive lesions have been found to be responsive to corticosteroids ... Of those cases, there is a higher percentage of females affected than males. The median age of onset is 37 years. As in general ... This is done through the formation of high-resistance, low-conductance myelin sheaths around the axons by specific cells called ...
Their main effector cells are NK cells as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IL-10 CD4 T cells. The key THαβ transcription ... CD4+/CD8+ ratio CD4+ T cells and antitumor immunity CD8+ T cells Lederman S, Yellin MJ, Krichevsky A, Belko J, Lee JJ, Chess L ... and has a higher affinity for macrophages), resulting in a slow kill rate of CD4+ T cells by the immune system[citation needed ... The main effector cells of Th1 immunity are macrophages as well as CD8 T cells, IgG B cells, and IFN-γ CD4 T cells. The key Th1 ...
IL6 is higher instead. These findings do not apply to men. This IL-10 interleukin could be related to the mechanism of action ... Ex vivo CD4(+) T cells isolated from the circulation show a wrong TIM-3 (Immunoregulation) behavior, and relapses are ... An Abnormal Periventricular Gradient in Magnetisation Transfer Ratio Occurs Early in Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology 2016; vol. ... "Relapses in multiple sclerosis are associated with increased CD8(+) T-cell mediated cytotoxicity in CSF". J Neuroimmunol. 196 ( ...
... previously recruited and activated by CD4 or CD8 coreceptors. Activated Fyn and Lck phosphorylates ITAMs on the CD3 and ζ ... TCRs have very high degree of antigen specificity, despite of fact that the affinity to the peptide/MHC ligand is in the ... This ratio changes during ontogeny and in diseased states (such as leukemia). It also differs between species. Orthologues of ... Crystal structure of human CD8 molecule Only a fragment of extracellular portion of human CD8α is shown. Co-receptor CD8 bind ...
The CD4+/CD8+ ratio measures the ratio of T helper cells to cytotoxic T cells. The CD4+/CD8+ ratio in the peripheral blood of healthy adults and mice is about 2:1, and an altered ratio can indicate diseases relating to immunodeficiency or autoimmunity. An inverted CD4+/CD8+ ratio (namely, less than 1/1) indicates an impaired immune system. A reduced ...
... is a multistructural and multifunctional cell surface molecule involved in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell migration, angiogenesis, presentation of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors to the corresponding receptors, and docking of proteases at the cell membrane, as well as in signaling for cell survival. All these biological properties are essential to the physiological activities of normal cells, but they are also associated with the pathologic activities of cancer cells. Experiments in animals have shown that targeting of CD44 by antibodies, antisense oligonucleotides, and CD44-soluble proteins markedly reduces the malignant activities of various neoplasms, stressing the therapeutic potential of anti-CD44 agents. ...
CD64 (Cluster of Differentiation 64) is a type of integral membrane glycoprotein known as an Fc receptor that binds monomeric IgG-type antibodies with high affinity.[1] It is more commonly known as Fc-gamma receptor 1 (FcγRI). After binding IgG, CD64 interacts with an accessory chain known as the common γ chain (γ chain), which possesses an ITAM motif that is necessary for triggering cellular activation.[2] Structurally CD64 is composed of a signal peptide that allows its transport to the surface of a cell, three extracellular immunoglobulin domains of the C2-type that it uses to bind antibody, a hydrophobic transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail.[3] CD64 is constitutively found on only macrophages and monocytes, ...
HIV infection leads to a progressive reduction in the number of T cells expressing CD4. Medical professionals refer to the CD4 count to decide when to begin treatment during HIV infection, although recent medical guidelines have changed to recommend treatment at all CD4 counts as soon as HIV is diagnosed. A CD4 count measures the number of T cells expressing CD4. While CD4 counts are not a direct HIV test-e.g. they do not check the presence of viral DNA, or specific antibodies against HIV-they are used to assess the immune system of a patient.[citation needed] National Institutes of Health guidelines ...
