Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1: Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2: Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid: A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.SLC4A Proteins: Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Acetaminophen: Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Phosphatidylcholine-Sterol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme secreted from the liver into the plasma of many mammalian species. It catalyzes the esterification of the hydroxyl group of lipoprotein cholesterol by the transfer of a fatty acid from the C-2 position of lecithin. In familial lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency disease, the absence of the enzyme results in an excess of unesterified cholesterol in plasma. EC 2.3.1.43.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Political Systems: The units based on political theory and chosen by countries under which their governmental power is organized and administered to their citizens.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Adenoviruses, Human: Species of the genus MASTADENOVIRUS, causing a wide range of diseases in humans. Infections are mostly asymptomatic, but can be associated with diseases of the respiratory, ocular, and gastrointestinal systems. Serotypes (named with Arabic numbers) have been grouped into species designated Human adenovirus A-F.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Iodates: Inorganic salts of iodic acid (HIO3).Capillary Electrochromatography: A separation technique which combines LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY and CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS.
  • 1.1 These test methods cover the determination of trace (μg/L) levels of fluoride, acetate, formate, chloride, phosphate, and sulfate in high purity water using ion chromatography in combination with sample preconcentration. (astm.org)
  • High recovery separations of BSA and thyroglobulin were achieved with nanofibres compared to Q-Sepharose and POROS chromatography materials. (bl.uk)
  • This application note describes a rapid and robust high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection method for the accurate determination of common sugars in acid-hydrolyzed biomass samples with high carbohydrate concentrations. (selectscience.net)
  • Higher titer feeds resulting from improvements in upstream bioprocessing efficiencies create a purification bottleneck, making it difficult to purify large volumes of biomolecules during downstream processing," said Randy Jacinto, senior product manager in Bio-Rad's Process Chromatography Division. (bio-rad.com)
  • With downstream processing representing a significant amount of all manufacturing costs, the introduction of Nuvia Q addresses the need for robust, high-capacity process chromatography media that can consistently purify large volumes of drugs used in therapeutics. (bio-rad.com)
  • High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) is becoming more common in laboratories for sugar profile analysis due to the benefits it provides in comparison to the traditional methodologies. (thermofisher.com)
  • Anion-exchange chromatography is a process that separates substances based on their charges using an ion-exchange resin containing positively charged groups, such as diethyl-aminoethyl groups (DEAE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Anion exchange chromatography is commonly used to purify proteins, amino acids, sugars/carbohydrates and other acidic substances with a negative charge at higher pH levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • GE Healthcare Q Sepharose™ Fast Flow Chromatography Media is a strong anion exchanger based on the well established Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange platform. (fishersci.com)
  • This chapter discusses the analysis of monosaccharide and oligosaccharide of glycoproteins, glycolipids, proteoglycans, and glycosylphosphoinositol (GPI) anchors using high-pH anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC). (wustl.edu)
  • HPAEC with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) does not require the derivatization and associated sample preparation steps that are needed for gas chromatography and other high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) approaches. (wustl.edu)
  • To provide an analytical method for the quantitative determination of perchlorate anion in fruits, vegetables, milk, low moisture foods, infant foods, and water. (fda.gov)
  • Ad5 was purified from a clarified bulk feed and protein VIII, a protein marker for infective mature capsids was identified (via mass spectrometry) in a high salt elution fraction. (bl.uk)
  • The addition of electrons to form gas-phase multiply charged anions (MCAs) normally requires sophisticated experiments or calculations.In this work, the factors stabilizing the MCAs, the maximum electron uptake of gas-phase molecules, X, and the electronic stability of MCAs X Q - , are discussed. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Remember that a cation is formed when electrons are removed from a neutral atom and an anion is formed when electrons are added to a neutral atom. (wikibooks.org)
  • Photodetachment of electrons from anions of high symmetry. (nist.gov)
  • This anion exchange media, when used for the intermediate polishing of monoclonal antibodies, demonstrates high selectivity in the clearance of common contaminants in the feed stream such as dsDNA and host cell proteins. (bio-rad.com)
  • Recently, DeGrado and co-workers have discovered that model proteins can efficiently stabilize semiquinone radical anion produced by oxidation of 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (DTBC) in the presence of two zinc ions. (ac.be)
  • Moreover, we have created 4G-UFsc, a single metal ion-binding protein with pm affinity for zinc that is higher than any other reported model systems and is on par with many natural zinc-containing proteins. (ac.be)
  • Screening of candidate antibodies against greater than 10,000 human proteins, using a High Density Protein Microarray Platform, has resulted in the identification of the most specific monoclonal antibodies (UltraMAB antibodies) available for cancer biomarkers and other. (rdmag.com)