Signal transducer CD24 also known as cluster of differentiation 24 or heat stable antigen CD24 (HSA) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD24 gene. CD24 is a cell adhesion molecule. CD24 is a glycoprotein expressed at the surface of most B lymphocytes and differentiating neuroblasts. This gene encodes a sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on mature granulocytes and in many B cells. The encoded protein is anchored via a glycosyl phosphatidylinositol (GPI) link to the cell surface. The protein also contributes to a wide range of downstream signaling networks and is crucial for neural development. ...
La CD154, anche chiamata CD40 ligando o semplicemente CD40L, è una proteina espressa soprattutto nei linfociti T attivati e facente parte della superfamiglia del TNF[1]. Si lega al CD40 presente sulle antigen-presenting cell (APC) agendo come co-attivatore[1]. In particolare, il legame CD40/CD40L attiva i linfociti B stimolandoli a formare i centri germinativi, porta le cellule dendritiche ad aumentare la produzione di molecole stimolatorie e citochine (licensing delle cellule dendritiche), e aumenta l'attività microbicida dei macrofagi. ...
CD4+ T细胞的激活需要T细胞上的TCR和共受体(CD28或ICOS),抗原呈递细胞上的MHCII和共激活分子两对分子的分别,同时结合。仅其中一对的结合,无法产生有效的T细胞激活。理想的CD8+ T细胞激活则依赖于CD4+ T细胞的信号转导[28]。CD4+细胞可以在初级CD8 T细胞的初次免疫应答中给予帮助,并且在急性感染的后期维持CD8+ 记忆T细胞的活性。所以,CD4+ T的激活对于CD8+ T细胞的活动是有利的[29][30][31]。 ...
O CD11c (cluster de diferenciación 11c) ou cadea alfa X de integrina é unha subunidade de proteína transmembrana de tipo I que se expresa en altos niveis na maioría das células dendríticas humanas, e tamén en monocitos, macrófagos, neutrófilos, e algunhas células B que está codificada no xene ITGAX do cromosoma 16 humano.[1] O CD11c induce a activación celular e axuda a desencadear a explosión respiratoria de neutrófilo. Exprésase en moitas tricoleucemias, leucemias non linfocíticas agudas, e algunhas leucemias linfocíticas crónicas de células B. O xene ITGAX codifica a cadea alfa X de integrina. As integrinas son proteínas integrais de membrana heterodímeras compostas por unha cadea alfa e outra beta. A cadea alfa X de integrina combínase coa cadea beta 2 (CD18 ou ITGB2) para formar unha integrina ...
CD36 - мембранный белок, экспрессированный на поверхности клеток нескольких типов, особенно макрофагах; относится к классу B скэвенджер-рецепторов, компонент системы врождённого иммунитета. Связывает эритроциты, заражённые паразитическим Plasmodium falciparum, окисленные липопротеины низкой плотности, фосфолипиды и жирные кислоты. Кроме этого, CD36, экспрессированный на поверхности эпителия вкусовых сосочков языка, является рецептором, связывающим жирные кислоты пищи и участвующим в формировании «вкуса жира». ...
ഒരുപോലെയിരിക്കുന്ന ശരാശരി വലിപ്പമുള്ള ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളാണ് സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനിയിലൂടെ ദൃശ്യമാവുക. 'നക്ഷത്രപൂരിതമായ ആകാശം' എന്നാണ് ഈ സൂക്ഷ്മദർശിനി ദൃശ്യത്തെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്.[4] ഈ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകൾക്ക് ക്ഷാരാഭിമുഖ്യമുള്ള കോശദ്രവ്യം ഉണ്ടാകും. 'ചെറിയ മുറിയാത്ത കോശങ്ങൾ' എന്നാണ് ബർക്കിറ്റ് ലിംഫോമയിലെ ലിംഫോസൈറ്റുകളെ വിശേഷിപ്പിക്കുന്നത്. ബി-കോശ വ്യതിരക്ത മാർക്കറുകളായ CD20, CD22, CD19 എന്നിവ ...
Yn aml mae gan enynnau lawer o gyfystyron. Mae hyn oherwydd eu bod yn aml yn cael eu darganfod gan nifer o bobl mewn cyd-destunau gwahanol heb wybod mai'r un genynnau oeddyn nhw. Hefyd mae gan wahanol gymunedau gwyddonol safonau gwahanol ar gyfer enwi genynnau. Dyma restr o gyfystyron ar gyfer y genyn CD40. ...