  • measured and used to derive [HCO3(-)], BE, anion gap (AG), AG adjusted for albumin (AGadj), strong ion difference, strong ion gap (SIG) and SIG corrected for water excess /deficit (SIGcor). (tripdatabase.com)
  • The electron affinity as the highest occupied anion orbital energy with a sufficiently accurate approximation of the exact Kohn-Sham potential. (bioportfolio.com)
  • These problems do not occur with the exact Kohn-Sham potential, the anion HOMO energy then being equal to minus the electron affinity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Employing exit-plane wave function (EPWF) reconstruction in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), we have developed an approach to atomic scale compositional analysis of III-V semiconductor interfaces, especially suitable for analyzing quaternary heterostructures with intermixing in both cation and anion sub-lattices. (ovid.com)
  • We show that, under these conditions, the highest electron affinity replaces the traditional lowest total energy as the appropriate criterion for predicting isomer structures. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The model expresses the maximum electron acceptance, Q max , and the higher electron affinities, A Q , as simple functions of the first electron affinity, A 1 , and the ionization energy, I , of the "ancestor" system. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Multiply Charged Anions, Maximum Charge Acceptance, and Higher Electron Affinities of Molecules, Superatoms, and Clusters[J].Acta Phys. (pku.edu.cn)
  • Which Electron Jump in a Hydrogen Atom Absorbs the Photon of Highest Frequency? (reference.com)
  • Electron anions (center green blob) pair up in the center of molecular cages and lower the temperature at which glass forms in C12A7 electride. (phys.org)
  • In new work, researchers show how C12A7 components called electron anions help to transform crystalline C12A7 into semiconducting glass. (phys.org)
  • They suspected components of the electride known as electron anions were responsible. (phys.org)
  • The team simulated Hosono's lab experiments using molecular dynamics software that could capture the movement of both the atoms and the electron anions in both the melted material and glass. (phys.org)
  • The bonds that the electron anions formed between the metal atoms were weaker than bonds between metal and oxygen atoms. (phys.org)
  • This movement allowed a small number of electron anions to have a greater effect on the glass transition temperature than much larger quantities of minerals typically used as additives in glasses. (phys.org)
  • The pyrenylboronic acid derivatives showed fluorescence quenching or enhancement due to photoinduced electron transfer originating from anion binding. (frontiersin.org)
  • Facile Synthesis of Nickel Cobalt Layered Double Hydroxide Nanosheets Intercalated with Sulfate Anion for High-Performance Supercapacitor. (americanelements.com)
  • Nickel-cobalt layered double hydroxide nanosheets intercalated with sulfate anion were fabricated via a facile hydrothermal method and investigated as high-performance electrode materials for supercapacitors. (americanelements.com)
  • ECP has a high binding affinity for heterosaccharides, such as bacterial lipopolysaccharides and heparan sulfate found in the glycocalix of eukaryotic cells. (rcsb.org)
  • We have crystallized ECP in complex with sulfate anions in a new monoclinic crystal form. (rcsb.org)
  • Our research encompasses the fluorine chemistry of the main-group and transition elements, polyatomic anions of the main-group elements and radiochemistry, which also span the extremes of oxidizing and reducing properties. (mcmaster.ca)
  • You discover a new set of polyatomic anions that has the newly discovered element X combined with oxygen. (bartleby.com)
  • Wang J, Gu J, Hossain M, Leszczynski J (2016) Theoretical studies on hydrogen bonds in anions encapsulated by an Azamacrocyclic receptor. (springer.com)
  • High-resolution velocity-map imaged photoelectron spectra of the nitrite anion NO are measured over a range of photodetachment wavelengths between 355 and 550nm, resolving vibrational and rotational s. (bioportfolio.com)
  • This rock-salt-type nanostructured material shows a discharge capacity of 355 mAh g −1 , which is the highest yet reported among the known lithium manganese oxide electrode materials. (nature.com)
  • Battery formation protocols are used to perform initial charging of batteries with lithium rich high capacity positive electrode to result a more stable battery structure. (google.co.uk)
  • More importantly, fluorinated poly(olefin)-based AEMs exhibit high hydroxide conductivity without excessive hydration due to a new proposed mechanism where the fluorinated dipolar monomer facilitates increased hydroxide dissociation and transport. (elsevier.com)
  • For many years, the electrolytes that were required to calculate the serum anion gap were included in electrolyte panels that were requested by physicians. (asnjournals.org)
  • Hercules, CA - August 29, 2011 - Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc. announces the launch of its Nuvia™Q ultra-high capacity anion exchange medium specifically designed to meet the need for robustness, high productivity, and selectivity demanded by today's downstream processes. (bio-rad.com)
  • By maintaining high binding capacity even at fast flow rates, Nuvia Q can significantly improve productivity while reducing cycle time for downstream biotherapeutics purification. (bio-rad.com)
  • Moreover, due to the high binding capacity, less media is required for a given unit operation, thereby reducing capital costs and space requirements. (bio-rad.com)
  • Nuvia Q and S are ultra-high capacity, next-generation ion exchange media built on the industry proven UNOsphere base matrix technology that deliver high binding capacity over a variety of pH ranges and flow rates. (bio-rad.com)
  • Reversible anionic redox chemistry in high-capacity layered-oxide electrodes. (nature.com)
  • A high temperature seems to decrease maximum carbon storage capacity which suggests lighting at high temperatures could be kept to a minimum. (wur.nl)