TNFRSF18 входит в многочисленное надсемейство рецепторов факторов некроза опухоли (TNFR). Экспрессия этого рецептора повышается при активации T-лимфоцитов. Играет ключевую роль в доминантной иммунологической аутотолерантности, обеспечиваемой регуляторными CD25+/CD4+ T-лимфоцитами. Исследования с нокаутными мышами показали роль этого рецептора в регуляции CD3-опосредуемых активации T-лимфоцитов и апоптозе.[1] Участвует в связывании лейкоцитов с эндотелиальными клетками. Активирует фактор транскрипции NF-κB через сигнальный путь TRAF2/NIK.[2] Участвует в ...
TLR2 (толл-подобный рецептор 2, CD282) - мембранный белок, входящий в группу толл-подобных рецепторов, обеспечивающих функционирование врождённого иммунитета. TLR2 так же как TLR1 распознаёт патоген-связанные молекулярные структуры грам-положительных бактерий, включая пептидогликаны, липотейхоевую кислоту, некоторые компоненты микобактерий и зимозан клеточной стенки дрожжей. ...
The CD4:CD8 ratio was markedly decreased in the two patients and somewhat reduced in the mother. The majority of the CD4+ cells ... He has an anxious appearance, microcephaly, dry hair, mild exophthalmos, micrognathus, a high arched palate, protuberant ears, ... Some patients have a reduced CD4/CD8 ratio and thus may resemble the patients described by us. In CVID, however, serum IgG and ... Immunologically, they had CD4+ lymphocytopenia, with increased markers of activation (DR;CD57) and "memory" (CD4+CD45RO+) and ...
A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would indicate that the disease is progressing slowly or that the infection is... ... CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. ... CD4 and CD8 are the cells most commonly infected by the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV. A high CD4 or CD8 ratio would ... In general, CD4 and CD8 counts decrease as the HIV disease progresses. It is possible to have a change in these counts even ...
... linked a higher (better) CD4/CD8 ratio to a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) after one ... ... CD4/CD8 ratio was inversely associated with risk of any NCD (the higher the ratio, the lower the NCD risk) in an unadjusted ... Every 0.1 higher CD4/CD8 ratio lowered CAD risk 13% (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to ... CD4/CD8 ratio to a lower risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) after one year of viral suppression. Men had lower CD4/CD8 ...
... a higher CD4/CD8 ratio at week 96 was the only factor associated with an ultralow level of HIV-1 DNA. The CD4/CD8 ratio can be ... In the multivariate analysis, patients with a higher CD4/CD8 ratio at week 96 were more likely to have levels of HIV-1 DNA ... and a higher CD4/CD8 ratio (average: 1.04 ± 0.37 versus 0.72 ± 0.32, respectively, p = 0.002) at week 96. ... a higher CD4/CD8 ratio at week 96 was the only factor associated with an ultralow level of HIV-1 DNA. The CD4/CD8 ratio can be ...
high CD4/CD8 ratio 44 Omalizumab anti IgE antibody used for resistant allergic asthma ... high-altitude pulmonary edema (a type of ARDS). - x-ray demonstrates diffuse bilateral fluffy infiltrates ...
... preserved number of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD4:CD8 ratio , 10), [7] absence of lymphadenopathy and internal disease, WBC ... Normal pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase has also shown higher response rate. [7] Lastly, as shown by Zic, the strongest ...
5 weeks later the vitamin A group had higher CD4/CD8 ratios (p , 0.001), higher proportions of CD4 naive T cells (p , 0.01), ... CD4/CD8 ratios and the proportions of circulating CD4 naive, CD4 memory, CD8, CD45RA, and CD8, CD45RO T-cell subsets were ... Children with xerophthalmia had lower CD4/CD8 ratios (p , 0.08), lower proportions of CD4 naive T cells (p , 0.03), and higher ... and lower proportions of CD8, CD45RO T cells (p , 0.05) than the placebo group. Vitamin-A-deficient children have underlying ...
Patient X had a CD4 count of 35, and CD8 count of 586, and a CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.06. (A normal CD4/CD8 ratio is higher than 1.) ... Her 6-week post-treatment CD4 count was 410, and her CD8 count was 512, resulting in a CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.8. ... use the CCR5 chemokine receptor on the surface of macrophages in conjunction with the CD4 receptor to enter and infect a cell. ...
In addition, we calculated CD8+/CD4+ (CD8+ T cell count divided by CD4+ T cell count), CD8+/Treg, and CD8+/CD25+FOXP3- ratios. ... Consistent with the tertile classification, high intraepithelial CD8+/CD4+ ratios and high CD8+/Treg ratios were still ... In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the presence of intraepithelial CD8+ TILs and high CD8+/CD4+, CD8+/Treg ratios are ... Together, the results indicate that patients with low intraepithelial CD8+ TILs, and low ratios of CD8+/CD4+ and CD8+/Treg, ...
... preserved number of CD8+ cytotoxic lymphocytes (CD4:CD8 ratio , 10), [7] absence of lymphadenopathy and internal disease, WBC ... 1, 6] In chronic GVHD, the use of ECP has been associated with overall response as high as 83%; greatest response has been ... Normal pretreatment lactate dehydrogenase has also shown higher response rate. [7] Lastly, as shown by Zic, the strongest ... Interestingly, a 2010 study showed pretransplantation ECP demonstrated a significantly lower incidence of acute GVHD and higher ...
The absolute CD8(+) T-cell count and the CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio seem to depend on gender. Normal lymphocyte subsets values among ... B-cell values were higher compared to reported values from developed countries. Differences in activated and differentiated T ...
The CD4/CD8 ratio in vitreous fluid is of high diagnostic value in sarcoidosis. Ophthalmology. 2012 Nov. 119(11):2386-92. [ ... Correlation of CD4:CD8 ratio and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in induced sputum with bronchoalveolar lavage fluid ... More recently, it has been suggested as an alternative in patients who are on high-dose prednisone. [60, 61] ... High-dose inhaled corticosteroids may be an option, but conclusive data are lacking. Inhaled corticosteroids, in particular, ...
A higher CD4/CD8 ratio correlates with an ultralow cell-associated HIV-1 DNA level in chronically infected patients on ...
43.76 ± 7.40 %, p , 0.05) and higher levels of CD4(+) (38.31 ± 8.23 vs. 32.73 ± 6.08 %, p , 0.05) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio (1.06 ... 46.36 ± 5.22 %, p , 0.001) but higher CD4(+) (37.32 ± 7.99 vs. 31.64 ± 4.72 %, p , 0.01) and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio (1.06 ± 0.43 ... subjects with early clinical presentation of CHD are characterized by an altered CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio and lower CD3(+) levels.. ... CD4(+) (helper/inducer lymphocytes) and CD8(+) (suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes) populations. Patients with diabetes, heart ...
... limiting use of higher dosages. Both compounds resulted in improved CD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratios [53]. FIV replication and viral ... Agents that specifically block interaction of gp120 with CD4 are soluble CD4 receptors and antibodies directed against CD4. The ... CD4+ T cells are nevertheless targeted due to utilization of a receptor with highest expression on memory CD4+ T cells. The ... Becer, C.R.; Gibson, M.I.; Geng, J.; Ilyas, R.; Wallis, R.; Mitchell, D.A.; Haddleton, D.M. High-affinity glycopolymer binding ...
1). Moreover, the percentage of CD16/CD56 lymphocytes and CD4/CD8 ratio was significantly higher and CD152 expression was more ... CD4, 19.7 ± 2.4%; CD8, 35.7 ± 4.2%) than in known diabetic patients (CD4, 15.9 ± 2.1%; CD8, 31.9 ± 3.4%; P , 0.01) (CD4, 3.8% [ ... Compared with normoglycemic patients, the hyperglycemic group had higher values of CD16/CD56 lymphocytes and CD4/CD8 ratio (P ... Day-to-day variations in the expression of CD16/CD56, CD4/CD8, CD152, and CD4-CD8 HLA-DR antigens by lymphocytes, measured in ...