  • Addgene: The Expanding Family of Natural Anion Channelrhodopsins Reveals Large Variations in Kinetics, Conductance, and Spectral Sensitivity. (addgene.org)
  • The present study provides further strong support for the concept that the channel responsible for swelling-activated Cl− efflux and the outwardly rectifying anion conductance is also the major pathway by which organic osmolytes are lost from vertebrate cells during regulatory volume decrease. (deepdyve.com)
  • 50% to 2,508 mg/dl, the anion gap resolved to 11, and serum CO 2 returned to a normal level of 24 mmol/l ( Figure 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The high relaxivity of [GdaDO3A]3− (r1p = 12.3 mM−1 s−1, 20 MHz, 298 K, τm = 30 ns) in water is maintained in serum solution because the binding of protein and endogeneous anions, e.g. (le.ac.uk)
  • Despite these caveats, calculation of the serum anion gap remains an inexpensive and effective tool that aids detection of various acid-base disorders, hematologic malignancies, and intoxications. (asnjournals.org)
  • The serum or plasma anion gap is an entity that is calculated from the electrolytes that are obtained in the chemical laboratory ( 1 - 3 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • However, because of the emphasis on cost containment, physicians in many institutions now specifically must request that the relevant electrolytes be measured, a situation that reduces the availability of the serum anion gap. (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, it is timely and worthwhile to reassess the value of the serum anion gap in clinical medicine by highlighting the factors that affect its calculation, reviewing the situations in which it is most useful, and specifying its limitations as a diagnostic tool. (asnjournals.org)
  • Although the anion gap can be calculated using serum or plasma electrolytes, most frequently serum values are used. (asnjournals.org)
  • Therefore, our discussion is restricted to the serum anion gap, with the understanding that the anion gap that is calculated using either serum or plasma values is acceptable. (asnjournals.org)
  • A graphic display of the ionic environment of the serum, often termed a "gamblegram," is depicted in Figure 1 and illustrates the concept that total serum cations and total serum anions must always remain equal to ensure charge balance. (asnjournals.org)
  • This equivalency remains the foundation of the derivation of the serum anion gap. (asnjournals.org)
  • Having shown that NIS translocates different substrates with different stoichiometries ( 3 ), here we now report startling changes in Na + /anion stoichiometry and anion selectivity uncovered by the molecular characterization of various amino acid substitutions at position 93 in NIS. (pnas.org)
  • The interaction between anions and cations within amino acid-based ionic liquids (AAILs) are studied in the gas phase and in three different solvents (DMSO, water, and formamide). (springer.com)
  • In gas and solvent phase, the aliphatic amino acids (anions) interact strongly with EMIM (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium) and BMIM (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium) cations. (springer.com)
  • By contrast, drug-like molecules that transport anions across cell membranes are almost unknown in nature, and attempts to make them in the laboratory have previously met with limited success. (healthcanal.com)
  • Dr Sheppard said: "For many inherited diseases that affect anion transport across cell membranes, therapies that treat the root cause of disease are unavailable. (healthcanal.com)
  • That's bromine in oxidation state zero, elemental, and then you have bromide (oxidation state -1), one of the most common anions around. (sciencemag.org)
  • All findings highlight the crucial importance of specific anion effects in combination with molecular details of solvation, and advocate the use of adiponitrile as a beneficial solvent in modern lithium ion battery technology with high voltage electrodes. (rsc.org)
  • Conventional organic solar cell (OSC) systems have significant energy offsets between the donor and acceptor both at the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbit. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Macroporous weak base anion resins from Purolite have excellent mechanical, osmotic, and chemical stability, combined with the capability of very fast rates of ion exchange, making them particularly suitable for the removal of high molecular weight organic materials from aqeous solutions. (polysciences.com)
  • The macroporous acrylic matrix ensures excellent removal of organic acids including those of high molecular weight from process liquors. (polysciences.com)
  • Pollen tube growth regulation by free anions depends on the interaction between the anion channel SLAH3 and calcium-dependent protein kinases CPK2 and CPK20. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We conclude that an anion sensitive yellow fluorescent protein is optimal for primary screening and that automated electrophysiology of cells stably expressing GlyRs is useful for confirming hits and quantitating the actions of identified compounds. (frontiersin.org)
  • Uno Ferro, a de novo Designed Protein, Binds Transition Metals with High Affinity and Stabilizes Semiquinone Radical Anion. (ac.be)
  • The results reveal the structural basis for the high affinity of ECP for glycosaminoglycans and can assist in structure-based drug design of inhibitors of the protein cytotoxicity to host tissues during inflammation. (rcsb.org)
  • Our achievements include the syntheses and structural characterizations of a significant number of the known noble-gas compounds as well as fluoro- and oxofluoro-derivatives of the main-group and transition elements in their highest oxidation states and at the limits of coordination. (mcmaster.ca)
  • In a number of cases, noble-gas species have been used as synthons to generate high-oxidation state transition metal species and carbocations. (mcmaster.ca)
  • Of all the methods for anion detection, we believe that the most powerful technique is chemosensing due to its advantages such as high sensitivity and applicability for rapid and high-throughput detection. (frontiersin.org)