To increase the cellular production of bioactive compounds, specific culture conditions may be applied (e.g., high light ... For example, high doses of β-carotene increase the CD4 to CD8 lymphocyte ratio [154]. MDR reversion is often observed. ... After CO2 stress, the MGDG/DGDG ratio was increased while the ratio of omega-3/omega-6 fatty acids, was clearly increased in ... Low nitrate level, coupled with high light intensity, was the key to high cellular accumulation of Asta in Haematococcus sp [ ...
C ratio. Positive: CD3, CD4, CD8, TCRγ, CD56 Negative: TdT, Beta F1, CD20. Positive: CD3, CD5, CD4/CD8 dual positive, CD45, ... Monotonous population of immature lymphoid cells with high N:C ratio, round to oval nuclei, mild nuclear irregularity, and ... HSTLγδ are often CD4-/CD8-, recapitulating normal γδ T cells, and less commonly C8+/CD4-is seen. In other γδ PTCLs, CD4+/CD8− ... Positive: CD3, CD4/CD8 dual positive, CD2, CD5 (d), CD7, and TDT (d) Negative: CD1a, CD34, CD117. TβA. 257. WBCa. 18.7. ...
... saw more rapid decline in their CD4:CD8 cell ratio, an indicator of immune suppression (a lower ratio indicates greater damage ... showed that participants who developed PTSD in response to their HIV diagnosis exhibited lower cortisol levels and higher CD4 ... to the immune system). Meeting the diagnostic criteria for PTSD was associated with even greater CD4:CD8 cell ratio decreases. ... The incidence of childhood trauma has been linked to high-risk sexual behaviors and substance use that promote HIV transmission ...
... lower CD4: CD8 ratios (0.98 versus 1.39; P = 0.003), higher immune complex levels (C1q binding: 25 versus 15%; P = 0.002), ... and higher IgG levels (1530 versus 1300 mg/dl; P = 0.037) than controls. Cases exhibited higher CD8 counts of marginal ... Cases exhibited lower CD4 counts (657 versus 774 x 10(6)/l; P = 0.037), ... lower hemaglobin concentrations (14.8 versus 15.2 g/l; P = 0.011), higher immunoglobulin (Ig) A levels (272 versus 184 mg/dl; P ...
higher total cholesterol, triglycerides and bad cholesterol (LDL-C). *low ratio of CD4 to CD8 cells ... That the CD4/CD8 ratio was linked to CVD suggests that the immune system may also play a role in this problem. Another clue ... However, the researchers did find that men who had high levels of antibodies to a virus called CMV (cytomegalovirus) were more ... comes from the finding that higher levels of the immune system chemical messenger MCP-1 were found in men at high risk for CVD ...
10 11 Low CD4:CD8 ratio was observed in patients despite high CD4 level (,500/μL).12 A high CD8 count following HAART was shown ... CD8 count and CD4:CD8 ratio over time are shown in figure 1, while distribution of CD4 and CD4:CD8 ratio at the end of year 4 ... After adjusting for pre-HAART CD4, patients with lower pre-HAART CD8 had a higher chance of achieving a higher CD4:CD8 ratio at ... Patients with optimal immune outcome had significantly higher median CD4 and CD4:CD8 ratio but lower CD8 count than those only ...
... regardless of CD4 and CD8 T cell counts. (D) Plotting CD45RO/CD4 T cells against all CD4 T cells, the ratio of CD45RO/CD4 T ... CD4 CD8− CD25high FOXP3high CD127low CD45RO cells and expressed as the percentage of positive cells in the total CD4 T cell ... Treg/CD8 T cells p,0.001. The reduction in Treg to CD4 and Treg to CD8 T cells ratios in NEC ileum remained highly ... per day for Treg/CD4 T cell ratios and 0.53% per day for Treg/CD8 T cell ratios. ...
Thus, the data show a high rate of CR with CAR-T cells of defined CD4+:CD8+ T cell ratio in patients with refractory B-ALL, ... and flow cytometry was performed to identify CD4+ and CD8+ CAR-T cells as viable CD45+CD3+CD4+CD8-EGFRt+ or CD45+CD3+CD4‑CD8+ ... 1 ratio of CD4+:CD8+ T cells due to insufficient growth of CD4+ or CD8+ CAR-T cells in culture (DL2, n = 2; DL3, n = 1). Two ... the absolute number of CD8+ CAR-T cells was higher than that of CD4+ CAR-T cells at the peak of expansion, despite CD4+ and CD8 ...
TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 were significantly higher in patients than in controls (P,0.01). CD3+ and CD4-CD8+ lymphocytes were ... significantly higher and CD56+ lymphocytes lower in patients than those in controls (P,0.01). The ratio of serum pathogen ... Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae were all markedly higher in patients. These data led to identification of a ... and inflammatory cytokines and high sensitivity C-reaction protein were measured and lymphocyte subclass was assayed by flow ...
  • Multiparametric flow cytometry was used to assess markers of CD4 + and CD8 + T cell activation (CD38, HLA-DR), exhaustion (PD-1, Tim-3), senescence (CD28, CD57), and memory differentiation (CD45RO, CD27) in a cohort of 47 untreated HIV-infected individuals. (jimmunol.org)
  • Serum myocardial autoantibodies against beta1-adrenoceptor, alpha-myosin heavy chain, M2-muscarinic receptor and adenine-nucleotide translocator were tested, and inflammatory cytokines and high sensitivity C-reaction protein were measured and lymphocyte subclass was assayed by flow cytometry. (springer.com)
  • CD4/CD8 by flow cytometry and AGP test were performed in order to establish the diagnostic value of these two tests in both diseases. (vin.com)
  • Recent studies suggest that the CD4/CD8 T cell ratio which is easily calculable from routine flow cytometry measurements may represent a way to assess immune activation and inflammation in HCV patients. (japi.org)
  • That association between higher CD4/CD8 ratio and lower CAD risk held true for patients younger than 50 years old (aHR 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.97, P = .019) but not for older patients, though this analysis was limited by the small number of older patients with incident CAD. (thebodypro.com)
  • In the multivariate analysis, patients with a higher CD4/CD8 ratio at week 96 were more likely to have levels of HIV-1 DNA below the detection limit (per 0.1 increase, OR = 1.29, 95% CI, 1.05-1.59, p = 0.017). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The CD4/CD8 ratio can be used as an easy biomarker to help monitor patients on ART who will be selected to participate in eradication studies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • More recently, it has been suggested as an alternative in patients who are on high-dose prednisone. (medscape.com)
  • At the end of year 4, 318 out of 715 patients achieved CD4 ≥500/μL, of which only 33% (105 out of 318) concurrently achieved CD4:CD8 ratio ≥0.8. (bmj.com)
  • The combined marker could avoid overestimation of treatment performance in patients with CD4 count but low CD4:CD8 ratio. (bmj.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Echocardiographic parameters, circulating levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18), C-reactive protein (CPR), and the percent of CD16-CD56, CD4/CD8, CD152, and HLA-DR expression were investigated in 108 patients with acute MI on admission to the emergency ward. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An unusually high prevalence of glycosuria in nondiabetic patients who have acute myocardial infarction (MI) was noted as early as 1931 ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The ratio of serum pathogen antibodies positive against Coxsackie virus-B, cytomegalovirus, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae were all markedly higher in patients. (springer.com)
  • Patients with tuberculosis show a reduced CD4+/CD8+ ratio. (wikipedia.org)
  • Study results also suggested that a low CD4/CD8 ratio may predict mortality in HIV-positive people under 40, but not in older patients. (natap.org)
  • We performed high-throughput unbiased TCRβ sequencing on a population-based cohort of 92 patients with DLBCL treated with conventional (i.e., non-checkpoint blockade) frontline "R-CHOP" therapy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Due to heterogeneity in HIV-RNA levels in recently infected patients, individuals were categorized as having "high" HIV-RNA load if their HIV-RNA level was above the median (4.98 log 10 copies/mL) at diagnosis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • AGP levels were higher than 1500 microgramos/ml in 80% of FIV patients and in 95% of FIP infected cats. (vin.com)
  • These results can be adjudged to the FIV affinity for the CD4 depletion which was not detected in FIP patients. (vin.com)
  • It is believed that changes in the immune system occurring in individuals after the age of 60 (immunosenescence) provide adequate conditions for susceptibility to infectious diseases, autoimmunity and the development of cancer.As an example, influenza vaccine is protective in 40-60% of over 65-year-old patients (1) while in younger individuals this percentage is higher. (scielo.br)
  • Prognostic factors in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) still fail to accurately identify high-risk patients. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • A diffuse micronodular centrolobular pattern was seen on high-resolution computer tomography scanning of four patients. (sjweh.fi)
  • Using this strategy, we identified one HLA-A2-restricted peptide, amino acids 159-167 of PDC-E2, which is capable of inducing PDC-E2-specific CD8 + CTL lines in vitro in the majority of HLA-A2 + PBC patients but not from any HLA-A2 + control donors. (rupress.org)
  • 100 ml peripheral blood from pediatric pre-B ALL patients was processed including CD4 + /CD8 + -separation, T-cell activation with modified anti-CD3/-CD28 reagents and transduction with a 4-1BB-based second generation CAR lentiviral vector. (springer.com)
  • Interestingly, a high intratumoral CD3 + cell count was associated with favorable survival also in the subset of patients whose MCC did not contain MCPyV DNA. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The TRANSCEND trial is currently evaluating the CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy liso-cel in patients with high-risk diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). (onclive.com)
  • They are then administered back to patients in a 1:1 ratio. (onclive.com)
  • The ratio was also found to be significantly decreased in patients with cirrhosis of liver. (japi.org)
  • The CD4/CD8 ratio significantly decreases in patients with liver cirrhosis than in normal and fatty liver. (japi.org)
  • The present study aims to evaluate CD4/CD8 ratio in Hepatitis C patients and its association with viral load, genotype of HCV and liver function tests. (japi.org)
  • These data and the high-safety profiles of CardioAid and Lunasin support their use in patients in the early stages of NASH to prevent deterioration due to the disease. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Mechanistically, this combination therapy resulted in both immunological (increases in CD4-to-CD8 ratios and splenic regulatory T-cell frequencies) and physiological (increase in the pancreatic β-cell area, attenuation of pancreatic inflammation) benefits. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the present study, we examine immunological functioning in normal healthy African-American and Latino/Latina adolescents recruited from an inner-city high school and an inner-city clinic. (asm.org)
  • 1 The pathogenesis of these lesions involves immunological alterations such as T cell activation, altered CD4/CD8 ratio, and the recruitment of macrophages. (bmj.com)
  • These changes were generally larger than those produced by the resistance exercise, although both resistance and peak aerobic exercise resulted in a significantly longer-lasting decrease in the CD4 + /CD8 + ratio than the submaximal exercise bout did. (scielo.br)
  • It used Cox proportional hazards models to assess the impact of CD4/CD8 ratio on NCD incidence. (thebodypro.com)
  • In this study, we aimed to assess immune recovery by incorporating both CD4 count and CD4:CD8 ratio. (bmj.com)
  • Using the French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH), the study's objective was to assess CD4 recovery in people who initiated their first treatment any time between 2006 and 2014, then obtained and maintained virologic suppression throughout up to six years of follow-up. (aidsmap.com)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Effects of each therapy were tested in pre-diabetic and diabetic female NOD mice using measurements of glycemia, regulatory T-cell (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+) frequency, insulitis, and/or β-cell area. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • One gene that showed a preferential association with CD8α + DCs was that encoding interferon consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP), a member of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) gene family. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Urine cotinine levels and serum α 1 -antitrypsin were significantly higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • (9) It has already been demonstrated that in elderly individuals, persistent infections by herpes, cytomegalovirus (CMV) or parasites induce higher serum levels of proinflammatory factors (eg. (scielo.br)
  • Although CD8α − DCs are present in normal numbers in ICSBP −/− animals, up-regulation of CD40, CD80, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression was found to be impaired in this subset after in vivo microbial stimulation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • In the present study, we have investigated host factors that control the differentiation of CD8α + DCs in vivo. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The rates of morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases are high in elderly individuals. (scielo.br)
  • People with high-level SCI also are immune compromised, rendering them more susceptible to infectious morbidity and mortality. (jneurosci.org)